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Sample records for cancer lncap cells

  1. Phenotypic characterization of prostate cancer LNCaP cells cultured within a bioengineered microenvironment.

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    Shirly Sieh

    Full Text Available Biophysical and biochemical properties of the microenvironment regulate cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and migration in normal and cancer cells. Since two-dimensional (2D cultures lack the essential characteristics of the native cellular microenvironment, three-dimensional (3D cultures have been developed to better mimic the natural extracellular matrix. To date, 3D culture systems have relied mostly on collagen and Matrigel™ hydrogels, allowing only limited control over matrix stiffness, proteolytic degradability, and ligand density. In contrast, bioengineered hydrogels allow us to independently tune and systematically investigate the influence of these parameters on cell growth and differentiation. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG hydrogels, functionalized with the Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD motifs, common cell-binding motifs in extracellular matrix proteins, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP cleavage sites, were characterized regarding their stiffness, diffusive properties, and ability to support growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We found that the mechanical properties modulated the growth kinetics of LNCaP cells in the PEG hydrogel. At culture periods of 28 days, LNCaP cells underwent morphogenic changes, forming tumor-like structures in 3D culture, with hypoxic and apoptotic cores. We further compared protein and gene expression levels between 3D and 2D cultures upon stimulation with the synthetic androgen R1881. Interestingly, the kinetics of R1881 stimulated androgen receptor (AR nuclear translocation differed between 2D and 3D cultures when observed by immunofluorescent staining. Furthermore, microarray studies revealed that changes in expression levels of androgen responsive genes upon R1881 treatment differed greatly between 2D and 3D cultures. Taken together, culturing LNCaP cells in the tunable PEG hydrogels reveals differences in the cellular responses to

  2. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

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    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV

  3. Cholesterol homeostasis in two commonly used human prostate cancer cell-lines, LNCaP and PC-3.

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    James Robert Krycer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been renewed interest in the link between cholesterol and prostate cancer. It has been previously reported that in vitro, prostate cancer cells lack sterol-mediated feedback regulation of the major transcription factor in cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2. This could explain the accumulation of cholesterol observed in clinical prostate cancers. Consequently, perturbed feedback regulation to increased sterol levels has become a pervasive concept in the prostate cancer setting. Here, we aimed to explore this in greater depth.After altering the cellular cholesterol status in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, we examined SREBP-2 processing, downstream effects on promoter activity and expression of SREBP-2 target genes, and functional activity (low-density lipoprotein uptake, cholesterol synthesis. In doing so, we observed that LNCaP and PC-3 cells were sensitive to increased sterol levels. In contrast, lowering cholesterol levels via statin treatment generated a greater response in LNCaP cells than PC-3 cells. This highlighted an important difference between these cell-lines: basal SREBP-2 activity appeared to be higher in PC-3 cells, reducing sensitivity to decreased cholesterol levels.Thus, prostate cancer cells are sensitive to changing sterol levels in vitro, but the extent of this regulation differs between prostate cancer cell-lines. These results shed new light on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in two commonly used prostate cancer cell-lines, and emphasize the importance of establishing whether or not cholesterol homeostasis is perturbed in prostate cancer in vivo.

  4. Fenofibrate down-regulates the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes and induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP

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    Zhao, Hu; Zhu, Chen; Qin, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Tao, Tao [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Li, Jie; Cheng, Gong; Li, Pu; Cao, Qiang; Meng, Xiaoxin; Ju, Xiaobing; Shao, Pengfei; Hua, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Gu, Min, E-mail: medzhao1980@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yin, Changjun, E-mail: drcjyin@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate reduces the expressions of androgen receptor in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-androgen receptor-alpha agonist, is widely used in treating different forms of hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. Recent reports have indicated that fenofibrate exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of fenofibrate on the prostate cancer (PCa) cell line LNCaP. The effects of fenofibrate on LNCaP cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot analysis, and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells, reduces the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes (prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2), and inhibits Akt phosphorylation. Fenofibrate can induce the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and decrease the activities of total anti-oxidant and superoxide dismutase in LNCaP cells. Fenofibrate exerts an anti-proliferative property by inhibiting the expression of AR and induces apoptosis by causing oxidative stress. Therefore, our data suggest fenofibrate may have beneficial effects in fenofibrate users by preventing prostate cancer growth through inhibition of androgen activation and expression.

  5. Comparative effects of DHEA and DHT on gene expression in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

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    Steele, Vernon E; Arnold, Julia T; Lei, Hanh; Izmirlian, Grant; Blackman, Marc R

    2006-01-01

    DHEA is widely used as a dietary supplement in older men. Because DHEA can be converted to androgens or estrogens, such use may promote prostate cancer. In this study, the effects of DHEA were compared with those of DHT using gene expression array profiles in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. LNCaP cells were exposed to DHEA (300 nM), DHT (300 nM), or vehicle for 48 h, and mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix HU-95 gene chips. Gene expression values were sorted in ascending order on the p-values corresponding to the extent of differential RNA expression between control and either hormone treatment. S100 calcium binding protein, neurotensin, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase, and anterior-gradient 2 homologue were the four most differentially expressed genes (p-values all DHT treatment (p DHT were used for pathway analysis. DHT decreased expression of more genes involved in intercellular communication, signal transduction, nucleic acid binding and transport, and in structural components, such as myosin and golgin, than DHEA. These data revealed consistent, measurable changes in gene expression patterns following treatment of LNCaP prostate cancer cells with DHEA and DHT. Understanding the mechanisms of DHEA versus DHT actions in the prostate may help clarify the separate and interactive effects of androgenic and estrogenic actions in prostate cancer progression.

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Metastatic PC3 and LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

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    Inge Seim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435 and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740 at ∼70 × coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular a loss of stop codon events. This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumor suppressor Capicua (CIC contributes to primary tumor relapse and metastatic progression, potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell lines.

  7. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Metastatic PC3 and LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

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    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Thomas, Patrick B; Nelson, Colleen C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2017-06-07

    The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435) and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740) at ∼70 × coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular a loss of stop codon events). This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumor suppressor Capicua ( CIC ) contributes to primary tumor relapse and metastatic progression, potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Seim et al.

  8. Molecular Basis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Genistein Isoflavone in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells.

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    Hartmann J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most common form of non-skin cancer within the United States and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Survival rates for the advanced disease remain relatively low, and conventional treatments may be accompanied by significant side effects. As a result, current research is aimed at alternative or adjuvant treatments that will target components of the signal transduction, cell-cycle and apoptosis pathways, to induce cell death with little or no toxic side effects to the patient. In this study, we investigated the effect of genistein isoflavone, a soy derivative, on expression levels of genes involved in these pathways. The mechanism of genistein-induced cell death was also investigated. The chemosensitivity of the LNCaP prostate cancer cells to genistein was investigated using ATP and MTS assays, and a caspase binding assay was used to determine apoptosis induction. Several molecular targets were determined using cDNA microarray and RT-PCR analysis.Results: The overall data revealed that genistein induces cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and regulates expression levels of several genes involved in carcinogenesis and immunity. Several cell-cycle genes were down-regulated, including the mitotic kinesins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Various members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptotic proteins were also affected. The DefB1 and the HLA membrane receptor genes involved in immunogenicity were also up-regulated.Conclusion: The results indicate that genistein inhibits growth of the hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, via apoptosis induction through regulation of some of the genes involved in carcinogenesis of many tumors, and immunogenicity. This study augments the potential phytotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic significance of genistein isoflavone.

  9. Activation of the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells by genistein- topotecan combination treatments

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    Vanessa Hörmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in American men. The development of alternative preventative and/or treatment options utilizing a combination of phytochemicals and chemotherapeutic drugs could be an attractive alternative compared to conventional carcinoma treatments. Genistein isoflavone is the primary dietary phytochemical found in soy and has demonstrated anti-tumor activities in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Topotecan Hydrochloride (Hycamtin is an FDA-approved chemotherapy for secondary treatment of lung, ovarian and cervical cancers. The purpose of this study was to detail the potential activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through genistein-topotecan combination treatments.Methods: LNCaP cells were cultured in complete RPMI medium in a monolayer (70-80% confluency at 37ºC and 5% CO2. Treatment consisted of single and combination groups of genistein and topotecan for 24 hours. The treated cells were assayed for i growth inhibition through trypan blue exclusion assay and microphotography , ii classification of cellular death through acridine/ ethidium bromide fluorescent staining, and iii activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through Jc-1: mitochondrial membrane potential assay, cytochrome c release and Bcl-2 protein expression.Results: The overall data indicated that genistein-topotecan combination was significantly more efficacious in reducing the prostate carcinoma’s viability compared to the single treatment options. In all treatment groups, cell death occurred primarily through the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.Conclusion: The combination of topotecan and genistein has the potential to lead to treatment options with equal therapeutic efficiency as traditional chemo- and radiation therapies, but lower cell cytotoxicity and fewer side effects in patients.

  10. Fisetin, a novel dietary flavonoid, causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells

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    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Syed, Deeba N.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Novel dietary agents for prevention and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa) are desired. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fisetin, a tetrahydroxyflavone, on inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human PCa cells. Treatment of fisetin (10–60 μM, 48 h) was found to result in a decrease in the viability of LNCaP, CWR22Rυ1 and PC-3 cells but had only minimal effects on normal prostate epithelial cells as assessed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide assay. Treatment of LNCaP cells with fisetin also resulted in G1-phase arrest that was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclins D1, D2 and E and their activating partner cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6 with concomitant induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27. Fisetin treatment also resulted in induction of apoptosis, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, modulation in the expressions of Bcl-2 family proteins, inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and Thr308. There was also induction of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into cytosol, downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and upregulation of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI on treatment of cells with fisetin. Treatment of cells with fisetin also resulted in significant activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9. Pretreatment of cells with caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced activation of caspases. These data provide the first evidence that fisetin could be developed as an agent against PCa. PMID:18359761

  11. The in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of a standardized quassinoids composition from Eurycoma longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

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    Kind Leng Tong

    Full Text Available Quassinoids are a group of diterpenoids found in plants from the Simaroubaceae family. They are also the major bioactive compounds found in Eurycoma longifolia which is commonly used as traditional medicine in South East Asia to treat various ailments including sexual dysfunction and infertility. These uses are attributed to its ability to improve testosterone level in men. Chronic consumption of E. longifolia extracts has been reported to increase testosterone level in men and animal model but its effect on prostate growth remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of a standardized total quassinoids composition (SQ40 containing 40% of the total quassinoids found in E. longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. SQ40 inhibited LNCaP cell growth at IC50 value of 5.97 μg/mL while the IC50 on RWPE-1 human prostate normal cells was 59.26 μg/mL. SQ40 also inhibited 5α-dihydrotestosterone-stimulated growth in LNCaP cells dose-dependently. The inhibitory effect of SQ40 in anchorage-independent growth of LNCaP cells was also demonstrated using soft agar assay. SQ40 suppressed LNCaP cell growth via G0/G1 phase arrest which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D3 and up-regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 protein levels. SQ40 at higher concentrations or longer treatment duration can cause G2M growth arrest leading to apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by the detection of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in LNCaP cells. Moreover, SQ40 also inhibited androgen receptor translocation to nucleus which is important for the transactivation of its target gene, prostate-specific antigen (PSA and resulted in a significant reduction of PSA secretion after the treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg of SQ40 also significantly suppressed the LNCaP tumor growth on mouse xenograft model. Results from the present study suggest that the standardized total quassinoids

  12. Saw Palmetto induces growth arrest and apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells via inactivation of STAT 3 and androgen receptor signaling.

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    Yang, Yang; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Zheng, Zhixing; Taguchi, Hirokuni; Koeffler, H Phillip; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2007-09-01

    PC-SPES is an eight-herb mixture that has an activity against prostate cancer. Recently, we purified Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) from PC-SPES and found that Saw Palmetto induced growth arrest of prostate cancer LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells with ED50s of approximately 2.0, 2.6, and 3.3 microl/ml, respectively, as measured by mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Saw Palmetto induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner as measured by TUNEL assays. Also, Saw Palmetto increased the expression of p21waf1 and p53 protein in LNCaP cells. In addition, we found that Saw Palmetto down-regulated DHT- or IL-6-induced expression of prostate specific antigen in conjunction with down-regulation of the level of androgen receptor in the nucleus as measured by Western blot analysis. Moreover, Saw Palmetto down-regulated the IL-6-induced level of the phosphorylated form of STAT 3 in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, Saw Palmetto inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells present as tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without adverse effect. These results indicate that Saw Palmetto might be useful for the treatment of individuals with prostate cancer.

  13. ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer LNCaP cells induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS quantum dots.

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    Singh, Braj R; Singh, Brahma N; Khan, W; Singh, H B; Naqvi, A H

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) have raised great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide utilization in biological and biomedical studies. However, little is known about the cell death mechanisms of CdS QDs in human cancer cells. This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS QDs (denoted as "bsCdS QDs") in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. It was also noteworthy that apoptosis correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and chromatin condensation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results also showed involvement of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins, heat shock protein 70, and a cell-cycle checkpoint protein p53 in apoptosis induction by bsCdS QDs in LNCaP cells. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was upregulated and the anti-apoptotic proteins, survivin and NF-κB were downregulated in bsCdS QDs exposed cells. Protection of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against ROS clearly suggested the implication of ROS in hyper-activation of apoptosis and cell death. It is encouraging to conclude that biologically stabilized CdS QDs bear the potential of its applications in biomedicine, such as tumor therapy specifically by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Paracrine interactions between LNCaP prostate cancer cells and bioengineered bone in 3D in vitro culture reflect molecular changes during bone metastasis.

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    Sieh, Shirly; Taubenberger, Anna V; Lehman, Melanie L; Clements, Judith A; Nelson, Colleen C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-06-01

    As microenvironmental factors such as three-dimensionality and cell-matrix interactions are increasingly being acknowledged by cancer biologists, more complex 3D in vitro models are being developed to study tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To better understand the pathophysiology of bone metastasis, we have established and validated a 3D indirect co-culture model to investigate the paracrine interactions between prostate cancer (PCa) cells and human osteoblasts. Co-culture of the human PCa, LNCaP cells embedded within polyethylene glycol hydrogels with human osteoblasts in the form of a tissue engineered bone construct (TEB), resulted in reduced proliferation of LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells in both monoculture and co-culture were responsive to the androgen analog, R1881, as indicated by an increase in the expression (mRNA and/or protein induction) of androgen-regulated genes including prostate specific antigen and fatty acid synthase. Microarray gene expression analysis further revealed an up-regulation of bone markers and other genes associated with skeletal and vasculature development and a significant activation of transforming growth factor β1 downstream genes in LNCaP cells after co-culture with TEB. LNCaP cells co-cultured with TEB also unexpectedly showed similar changes in classical androgen-responsive genes under androgen-deprived conditions not seen in LNCaP monocultures. The molecular changes of LNCaP cells after co-culturing with TEBs suggest that osteoblasts exert a paracrine effect that may promote osteomimicry and modulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Taken together, we have presented a novel 3D in vitro model that allows the study of cellular and molecular changes occurring in PCa cells and osteoblasts that are relevant to metastatic colonization of bone. This unique in vitro model could also facilitate cancer biologists to dissect specific biological hypotheses via extensive genomic or proteomic assessments to

  15. Modified tetrahalogenated benzimidazoles with CK2 inhibitory activity are active against human prostate cancer cells LNCaP in vitro.

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    Schneider, Carolin C; Kartarius, Sabine; Montenarh, Mathias; Orzeszko, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Zygmunt

    2012-07-15

    A series of novel CK2 inhibitors, tetrahalogenated benzimidazoles carrying an aminoalkylamino group at position 2, has been prepared by nucleophilic substitution of the respective 2,4,5,6,7-pentabromobenzimidazoles and 2-bromo-4,5,6,7-tetraiodobenzimidazoles. The new derivatives as well as some previously obtained tetrahalogenobenzimidazoles, including 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBI) and 4,5,6,7-tetraiodobenzimidazole (TIBI), were evaluated for activity against the hormone-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The activity of 2-aminoalkylamino derivatives was notably higher (LD(50) 4.75-9.37 μM) than that of TBI and TIBI (LD(50) ≈ 20 μM). The determination of the LD(50) value identified the 2-aminoethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetraiodobenzimidazole with an additional methyl group at position 1 (6) as the most efficient compound (LD(50): 4.75 ± 1.02 μM). Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between cell viability and apoptosis induction indicating additional cell death mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antisense-MDM2 Sensitizes LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells to Androgen Deprivation, Radiation, and the Combination In Vivo

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    Stoyanova, Radka; Hachem, Paul; Hensley, Harvey; Khor, L.-Y.; Mu Zhaomei; Hammond, M. Elizabeth H.; Agrawal, Sudhir; Pollack, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of antisense (AS)-MDM2 alone and with androgen deprivation (AD), radiotherapy (RT), and AD + RT on wild-type LNCaP cells in an orthotopic in vivo model. Methods: Androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells were grown in the prostates of nude mice. Magnetic resonance imaging-based tumor volume and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements were used to assess effects on tumor response. Tumor response was measured by biochemical and tumor volume failure definitions and doubling time estimates from fitted PSA and tumor volume growth curves. Expression of MDM2, p53, p21, and Ki-67 was quantified using immunohistochemical staining and image analysis of formalin-fixed tissue, analogous to methods used clinically. Results: Antisense-MDM2 significantly inhibited the growth of LNCaP tumors over the mismatch controls. The most significant increase in tumor growth delay and tumor doubling time was from AS-MDM2 + AD + RT, although the effect of AS-MDM2 + AD was substantial. Expression of MDM2 was significantly reduced by AS-MDM2 in the setting of RT. Conclusions: This is the first in vivo investigation of the effects of AS-MDM2 in an orthotopic model and the first to demonstrate incremental sensitization when added to AD and AD + RT. The results with AD underscore the potential to affect micrometastatic disease, which is probably responsible for treatment failure in 30-40% of men with high-risk disease

  17. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

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    Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Navarro-Vidal, Enrique; Tapia-Vieyra, Juana Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2) associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+) in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line) transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event.

  18. Proteomic-based identification of multiple pathways underlying n-butylidenephthalide-induced apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

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    Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Chiu, Sheng-Chun; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Zhai, Wei-Jun; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Yang, Hsueh-Hui

    2013-09-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the cancer-preventive properties of butylidenephthalide (BP), there is little report of BP affecting human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, proteomic-based approaches were used to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of BP in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. BP treatment decreased the viability of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was correlated with G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Increased cell cycle arrest was associated with a decrease in the level of CCND1, CDK2, and PCNA proteins and an increase in the level of CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and SFN proteins. Proteomic studies revealed that among 48 differentially expressed proteins, 25 proteins were down-regulated and 23 proteins were up-regulated and these proteins fall into one large protein protein interaction network. Among these proteins, FAS, AIFM1, BIK, CYCS, SFN, PPP2R1A, CALR, HSPA5, DDIT3, and ERN1 are apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated proteins. Proteomic data suggested that multiple signaling pathways including FAS-dependent pathway, mitochondrial pathway, and ER stress pathway are involved in the apoptosis induced by BP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

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    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth

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    Alexander B. Opoku-Acheampong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements (SPS are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n=3; p<0.05. Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n=4, HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n=6 groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p<0.05. Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  1. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements (SPS) are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP) SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP) SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP) SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n = 3; p < 0.05). Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n = 4), HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n = 6) groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p < 0.05). Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  2. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Phthalates Deregulate Cell Proliferation, but Not Neuroendocrine Transdifferentiation, in Human LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubá, Eva; Pernicová, Zuzana; Palková, L.; Souček, Karel; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2014 (2014), s. 56-61 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : phthalates * prostate cancer cells * cell cycle modulation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  4. Application of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier blocker UK5099 creates metabolic reprogram and greater stem-like properties in LnCap prostate cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Long, Yuan; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jian-Guo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is one of the important hallmarks of cancer cells and eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between blocking mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) with UK5099 and the metabolic alteration as well as stemness phenotype of prostatic cancer cells. It was found that blocking pyruvate transportation into mitochondrial attenuated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and increased glycolysis. The UK5099 treated cells showed significantly higher proportion of side population (SP) fraction and expressed higher levels of stemness markers Oct3/4 and Nanog. Chemosensitivity examinations revealed that the UK5099 treated cells became more resistant to chemotherapy compared to the non-treated cells. These results demonstrate probably an intimate connection between metabolic reprogram and stem-like phenotype of LnCap cells in vitro. We propose that MPC blocker (UK5099) application may be an ideal model for Warburg effect studies, since it attenuates mitochondrial OXPHOS and increases aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon typically reflected in the Warburg effect. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial OXPHOS and upregulated glycolysis are related with stem-like phenotype shift in prostatic cancer cells. PMID:26413751

  5. Bioenergetic and antiapoptotic properties of mitochondria from cultured human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Panov

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to reveal the metabolic features of mitochondria that might be essential for inhibition of apoptotic potential in prostate cancer cells. We studied mitochondria isolated from normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC, metastatic prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU145; and non-prostate cancer cells - human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells; and normal human lymphoblastoid cells. PrEC cells contained 2 to 4 times less mitochondria per gram of cells than the three PC cell lines. Respiratory activities of PrEC cell mitochondria were 5-20-fold lower than PC mitochondria, depending on substrates and the metabolic state, due to lower content and lower activity of the respiratory enzyme complexes. Mitochondria from the three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines revealed several features that are distinctive only to these cells: low affinity of Complex I for NADH, 20-30 mV higher electrical membrane potential (ΔΨ. Unprotected with cyclosporine A (CsA the PC-3 mitochondria required 4 times more Ca²⁺ to open the permeability transition pore (mPTP when compared with the PrEC mitochondria, and they did not undergo swelling even in the presence of alamethicin, a large pore forming antibiotic. In the presence of CsA, the PC-3 mitochondria did not open spontaneously the mPTP. We conclude that the low apoptotic potential of the metastatic PC cells may arise from inhibition of the Ca²⁺-dependent permeability transition due to a very high ΔΨ and higher capacity to sequester Ca²⁺. We suggest that due to the high ΔΨ, mitochondrial metabolism of the metastatic prostate cancer cells is predominantly based on utilization of glutamate and glutamine, which may promote development of cachexia.

  6. HOXB13 promotes androgen independent growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by the activation of E2F signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Chan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen signaling plays a critical role in the development of prostate cancer and its progression. However, androgen-independent prostate cancer cells emerge after hormone ablation therapy, resulting in significant clinical problems. We have previously demonstrated that the HOXB13 homeodomain protein functions as a prostate cancer cell growth suppressor by inhibiting androgen-mediated signals. However, the role of the HOXB13 in androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells remains unexplained. Results In this report, we first demonstrated that HOXB13 was highly overexpressed in hormone-refractory tumors compared to tumors without prostate-specific antigen after initial treatment. Functionally, in an androgen-free environment minimal induction of HOXB13 in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, to the level of the normal prostate, markedly promoted cell proliferation while suppression inhibited cell proliferation. The HOXB13-mediated cell growth promotion in the absence of androgen, appears to be mainly accomplished through the activation of RB-E2F signaling by inhibiting the expression of the p21waf tumor suppressor. Indeed, forced expression of HOXB13 dramatically decreased expression of p21waf; this inhibition largely affected HOXB13-mediated promotion of E2F signaling. Conclusions Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated the presence of a novel pathway that helps understand androgen-independent survival of prostate cancer cells. These findings suggest that upregulation of HOXB13 is associated with an additive growth advantage of prostate cancer cells in the absence of or low androgen concentrations, by the regulation of p21-mediated E2F signaling.

  7. Addressing of LnCaP Cell Using Magnetic Particles Assisted Impedimetric Microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Thi Xuan; Tran, Trong Binh; Nguyen, Phuong-Diem; Min, Junhong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we provide a facile, effective technique for a simple isolation and enrichment of low metastatic prostate tumor cell LNCaP using biocompatible, magnetic particles asissted impedimetric sensing system. Hydrophobic cell membrane anchors (BAM) were generated onto magnetic particles which diameters vary from 50 nm to 5 μm and were used to capture LNCaP cells from the suspension. Finally, magnetic particle-LNCaP complex were addressed onto the surface of the interdigitated microelectrode (IDM). Cell viability was monitored by our laboratory developed-technique Electrical Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS). The results reavealed that 50 nm-magnetic particles showed best performance in terms of cell separation and cell viability. This technique provides a simple and efficient method for the direct addressing of LNCaP cell on the surface and enhances better understanding of cell behavior for cancer management in the near future.

  8. Radiosensitization of human prostate cell line LNCAP by [6]- gingerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josias Paulino Leal; Bellini, Maria Helena [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the world. Several different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been developed in order to decrease the death rates. A number of experimental and clinical studies have showed antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of several phytochemicals. [6]-Gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3- decanone), the major pungent principle of ginger, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor promoting activities. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiosensitizing activity of [6]-Gingerol in the human prostate cancer cells. Methods: The viability was assessed (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium (MTS) assay. The prostate human cells (LNCAP) (2,5×103 cells/well) were seeded into 96-well plates, after 24 hr they were treated with 150 and 300μg/mL of [6]-Gingerol or vehicle alone (0.1% DMSO) in serum containing media. After incubation, MTS solution was added to the plate at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The cells were incubated for 2 hr in dark at 37. The resulting MTS-products were determined by measuring the absorbance at 490 nm with ELISA reader. In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were divided into two groups: A) control, B) treated with [6]-Gingerol, C) irradiated control and D) treated with [6]-Gingerol and irradiated. The cells were irradiated by 60Co source in the range from 0 to 15 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 - Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture in normoxia conditions, cell colonies were fixed and stained with methanol 20% and crystal violet 0.5% and counted. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. p< 0.05 was considered statistically

  9. Radiosensitization of human prostate cell line LNCAP by [6]- gingerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Josias Paulino Leal; Bellini, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the world. Several different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been developed in order to decrease the death rates. A number of experimental and clinical studies have showed antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of several phytochemicals. [6]-Gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3- decanone), the major pungent principle of ginger, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor promoting activities. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiosensitizing activity of [6]-Gingerol in the human prostate cancer cells. Methods: The viability was assessed (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium (MTS) assay. The prostate human cells (LNCAP) (2,5×103 cells/well) were seeded into 96-well plates, after 24 hr they were treated with 150 and 300μg/mL of [6]-Gingerol or vehicle alone (0.1% DMSO) in serum containing media. After incubation, MTS solution was added to the plate at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The cells were incubated for 2 hr in dark at 37. The resulting MTS-products were determined by measuring the absorbance at 490 nm with ELISA reader. In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were divided into two groups: A) control, B) treated with [6]-Gingerol, C) irradiated control and D) treated with [6]-Gingerol and irradiated. The cells were irradiated by 60Co source in the range from 0 to 15 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 - Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture in normoxia conditions, cell colonies were fixed and stained with methanol 20% and crystal violet 0.5% and counted. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. p< 0.05 was considered statistically

  10. Androgen receptor and its splice variant, AR-V7, differentially regulate FOXA1 sensitive genes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, William C; Shafi, Ayesha A; Nakka, Manjula; Weigel, Nancy L

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease, and tumors that are resistant to androgen ablation therapy often remain androgen receptor (AR) dependent. Among the contributors to castration-resistant PCa are AR splice variants that lack the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Instead, they have small amounts of unique sequence derived from cryptic exons or from out of frame translation. The AR-V7 (or AR3) variant is constitutively active and is expressed under conditions consistent with CRPC. AR-V7 is reported to regulate a transcriptional program that is similar but not identical to that of AR. However, it is unknown whether these differences are due to the unique sequence in AR-V7, or simply to loss of the LBD. To examine transcriptional regulation by AR-V7, we have used lentiviruses encoding AR-V7 (amino acids 1-627 of AR with the 16 amino acids unique to the variant) to prepare a derivative of the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells with inducible expression of AR-V7. An additional cell line was generated with regulated expression of AR-NTD (amino acids 1-660 of AR); this mutant lacks the LBD but does not have the AR-V7 specific sequence. We find that AR and AR-V7 have distinct activities on target genes that are co-regulated by FOXA1. Transcripts regulated by AR-V7 were similarly regulated by AR-NTD, indicating that loss of the LBD is sufficient for the observed differences. Differential regulation of target genes correlates with preferential recruitment of AR or AR-V7 to specific cis-regulatory DNA sequences providing an explanation for some of the observed differences in target gene regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Lycopene on the Methylation of the GSTP1 Promoter and Global Methylation in Prostatic Cancer Cell Lines PC3 and LNCaP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA (cytosine-5- methylation silencing of GSTP1 function occurs in prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa. Previous studies have shown that there is an inverse relationship between dietary lycopene intake and the risk of PCa. However, it is unknown whether lycopene reactivates the tumor suppressor gene glutathioneS-transferase-π (GSTP1 by demethylation of the hypermethylated CpGs that act to silence the GSTP1 promoter. Here, we demonstrated that lycopene treatment significantly decreased the methylation levels of the GSTP1 promoter and increased the mRNA and protein levels of GSTP1 in an androgen-independent PC-3 cell line. In contrast, lycopene treatment did not demethylate the GSTP1 promoter or increase GSTP1 expression in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT 3A protein levels were downregulated in PC-3 cells following lycopene treatment; however, DNMT1 and DNMT3B levels were unchanged. Furthermore, the long interspersed element (LINE-1 and short interspersed element ALU were not demethylated when treated by lycopene. In LNCaP cells, lycopene treatment did not affect any detected DNMT protein expression, and the methylation levels of LINE-1 and ALU were decreased. These results indicated that the protective effect of lycopene on the prostate is different between androgen-dependent and androgen-independent derived PCa cells. Further, in vivo studies should be conducted to confirm these promising results and to evaluate the potential role of lycopene in the protection of the prostate.

  12. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaini, Ramesh R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and UNM Cancer and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hu, Chien-An A., E-mail: AHu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and UNM Cancer and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaini, Ramesh R.; Hu, Chien-An A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. ► Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. ► Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. ► Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Synergistic Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression and Radiotherapy on Cell Death of Human Prostate LNCaP Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Zarei, M; Takhshid, M A; Behzad Behbahani, A; Hosseini, S Y; Okhovat, M A; Rafiee Dehbidi, Gh R; Mosleh Shirazi, M A

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy is among the most conventional cancer therapeutic modalities with effective local tumor control. However, due to the development of radio-resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis often occur following radiation therapy. In recent years, combination of radiotherapy and gene therapy has been suggested to overcome this problem. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential synergistic effects of N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 2 (NDRG2) overexpression, a newly identified candidate tumor suppressor gene, with radiotherapy against proliferation of prostate LNCaP cell line. In this study, LNCaP cells were exposed to X-ray radiation in the presence or absence of NDRG2 overexpression using plasmid PSES- pAdenoVator-PSA-NDRG2-IRES-GFP. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression, X-ray radiation or combination of both on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of LNCaP cells were then analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometery, respectively. Results of MTT assay showed that NDRG2 overexpression and X-ray radiation had a synergistic effect against proliferation of LNCaP cells. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression increased apoptotic effect of X-ray radiation in LNCaP cells synergistically. Our findings suggested that NDRG2 overexpression in combination with radiotherapy may be an effective therapeutic option against prostate cancer.

  15. Restoration of cyclin D2 has an inhibitory potential on the proliferation of LNCaP cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Nakamura, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yosuke; Terada, Naoki; Maeno, Atsushi; Kobori, Go; Kamba, Tomomi; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu; Inoue, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    Despite well known oncogenic function of G1-S cell-cycle progression, cyclin D2 (CCND2) is often silenced epigenetically in prostate cancers. Here we show that CCND2 has an inhibitory potential on the proliferation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Forced expression of CCND2 suppressed the proliferative ability and induced cell death in LNCaP cells in a cdk-independent manner. Knocking down CCND2 restored the proliferation of LNCaP subclones with relatively high CCND2 expression and low proliferative profiles. Immunoprecipitation using deletion mutants of CCND2 indicated that a central domain of CCND2 is required for binding to AR. A deletion mutant lacking the central domain failed to hinder LNCaP cells. Collectively, our results indicated that CCND2 inhibits cell proliferation of AR-dependent prostate cancer through the interaction with AR. Our study suggests that restoration of CCND2 expression potentially prevents the carcinogenesis of prostate cancer, which is mostly AR-dependent in the initial settings.

  16. Application of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier blocker UK5099 creates metabolic reprogram and greater stem-like properties in LnCap prostate cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Long, Yuan; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jian-Guo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is one of the important hallmarks of cancer cells and eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between blocking mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) with UK5099 and the metabolic alteration as well as stemness phenotype of prostatic cancer cells. It was found that blocking pyruvate transportation into mitochondrial attenuated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and increased glycolysis. The UK5099 treated cells showed significantly...

  17. Autocrine effect of DHT on FGF signaling and cell proliferation in LNCaP cells: role of heparin/heparan-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassen, A E; Sensibar, J A; Sintich, S M; Pruden, S J; Kozlowski, J M; Lee, C

    2000-07-01

    LNCaP cells are androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells. They are characterized by a bell-shaped growth curve in response to increasing doses of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in culture. At a low concentration of DHT (0.1 nM), these cells show an increase in proliferation, but their growth is arrested at a high concentration (100 nM) of DHT. Results of our previous study demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of DHT at a high concentration was mediated through the action of TGF-beta1. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of the proliferative effect of DHT in LNCaP cells. METHODS AND RESULTS DHT stimulated LNCaP proliferation only when cells were cultured in the presence of serum. In serum-free cultures, the characteristic DHT-induced proliferation was not observed. The addition of neutralizing antibody against FGF-2 (basic fibroblast growth factor) was able to inhibit this DHT-induced proliferation. These results suggest that the proliferative effect of DHT was mediated through the action of FGF-2. However, results of the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction indicated that LNCaP cells did not express FGF-2 message. As a result, the source of FGF-2 in these cultures must be the serum supplemented in the culture media. FGF-2 can bind to heparin sulfate chains within the extracellular matrix (ECM). In cultures treated with exogenous heparin, the proliferative effect of DHT was abolished. These results led to the development of the hypothesis that DHT treatment mediates the release of FGF-2 entrapped in the ECM through increased heparinase activity. The addition of heparinase to cultures of LNCaP cells, in the absence of DHT, was able to stimulate cell proliferation. Moreover, 0.1 nM DHT caused a significant increase in heparinase activity. These results provide a possible mechanism for DHT action in LNCaP cells. In the absence of DHT, FGF-2 in culture was trapped in the extracellular matrix and was not available to interact

  18. Adenovirus E2F1 Overexpression Sensitizes LNCaP and PC3 Prostate Tumor Cells to Radiation In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S.; Stoyanova, Radka; Hachem, Paul; Ahmed, Mansoor M.; Pollack, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that E2F1 overexpression radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro. Here, we demonstrate the radiosensitization efficacy of adenovirus (Ad)-E2F1 infection in growing (orthotopic) LNCaP and (subcutaneous) PC3 nude mice xenograft tumors. Methods and Materials: Ad-E2F1 was injected intratumorally in LNCaP (3 x 10 8 plaque-forming units [PFU]) and PC3 (5 x 10 8 PFU) tumors treated with or without radiation. LNCaP tumor volumes (TV) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, caliper were used to measure PC3 tumors, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and key proteins involved in cell death signaling were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: Intracellular overexpression of Ad-E2F1 had a significant effect on the regression of TV and reduction of PSA levels relative to that of adenoviral luciferase (Ad-Luc)-infected control. The in vivo regressing effect of Ad-E2F1 on LNCaP tumor growth was significant (PSA, 34 ng/ml; TV, 142 mm 3 ) compared to that of Ad-Luc control (PSA, 59 ng/ml; TV, 218 mm 3 ; p 3 to Ad-Luc+RT/PSA, 42 ng/ml, and TV, 174 mm 3 , respectively; p <0.05). For PC3 tumors, the greatest effect was observed with Ad-E2F1 infection alone; there was little or no effect when radiotherapy (RT) was combined. However, addition of RT enhanced the level of in situ apoptosis in PC3 tumors. Molecularly, addition of Ad-E2F1 in a combination treatment abrogated radiation-induced BCL-2 protein expression and was associated with an increase in activated BAX, and together they caused a potent radiosensitizing effect, irrespective of p53 and androgen receptor functional status. Conclusions: We show here for the first time that ectopic overexpression of E2F1 in vivo, using an adenoviral vector, significantly inhibits orthotopic p53 wild-type LNCaP tumors and subcutaneous

  19. Effects of resveratrol and other wine polyphenols on the proliferation, apoptosis and androgen receptor expression in LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruelo, A; Romero, I; Cabrera, P M; Arance, I; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C

    2014-01-01

    To address the effect of resveratrol and other red wine polyphenols on cell proliferation, apoptosis and androgen receptor (AR) expression in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells (5 × 102) were cultured in microtiter plate modules and treated with gallic acid, tannic acid and quercetin (1, 5 and 10 μM), rutin and morin (25, 50 and 75 μM) and resveratrol (5, 10 and 25 μM). To address the extent of proliferation at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, a colorimetric immunoassay method was used. An activity caspase 3/7 detection assay was used to disclose apoptosis at 24, 48 and 72 hours. AR mARN levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. All polyphenols studied significantly inhibited (P<.05) cell proliferation compared to control. However, there were moderate differences between them. Resveratrol was the strongest inhibitor at different times and doses. Also, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activity was significantly higher (P<.05) than control in the presence of all the compounds, but the earlier response was achieved by resveratrol. Resveratrol, quercetin and morin were the only nutrients that significantly inhibited AR mRNA expression. Again resveratrol produced the highest inhibition (90-250 times less than control), followed by morin (67-100 times) and quercetin (55-91 times). All polyphenols studied showed important antiproliferative effects and induced apoptosis when added to LNCaP cells culture. We confirm that resveratrol, morin and quercetin may achieve such effect through reduced expression of AR. The synergistic effects of these compounds and their potential to prevent progression of hormone-dependent prostate cancer merit further study. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of global proteome in LNCaP cells by 2D-RP/RP LC–MS/MS following sulforaphane exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Watson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical sulforaphane can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in metastatic prostate cancer cells, though the mechanism of action is not fully known. We conducted a global proteome analysis in LNCaP metastatic prostate cancer cells to characterize how global protein signature responds to sulforaphane. We conducted parallel analyses to evaluate semi-quantitative 1-dimensional versus 2-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and their utility in characterizing whole cell lysate. We show that 2-dimensional LC–MS/MS can be a useful tool for characterizing global protein profiles and identify TRIAP1 as a novel regulator of cell proliferation in LNCaP metastatic prostate cancer cells.

  1. Lignans isolated from Campylotropis hirtella (Franch.) Schindl. decreased prostate specific antigen and androgen receptor expression in LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ying; Wang, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Nai-Li; Ling, Ming-Tat; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2008-08-27

    Accumulating epidemiological data suggest that Asian men have lower incidences of prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) compared with American and European populations and may have benefited from their higher intake of phytoestrogens in their diet. However, how these phytochemicals affect prostatic diseases is still unclear. In this study, we isolated six lignans from a plant, Campylotropis hirtella (Franch.) Schindl., which has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of BPH in China, through bioassay guided fractionation. They were dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (C1), 4-[(-6-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-3-yl)methyl]-5-methoxybenzene-1,3-diol (C2), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-beta-O-4'-coniferyl ether (C3), threo-guaiacylglycerol-beta-O-4'-coniferyl ether (C4), secoisolariciresinol (C5), and prupaside (C6), where C2 was identified as a new lignan analog. Their IC50 values for inhibition of prostate specific antigen (PSA) secretion were 19, 45, 110, 128, 137, and 186 microM, respectively, from C1 to C6 in LNCaP cells. Further study showed that C1-5 down-regulated cellular PSA expression and C1-4 also decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, we investigated the proapoptotic effect of C1 on LNCaP cells. The active forms of caspase 3 associated with the specific proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were detected, and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated after the treatment with C1. These results collectively indicated that these lignans may have chemopreventive or therapeutic actions for prostate cancer through suppressing AR signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis.

  2. Exon-skipping strategy by ratio modulation between cytoprotective versus pro-apoptotic clusterin forms increased sensitivity of LNCaP to cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Essabbani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer the secreted form of clusterin (sCLU has been described as an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased after therapeutic intervention, whereas, the nuclear protein form nCLU was reported to have pro-apoptotic properties. METHODOLOGY: In order to provide new therapeutic approaches targeting CLU, we developed a strategy based on exon skipping by using a lentiviral construct to preferentially induce the nuclear spliced form of the protein. The molecular construct was transduced in LNCaP cells for testing the modulation of sensitivity of the transduced cells to pro-apoptotic stress. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We showed an increase of nCLU/sCLU expression ratio in the prostate cancer cell line "LNCaP" after lentiviral vector-U7 nCLU transduction. Moreover, we showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in nCLU-U7 LNCaP cells after treatment with cisplatin and after exposure to ionizing radiation compared to control cells. Finally, we showed that nCLU-U7 LNCaP cells exposure to UV-C significantly reduced an increase of cell death compared to control. Finally, we showed that modulating nCLU expression had profound impact on Ku70/Bax interaction as well as Rad17 expression which could be a key mechanism in sensitizing cells to cell death. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that increasing of nCLU/sCLU expression ratio by using an "on demand alternative splicing" strategy successfully increased sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of prostate cancer cells.

  3. Over-expression of p53 mutants in LNCaP cells alters tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, L.A.; Blair, J.M.; Kingsley, E.A.; Szymanska, B.; Ow, K.T.; Wen, V.W.; MacKenzie, K.L.; Vermeulen, P.B.; Jackson, P.; Russell, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This study has investigated the impact of three specific dominant-negative p53 mutants (F134L, M237L, and R273H) on tumorigenesis by LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mutant p53 proteins were associated with an increased subcutaneous 'take rate' in NOD-SCID mice, and increased production of PSA. Tumors expressing F134L and R273H grew slower than controls, and were associated with decreased necrosis and apoptosis, but not hypoxia. Interestingly, hypoxia levels were increased in tumors expressing M237L. There was less proliferation in F134L-bearing tumors compared to control, but this was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis was decreased in tumors expressing F134L and R273H compared with M237L, or controls. Conditioned medium from F134L tumors inhibited growth of normal human umbilical-vein endothelial cells but not telomerase-immortalized bone marrow endothelial cells. F134L tumor supernatants showed lower levels of VEGF and endostatin compared with supernatants from tumors expressing other mutants. Our results support the possibility that decreased angiogenesis might account for reduced growth rate of tumor cells expressing the F134L p53 mutation

  4. TSA-induced JMJD2B downregulation is associated with cyclin B1-dependent survivin degradation and apoptosis in LNCap cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Li, Yueyang; Zhao, Li; Hou, Pingfu; Shangguan, Chenyan; Yao, Ruosi; Zhang, Weina; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Jiang; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as a novel class of anti-tumor agents and have manifested the ability to induce apoptosis of cancer cells, and a significant number of genes have been identified as potential effectors responsible for HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis. However, the mechanistic actions of these HDAC inhibitors in this process remain largely undefined. We here report that the treatment of LNCap prostate cancer cells with HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) resulted in downregulation of the Jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B). We also found that the TSA-mediated decrease in survivin expression in LNCap cells was partly attributable to downregulation of JMJD2B expression. This effect was attributable to the promoted degradation of survivin protein through inhibition of Cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex-mediated survivin Thr34 phosphorylation. Consequently, knockdown of JMJD2B enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis by regulating the Cyclin B1-dependent survivin degradation to potentiate the apoptosis pathways. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neurotensin is metabolized by endogenous proteases in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W; Mayr, C A; Gillespie, T J; Davis, T P

    1998-01-01

    The formation and processing of neurotensin (NT) by three prostate cancer cell lines was investigated. Neurotensin (NT) immunoreactivity was detected in conditioned media and extracts of LNCaP cells. Using HPLC techniques, the immunoreactivity extracted from LNCaP cells coeluted with synthetic NT standard. Metalloendopeptidase 3.4.24.15 activity was detected in PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP cells, whereas high levels of neutral endopeptidase 3.4.24.1 1 activity was detected only in LNCaP cells. NT was relatively stable when incubated with PC-3 or D-145 cells but was rapidly degraded by LNCaP cells to NT1-11 and NT1-10. Phosphoramidon inhibited the metabolism of NT by LNCaP cells. These data suggest that NT is present in and metabolized by LNCaP cellular enzymes.

  6. Changes of Gene Expression in the Apoptosis Pathway in Lncap and PC3 Cells Exposed to X-Rays or Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Radio-resistant or recurrent prostate cancer represents a serious health risk for approximately 20%-30% of patients treated with primary radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. In our current studies, we investigated the expressions of apoptosis related gene expression profile (84 genes) in two distinct prostate cell lines Lncap (P53+ and AR+) and PC3 (P53- and AR-) before and after exposure to X-rays or protons, using cDNA PCR arrays. In Lncap cells, 10Gy X-ray radiation significantly induced the expression of 19 out of 84 genes at 4h after irradiation. The changed genes were mostly in death and death receptor domain families, TNF ligand and receptor families, and apoptotic group of the BCL2 family, especially in P53 related genes, such as FAS, BAX, BAK1 and GADD45A. In PC3, X-rays only induced the expression of 3 genes, including an increased expression of BIRC3. There was no difference of the X-ray mediated cell killing in both cell lines using the cell cycle analysis. However, these X-ray-induced gene expression differences between PC3 and Lncap may explain the phenotype of PC3 cells that shows more tolerant not only to radiation, but also to other apoptosis inducing and sensitizing reagents. To compare the effectiveness of cell killing with X-rays, we also exposed PC3 cells to 10Gy protons at the Bragg peak region. Protons did not induce more apoptosis than X-rays for the same dose. In comparison to X-rays, protons significantly altered expressions of 13 genes in PC3, which included decreased expressions of anti-apoptosis genes (BCL2 and BCL2L2), and increased expressions of death and death receptor domain family genes, TNF ligand and receptor family and several kinases (FAS, DAPK1 and RIPK2). These data suggest that proton treatment is more effective in influencing the apoptosis pathways in PC3 cells than X-rays, thus protons may be more effective in the treatment of specific prostate tumor.

  7. Longitudinal tracking of subpopulation dynamics and molecular changes during LNCaP cell castration and identification of inhibitors that could target the PSA−/lo castration-resistant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycaj, Kiera; Cho, Eun Jeong; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Liu, Bigang; Li, Qiuhui; Devkota, Ashwini K.; Zhang, Dingxiao; Chen, Xin; Moore, John; Dalby, Kevin N.; Tang, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the undifferentiated PSA−/lo prostate cancer (PCa) cell population harbors self-renewing long-term tumor-propagating cells that are refractory to castration, thus representing a therapeutic target. Our goals here are, by using the same lineage-tracing reporter system, to track the dynamic changes of PSA−/lo and PSA+ cells upon castration in vitro, investigate the molecular changes accompanying persistent castration, and develop large numbers of PSA−/lo PCa cells for drug screening. To these ends, we treated LNCaP cells infected with the PSAP-GFP reporter with three regimens of castration, i.e., CDSS, CDSS plus bicalutamide, and MDV3100 continuously for up to ~21 months. We observed that in the first ~7 months, castration led to time-dependent increases in PSA−/lo cells, loss of AR and PSA expression, increased expression of cancer stem cell markers, and many other molecular changes. Meanwhile, castrated LNCaP cells became resistant to high concentrations of MDV3100, chemotherapeutic drugs, and other agents. However, targeted and medium-throughput library screening identified several kinase (e.g., IGF-1R, AKT, PI3K/mTOR, Syk, GSK3) inhibitors as well as the BCL2 inhibitor that could effectively sensitize the LNCaP-CRPC cells to killing. Of interest, LNCaP cells castrated for >7 months showed evidence of cyclic changes in AR and the mTOR/AKT signaling pathways potentially involving epigenetic mechanisms. These observations indicate that castration elicits numerous molecular changes and leads to enrichment of PSA−/lo PCa cells. The ability to generate large numbers of PSA−/lo PCa cells should allow future high-throughput screening to identify novel therapeutics that specifically target this population. PMID:26871947

  8. Androgen and retinoic acid interaction in LNCaP cells, effects on cell proliferation and expression of retinoic acid receptors and epidermal growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-tang; Richter, Frank; Chang, Chawnshang; Irwin, Robert J; Huang, Hosea FS

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RAR) α and γ in adult rat prostate by testosterone (T) suggests that RAR signaling events might mediate some of the androgen effects on prostate cells. In this study, we examined the interactions between T and retinoic acid (RA) in cell growth of human prostate carcinoma cells, LNCaP, and their relationship with the expression of RAR and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Both T and RA, when administered alone, stimulated 3 H-thymidine incorporation in LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner; the effect of each agent was reciprocally attenuated by the other agent. Testosterone treatment of LNCaP cells also resulted in dose dependent, biphasic increases in RAR α and γ mRNAs; increases paralleled that of 3 H-thymidine incorporation and were attenuated by the presence of 100 nM RA. These results suggest a link between RAR signaling and the effect of T on LNCaP cell growth. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the presence of putative androgen responsive element (ARE) in the promoter region of RAR α gene, suggesting that a direct AR-DNA interaction might mediate the effects of T on RAR α gene. Furthermore, treatment of LNCaP cells with 20 nM T resulted in an increase in EGF-R. In contrast, EGF-R was suppressed by 100 nM RA that also suppressed the effect of T. Current results demonstrate interactions between T and RA in the expression of RARs and cell growth in LNCaP cells. The presence of putative ARE in the promoter of the RAR α gene suggests that AR-DNA interaction might mediate the effects of T on RAR α gene. The opposite effects of T and RA on the expression of RAR and EGF-R suggest that signal events of these receptors might be involved in the interaction between T and RA in the control of LNCaP cell growth

  9. Androgen and retinoic acid interaction in LNCaP cells, effects on cell proliferation and expression of retinoic acid receptors and epidermal growth factor receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Robert J

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RAR α and γ in adult rat prostate by testosterone (T suggests that RAR signaling events might mediate some of the androgen effects on prostate cells. Method In this study, we examined the interactions between T and retinoic acid (RA in cell growth of human prostate carcinoma cells, LNCaP, and their relationship with the expression of RAR and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R. Results Both T and RA, when administered alone, stimulated 3H-thymidine incorporation in LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner; the effect of each agent was reciprocally attenuated by the other agent. Testosterone treatment of LNCaP cells also resulted in dose dependent, biphasic increases in RAR α and γ mRNAs; increases paralleled that of 3H-thymidine incorporation and were attenuated by the presence of 100 nM RA. These results suggest a link between RAR signaling and the effect of T on LNCaP cell growth. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the presence of putative androgen responsive element (ARE in the promoter region of RAR α gene, suggesting that a direct AR-DNA interaction might mediate the effects of T on RAR α gene. Furthermore, treatment of LNCaP cells with 20 nM T resulted in an increase in EGF-R. In contrast, EGF-R was suppressed by 100 nM RA that also suppressed the effect of T. Conclusions Current results demonstrate interactions between T and RA in the expression of RARs and cell growth in LNCaP cells. The presence of putative ARE in the promoter of the RAR α gene suggests that AR-DNA interaction might mediate the effects of T on RAR α gene. The opposite effects of T and RA on the expression of RAR and EGF-R suggest that signal events of these receptors might be involved in the interaction between T and RA in the control of LNCaP cell growth.

  10. Novel Technology for Cloning Prostate Cancer Cell Markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bancroft, F

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to employ probes isolated from the LNCaP series of human prostate cancer cells, to probe human cDNA microarrays, so as to investigate genes differentially expressed among these cell lines...

  11. Antiproliferative effect of a polysaccharide fraction of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots upon epithelial cells of the human prostate (LNCaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Lenz, C; Lindemann, P; Müller, H H; Aumüller, G; Konrad, L

    1999-10-01

    In Germany, plant extracts are often used in the treatment of early stages of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The effects of different concentrations of the polysaccharide fraction of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (POLY-M) on the cellular proliferation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells were determined by measurement of the genomic DNA content of the samples. All concentrations of POLY-M showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the LNCaP cells during 7 days except the two lowest concentrations. The reduced proliferation of POLY-M treated LNCaP cells was significantly (p < 0.05) different from the untreated control. The inhibition was time- and concentration-dependent with the maximum suppression (50%) on day 6 and at concentrations of 1.0E-9 and 1.0E-11 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of POLY-M on cell proliferation was observed. The in vitro results show for the first time an antiproliferative effect of Urtica compounds on human prostatic epithelium and confirm our previous in vivo findings.

  12. C-C motif ligand 5 promotes migration of prostate cancer cells in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Satoko; Izumi, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Kaoru; Maolake, Aerken; Natsagdorj, Ariunbold; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iwamoto, Hiroaki; Kadomoto, Suguru; Makino, Tomoyuki; Naito, Renato; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Wufuer, Guzailinuer; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Chemokines and their receptors have key roles in cancer progression. The present study investigated chemokine activity in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment. Growth and migration of human prostate cancer cells were assayed in cocultures with bone stromal cells. The migration of LNCaP cells significantly increased when co-cultured with bone stromal cells isolated from prostate cancer bone metastases. Cytokine array analysis of conditioned medium from bone stromal cell cultures identified CCL5 as a concentration-dependent promoter of LNCaP cell migration. The migration of LNCaP cells was suppressed when C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) neutralizing antibody was added to cocultures with bone stromal cells. Knockdown of androgen receptor with small interfering RNA increased the migration of LNCaP cells compared with control cells, and CCL5 did not promote the migration of androgen receptor knockdown LNCaP. Elevated CCL5 secretion in bone stromal cells from metastatic lesions induced prostate cancer cell migration by a mechanism consistent with CCL5 activity upstream of androgen receptor signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Ryoichi; Okamura, Kazumasa; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934 (Japan); Kakishima, Hiroshi [Research Planning Department, Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., 5-26-20 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002 (Japan); Mizokami, Atsushi [School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Burnstein, Kerry L. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, Miami (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in LNCaP cells. The PAHs used in this study were chrysene (Chr), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), anthracene (Ant) and pyrene (Pyr). Chr, BkF and BaP acted as AhR agonists in LNCaP cells, while Ant and Pyr did not. The antiandrogenic effects of the PAHs were evaluated on the basis of regulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels by 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chr, BkF and BaP exhibited an antiandrogenic effect, but Ant and Pyr did not. {alpha}-Naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF), an AhR antagonist, reversed the antiandrogen action of Chr, BkF and BaP, suggesting a requirement for activated AhR. The antiandrogenic PAHs did not significantly decrease androgen receptor (AR) levels or cellular DHT concentrations. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Chr, BkF and BaP inhibited the binding of AR in nuclear extracts to oligonucleotide probes containing the AR-responsive element (ARE), whereas Ant and Pyr had no effect. The antiandrogenic PAHs elevated mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun. Since activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of c-jun and c-fos proteins, is known to inhibit binding of AR to ARE by protein-protein interaction with AR, the findings in the present study suggest a possible involvement of AP-1 in the antiandrogenic effects of PAHs acting as AhR agonists. These results suggest that AhR can stimulate AP-1 expression resulting in inhibition of the binding of AR to ARE in the transcription regulatory region of target genes such as PSA. (orig.)

  14. Inhibition of the DHT-induced PSA secretion by Verbascum xanthophoeniceum and Serenoa repens extracts in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoccia, D; Georgiev, M I; Alipieva, K I; Lorenzetti, S

    2014-08-08

    Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is a mullein plant, typical of Balkan region and some parts of Turkey, traditionally used as phytotherapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is rich in phenylethanoid and iridoid metabolites whose anti-inflammatory properties are under characterization. The role of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum crude methanolic extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have been evaluated, in comparison to a saw palmetto extract, on a human in vitro model of androgen-regulated prostate epithelium, the LNCaP cell line. Cytotoxicity and DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion have been thoroughly studied. We have found that similar to saw palmetto, Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have no cytotoxicity in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells, whereas an inhibitory effect on the DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion, a recognized anti-androgen like activity, has been shown in case of both Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and pure verbascoside. Furthermore, in the absence of the endogenous androgen DHT, an androgen-like activity in Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is detectable as it is for saw palmetto, suggesting that a mixed androgen-antiandrogen activity is present. For the first time, Serenoa repens and Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extracts have shown an absence of cytotoxicity and an inhibitory effect on DHT-induced PSA secretion in an in vitro model of human prostate epithelium, whereas the phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside appeared to explain only part of the Verbascum xanthophoeniceum inhibitory activity on PSA secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xi, E-mail: xizheng@rci.rutgers.edu [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Cui, Xiao-Xing [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Lee, Mao-Jung [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yang, Chung S [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kong, Ah-Ng [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Allan H, Conney [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)

    2011-09-28

    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng; Allan H, Conney

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans

  17. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Schmitz, Ingo; Sameie, Shahram; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility. We have investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) in prostate cancer cells by downregulating its expression via short (21-mer) interfering RNA (siRNA) and measuring the consequences on EMT markers, cell viability, death, cell cycle, senescence, attachment, and invasivity. Of eight carcinoma cell lines, the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 showed the highest and moderate expression of SNAI1 mRNA, respectively, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Long-term knockdown of Snail induced a severe decline in cell numbers in LNCaP and PC-3 and caspase activity was accordingly enhanced in both cell lines. In addition, suppression of Snail expression induced senescence in LNCaP cells. SNAI1-siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the extracellular matrix, probably due to downregulation of integrin α6. Expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin was also affected. Invasiveness of PC-3 cells was not significantly diminished by Snail knockdown. Our data suggest that Snail acts primarily as a survival factor and inhibitor of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell lines. We therefore propose that Snail can act as early driver of prostate cancer progression.

  18. The calcimimetic R-568 induces apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guangming

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased serum level of parathyroid hormone (PTH was found in metastatic prostate cancers. Calcimimetic R-568 was reported to reduce PTH expression, to suppress cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis in parathyroid cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of R-568 on cellular survival of prostate cancer cells. Methods Prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 were used in this study. Cellular survival was determined with MTT, trypan blue exclusion and fluorescent Live/Death assays. Western blot assay was utilized to assess apoptotic events induced by R-568 treatment. JC-1 staining was used to evaluate mitochondrial membrane potential. Results In cultured prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells, R-568 treatment significantly reduced cellular survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. R-568-induced cell death was an apoptotic event, as evidenced by caspase-3 processing and PARP cleavage, as well as JC-1 color change in mitochondria. Knocking down calcium sensing receptor (CaSR significantly reduced R-568-induced cytotoxicity. Enforced expression of Bcl-xL gene abolished R-568-induced cell death, while loss of Bcl-xL expression led to increased cell death in R-568-treated LNCaP cells,. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrated that calcimimetic R-568 triggers an intrinsic mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway, which is dependent on the CaSR and is modulated by Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic pathway.

  19. PCOTH, a novel gene overexpressed in prostate cancers, promotes prostate cancer cell growth through phosphorylation of oncoprotein TAF-Ibeta/SET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Furihara, Mutsuo; Ashida, Shingo; Tamura, Kenji; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2005-06-01

    Through genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis coupled with microdissection of prostate cancer cells, we identified a novel gene, prostate collagen triple helix (PCOTH), showing overexpression in prostate cancer cells and its precursor cells, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal anti-PCOTH antibody confirmed elevated expression of PCOTH, a 100-amino-acid protein containing collagen triple-helix repeats, in prostate cancer cells and PINs. Knocking down PCOTH expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in drastic attenuation of prostate cancer cell growth, and concordantly, LNCaP derivative cells that were designed to constitutively express exogenous PCOTH showed higher growth rate than LNCaP cells transfected with mock vector, suggesting the growth-promoting effect of PCOTH on prostate cancer cell. To investigate the biological mechanisms of this growth-promoting effect, we applied two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze the phospho-protein fractions in LNCaP cells transfected with PCOTH. We found that the phosphorylation level of oncoprotein TAF-Ibeta/SET was significantly elevated in LNCaP cells transfected with PCOTH than control LNCaP cells, and these findings were confirmed by Western blotting and in-gel kinase assay. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous TAF-Ibeta expression by siRNA also attenuated viability of prostate cancer cells as well. These findings suggest that PCOTH is involved in growth and survival of prostate cancer cells thorough, in parts, the TAF-Ibeta pathway, and that this molecule should be a promising target for development of new therapeutic strategies for prostate cancers.

  20. Inhibition of progression of androgen-dependent prostate LNCaP tumors to androgen independence in SCID mice by oral caffeine and voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Liu, Yue; Wagner, George C; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Conney, Allan H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine or voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) alone or in combination on the progression of human androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate tumors to androgen independence in male severe combined immunodeficiency mice was determined. The mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells, and when the tumors reached a moderate size, the mice were surgically castrated and treated with caffeine (0.40 mg/ml drinking water) or RW alone or in combination for 42 days. We found that caffeine administration or RW inhibited the progression and growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP tumors to androgen independence, and a combination of the 2 regimens was more effective than the individual regimens alone. The ratios of the percent mitotic cells/caspase-3 positive cells in tumors from the caffeine-treated, RW-treated, or combination-treated mice were decreased by 34%, 38%, and 52%, respectively. Caffeine treatment increased the percentage of mitotic tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (lethal mitosis) whereas RW inhibited the increase in interleukin-6 that occurred during the progression of LNCaP tumors from androgen dependence to androgen independence. Our results indicate that oral administration of caffeine in combination with voluntary exercise may be an effective strategy for the prevention of prostate cancer progression from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  1. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  2. Characterizations of Factors Affecting Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Regulation in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garabedian, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... Expression of ART-27 in LNCaP cells, an androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, reduces androgen-mediated cellular proliferation, suggesting that ART-27 plays a role in suppressing cell growth...

  3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induced cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via regulation of Skp2, p53, p21Cip1 and p27Kip1

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Lin, Ching-Yu; Huo, Chieh; Hsiao, Ping-Hsuan; Su, Liang-Cheng; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Chan, Tzu-Min; Chang, Chung-Ho; Chen, Li-Tzong; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Wang, Horng-Dar; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) patients receiving the androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within 1?3 years. Treatment with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppressed cell survival and proliferation via induction of G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest in LNCaP 104-R1, DU-145, 22Rv1, and C4?2 CRPC cells. CAPE treatment also inhibited soft agar colony formation and retarded nude mice xenograft growth of LNCaP 104-R1 cells. We identified that CAP...

  4. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is up-regulated in metformin resistant prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nitu; Mishra, Prasun J.; Stein, Mark; DiPaola, Robert S.; Bertino, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies showed that metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug might prevent certain cancers. Metformin also has an anti-proliferative effect in preclinical studies of both hematologic malignancies as well as solid cancers and clinical studies testing metformin as an anti-cancer drug are in progress. However, all cancer types do not respond to metformin with the same effectiveness or acquire resistance. To understand the mechanism of acquired resistance and possibly its mechanism of action as an anti-proliferative agent, we developed metformin resistant LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Metformin resistant LNCaP cells had an increased proliferation rate, increased migration and invasion ability as compared to the parental cells, and expressed markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A detailed gene expression microarray comparing the resistant cells to the wild type cells revealed that Edil2, Ereg, Axl, Anax2, CD44 and Anax3 were the top up-regulated genes and calbindin 2 and TPTE (transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology) and IGF1R were down regulated. We focused on Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be up regulated in several drug resistance cancers. Here, we show that the metformin resistant cell line as well as castrate resistant cell lines that over express Axl were more resistant to metformin, as well as to taxotere compared to androgen sensitive LNCaP and CWR22 cells that do not overexpress Axl. Forced overexpression of Axl in LNCaP cells decreased metformin and taxotere sensitivity and knockdown of Axl in resistant cells increased sensitivity to these drugs. Inhibition of Axl activity by R428, a small molecule Axl kinase inhibitor, sensitized metformin resistant cells that overexpressed Axl to metformin. Inhibitors of Axl may enhance tumor responses to metformin and other chemotherapy in cancers that over express Axl. PMID:26036314

  5. Cell viability and PSA secretion assays in LNCaP cells: a tiered in vitro approach to screen chemicals with a prostate-mediated effect on male reproduction within the ReProTect project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Stefano; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility; nevertheless, prostate was so far overlooked in reproductive toxicity assays. Within the EU project ReProTect, the human prostate cell line LNCaP was utilized to identify molecules targeting prostate function by the integrated assessment of cell viability (MTS assay) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion as specific marker; a training set - five (anti)androgenic chemicals - and a ReProTect feasibility set - ten chemicals - were used. Several compounds reduced PSA only at cytotoxic concentrations. Androgens (DHT, MT) markedly increased PSA as did the herbicide glufosinate ammonium, not known as androgen agonist. Anti-androgens (2OH-flutamide, linuron, vinclozolin, di-n-butyl phthalate) also increased PSA, but the effect of magnitude was much lower than for androgens. The ER-binder bisphenol A reduced PSA, while increasing cell viability. At this stage, the approach can identify chemicals able to interfere with prostate function: further refinements may allow to include prostate effects in reproductive toxicity in vitro testing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of a hyperactive androgen receptor leads to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Cai, Changmeng; Giwa, Ahmed; Bivins, Aaronica; Chen, Shao-Yong; Sabry, Dina; Govardhan, Kumara; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2008-07-01

    Cellular changes that affect the androgen receptor (AR) can cause prostate cancer to transition from androgen dependent to androgen independent, which is usually lethal. One common change in prostate tumors is overexpression of the AR, which has been shown to lead to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This led us to hypothesize that expression of a hyperactive AR would be sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, stable lune cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell lines were generated, which express a virion phosphoprotein (VP)16-AR hybrid protein that contains full-length AR fused to the strong viral transcriptional activation domain VP16. This fusion protein elicited as much as a 20-fold stronger transcriptional activity than the natural AR. Stable expression of VP16-AR in LNCaP cells yielded androgen-independent cell proliferation, while under the same growth conditions the parental LNCaP cells exhibited only androgen-dependent growth. These results show that expression of a hyperactive AR is sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To study the molecular basis of this enhanced growth, we measured the expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase-alpha1 (sGCalpha1), a subunit of the sGC, an androgen-regulated gene that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, the expression of sGCalpha1 is androgen independent in VP16-AR-expressing cells, in contrast to its androgen-induced expression in control LNCaP cells. RNA(I)-dependent inhibition of sGCalpha1 expression resulted in significantly reduced proliferation of VP16-AR cells, implicating an important role for sGCalpha1 in the androgen-independent growth of these cells.

  7. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Kiyoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Ii, Masaaki, E-mail: masaii@art.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Asahi, Michio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Azuma, Haruhito [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  8. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ii, Masaaki; Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Asahi, Michio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa

  9. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2006-01-01

    ... (LNCaP DU145 RC3 and CL1). Immunoblot Real Time RT-RCR polarographic and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  10. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2005-01-01

    ... (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, Real Time RTPCR, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  11. EGF Prevents the Neuroendocrine Differentiation of LNCaP Cells Induced By Serum Deprivation: The Modulator Role of P13K/Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Martín-Orozco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to study the relationship between neuroendocrine (NE differentiation, epidermal growth factor (EGF because both have been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we used gefitinib, trastuzumab, which are inhibitors of EGF receptor (EGFR, ErbB2, respectively. EGF prevents NE differentiation induced by androgen depletion. This effect is prevented by gefitinib, which blocks the activation of EGFR, ErbB2, stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, cell proliferation induced by EGF. Conversely, trastuzumab does not inhibit the effect of EGF on EGFR phosphorylation, MAPK activity, cell proliferation, NE differentiation, although it reduces ErbB2 levels specifically, suggesting that ErbB2 is not necessary to inhibit NE differentiation. Prevention of NE differentiation by EGF is mediated by a MAPK-dependent mechanism, requires constitutive Akt activation. The abrogation of the PI3K/Akt pathway changes the role of EGF from inhibitor to inductor of NE differentiation. We show that EGFR tyrosine kinase, MAPK, PI3K inhibitors inhibit the cell proliferation stimulated by EGF but induce the acquisition of NE phenotype. Altogether, the present data should be borne in mind when designing new clinical schedules for the treatment of prostate cancer, including the use of ErbB receptors, associated signaling pathway inhibitors.

  12. Abhydrolase domain containing 2, an androgen target gene, promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Daisuke; Takada, Shogo; Takayama, Ken-ichi; Urano, Tomohiko; Ito, Akiko; Ashikari, Daisaku; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Yamada, Yuta; Murata, Taro; Kumagai, Jinpei; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Homma, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoru; Inoue, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer. AR signalling mediates the expression of androgen-responsive genes, which are involved in prostate cancer development and progression. Our previous chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that the region of abhydrolase domain containing 2 (ABHD2) includes a functional androgen receptor binding site. In this study, we demonstrated that ABHD2 is a novel androgen-responsive gene that is overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues. The expression levels of ABHD2 in androgen-sensitive cells were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western-blot analyses. LNCaP and VCaP cells with ABHD2 overexpression or short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown were used for functional analyses. ABHD2 expression was examined in clinical samples of prostate cancer by immunohistochemistry. We showed that ABHD2 expression is increased by androgen in LNCaP and VCaP cells. This androgen-induced ABHD2 expression was diminished by bicalutamide. While stable expression of ABHD2 affected the enhancement of LNCaP cell proliferation and migration, siRNA-mediated ABHD2 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation and migration. In addition, the siRNA treatment significantly repressed the tumour growth derived from LNCaP cells in athymic mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of ABHD2 expression in tumour specimens showed a positive correlation of ABHD2 immunoreactivity with high Gleason score and pathological N stage. Moreover, patients with high immunoreactivity of ABHD2 showed low cancer-specific survival rates and a resistance to docetaxel-based chemotherapy. ABHD2 is a novel androgen-regulated gene that can promote prostate cancer growth and resistance to chemotherapy, and is a novel target for diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor Suppresses Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis Cells-Induced Vasculogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hypoxia leads to the development of neovascularization in solid tumor by regulating VEGF expression. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, functions as a transcription factor through dimerization with hypoxia-inducible factors 1β (HIF-1β and inhibits the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The purpose of this study was to explore whether AHR can suppress hypoxia-induced VEGF production in prostate bone metastasis cells and repress neovascularization in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and, if so, through what mechanisms. Methods: PC-3 or LNCaP cells induced angiogenesis was detected by Matrigel-based tube formation assay, mRNA expression levels was measured by qRT-PCR, VEGF secretion level was determined by ELISA assay, respectively. Results: AHR activation inhibits hypoxia-induced adhesiveness and vasculogenesis of EPCs induced by PC-3 or LNCaP cells under hypoxia. Moreover, AHR activation suppressed hypoxia-induced VEGF production in PC-3 and LNCaP cells (48 ± 14% in PC-3, p = 0.000; 41 ± 14% in LNCaP, p = 0.000 by attenuating HIF-1α and HIF-1β level that in turn diminished the angiogenic ability of EPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we found the mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factors 1α (HIF-1α (1.54 ± 0.13 fold in PC-3, p = 0.002, 1.62 ± 0.12 fold in LNCaP, p = 0.001 and HIF-1β (1.67 ± 0.23 fold in PC-3, p = 0.007; 1.75 ± 0.26 fold in LNCaP, p=0.008 were upregulated in prostate cancer bone metastasis PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines in response to hypoxia, and revealed that the regulation of VEGF by HIF-1α and HIF-1β was possibly mediated by the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Conclusion: By providing a mechanistic insight into the modulation of neovascularization by AHR ligand, we suggest that AHR ligand has a strong potential of being a new therapeutic agent with applications in the field of bone metastatic prostate cancer.

  14. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) modulates the ability of NSAIDs to induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter; Krygier, Scott; Djakiew, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. In the study reported here, we investigated the ability of the steroid hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to modulate NSAID-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Using in vitro models of androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cells, we evaluated the ability of a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (NS-398) and a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) to induce apoptosis in the presence of various concentrations of DHT. Apoptosis was quantified using the TUNEL method and verified by electron microscopy. We found that increasing concentrations of DHT significantly enhanced the ability of NS-398 and indomethacin to induce apoptosis of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. The ability of NSAIDs to induce apoptosis of androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells, however, was not affected by the presence of DHT. Higher levels of DHT in the incubation medium both before as well as following exposure to NSAIDs enhanced apoptosis of LNCaP cells. Another steroid hormone that interacts with the androgen receptor in LNCaP cells (progesterone) also promoted apoptosis of these cells. Increasing concentrations of DHT caused LNCaP cells to shift from the S and G(2)/M to the G(0)/G(1) stages of the cell cycle. These observations support the use of DHT in combination with NSAIDs in the treatment of prostate cancer, and indicate that DHT is an important issue to address in clinical trials of NSAIDs since androgen ablation is a common treatment for prostate cancer.

  15. Effect of collagen I and fibronectin on the adhesion, elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Padula, Daniela; Schieker, Matthias; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke

    2010-11-12

    Despite of intensive research efforts, the precise mechanism of prostate cancer metastasis in bone is still not fully understood. Several studies have suggested that specific matrix production by the bone cells, such as collagen I, supports cancer cell invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagen I (COL1) and fibronectin (FN) on cell adhesion, cell elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells. Two cell lines, bone marrow- (PC3) and lymph node-derived (LNCaP) were cultivated on COL1 and FN (control protein). By using a quantitative adhesion assay and time-lapse analysis, it was found that PC3, but not LNCaP, adhered strongly and were more spread on COL1. Next, PC3 and LNCaP were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and flatness shape factor and cellular Young's modulus were calculated. The shape analysis revealed that PC3 were significantly flatter when grown on COL1 in comparison to LNCaP. In general, PC3 were also significantly stiffer than LNCaP and furthermore, their stiffness increased upon interaction with COL1. Since cell stiffness is strongly dependent on actin organization, phalloidin-based actin staining was performed and revealed that, of the two cell types as well as the two different matrix proteins, only PC3 grown on COL1 formed robust actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, our study showed that PC3 cells have a strong affinity towards COL1. On this matrix protein, the cells adhered strongly and underwent a specific cell flattening. Moreover, with the establishment of PC3 contact to COL1 a significant increase of PC3 stiffness was observed due to a profound cytoskeletal rearrangement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Met-Independent Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated regulation of cell adhesion in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Rodney

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer cells communicate reciprocally with the stromal cells surrounding them, inside the prostate, and after metastasis, within the bone. Each tissue secretes factors for interpretation by the other. One stromally-derived factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, was found twenty years ago to regulate invasion and growth of carcinoma cells. Working with the LNCaP prostate cancer progression model, we found that these cells could respond to HGF stimulation, even in the absence of Met, the only known HGF receptor. The new HGF binding partner we find on the cell surface may help to clarify conflicts in the past literature about Met expression and HGF response in cancer cells. Methods We searched for Met or any HGF binding partner on the cells of the PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell models, using HGF immobilized on agarose beads. By using mass spectrometry analyses and sequencing we have identified nucleolin protein as a novel HGF binding partner. Antibodies against nucleolin (or HGF were able to ameliorate the stimulatory effects of HGF on met-negative prostate cancer cells. Western blots, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess nucleolin levels during prostate cancer progression in both LNCaP and PC3 models. Results We have identified HGF as a major signaling component of prostate stromal-conditioned media (SCM and have implicated the protein nucleolin in HGF signal reception by the LNCaP model prostate cancer cells. Antibodies that silence either HGF (in SCM or nucleolin (on the cell surfaces eliminate the adhesion-stimulatory effects of the SCM. Likewise, addition of purified HGF to control media mimics the action of SCM. C4-2, an LNCaP lineage-derived, androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, responds to HGF in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing its adhesion and reducing its migration on laminin substratum. These HGF effects are not due to shifts in the expression levels of

  17. Met-Independent Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated regulation of cell adhesion in human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, Amanda; Isotani, Shuji; Bradley, Michael J; Sikes, Robert A; Davis, Rodney; Chung, Leland WK; Edlund, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells communicate reciprocally with the stromal cells surrounding them, inside the prostate, and after metastasis, within the bone. Each tissue secretes factors for interpretation by the other. One stromally-derived factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), was found twenty years ago to regulate invasion and growth of carcinoma cells. Working with the LNCaP prostate cancer progression model, we found that these cells could respond to HGF stimulation, even in the absence of Met, the only known HGF receptor. The new HGF binding partner we find on the cell surface may help to clarify conflicts in the past literature about Met expression and HGF response in cancer cells. We searched for Met or any HGF binding partner on the cells of the PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell models, using HGF immobilized on agarose beads. By using mass spectrometry analyses and sequencing we have identified nucleolin protein as a novel HGF binding partner. Antibodies against nucleolin (or HGF) were able to ameliorate the stimulatory effects of HGF on met-negative prostate cancer cells. Western blots, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess nucleolin levels during prostate cancer progression in both LNCaP and PC3 models. We have identified HGF as a major signaling component of prostate stromal-conditioned media (SCM) and have implicated the protein nucleolin in HGF signal reception by the LNCaP model prostate cancer cells. Antibodies that silence either HGF (in SCM) or nucleolin (on the cell surfaces) eliminate the adhesion-stimulatory effects of the SCM. Likewise, addition of purified HGF to control media mimics the action of SCM. C4-2, an LNCaP lineage-derived, androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, responds to HGF in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing its adhesion and reducing its migration on laminin substratum. These HGF effects are not due to shifts in the expression levels of laminin-binding integrins, nor can they be linked to

  18. Genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fail to induce the p53-dependent DNA damage response, apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubá, E.; Trilecová, L.; Marvanová, S.; Krčmář, P.; Vykopalová, L.; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Topinka, Jan; Staršíchová, Andrea; Souček, Karel; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 3 (2010), s. 227-235 ISSN 0378-4274 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : prostate epithelial cells * DNA adducts * carcinogenesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.581, year: 2010

  19. Activation of Retinoid X Receptors by Phytanic Acid and Docohexaenoic Acid: Role in the Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Xiao-Han

    2005-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, both phytanic acid and DHA inhibited the growth of Pc-3 and LNCaP cells. Phytanic acid and retinoic acid synergistically inhibited the growth of both of these prostate cancer cell lines...

  20. Probing the interaction forces of prostate cancer cells with collagen I and bone marrow derived stem cells on the single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediz Sariisik

    Full Text Available Adhesion of metastasizing prostate carcinoma cells was quantified for two carcinoma model cell lines LNCaP (lymph node-specific and PC3 (bone marrow-specific. By time-lapse microscopy and force spectroscopy we found PC3 cells to preferentially adhere to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCP1 cell line. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM based force spectroscopy, the mechanical pattern of the adhesion to SCP1 cells was characterized for both prostate cancer cell lines and compared to a substrate consisting of pure collagen type I. PC3 cells dissipated more energy (27.6 aJ during the forced de-adhesion AFM experiments and showed significantly more adhesive and stronger bonds compared to LNCaP cells (20.1 aJ. The characteristic signatures of the detachment force traces revealed that, in contrast to the LNCaP cells, PC3 cells seem to utilize their filopodia in addition to establish adhesive bonds. Taken together, our study clearly demonstrates that PC3 cells have a superior adhesive affinity to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, compared to LNCaP. Semi-quantitative PCR on both prostate carcinoma cell lines revealed the expression of two Col-I binding integrin receptors, α1β1 and α2β1 in PC3 cells, suggesting their possible involvement in the specific interaction to the substrates. Further understanding of the exact mechanisms behind this phenomenon might lead to optimized therapeutic applications targeting the metastatic behavior of certain prostate cancer cells towards bone tissue.

  1. The human cyclin B1 protein modulates sensitivity of DNA mismatch repair deficient prostate cancer cell lines to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L J; Rasmussen, M; Lützen, A; Bisgaard, H C; Singh, K K

    2000-05-25

    DNA damage caused by alkylating agents results in a G2 checkpoint arrest. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficient cells are resistant to killing by alkylating agents and are unable to arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase after alkylation damage. We investigated the response of two MMR-deficient prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and LNCaP to the alkylating agent MNNG. Our studies reveal that DU145 cancer cells are more sensitive to killing by MNNG than LNCaP. Investigation of the underlying reasons for lower resistance revealed that the DU145 cells contain low endogenous levels of cyclin B1. We provide direct evidence that the endogenous level of cyclin B1 modulates the sensitivity of MMR-deficient prostate cancer cells to alkylating agents.

  2. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C] acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Bansal, Aditya; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2- 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, [ 18 F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been clarified. Methods: The uptake of [methyl- 3 H]choline, [1- 14 C]acetate and [ 18 F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined. Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake five to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10-fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reflecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These findings may help to explain PET imaging findings of the diverse responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed subsequent to antiandrogen therapy

  3. Effect of propofol on androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kenichiro; Hirotsu, Akiko; Daijo, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Tomonori; Terada, Naoki; Tanaka, Tomoharu

    2017-08-15

    Androgen receptor is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor activated by androgenic hormones. Androgen receptor activity plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Although accumulating evidence suggests that general anesthetics, including opioids, affect cancer cell growth and impact patient prognosis, the effect of those drugs on androgen receptor in prostate cancer is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the general anesthetic propofol on androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells. An androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) was stimulated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and exposed to propofol. The induction of androgen receptor target genes was investigated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and androgen receptor protein levels and localization patterns were analyzed using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. The effect of propofol on the proliferation of LNCaP cells was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Propofol significantly inhibited DHT-induced expression of androgen receptor target genes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays indicated that propofol suppressed nuclear levels of androgen receptor proteins. Exposure to propofol for 24h suppressed the proliferation of LNCaP cells, whereas 4h of exposure did not exert significant effects. Together, our results indicate that propofol suppresses nuclear androgen receptor protein levels, and inhibits androgen receptor transcriptional activity and proliferation in LNCaP cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Wanda V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive prostate cell death. However, cancer cells later appear as androgen-independent PCa. To investigate the role of AR in prostate cell proliferation and survival, we introduced a vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA. This siRNA targeted 5'-untranslated region of AR mRNA for extended suppression of AR expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate LNCaP cells. Results The siRNA design successfully suppressed endogenous AR expression, as revealed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining in LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells did not proliferate in the absence of AR and underwent apoptosis, based on elevated phospho-Histone H2B expression and higher number of apoptotic body as compared to control cells. Conclusion We demonstrated that AR is vital for prostate cell proliferation and survival in this androgen-sensitive prostate cell line. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that AR can be a therapeutic target for treating androgen-sensitive stages of PCa. Unlike antiandorgens, however, siRNA targeting AR provides a direct inactivation of AR function through the suppression of AR protein expression.

  5. EMMPRIN regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell adhesion in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) versus malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion, and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  8. SFMBT2 (Scm-like with four mbt domains 2) negatively regulates cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jungsug; Shin, Jee Yoon; Lee, Kwanghyun; Hong, Soon Ki; Oh, Sangtaek; Goh, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won Sun; Ju, Bong Gun

    2016-07-26

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men. In this study, we found that expression level of SFMBT2 is altered during prostate cancer progression and has been associated with the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. The expression level of SFMBT2 is high in poorly metastatic prostate cancer cells compared to highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. We also found that SFMBT2 knockdown elevates MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-26 expression, leading to increased cell migration and invasion in LNCaP and VCaP cells. SFMBT2 interacts with YY1, RNF2, N-CoR and HDAC1/3, as well as repressive histone marks such as H3K9me2, H4K20me2, and H2AK119Ub which are associated with transcriptional repression. In addition, SFMBT2 knockdown decreased KAI1 gene expression through up-regulation of N-CoR gene expression. Expression of SFMBT2 in prostate cancer was strongly associated with clinicopathological features. Patients having higher Gleason score (≥ 8) had substantially lower SFMBT2 expression than patients with lower Gleason score. Moreover, tail vein or intraprostatic injection of SFMBT2 knockdown LNCaP cells induced metastasis. Taken together, our findings suggest that regulation of SFMBT2 may provide a new therapeutic strategy to control prostate cancer metastasis as well as being a potential biomarker of metastatic prostate cancer.

  9. The Use of Raman Tweezers and Chemometric Analysis to Discriminate the Urological Cell Lines, PC-3, LNCaP, BPH and MGH-U1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T. J.; Hughes, C.; Ward, A. D.; Gazi, E.; Faria, E. Correia; Clarke, N. W.; Brown, M.; Snook, R.; Gardner, P.

    2008-11-01

    Here we report on investigations into using Raman optical tweezers to analyse both live and chemically fixed prostate and bladder cells. Spectra were subjected to chemometric analysis to discriminate and classify the cell types based on their spectra. Subsequent results revealed the potential of Raman tweezers as a potential clinical diagnostic tool.

  10. URG11 Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulated gene 11 (URG11, a new gene upregulated by hepatitis B virus X protein, is involved in the development and progression of several tumors, including liver, stomach, lung, and colon cancers. However, the role of URG11 in prostate cancer remains yet to be elucidated. By determined expression in human prostate cancer tissues, URG11 was found significantly upregulated and positively correlated with the severity of prostate cancer, compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues. Further, the mRNA and protein levels of URG11 were significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP, compared with human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. Moreover, by the application of siRNA against URG11, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells were markedly inhibited. Genetic knockdown of URG11 also induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, induced apoptosis, and decreased the expression level of β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of URG11 promoted the expression of β-catenin, the growth, the migration, and invasion ability of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, this study reveals that URG11 is critical for the proliferation, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer cells, providing the evidence of URG11 to be a novel potential therapeutic target of prostate cancer.

  11. Isoform 1 of TPD52 (PC-1) promotes neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Moritz, Tom

    2016-02-05

    The tumour protein D52 isoform 1 (PC-1), a member of the tumour protein D52 (TPD52) protein family, is androgen-regulated and prostate-specific expressed. Previous studies confirmed that PC-1 contributes to malignant progression in prostate cancer with an important role in castration-resistant stage. In the present work, we identified its impact in mechanisms leading to neuroendocrine (NE) transdifferentiation. We established for long-term PC-1 overexpression an inducible expression system derived from the prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP. We observed that PC-1 overexpression itself initiates characteristics of neuroendocrine cells, but the effect was much more pronounced in the presence of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report that treatment with IL-6 leads to a significant upregulation of PC-1 in LNCaP cells. Other TPD52 isoforms were not affected. Proceeding from this result, we conclude that PC-1 overexpression enhances the IL-6-mediated differentiation of LNCaP cells into a NE-like phenotype, noticeable by morphological changes and increased expression of typical NE markers, like chromogranin A, synaptophysin or beta-3 tubulin. Immunofluorescent staining of IL-6-treated PC-1-overexpressing LNCaP cells indicates a considerable PC-1 accumulation at the end of the long-branched neuron-like cell processes, which are typically formed by NE cells. Additionally, the experimentally initiated NE transdifferentiation correlates with the androgen receptor status, which was upregulated additively. In summary, our data provide evidence for an involvement of PC-1 in NE transdifferentiation, frequently associated with castration resistance, which is a major therapeutic challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  12. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  13. Use of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesina(7-14) peptide for the identification of prostate tumor, LNCaP line, in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent tumors in men, showing high mortality rates. Current diagnostic methods are not able to identify early prostate carcinoma, often resulting in a late diagnosis with established metastasis. Thus, there is by the scientific community an incessant search for diagnostic methods for early assessment of prostate cancer, facilitating the treatment and increasing the chances of cure. In this context, nuclear medicine provides a diagnostic method which can detect tumors at an early stage, because it is based on biochemical and physiological changes of the tissue, such as overexpression of gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPr's) by prostate cancer cells. Bombesin, a tetradecapeptide isolated from the frog Bombina bombina, has a high affinity for the GRPr's, since it is analogous to gastrin releasing peptide. Therefore, this study aims to prepare the complex 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesina (7-14) and use it for the identification of prostate tumor, LNCaP line, in an experimental model. For in vitro assays, aliquots of 0.026 MBq of the radiopeptide were incubated with 2x10 6 LNCaP cells in a water bath at 37 deg C, for 1 and 4 hours, with and without prior addition of cold peptide (n=3). Prostate tumors were induced into the upper right flank of male BALB/c nude mice by subcutaneous injection of 5x106 LNCaP cells resuspended in 150 μL of Matrigel:RPMI-1640 medium (1:1). Biodistribution profile (n=5) and scintigraphic images (n=3) were obtained at 1 and 4 hours after intravenous injection of 7.4 MBq of 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesina (7-14) . To assess this, healthy male BALB/c mice and tumor-bearing male BALB/c nude mice with 15, 20 and 25 days of tumor development were used. In vitro study results showed that the fraction of the radiopeptide which bound to LNCaP cells was 2.08 +- 0.30% (1 hour) and 2.44 +- 0.18% (4 hours). From the percentage which was bound, the internalized fractions were 25.64 +- 3.14% (1 hour) and 25.27 +- 2

  14. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  15. Effect of collagen I and fibronectin on the adhesion, elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docheva, Denitsa [Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Nussbaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Padula, Daniela [Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Nussbaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Department of Precision- and Micro-Engineering, Engineering Physics, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstr. 34, 80335 Munich (Germany); Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany); Schieker, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schieker@med.uni-muenchen.de [Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Nussbaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke, E-mail: clausen-schaumann@hm.edu [Department of Precision- and Micro-Engineering, Engineering Physics, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstr. 34, 80335 Munich (Germany); Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Depending on the metastatic origin, prostate cancer cells differ in their affinity to COL1. {yields} COL1 affects specifically the F-actin and cell elasticity of bone-derived prostate cancer cells. {yields} Cell elasticity can be used as a biomarker for cancer cells from different metastases. -- Abstract: Despite of intensive research efforts, the precise mechanism of prostate cancer metastasis in bone is still not fully understood. Several studies have suggested that specific matrix production by the bone cells, such as collagen I, supports cancer cell invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagen I (COL1) and fibronectin (FN) on cell adhesion, cell elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells. Two cell lines, bone marrow- (PC3) and lymph node-derived (LNCaP) were cultivated on COL1 and FN (control protein). By using a quantitative adhesion assay and time-lapse analysis, it was found that PC3, but not LNCaP, adhered strongly and were more spread on COL1. Next, PC3 and LNCaP were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and flatness shape factor and cellular Young's modulus were calculated. The shape analysis revealed that PC3 were significantly flatter when grown on COL1 in comparison to LNCaP. In general, PC3 were also significantly stiffer than LNCaP and furthermore, their stiffness increased upon interaction with COL1. Since cell stiffness is strongly dependent on actin organization, phalloidin-based actin staining was performed and revealed that, of the two cell types as well as the two different matrix proteins, only PC3 grown on COL1 formed robust actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, our study showed that PC3 cells have a strong affinity towards COL1. On this matrix protein, the cells adhered strongly and underwent a specific cell flattening. Moreover, with the establishment of PC3 contact to COL1 a significant increase of PC3 stiffness was observed due to a profound

  16. Comparative analysis of gene expression in normal and cancer human prostate cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in men with malignant tumors. The urgent problem was a search for biomarkers of prostate cancer, which would allow distinguishing between aggressive metastatic and latent tumors. The aim of this work was to search for differentially expressed genes in normal epithelial cells PNT2 and prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC3, produced from tumors with different aggressiveness and metas­tatic ability. Such genes might be used to create a panel of prognostic markers for aggressiveness and metastasis. Relative gene expression of 65 cancer-related genes was determined by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. Expression of 29 genes was changed in LNCaP cells, 20 genes in DU145 and 16 genes in PC3 cell lines, compared with normal line PNT2. The obtained data make it possible to conclude that the epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition took place, which involved the loss of epithelial markers, reduced cell adhesion and increased migration. We have also found few differentially expressed genes among 3 prostate cancer cell lines. We have found that genes, involved in cell adhesion (CDH1, invasiveness and metastasis (IL8, CXCL2 and cell cycle control (P16, CCNE1 underwent most changes. These genes might be used for diagnosis and prognosis of invasive metastatic prostate tumors.

  17. YK-4-279 inhibits ERG and ETV1 mediated prostate cancer cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genomic rearrangements involving the ETS family of transcription factors occur in 40-70% of prostate cancer cases. ERG and ETV1 are the most common ETS members observed in these genetic alterations. The high prevalence of these rearrangements and their biological significance represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.We recently reported the development of YK-4-279, a small molecule inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein in Ewing's Sarcoma. Since ERG and ETV1 belong to the same class of ETS factors as FLI1, we tested the ability of YK-4-279 to inhibit biological functions of ERG and ETV1 proteins in prostate cancer. YK-4-279 inhibited ERG and ETV1 mediated transcriptional activity in a luciferase assay. YK-4-279 also decreased ERG and ETV1 downstream target mRNA and protein expression in ETV1-fusion positive LNCaP and ERG fusion positive VCaP cells. YK-4-279 reduced the motility of LNCaP cells in a scratch assay and the invasive phenotype of both LNCaP and VCaP cells in a HUVEC invasion assay. Fusion-negative PC3 cells were unresponsive to YK-4-279. SiRNA mediated ERG knockdown in VCaP cells resulted in a loss of drug responsiveness. Concurrently, transient ERG expression in PC-3 cells resulted in increased invasive potential, which was reduced by YK-4-279.These data demonstrate that YK-4-279 inhibits ERG and ETV1 biological activity in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion. Therefore, YK-4-279 may have an impact on metastasis in prostate cancer and it may be further evaluated for its clinical applications in prostate cancer in addition to Ewing's sarcoma.

  18. Establishment of prostate cancer spheres from a prostate cancer cell line after phenethyl isothiocyanate treatment and discovery of androgen-dependent reversible differentiation between sphere and neuroendocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yamei; Cang, Shundong; Han, Liying; Liu, Christina; Yang, Patrick; Solangi, Zeeshan; Lu, Quanyi; Liu, Delong; Chiao, J W

    2016-05-03

    Prostate cancer can transform from androgen-responsive to an androgen-independent phenotype. The mechanism responsible for the transformation remains unclear. We studied the effects of an epigenetic modulator, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. After treatment with PEITC, floating spheres were formed with characteristics of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSC). These spheres were capable of self-renewal in media with and without androgen. They have been maintained in both types of media as long term cultures. Upon androgen deprivation, the adherent spheres differentiated to neuroendocrine cells (NEC) with decreased proliferation, expression of androgen receptor, and PSA. NEC reverse differentiated to spheres when androgen was replenished. The sphere cells expressed surface marker CD44 and had enhanced histone H3K4 acetylation, DNMT1 down-regulation and GSTP1 activation. We hypothesize that PEITC-mediated alteration in epigenomics of LNCaP cells may give rise to sphere cells, whereas reversible androgenomic alterations govern the shuttling between sphere PCSC and progeny NEC. Our findings identify unrecognized properties of prostate cancer sphere cells with multi-potential plasticity. This system will facilitate development of novel therapeutic agents and allow further exploration into epigenomics and androgenomics governing the transformation to hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  19. Response of Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Mitoxantrone Treatment in Simulated Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu

    2012-07-01

    RESPONSE OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS TO MITOXANTRONE TREATMENT IN SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT Ye Zhang1,2, Christopher Edwards3, and Honglu Wu1 1 NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 2 Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX 3 Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR This study explores the changes in growth of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and their response to the treatment of an antineoplastic agent, mitoxantrone, under the simulated microgravity condition. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity and simulated microgravity have been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in various cultured cell models or animals. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on the responses of cells to the treatment of drugs, especially chemotherapy drugs. To test the hypothesis that zero gravity would result in altered regulations of cells in response to antineoplastic agents, we cultured LNCaP cells in either a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactor at the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as control, and treated the cells with mitoxantrone. Cell growth, as well as expressions of oxidative stress related genes, were analyzed after the drug treatment. Compared to static 1g controls, the cells cultured in the simulated microgravity environment did not present significant differences in cell viability, growth rate, or cell cycle distribution. However, after mitoxantrone treatment, a significant proportion of bioreactor cultured cells became apoptotic or was arrested in G2. Several oxidative stress related genes also showed a higher expression level post mitoxantrone treatment. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity may alter the response of LNCaP cells to mitoxantrone treatment. Understanding the mechanisms by which cells respond to drugs differently in an altered gravity environment will be useful for the improvement of cancer treatment on

  20. BIRC6 protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis: role in survival of human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Low

    Full Text Available BIRC6 is a member of the Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP family which is thought to protect a variety of cancer cells from apoptosis. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether BIRC6 plays a role in prostate cancer and could be useful as a novel therapeutic target.BIRC6 expression in cell lines was assessed using Western blot analysis and in clinical samples using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. The biological significance of BIRC6 was determined by siRNA-induced reduction of BIRC6 expression in LNCaP cells followed by functional assays.Elevated BIRC6 protein expression was found in prostate cancer cell lines and clinical specimens as distinct from their benign counterparts. Increased BIRC6 expression was associated with Gleason 6-8 cancers and castration resistance. Reduction of BIRC6 expression in LNCaP cells led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation which was associated with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in autophagosome formation. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was found to be coupled to a reduction in BIRC6 protein expression.The data suggest a role for BIRC6 in prostate cancer progression and treatment resistance, and indicate for the first time that the BIRC6 gene and its product are potentially valuable targets for treatment of prostate cancers.

  1. The PPARγ ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, Patrice E.; Lyles, Besstina E.; Stewart, LaMonica V.

    2010-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPARγ ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPARγ ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPARγ. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPARγ and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

  2. PTTG1, A novel androgen responsive gene is required for androgen-induced prostate cancer cell growth and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Jin, Bo; Jin, Yaqiong; Huang, Shengquan; Niu, Xiaohua; Mao, Zebin; Xin, Dianqi

    2017-01-01

    Androgens (AR) play an important role in initiation and progression of prostate cancer. It has been shown that AR exert their effects mainly through the androgen-activated AR which binds to androgen response elements (AREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes to regulate the transcription of androgen-responsive genes, thus, identification of AR downstream target gene is critical to understand androgen function in prostate cancer. In this study, our results showed that androgen treatment of LNCaP cells induced PTTG1 expression, which was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist, Casodex. Bioinformatics analysis and experiments using PTTG1 promoter deletion mutants showed that the PTTG1 promoter contains a putative androgen response element (ARE), which localizes in the −851 to −836 region of the promoter. Androgen activated androgen receptor (AR) binding to this ARE was confirmed by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Furthermore, Knockdown of PTTG1 expression using short hairpin RNA significantly reduced androgen-induced LNCaP cell growth and invasion. In addition, we showed PTTG1 is highly expressed in metastasis prostate cancer tissue. These results suggest that PTTG1 is a novel downstream target gene of androgen receptor and take part in prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. - Highlights: • Androgen treatment of LNCaP cells induced PTTG1 expression. • Knockdown of PTTG1 expression significantly reduced androgen-induced LNCaP cell growth and invasion. • PTTG1 is highly expressed in metastasis prostate cancer tissue. • PTTG1 is a novel downstream target gene of androgen receptor.

  3. Corepressive function of nuclear receptor coactivator 2 in androgen receptor of prostate cancer cells treated with antiandrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Keisuke; Hara, Noboru; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Tasaki, Masayuki; Ishizaki, Fumio; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of cofactors in the interaction of the androgen receptor (AR) and AR ligands plays a critical role in determining androgenic/antiandrogenic effects of the AR ligand on signaling, but the functions of key cofactors, including nuclear receptor coactivator (NCOA), remain poorly understood in prostate cancer cells treated with AR ligands. We examined prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and VCaP expressing mutated and wild-type ARs, respectively, to clarify the significance of NCOAs in the effect of antiandrogens. Hydroxyflutamide showed antagonistic activity against VCaP and an agonistic effect on LNCaP. Bicalutamide served as an antagonist for both. We analyzed mRNA transcription and protein expression of NCOAs in these cells pretreated with dihydrotestosterone and thereafter treated with the mentioned antiandrogens. Transcriptional silencing of candidate NCOAs and AR was performed using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cell proliferation was evaluated with MTT assay. LNCaP treated with bicalutamide showed an about four-fold increase in the expression of NCOA2 mRNA compared to those pretreated with dihydrotestosterone alone (P <0.01). In VCaP pretreated with dihydrotestosterone, transcriptions of NCOA2 and NCOA7 were slightly increased with bicalutamide (1.96- and 2.42-fold, respectively) and hydroxyflutamide (1.33-fold in both). With Western blotting, the expression of NCOA2 protein also increased in LNCaP cells treated with bicalutamide compared with that in control cells pretreated with dihydrotestosterone alone. Following silencing with siRNA for NCOA2, PSA levels in media with LNCaP receiving bicalutamide were elevated compared with those in non-silencing controls (101.6 ± 4.2 vs. 87.8 ± 1.4 ng/mL, respectively, P =0.0495). In LNCaP cells treated with dihydrotestosterone and bicalutamide, NCOA2-silencing was associated with a higher proliferation activity compared with non-silencing control and AR-silencing. NCOA2, which has been thought to be recruited

  4. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  5. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 activity controls 4-hydroxynonenal metabolism and activity in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Ciamporcero, Eric; Medana, Claudio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Dal Bello, Federica; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Toaldo, Cristina; Minelli, Rosalba; Uchida, Koji; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Pili, Roberto; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2011-10-15

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is an end product of lipoperoxidation with antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in various tumors. Here we report a greater sensitivity to HNE in PC3 and LNCaP cells compared to DU145 cells. In contrast to PC3 and LNCaP cells, HNE-treated DU145 cells showed a smaller reduction in growth and did not undergo apoptosis. In DU145 cells, HNE did not induce ROS production and DNA damage and generated a lower amount of HNE-protein adducts. DU145 cells had a greater GSH and GST A4 content and GSH/GST-mediated HNE detoxification. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a regulator of the antioxidant response. Nrf2 protein content and nuclear accumulation were higher in DU145 cells compared to PC3 and LNCaP cells, whereas the expression of KEAP1, the main negative regulator of Nrf2 activity, was lower. Inhibition of Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in GST A4 expression and GS-HNE formation, indicating that Nrf2 controls HNE metabolism. In addition, Nrf2 knockdown sensitized DU145 cells to HNE-mediated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that increased Nrf2 activity resulted in a reduction in HNE sensitivity in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance to pro-oxidant therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. miR-15a/miR-16 cluster inhibits invasion of prostate cancer cells by suppressing TGF-β signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Chen, Fangjie; Wang, Kefeng; Song, Yan; Fei, Xiang; Wu, Bin

    2018-05-23

    To determine whether and how miR15a/16 regulate TGF-β signaling pathways during the progression of prostate cancer. We used bioinformatics prediction, reporter gene assay, real-time PCR, Matrigel invasion assay and Western blot to dissect the molecular mechanism of how miR-15a/miR-16 may cause metastasis in prostate tumor. MiR-15a/16 targeted and inhibited the expression of endogenous Smad3 and ACVR2A proteins. The overexpression of miR15a/16 down-regulated p-smad3 expression, affected the expression of both MMP2 and E-cadherin, and down-regulated the expression of the EMT-mediated factors Snail and Twist in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The overexpression of miR15a/16 decreased the invasion of LNCaP cells. MiR-15a/miR-16 cluster could reverse the invasion of activin A-mediated prostate cancer cells. After the inhibition of the activin/smad signaling pathway, the inhibitory effect of invasion in prostate cancer cells by miR-15a/miR-16 cluster disappeared. Our data indicated that miR15a/16 inhibited the components of TGF-β signaling pathways in LNCaP cell line, which might relate to the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuu, Chih-pin; Chen, Rou-Yu; Hiipakka, Richard A.; Kokontis, John M.; Warner, Karen V.; Xiang, Jialing; Liao, Shutsung

    2007-01-01

    T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR. T0901317 also inhibited binding of a radiolabeled androgen to AR, but inhibition was much weaker compared to the effect of the antiandrogens, bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide. The LXR agonist T0901317, therefore, acts as an antiandrogen in human prostate cancer cells

  8. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin and quercetin increases the anti-carcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Methods and results Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of arctigenin and quercetin alone or in combination for 48h. The anti-proliferative activity of arctigenin was 10-20 fold stronger than quercetin in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arctigenin demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. Conclusion The combination of arctigenin and quercetin, that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. PMID:25380086

  9. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin (Arc) and quercetin (Q) increases the anticarcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of Arc and Q alone or in combination for 48 h. The antiproliferative activity of Arc was 10- to 20-fold stronger than Q in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arc demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. The combination of Arc and Q that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Osteoblast-secreted collagen upregulates paracrine Sonic hedgehog signaling by prostate cancer cells and enhances osteoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunich Samantha M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induction of osteoblast differentiation by paracrine Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling may be a mechanism through which Shh-expressing prostate cancer cells initiate changes in the bone microenvironment and promote metastases. A hallmark of osteoblast differentiation is the formation of matrix whose predominant protein is type 1 collagen. We investigated the formation of a collagen matrix by osteoblasts cultured with prostate cancer cells, and its effects on interactions between prostate cancer cells and osteoblasts. Results In the presence of exogenous ascorbic acid (AA, a co-factor in collagen synthesis, mouse MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts in mixed cultures with human LNCaP prostate cancer cells or LNCaP cells modified to overexpress Shh (LNShh cells formed collagen matrix with distinct fibril ultrastructural characteristics. AA increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the expression of the alkaline phosphatase gene Akp2, markers of osteoblast differentiation, in MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts cultured with LNCaP or LNShh cells. However, the AA-stimulated increase in Akp2 expression in MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts cultured with LNShh cells far exceeded the levels observed in MC3T3 cells cultured with either LNCaP cells with AA or LNShh cells without AA. Therefore, AA and Shh exert a synergistic effect on osteoblast differentiation. We determined whether the effect of AA on LNShh cell-induced osteoblast differentiation was mediated by Shh signaling. AA increased the expression of Gli1 and Ptc1, target genes of the Shh pathway, in MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts cultured with LNShh cells to at least twice their levels without AA. The ability of AA to upregulate Shh signaling and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity was blocked in MC3T3 cells that expressed a dominant negative form of the transcription factor GLI1. The AA-stimulated increase in Shh signaling and Shh-induced osteoblast differentiation was also inhibited by the specific collagen synthesis

  11. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  12. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation are understudied. Promoter hyper-methylation of cyclin D2, a major regulator of cell cycle, is correlated with prostate cancer progression, and restoration of cyclin D2 expression exerts anti-proliferative effects on LnCap prostate cancer cells. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on DNA methylation status of cyclin D2 promoter, and how alteration in promoter methylation impacts cyclin D2 gene expression in LnCap cells. We found that SFN significantly decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, especially DNMT1 and DNMT3b. Furthermore, SFN significantly decreased methylation in cyclin D2 promoter regions containing c-Myc and multiple Sp1 binding sites. Reduced methlyation of cyclin D2 promoter corresponded to an increase in cyclin D2 transcript levels, suggesting that SFN may de-repress methylation-silenced cyclin D2 by impacting epigenetic pathways. Our results demonstrated the ability of SFN to epigenetically modulate cyclin D2 expression, and provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which SFN may regulate gene expression as a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent.

  14. Unique Approaches to Androgen Effects on Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, W; Kahn, S. M

    2007-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma protein that binds andrngens and it acts as a transducer of androgen signaling at the plasma membrane of prostate cancer cells The human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in addition...

  15. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Simon G; Shen, Howard C; Hazelett, Dennis J; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10(-30)), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10(-23)) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10(-15)) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. γ-Oryzanol reduces caveolin-1 and PCGEM1 expression, markers of aggressiveness in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gabriela E; Parisi, Mariana M; Martins, Leo A M; Andrade, Claudia M B; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Guma, Fátima T C R

    2015-06-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men due to the limited number of treatment strategies available for advanced disease. γ-oryzanol is a component of rice bran, rich in phytosterols, known for its antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and endocrinological effects. It is known that γ-oryzanol may affect prostate cancer cells through the down regulation of the antioxidant genes and that phytosterols have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. There are evidences showing that some of the components of γ-oryzanol can modulate genes involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer, as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and prostate specific androgen-regulated gene (PCGEM1). To determine the effects of γ-oryzanol on prostate cancer cell survival we evaluated the cell viability and biomass by MTT and sulforhodamine B assays, respectively. Cell death, cell cycle and pERK1/2 activity were assessed by flow cytometry. The changes in gene expression involved in the survival and progression of prostate cancer cav-1 and PCGEM1 genes were evaluated by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cav-1 protein by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis. We found that γ-oryzanol decreases cell viability and culture biomass by apoptosis and/or necrosis death in androgen unresponsive (PC3 and DU145) and responsive (LNCaP) cell lines, and signals through pERK1/2 in LNCaP and DU145 cells. γ-oryzanol also appears to block cell cycle progression at the G2/M in PC3 and LNCaP cells and at G0/G1 in DU145 cells. These effects were accompanied by a down regulation in the expression of the cav-1 in both androgen unresponsive cell lines and PCGEM1 gene in DU145 and LNCaP cells. In summary, we used biochemical and genetics approaches to demonstrate that γ-oryzanol show a promising adjuvant role in the treatment of prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Survey of Differentially Methylated Promoters in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation, copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial, five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, PC3MLN4 were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, labeling, hybridization to an array of promoter sequences. Only those parts of the genomic DNA that have unmethylated restriction sites within a few hundred base pairs generate PCR products detectable on an array. Of 2732 promoter sequences on a test array, 504 (18.5% showed differential hybridization between immortalized prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, there were eight (CD44, CDKN1A, ESR1, PLAU, RARB, SFN, TNFRSF6, TSPY previously observed in prostate cancer, 13 previously known methylation targets in other cancers (ARHI, bcl-2, BRCA1, CDKN2C, GADD45A, MTAP, PGR, SLC26A4, SPARC, SYK, TJP2, UCHL1, WIT-1. The majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated, differentially regulated between prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes used to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors.

  18. TRPV6 determines the effect of vitamin D3 on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V'yacheslav Lehen'kyi

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable advances in the therapy and prevention of prostate cancer it is still the second cause of death from cancer in industrialized countries. Many therapies initially shown to be beneficial for the patients were abandoned due to the high drug resistance and the evolution rate of the tumors. One of the prospective therapeutical agents even used in the first stage clinical trials, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, was shown to be either unpredictable or inefficient in many cases. We have already shown that TRPV6 calcium channel, which is the direct target of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, positively controls prostate cancer proliferation and apoptosis resistance (Lehen'kyi et al., Oncogene, 2007. However, how the known 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 antiproliferative effects may be compatible with the upregulation of pro-oncogenic TRPV6 channel remains a mystery. Here we demonstrate that in low steroid conditions 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates the expression of TRPV6, enhances the proliferation by increasing the number of cells entering into S-phase. We show that these pro-proliferative effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are directly mediated via the overexpression of TRPV6 channel which increases calcium uptake into LNCaP cells. The apoptosis resistance of androgen-dependent LNCaP cells conferred by TRPV6 channel is drastically inversed when 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 effects were combined with the successful TRPV6 knockdown. In addition, the use of androgen-deficient DU-145 and androgen-insensitive LNCaP C4-2 cell lines allowed to suggest that the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to induce the expression of TRPV6 channel is a crucial determinant of the success or failure of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-based therapies.

  19. Response of Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Mitoxantrone Treatment in Simulated Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Edwards, Christopher; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the changes in growth of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and their response to the treatment of antineoplastic agent, mitoxantrone, under the simulated microgravity condition. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity and simulated microgravity have been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in various cultured cell models or animals. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on the responses of cells to drugs, especially chemotherapy drugs. To test the hypothesis that zero gravity would result in altered regulation of cells in response to antineoplastic agents, we cultured LNCaP cells for 96 hr either in a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactor at the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as a control. 24 hr after the culture started, mitoxantrone was introduced to the cells at a final concentration of 1 M. The mitoxantrone treatment lasted 72 hr and then the cells were collected for various measurements. Compared to static 1g controls, the cells cultured in the simulated microgravity environment did not show significant differences in cell viability, growth rate, or cell cycle distribution. However, in response to mitoxantrone (1uM), a significant proportion of bioreactor cultured cells (30%) was arrested at G2 phase and a significant number of these cells were apoptotic in comparison to their static controls. The expressions of 84 oxidative stress related genes were analyzed using Qiagen PCR array to identify the possible mechanism underlying the altered responses of bioreactor culture cells to mitoxantrone. Nine out of 84 genes showed higher expression at four hour post mitoxantrone treatment in cells cultured at rotating condition compared to those at static. Taken together, the results reported here indicate that simulated microgravity may alter the responses of LNCaP cells to mitoxantrone treatment. The alteration of oxidative stress pathways

  20. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  1. Prostate Cancer Cells in Different Androgen Receptor Status Employ Different Leucine Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Hideo; Kimura, Toru; Yamaga, Takashi; Kosaka, Takeo; Suehiro, Jun-Ichi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Leucine stimulates cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR pathway, therefore, inhibiting leucine transporters may be a novel therapeutic target for cancer. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1, a Na + -independent amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many tumor cells. However, leucine transporter(s) in different stages of prostate cancer, particularly in the stages of castration resistance with androgen receptor (AR) expression, is unclear. LNCaP and DU145 and PC-3 cell lines were used as a model of androgen dependent, and metastatic prostate cancer. A new "LN-cr" cell line was established after culturing LNCaP cells for 6 months under androgen-free conditions, which is considered a model of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with androgen AR expression. The expression of leucine transporters was investigated with quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Uptake of 14 C Leucine was examined in the presence or absence of BCH (a pan-LAT inhibitor), JPH203 (an LAT1-specific inhibitor), or Na + . Cell growth was assessed with MTT assay. siRNA studies were performed to evaluate the indispensability of y + LAT2 on leucine uptake and cell viability in LN-cr. Cell viability showed a 90% decrease in the absence of leucine in all four cell lines. LNCaP cells principally expressed LAT3, and their leucine uptake was more than 90% Na + -independent. BCH, but not JPH203, inhibited leucine uptake, and cell proliferation (IC 50BCH :15 mM). DU145 and PC-3 cells predominantly expressed LAT1. Leucine uptake and cell growth were suppressed by BCH or JPH203 in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50BCH : ∼20 mM, IC 50JPH203 : ∼5 µM). In LN-cr cells, Na + -dependent uptake of leucine was 3.8 pmol/mgprotein/min, while, Na + -independent uptake was only 0.52 (P prostate cancer. Prostate 77:222-233, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Promotion of cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis emergence caused by olfactory receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenhaël Sanz

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, where they detect odorants, but also in other tissues with additional functions. Some ORs are even overexpressed in tumor cells. In this study, we identified ORs expressed in enterochromaffin tumor cells by RT-PCR, showing that single cells can co-express several ORs. Some of the receptors identified were already reported in other tumors, but they are orphan (without known ligand, as it is the case for most of the hundreds of human ORs. Thus, genes coding for human ORs with known ligands were transfected into these cells, expressing functional heterologous ORs. The in vitro stimulation of these cells by the corresponding OR odorant agonists promoted cell invasion of collagen gels. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cells, the stimulation of the PSGR (Prostate Specific G protein-coupled Receptor, an endogenously overexpressed OR, by β-ionone, its odorant agonist, resulted in the same phenotypic change. We also showed the involvement of a PI3 kinase γ dependent signaling pathway in this promotion of tumor cell invasiveness triggered by OR stimulation. Finally, after subcutaneous inoculation of LNCaP cells into NSG immunodeficient mice, the in vivo stimulation of these cells by the PSGR agonist β-ionone significantly enhanced metastasis emergence and spreading.

  3. The pluripotency factor Nanog is directly upregulated by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregel, Steven; Szmulewitz, Russell Z; Vander Griend, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    The Androgen Receptor (AR) is a nuclear hormone receptor that functions as a critical oncogene in all stages of prostate cancer progression, including progression to castration-resistance following androgen-deprivation therapy. Thus, identifying and targeting critical AR-regulated genes is one potential method to block castration-resistant cancer proliferation. Of particular importance are transcription factors that regulate stem cell pluripotency; many of these genes are emerging as critical oncogenes in numerous tumor cell types. Of these, Nanog has been previously shown to increase the self-renewal and stem-like properties of prostate cancer cells. Thus, we hypothesized that Nanog is a candidate AR target gene that may impart castration-resistance. We modulated AR signaling in LNCaP prostate cancer cells and assayed for Nanog expression. Direct AR binding to the NANOG promoter was tested using AR Chromatin Immunoprecipation (ChIP) and analyses of publically available AR ChIP-sequencing data-sets. Nanog over-expressing cells were analyzed for cell growth and cytotoxicity in response to the AR antagonist enzalutamide and the microtubule stabilizing agent docetaxel. AR signaling upregulates Nanog mRNA and protein. AR binds directly to the NANOG promoter, and was not identified within 75 kb of the NANOGP8 pseudogene, suggesting the NANOG gene locus was preferentially activated. Nanog overexpression in LNCaP cells increases overall growth, but does not increase resistance to enzalutamide or docetaxel. Nanog is a novel oncogenic AR target gene in prostate cancer cells, and stable expression of Nanog increases proliferation and growth of prostate cancer cells, but not resistance to enzalutamide or docetaxel. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) influences androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Paul; Jaggi, Meena; Syed, Viqar; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Hassan, Sazzad; Biswas, Helal; Balaji, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of PKD protein family, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrate that PKD1 and androgen receptor (AR) are present as a protein complex in PCa cells. PKD1 is associated with a transcriptional complex which contains AR and promoter sequence of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) gene. Ectopic expression of wild type PKD1 and the kinase dead mutant PKD1 (K628W) attenuated the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR in prostate cancer cells and yeast cells indicating that PKD1 can affect AR transcription activity, whereas knocking down PKD1 enhanced the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR. Co-expression of kinase dead mutant with AR significantly inhibited androgen-mediated cell proliferation in both LNCaP and DU145 PC cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that PKD1 can influence AR function in PCa cells

  5. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase has been reported to decrease the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and possibly inhibit or help treat prostate cancer. Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE) is reported to inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the clinical symptoms of BPH. Epidemiologic studies report that carotenoids such as lycopene may inhibit prostate cancer. In this investigation the effect of the carotenoid astaxanthin, and SPLE were examined for their effect on 5alpha-reductase inhibition as well as the growth of prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. These studies support patent #6,277,417 B1. The results show astaxanthin demonstrated 98% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase at 300 microg/mL in vitro. Alphastat, the combination of astaxanthin and SPLE, showed a 20% greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone n vitro. A nine day treatment of prostatic carcinoma cells with astaxanthin in vitro produced a 24% decrease in growth at 0.1 mcg/mL and a 38% decrease at 0.01 mcg/mL. SPLE showed a 34% decrease at 0.1 mcg/mL. Low levels of carotenoid astaxanthin inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the growth of human prostatic cancer cells in vitro. Astaxanthin added to SPLE shows greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone in vitro.

  6. The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, T.; Digby, J.E.; Chen, J.; Desai, K.M.; Randeva, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and plasma levels of the adipokine, adiponectin, are low in the former but high in the latter. Adiponectin has been shown to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, suggesting that adiponectin and its receptors (Adipo-R1, Adipo-R2) may provide a molecular association between obesity and prostate carcinogenesis. We show for First time, the protein distribution of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 in LNCaP and PC3 cells, and in human prostate tissue. Using real-time RT-PCR we provide novel data demonstrating the differential regulation of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 mRNA expression by testosterone, 5-α dihydrotestosterone, β-estradiol, tumour necrosis factor-α, leptin, and adiponectin in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that adiponectin and its receptors may contribute to the molecular association between obesity and prostate cancer through a complex interaction with other hormones and cytokines that also play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and prostate cancer

  7. Camptothecin disrupts androgen receptor signaling and suppresses prostate cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shicheng; Yuan, Yiming; Okumura, Yutaka; Shinkai, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the main therapeutic target for treatment of metastatic prostate cancers. The present study demonstrates that the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin selectively inhibits androgen-responsive growth of prostate cancer cells. Camptothecin strikingly inhibited mutated and wild-type AR protein expression in LNCaP and PC-3/AR cells. This inhibition coincided with decreased androgen-mediated AR phosphorylation at Ser 81 and reduced androgen-mediated AR transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, camptothecin disrupted the association between AR and heat shock protein 90 and impeded binding of the synthetic androgen [ 3 H]R1881 to AR in LNCaP cells. Camptothecin also blocked androgen-induced AR nuclear translocation, leading to downregulation of the AR target gene PSA. In addition to decreasing the intracellular and secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, camptothecin markedly inhibited androgen-stimulated PSA promoter activity. Collectively, our data reveal that camptothecin not only serves as a traditional genotoxic agent but, by virtue of its ability to target and disrupt AR, may also be a novel candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Recently, sarcosine was reported to be highly increased during prostate cancer progression, and exogenous sarcosine induces an invasive phenotype in benign prostate...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT...... that sarcosine is involved in the regulation of the oncoprotein HER2/neu. Thus, sarcosine may induce prostate cancer progression by increased HER2/neu expression. However, detailed information on cellular mechanisms remains to be elucidated....

  9. High expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P receptors in chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer PC3 cells and their camptothecin-induced up-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Yukihiro; Banno, Yoshiko; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Nobuko; Kim, Tack-Joong; Murate, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Although most of pharmacological therapies for cancer utilize the apoptotic machinery of the cells, the available anti-cancer drugs are limited due to the ability of prostate cancer cells to escape from the anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis. A human prostate cancer cell line PC3 is resistant to camptothecin (CPT). To elucidate the mechanism of this resistance, we have examined the involvement of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor in CPT-resistant PC3 and -sensitive LNCaP cells. PC3 cells exhibited higher activity accompanied with higher expression levels of protein and mRNA of SPHK1, and also elevated expression of S1P receptors, S1P 1 and S1P 3 , as compared with those of LNCaP cells. The knockdown of SPHK1 by small interfering RNA and inhibition of S1P receptor signaling by pertussis toxin in PC3 cells induced significant inhibition of cell growth, suggesting implication of SPHK1 and S1P receptors in cell proliferation in PC3 cells. Furthermore, the treatment of PC3 cells with CPT was found to induce up-regulation of the SPHK1/S1P signaling by induction of both SPHK1 enzyme and S1P 1 /S1P 3 receptors. These findings strongly suggest that high expression and up-regulation of SPHK1 and S1P receptors protect PC3 cells from the apoptosis induced by CPT

  10. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhtar, Hasan; Afaq, Farrukh; Sarfaraz, Sami

    2008-01-01

    We have shown that the expression levels of both cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are higher in human prostate cancer cells than in normal prostate epithelial cells and treatment of LNCaP cells with WIN-55,212-2 (WIN...

  11. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Treating Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhtar, Hasan; Afaq, Farrukh; Sarfaraz, Sami

    2006-01-01

    Recently we have shown that expression levels of both cannabinoid receptors CB and CB12 are higher in human prostate cancer cells than in normal prostate epithelial cells and treatment of LNCaP cells with WIN-55,212-2...

  12. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhtar, Hasan; Afaq, Farrukh; Sarfaraz, Sami

    2007-01-01

    .... We have shown that the expression levels of both cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are higher in human prostate cancer cells than in normal prostate epithelial cells and treatment of LNCaP cells with WIN-55,212-2 (WIN...

  13. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghotbaddini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models.

  14. Regulation of androgen receptor transactivity and mTOR-S6 kinase pathway by Rheb in prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Yosuke; Terada, Naoki; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Nakamura, Eijiro; Toda, Yoshinobu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu; Inoue, Takahiro

    2010-06-01

    Ras homolog-enriched in brain (Rheb), a small GTP-binding protein, is associated with prostate carcinogenesis through activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This study aimed to elucidate whether Rheb promotes proliferation of prostate cancer cells and can act as a potent therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cell lines and human prostatic tissues were examined for the expression of Rheb. The effects of forced expression or knockdown of Rheb on cell proliferation were also examined. Semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to evaluate mRNA expression. Western blotting was used to examine protein expression. Cell count and WST-1 assay were used to measure cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to assess the cell cycle. Rheb mRNA and protein expression was higher in more aggressive, androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, and C4-2, compared with the less aggressive LNCaP. Rheb expression was higher in cancer tissues than in benign prostatic epithelia. Forced expression of Rheb in LNCaP cells accelerated proliferation without enhancing androgen receptor transactivity. Attenuation of Rheb expression or treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin decreased proliferation of PC3 and DU145 cells, with a decrease in the activated form of p70S6 kinase, one of the main targets of mTOR. Rheb potentiates proliferation of prostate cancer cells and inhibition of Rheb or mTOR can lead to suppressed proliferation of aggressive prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Rheb and the mTOR pathway are therefore probable targets for suppressing prostate cancer.

  15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase expression is negatively associated with cell stemness and worse clinical outcome in prostate cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoli; Ji, Yasai; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Yu, Dandan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Li, Huixiang; Zhang, Mingzhi; Ji, Zhenyu; Fan, Dandan; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Yuan, Long; Hao, Bin; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    Cells generate adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), the major currency for energy-consuming reactions, through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis. One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, also known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cancer cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of mitochondrial OXPHOS as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. One of the main players in controlling OXPHOS is the mitochondrial gatekeeperpyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its major subunit is E1α (PDHA1). To further analyze the function of PDHA1 in cancer cells, it was knock out (KO) in the human prostate cancer cell line LnCap and a stable KO cell line was established. We demonstrated that PDHA1 gene KO significantly decreased mitochondrial OXPHOS and promoted anaerobic glycolysis, accompanied with higher stemness phenotype including resistance to chemotherapy, enhanced migration ability and increased expression of cancer stem cell markers. We also examined PDHA1 protein expression in prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and observed that reduced PDHA1 protein expression in clinical prostate carcinomas was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results show that negative PDHA1 gene expressionis associated with significantly higher cell stemness in prostate cancer cells and reduced protein expression of this gene is associated with shorter clinical outcome in prostate cancers. PMID:28076853

  16. Suppression of DHT-induced paracrine stimulation of endothelial cell growth by estrogens via prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jinghe; Weng, Chunyan; Cai, Jingjing; Yang, Kan; Yuan, Hong; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

    2013-07-01

    Androgen modulation of angiogenesis in prostate cancer may be not directly mediated by androgen receptor (AR) as AR is not detected in the prostatic endothelial cells. We examined the paracrine stimulation of cell proliferation by prostate tumor cells and its modulation by androgen and estrogens in a murine endothelial cell line (MEC) that does not express AR. Tumor cell conditioned media (TCM) collected from LAPC-4 or LNCaP prostatic tumor cells produced a time- and concentration-dependent induction of cell growth in MECs, which was parallel to the VEGF concentration in the TCM. This TCM-induced cell growth in MECs was enhanced by the treatment of prostatic tumor cells with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Both the TCM-stimulation and DHT-enhancement effects in MECs were completely blocked by SU5416, a specific VEGF receptor antagonist. Co-administration of 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol with DHT in prostatic tumor cells completely inhibited the DHT-enhancement effect while treatment with DHT, 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol did not produce any significant direct effect in MECs. Moreover, administration of 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol in xenograft animals with LAPC-4 or LNCaP prostate tumor significantly decreased the microvessel number in the tumor tissues. Our study indicated that prostate tumor cells regulate endothelial cell growth through a paracrine mechanism, which is mainly mediated by VEGF; and DHT is able to modulate endothelial cell growth via tumor cells, which is inhibited by 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol. Thus, both17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol are potential agents for anti-angiogenesis therapy in androgen-responsive prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Silk scaffolds connected with different naturally occurring biomaterials for prostate cancer cell cultivation in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcker, Anne; Erhardt, Olga; Wietbrock, Lukas; Schel, Natalia; Göppert, Bettina; Dirschka, Marian; Abaffy, Paul; Sollich, Thomas; Cecilia, Angelica; Gruhl, Friederike J

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, different biopolymer blend scaffolds based on the silk protein fibroin from Bombyx mori (BM) were prepared via freeze-drying method. The chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the three dimensional (3D) porous silk fibroin (SF) composite scaffolds of gelatin, collagen, and chitosan as well as SF from Antheraea pernyi (AP) and the recombinant spider silk protein spidroin (SSP1) have been systematically investigated, followed by cell culture experiments with epithelial prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) up to 14 days. Compared to the pure SF scaffold of BM, the blend scaffolds differ in porous morphology, elasticity, swelling behavior, and biochemical composition. The new composite scaffold with SSP1 showed an increased swelling degree and soft tissue like elastic properties. Whereas, in vitro cultivation of LNCaP cells demonstrated an increased growth behavior and spheroid formation within chitosan blended scaffolds based on its remarkable porosity, which supports nutrient supply matrix. Results of this study suggest that silk fibroin matrices are sufficient and certain SF composite scaffolds even improve 3D cell cultivation for prostate cancer research compared to matrices based on pure biomaterials or synthetic polymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Antiproliferation effects of an androgen receptor triple-helix forming oligonucleotide on prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Weizhen; Xie Yao; Gao Jinhui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide experimental basis for antigene radiation therapy through exploring the effects of antigene strategy on androgen receptor (AR) expression and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Methods: The triple-helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) targeting 2447-2461nt of AR cDNA was designed and transfected LNCaP prostate cancer cells with liposome. 24-72 h after transfection, the cellular proliferation was detected by 3 H-thymidine (TdR) incorporation test, the expression of AR gene was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and expression of AR protein was performed by radioligand binding assay. The results of TFO were compared with antisense oligonucleotide (ASON). Results: At all time points, the AR expression levels in TFO group were markedly lower than that of ASON group (P<0.05). The inhibitory rate of TFO for cellular proliferation was significantly higher than that of ASON (P<0.05). Conclusion: The TFO was a potent inhibitor for AR expression and cell proliferation of LNCaP cells , and could be used in antigene radiotherapy. (authors)

  19. Myofibroblast androgen receptor expression determines cell survival in co-cultures of myofibroblasts and prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palethorpe, Helen M; Leach, Damien A; Need, Eleanor F; Drew, Paul A; Smith, Eric

    2018-04-10

    Fibroblasts express androgen receptor (AR) in the normal prostate and during prostate cancer development. We have reported that loss of AR expression in prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts is a poor prognostic indicator. Here we report outcomes of direct and indirect co-cultures of immortalised AR-positive (PShTert-AR) or AR-negative (PShTert) myofibroblasts with prostate cancer cells. In the initial co-cultures the AR-negative PC3 cell line was used so AR expression and signalling were restricted to the myofibroblasts. In both direct and indirect co-culture with PShTert-AR myofibroblasts, paracrine signalling to the PC3 cells slowed proliferation and induced apoptosis. In contrast, PC3 cells proliferated with PShTert myofibroblasts irrespective of the co-culture method. In direct co-culture PC3 cells induced apoptosis in and destroyed PShTerts by direct signalling. Similar results were seen in direct co-cultures with AR-negative DU145 and AR-positive LNCaP and C4-2B prostate cancer cell lines. The AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibited the proliferation of the PShTert-AR myofibroblasts, thereby reducing the extent of their inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. These results suggest loss of stromal AR would favour prostate cancer cell growth in vivo , providing an explanation for the clinical observation that reduced stromal AR is associated with a poorer outcome.

  20. Daphne striata Tratt. and D. mezereum L.: a study of anti-proliferative activity towards human cancer cells and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of D. mezereum and D. striata. The aerial parts were extracted by maceration with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. MPLC, GC, and GC-MS were used for the phytochemical study. The anti-proliferative activity was tested against MCF-7, A549, LNCaP, ACHN, and C32 cancer human cells. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing β-carotene bleaching, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP tests. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was applied from the perspective of statistics. D. mezereum dichloromethane extract showed a remarkable anti-proliferative with an IC 50 of 6.08 μg/mL against LNCaP cells. Experimental data indicate that Daphne species have interesting anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs.

  1. Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin derivative, on prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: AD-2 (20(R-dammarane-3b, 12b, 20, 25-tetrol; 25-OH-PPD is a ginsenoside and isolated from Panax ginseng, showing anticancer activity against extensive human cancer cell lines. In this study, effects and mechanisms of 1C ((20R-3b-O-(L-alanyl-dammarane-12b, 20, 25-triol, a modified version of AD-2, were evaluated for its development as a novel anticancer drug. Methods: MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell cytotoxic activity. Cell cycle and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was employed to analyze signaling pathways. Results: 1C concentration-dependently reduces prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal human gastric epithelial cell line-1 viability. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, 1C triggered apoptosis via Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway, downregulated expression of mouse double minute 2, upregulated expression of p53 and stimulated ROS production. ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, can attenuate 1C-induced apoptosis. 1C also inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells through inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: 1C shows obvious anticancer activity based on inducing cell apoptosis by Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway and ROS production, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that 1C may provide leads as a potential agent for cancer therapy. Keywords: 1C, AD-2, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, Wnt/β-catenin pathway

  2. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  3. Artemisinin disrupts androgen responsiveness of human prostate cancer cells by stimulating the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of the androgen receptor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steely, Andrea M; Willoughby, Jamin A; Sundar, Shyam N; Aivaliotis, Vasiliki I; Firestone, Gary L

    2017-10-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity is highly linked to the development and progression of prostate cancer and is a target of therapeutic strategies for this disease. We investigated whether the antimalarial drug artemisinin, which is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the sweet wormwood plant Artemisia annua, could alter AR expression and responsiveness in cultured human prostate cancer cell lines. Artemisinin treatment induced the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of the receptor protein, without altering AR transcript levels, in androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cells or PC-3 prostate cancer cells expressing exogenous wild-type AR. Furthermore, artemisinin stimulated AR ubiquitination and AR receptor interactions with the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 in LNCaP cells. The artemisinin-induced loss of AR protein prevented androgen-responsive cell proliferation and ablated total AR transcriptional activity. The serine/threonine protein kinase AKT-1 was shown to be highly associated with artemisinin-induced proteasome-mediated degradation of AR protein. Artemisinin treatment activated AKT-1 enzymatic activity, enhanced receptor association with AKT-1, and induced AR serine phosphorylation. Treatment of LNCaP cells with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, which inhibits the PI3-kinase-dependent activation of AKT-1, prevented the artemisinin-induced AR degradation. Furthermore, in transfected receptor-negative PC-3 cells, artemisinin failed to stimulate the degradation of an altered receptor protein (S215A/S792A) with mutations in its two consensus AKT-1 serine phosphorylation sites. Taken together, our results indicate that artemisinin induces the degradation of AR protein and disrupts androgen responsiveness of human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that this natural compound represents a new potential therapeutic molecule that selectively targets AR levels.

  4. The PPAR{gamma} ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Patrice E.; Lyles, Besstina E.; Stewart, LaMonica V., E-mail: lstewart@mmc.edu

    2010-12-10

    The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPAR{gamma} ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPAR{gamma}. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPAR{gamma} and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

  5. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  6. PCA3 noncoding RNA is involved in the control of prostate-cancer cell survival and modulates androgen receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Palumbo, Antonio; Mello, Kivvi Duarte de; Sternberg, Cinthya; Caetano, Mauricio S; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Neves, Adriana Freitas; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    PCA3 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but its functional role is unknown. To investigate its putative function in PCa biology, we used gene expression knockdown by small interference RNA, and also analyzed its involvement in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. LNCaP and PC3 cells were used as in vitro models for these functional assays, and three different siRNA sequences were specifically designed to target PCA3 exon 4. Transfected cells were analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR and cell growth, viability, and apoptosis assays. Associations between PCA3 and the androgen-receptor (AR) signaling pathway were investigated by treating LNCaP cells with 100 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and with its antagonist (flutamide), and analyzing the expression of some AR-modulated genes (TMPRSS2, NDRG1, GREB1, PSA, AR, FGF8, CdK1, CdK2 and PMEPA1). PCA3 expression levels were investigated in different cell compartments by using differential centrifugation and qRT-PCR. LNCaP siPCA3-transfected cells significantly inhibited cell growth and viability, and increased the proportion of cells in the sub G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of pyknotic nuclei, compared to those transfected with scramble siRNA (siSCr)-transfected cells. DHT-treated LNCaP cells induced a significant upregulation of PCA3 expression, which was reversed by flutamide. In siPCA3/LNCaP-transfected cells, the expression of AR target genes was downregulated compared to siSCr-transfected cells. The siPCA3 transfection also counteracted DHT stimulatory effects on the AR signaling cascade, significantly downregulating expression of the AR target gene. Analysis of PCA3 expression in different cell compartments provided evidence that the main functional roles of PCA3 occur in the nuclei and microsomal cell fractions. Our findings suggest that the ncRNA PCA3 is involved in the control of PCa cell survival, in part through modulating AR signaling, which may raise new

  7. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radioiodine therapy in prostate cancer cells expressing the sodium iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzweg, Christine; Hirschmann, Martin; Unterholzner, Stefanie; Cengic, Neziha; Eckel, Petra; Sharif-Samani, Bibi-Rana; Willhauck, Michael J.; Goeke, Burkhard; Morris, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We reported recently the induction of androgen-dependent iodide uptake activity in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) utilizing a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-promoter directed expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene. This offers the potential to treat prostate cancer with radioiodine. In the current study we examined the regulation of PSA-promoter directed NIS expression and therapeutic effectiveness of 131 I in LNCaP cells by 1,25-(OH)2-Vitamin D3 (Vit D3). For this purpose, NIS mRNA and protein expression levels in the NIS-transfected LNCaP cell line NP-1 were examined by Northern and Western blot analysis following incubation with Vit D3 (10 -9 M - 10 -5 M) in the presence of mibolerone (10 -9 M). In addition, NIS functional activity was measured by iodide uptake assay, and in vitro cytotoxicity of 131 I was examined by in vitro clonogenic assay. Following incubation with Vit D3, NIS mRNA levels in NP-1 cells were stimulated 1.2-fold, whereas NIS protein levels increased 1.65-fold and iodide accumulation was stimulated 1.4-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, the selective killing effect of 131 I in NP-1 cells was significantly increased from 55% in NP-1 cells incubated with mibolerone alone to 86 % in NP-1 cells treated with Vit D3 (10 -5 M) in the presence of mibolerone. In the absence of androgen, with or without Vit D3 no functional NIS expression was detected. Conclusion: Treatment with Vit D3 increases androgen-induced NIS expression levels and selective killing effect of 131 I in prostate cancer cells stably expressing NIS under the control of the PSA promoter. Vit D3 may therefore be used to enhance the therapeutic response to radioiodine in prostate cancer cells following PSA-promoter directed NIS gene delivery. (author)

  8. Amino acid containing thapsigargin analogues deplete androgen receptor protein via synthesis inhibition and induce the death of prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griend, Donald J Vander; Antony, Lizamma; Dalrymple, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    There are quantitative and/or qualitative mechanisms allowing androgen receptor (AR) growth signaling in androgen ablation refractory prostate cancer cells. Regardless of the mechanism, agents that deplete AR protein expression prevent such AR growth signaling. Thapsigargin (TG) is a highly cell......-penetrant sequiterpene-lactone that once inside cells inhibits (IC(50), approximately 10 nmol/L) critically important housekeeping SERCA 2b calcium pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using a series of five genetically diverse androgen ablation refractory human prostate cancer lines (LNCaP, LAPC-4, VCaP, MDA-PCa-2b......-specific proteases, such as prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific membrane antigen, or cancer-specific proteases, such as fibroblast activation protein, so that toxicity of these prodrugs is selectively targeted to metastatic sites of prostate cancer. Based on these results, these prodrugs are undergoing...

  9. The Downregulation of the Expression of CD147 by Tumor Suppressor REIC/Dkk-3, and Its Implication in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Watanabe, Masami; Sadahira, Takuya; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Ueki, Hideo; Wada, Koichiro; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Li, Shun-Ai; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2017-04-01

    The cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), also known as EMMPRIN, is a key molecule that promotes cancer progression. We previously developed an adenoviral vector encoding a tumor suppressor REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) for cancer gene therapy. The therapeutic effects are based on suppressing the growth of cancer cells, but, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully clarified. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the effects of Ad-REIC on the expression of CD147 in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Western blotting revealed that the expression of CD147 was significantly suppressed by Ad-REIC. Ad-REIC also suppressed the cell growth of LNCaP cells. Since other researchers have demonstrated that phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and c-Myc protein positively regulate the expression of CD147, we investigated the correlation between the CD147 level and the activation of MAPK and c-Myc expression. Unexpectedly, no positive correlation was observed between CD147 and its possible regulators, suggesting that another signaling pathway was involved in the downregulation of CD147. This is the first study to show the downregulation of CD147 by Ad-REIC in prostate cancer cells. At least some of the therapeutic effects of Ad-REIC may be due to the downregulation of the cancer-progression factor, CD147.

  10. Aminomethylphosphonic Acid and Methoxyacetic Acid Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab R. Parajuli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA and its parent compound herbicide glyphosate are analogs to glycine, which have been reported to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells, but not normal cells. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA is the active metabolite of ester phthalates widely used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer; its exposure is associated with developmental and reproductive toxicities in both rodents and humans. MAA has been reported to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether AMPA and MAA can inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, we found that AMPA and MAA inhibited cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3 and DU-145 through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Importantly, the AMPA-induced apoptosis was potentiated with the addition of MAA, which was due to downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat containing 2 (BIRC2, leading to activation of caspases 7 and 3. These results demonstrate that the combination of AMPA and MAA can promote the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, suggesting that they can be used as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. Aminomethylphosphonic acid and methoxyacetic acid induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Keshab R; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2015-05-22

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and its parent compound herbicide glyphosate are analogs to glycine, which have been reported to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells, but not normal cells. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is the active metabolite of ester phthalates widely used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer; its exposure is associated with developmental and reproductive toxicities in both rodents and humans. MAA has been reported to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether AMPA and MAA can inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, we found that AMPA and MAA inhibited cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3 and DU-145) through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Importantly, the AMPA-induced apoptosis was potentiated with the addition of MAA, which was due to downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat containing 2 (BIRC2), leading to activation of caspases 7 and 3. These results demonstrate that the combination of AMPA and MAA can promote the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, suggesting that they can be used as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Fingerprints in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, K.

    1994-01-01

    Gene research has shown that factors causing cancer, or carcinogens, may leave marks typical of each particular carcinogen (fingerprints) in the genotype of the cell. Radiation, for instance, may leave such fingerprints in a cancer cell. In particular, the discovery of a gene called p53 has yielded much new information on fingerprints. It has been discovered, for example, that toxic fungus and UV-radiation each leave fingerprints in the p53 gene. Based on the detection of fingerprints, it may be possible in the future to tell a cancer patient what factor had trigged the maglinancy

  13. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, Laura M.; Yu, Tian-Wei; Sokolowski, Elizabeth I.; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  14. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, Laura M., E-mail: beaverl@onid.orst.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Yu, Tian-Wei, E-mail: david.yu@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sokolowski, Elizabeth I., E-mail: sokolowe@onid.orst.edu [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H., E-mail: rod.dashwood@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Ho, Emily, E-mail: Emily.Ho@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  15. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer, Hep G2 (hepatoma, FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer, MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer, and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  16. Cell-Penetrating Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    observations with DHT -stimulated luciferase activity assays, enzalutamide had no effect on the constitutive induction of luciferase activity by the AR...to expess firefly luciferase under the control of a synthetic ARE. Similar studies were also performed with intact LNCaP cells stimulated with DHT ...enzalutamide. B. Demonstration that 3E10-AR441 can inhibit non-genomic, AR-dependent signaling. These studies used LNCaP cells stimulated with DHT , with a

  17. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. That is, the tumors originate in the sperm forming cells in the testicles ( ...

  18. Notch activation is dispensable for D, L-sulforaphane-mediated inhibition of human prostate cancer cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ryeong Hahm

    Full Text Available D, L-Sulforaphane (SFN, a synthetic racemic analog of broccoli constituent L-sulforaphane, is a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent with in vivo efficacy against chemically-induced as well as oncogene-driven cancer in preclinical rodent models. Cancer chemopreventive effect of SFN is characterized by G(2/M phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Moreover, SFN inhibits multiple oncogenic signaling pathways often hyperactive in human cancers, including nuclear factor-κB, Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and androgen receptor. The present study was designed to determine the role of Notch signaling, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, in anticancer effects of SFN using prostate cancer cells as a model. Exposure of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, and/or LNCaP-C4-2B to SFN as well as its naturally-occurring thio-, sulfinyl-, and sulfonyl-analogs resulted in cleavage (activation of Notch1, Notch2, and Notch4, which was accompanied by a decrease in levels of full-length Notch forms especially at the 16- and 24-hour time points. The SFN-mediated cleavage of Notch isoforms was associated with its transcriptional activation as evidenced by RBP-Jk-, HES-1A/B- and HEY-1 luciferase reporter assays. Migration of PC-3 and LNCaP cells was decreased significantly by RNA interference of Notch1 and Notch2, but not Notch4. Furthermore, SFN-mediated inhibition of PC-3 and LNCaP cell migration was only marginally affected by knockdown of Notch1 and Notch2. Strikingly, SFN administration to Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate transgenic mice failed to increase levels of cleaved Notch1, cleaved Notch2, and HES-1 proteins in vivo in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, well-differentiated carcinoma or poorly-differentiated prostate cancer lesions. These results indicate that Notch activation is largely dispensable for SFN-mediated inhibition of cell

  19. Expression profiles and functional associations of endogenous androgen receptor and caveolin-1 in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C; Hooper, John D; Johnson, David W; Gobe, Glenda C

    2014-05-01

    In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, the protein target for androgen deprivation and blockade therapies is androgen receptor (AR). AR interacts with many proteins that function to either co-activate or co-repress its activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is not found in normal prostatic epithelium, but is found in PCa, and may be an AR co-regulator protein. We investigated cell line-specific signatures and associations of endogenous AR and Cav-1 in six PCa cell lines of known androgen sensitivity: LNCaP (androgen sensitive); 22Rv1 (androgen responsive); PC3, DU145, and ALVA41 (androgen non-reliant); and RWPE1 (non-malignant). Protein and mRNA expression profiles were compared and electron microscopy used to identify cells with caveolar structures. For cell lines expressing both AR and Cav-1, knockdown techniques using small interfering RNA against AR or Cav-1 were used to test whether diminished expression of one affected the other. Co-sedimentation of AR and Cav-1 was used to test their association. A reporter assay for AR genomic activity was utilized following Cav-1 knockdown. AR-expressing LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells had low endogenous Cav-1 mRNA and protein. Cell lines that expressed little or no AR (DU145, PC3, ALVA41, and RWPE1) expressed high endogenous levels of Cav-1. AR knockdown in LNCaP cells had little effect on Cav-1, but Cav-1 knockdown inhibited AR expression and genomic activity. These data show endogenous AR and Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression is inversely related in PCa cells, with Cav-1 acting on the androgen/AR signaling axis possibly as an AR co-activator, demonstrated by diminished AR genomic activity following Cav-1 knockdown. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Periostin: a promising target of therapeutical intervention for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Weihong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our recent study, Periostin was up-regulated in prostate cancer(PCa compared with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH by proteomics analysis of prostate biopsies. We investigated the effect of sliencing Periostin by RNA interference (RNAi on the proliferation and migration of PCa LNCap cell line. Methods All the prostate biopsies from PCa, BPH and BPH with local prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm(PIN were analyzed by iTRAQ(Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification technology. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to verify Periostin expression in the tissues of PCa. Periostin expression in different PCa cell lines was determined by immunofluorescence staining, western blotting and reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR. The LNCap cells with Periostin expression were used for transfecting shRNA-Periostin lentiviral particles. The efficancy of transfecting shRNA lentiviral particles was evaluated by immunofluorescence, western blotting and Real-time PCR. The effect of silencing Periostin expression by RNAi on proliferation of LNCap cells was determined by MTT assay and tumor xenografts. The tissue slices from theses xenografts were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE staining. The expression of Periostin in the xenografts was deteminned by Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The migration of LNCap cells after silencing Periostin gene expression were analyzed in vitro. Results Periostin as the protein of interest was shown 9.12 fold up-regulation in PCa compared with BPH. The overexpression of Periostin in the stroma of PCa was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Periostin was only expressed in PCa LNCap cell line. Our results indicated that the transfection ratio was more than 90%. As was expected, both the protein level and mRNA level of Periostin in the stably expressing shRNA-Periostin LNCap cells were significantly reduced. The stably expressing sh

  1. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  2. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Li

    Full Text Available The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  3. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Pierce, Dana R; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  4. Chemical Suppression of the Reactivated Androgen Signaling Pathway in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    when it is ingested during pregnancy [20,21]. Aside from its role in development, Hh signaling also supports stem cells in adult tissues [22-24]. However...For the mo.~t commonly uti - lized human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and derivatives, DUI45, PC3 or CWR22rvl) grown in culture, Shh, Glil/2 and

  5. Pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of heat-shock protein 70, can increase the antitumor effects of hyperthermia against human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Sekihara

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (HT improves the efficacy of anti-cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, HT also inevitably evokes stress responses and increases the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs in cancer cells. Among the HSPs, HSP70 is known as a pro-survival protein. In this study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of pifithrin (PFT-μ, a small molecule inhibitor of HSP70, when three human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 were treated with HT (43°C for 2 h. All cell lines constitutively expressed HSP70, and HT further increased its expression in LNCaP and DU-145. Knockdown of HSP70 with RNA interference decreased the viability and colony-forming ability of cancer cells. PFT-μ decreased the viabilities of all cell lines at one-tenth the dose of Quercetin, a well-known HSP inhibitor. The combination therapy with suboptimal doses of PFT-μ and HT decreased the viability of cancer cells most effectively when PFT-μ was added immediately before HT, and this combination effect was abolished by pre-knockdown of HSP70, suggesting that the effect was mediated via HSP70 inhibition. The combination therapy induced cell death, partially caspase-dependent, and decreased proliferating cancer cells, with decreased expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 and increased expression of p21(WAF1/Cip, indicating arrest of cell growth. Additionally, the combination therapy significantly decreased the colony-forming ability of cancer cells compared to therapy with either alone. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model, the combination therapy significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth. These findings suggest that PFT-μ can effectively enhance HT-induced antitumor effects via HSP70 inhibition by inducing cell death and arrest of cell growth, and that PFT-μ is a promising agent for use in combination with HT to treat prostate cancer.

  6. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J., E-mail: christiane.bruns@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377, Munich (Germany)

    2010-08-19

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  7. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24281178

  8. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Walter Jauch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  9. SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Berna; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2011-11-10

    SLUG is a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family that plays a role in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Mechanisms by which SLUG promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancers remain elusive. Expression level of CXCR4 and CXCL12 was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and qPCR analyses. Forced expression of SLUG was mediated by retroviruses, and SLUG and CXCL12 was downregulated by shRNAs-expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of prostate cancer were measured by scratch-wound assay and invasion assay, respectively. We demonstrated that forced expression of SLUG elevated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, 22RV1, and LNCaP; conversely, reduced expression of SLUG by shRNA downregulated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression at RNA and protein levels in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SLUG increased MMP9 expression and activity in PC3, 22RV1, and DU-145 cells, and SLUG knockdown by shRNA downregulated MMP9 expression. We showed that CXCL12 is required for SLUG-mediated MMP9 expression in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we found that migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells was increased by ectopic expression of SLUG and decreased by SLUG knockdown. Notably, knockdown of CXCL12 by shRNA impaired SLUG-mediated migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Lastly, our data suggest that CXCL12 and SLUG regulate migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells independent of cell growth. We provide the first compelling evidence that upregulation of autocrine CXCL12 is a major mechanism underlying SLUG-mediated migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that CXCL12 is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis.

  10. [14C]Fluciclovine (alias anti-[14C]FACBC) uptake and ASCT2 expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Oka, Shuntaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Takeo; Mizokami, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Masato; Schuster, David M.; Goodman, Mark M.; Shirakami, Yoshifumi; Kawai, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: trans-1-Amino-3-[ 18 F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid ([ 18 F]fluciclovine, also known as anti-[ 18 F]FACBC), is a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for detection of tumors such as prostate cancer (PCa). Our previous study showed that ASCT2 (Na + -dependent amino acid transporter (AAT)) mediates fluciclovine uptake in androgen-dependent PCa cells; its expression is influenced by androgen, a key hormone in the progression of primary PCa and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this study, we investigated the uptake mechanisms and feasibility of [ 18 F]fluciclovine for CRPC in the androgen-dependent PCa cell line LNCaP and LNCaP-derivatives LNCaP-SF and LN-REC4. Methods: LNCaP-SF was established after long-term cultivation of LNCaP in steroid-free conditions, and LN-Pre and LN-REC4 were established from LNCaP inoculated in intact and castrated severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively. Uptake and competitive inhibition experiments were performed with trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1- 14 C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid ([ 14 C]fluciclovine) to characterize the involvement of AATs in androgen-dependent PCa (LNCaP and LN-Pre) and CRPC-like (LNCaP-SF and LN-REC4) cell lines. AAT expression was analyzed by Western blotting, and [ 14 C]fluciclovine uptake in androgen-dependent PCa and CRPC-like cell lines were investigated in the presence or absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Results: The contribution of Na + -dependent AATs to [ 14 C]fluciclovine uptake in all cell lines was 88−98%, and [ 14 C]fluciclovine uptake was strongly inhibited by L-glutamine and L-serine, the substrates for Na + -dependent alanine-serine-cysteine (system ASC) AATs, in the presence of Na + . DHT enhanced ASCT2 expression in LNCaP, LN-Pre, and LN-REC4, but not in LNCaP-SF, and the responses of ASCT2 expression to DHT correlated with [ 14 C]fluciclovine uptake. Conclusions: System ASC, especially ASCT2, could play a major role in [ 14 C

  11. Role of Hsp90 in Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    designed siRNA sequence using Intergrated DNA Technologies RNAi online software tool (IDT, Coralville, IA). The sequence of siRNA specific for...proliferation and production of prostate-specific antigen in androgen-sensitive pros- tatic cancer cells, LNCaP, by dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology 136

  12. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal; Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar; Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila; Kumar, Atul; Gupta, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP

  13. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: g_gupta@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  14. Up-regulated microRNA-143 in cancer stem cells differentiation promotes prostate cancer cells metastasis by modulating FNDC3B expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xinlan; Chen, Xu; Deng, Weixi; Zhong, Guangzheng; Cai, Qingqing; Lin, Tianxin

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumor progression and metastasis, including in prostate cancer. There is an obvious and urgent need for effective cancer stem cells specific therapies in metastatic prostate cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of pervasive genes that are involved in a variety of biological functions, especially in cancer. The goal of this study was to identify miRNAs involved in prostate cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells. A microarray and qRT-PCR were performed to investigate the miRNA expression profiles in PC-3 sphere cells and adherent cells. A transwell assay was used to evaluate the migration of PC-3 sphere cells and adherent cells. MiR-143 was silenced with antisense oligonucleotides in PC-3, PC-3-M and LNCaP cells. The role of miR-143 in prostate cancer metastasis was measured by wound-healing and transwell assays in vitro and bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Bioinformatics and luciferase report assays were used to identify the target of miR-143. The expression of miR-143 and the migration capability were reduced in PC-3 sphere cells and progressively increased during sphere re-adherent culture. Moreover, the down-regulation of miR-143 suppressed prostate cancer cells migration and invasion in vitro and systemically inhibited metastasis in vivo. Fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B), which regulates cell motility, was identified as a target of miR-143. The inhibition of miR-143 increased the expression of FNDC3B protein but not FNDC3B mRNA in vitro and vivo. These data demonstrate for the first time that miR-143 was up-regulated during the differentiation of prostate cancer stem cells and promoted prostate cancer metastasis by repressing FNDC3B expression. This sheds a new insight into the post-transcriptional regulation of cancer stem cells differentiation by miRNAs, a potential approach for the treatment of prostate cancer

  15. Reciprocal positive regulation between TRPV6 and NUMB in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Young; Hong, Chansik; Wie, Jinhong [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Euiyong [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Joo [Division of Longevity and Biofunctional Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kotdaji [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Kim, In-Gyu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ju-Hong [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); So, Insuk, E-mail: insuk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • TRPV6 interacts with tumor suppressor proteins. • Numb has a selective effect on TRPV6, depending on the prostate cancer cell line. • PTEN is a novel regulator of TRPV6–Numb complex. - Abstract: Calcium acts as a second messenger and plays a crucial role in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. Recently, calcium channels related to calcium influx into the cytosol of epithelial cells have attracted attention as a cancer therapy target. Of these calcium channels, TRPV6 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and is considered an important molecule in the process of metastasis. However, its exact role and mechanism is unclear. NUMB, well-known tumor suppressor gene, is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6. We show that NUMB and TRPV6 have a reciprocal positive regulatory relationship in PC-3 cells. We repeated this experiment in two other prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and LNCaP. Interestingly, there were no significant changes in TRPV6 expression following NUMB knockdown in DU145. We revealed that the presence or absence of PTEN was the cause of NUMB–TRPV6 function. Loss of PTEN caused a positive correlation of TRPV6–NUMB expression. Collectively, we determined that PTEN is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6 and NUMB. These results demonstrated a novel relationship of NUMB–TRPV6 in prostate cancer cells, and show that PTEN is a novel regulator of this complex.

  16. mRNA-Seq of single prostate cancer circulating tumor cells reveals recapitulation of gene expression and pathways found in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Cann

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC mediate metastatic spread of many solid tumors and enumeration of CTCs is currently used as a prognostic indicator of survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that it is possible to derive additional information about tumors from expression analysis of CTCs, but the technical difficulty of isolating and analyzing individual CTCs has limited progress in this area. To assess the ability of a new generation of MagSweeper to isolate intact CTCs for downstream analysis, we performed mRNA-Seq on single CTCs isolated from the blood of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and on single prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells spiked into the blood of healthy donors. We found that the MagSweeper effectively isolated CTCs with a capture efficiency that matched the CellSearch platform. However, unlike CellSearch, the MagSweeper facilitates isolation of individual live CTCs without contaminating leukocytes. Importantly, mRNA-Seq analysis showed that the MagSweeper isolation process did not have a discernible impact on the transcriptional profile of single LNCaPs isolated from spiked human blood, suggesting that any perturbations caused by the MagSweeper process on the transcriptional signature of isolated cells are modest. Although the RNA from patient CTCs showed signs of significant degradation, consistent with reports of short half-lives and apoptosis amongst CTCs, transcriptional signatures of prostate tissue and of cancer were readily detectable with single CTC mRNA-Seq. These results demonstrate that the MagSweeper provides access to intact CTCs and that these CTCs can potentially supply clinically relevant information.

  17. mRNA-Seq of single prostate cancer circulating tumor cells reveals recapitulation of gene expression and pathways found in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Gordon M; Gulzar, Zulfiqar G; Cooper, Samantha; Li, Robin; Luo, Shujun; Tat, Mai; Stuart, Sarah; Schroth, Gary; Srinivas, Sandhya; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Brooks, James D; Talasaz, Amirali H

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) mediate metastatic spread of many solid tumors and enumeration of CTCs is currently used as a prognostic indicator of survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that it is possible to derive additional information about tumors from expression analysis of CTCs, but the technical difficulty of isolating and analyzing individual CTCs has limited progress in this area. To assess the ability of a new generation of MagSweeper to isolate intact CTCs for downstream analysis, we performed mRNA-Seq on single CTCs isolated from the blood of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and on single prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells spiked into the blood of healthy donors. We found that the MagSweeper effectively isolated CTCs with a capture efficiency that matched the CellSearch platform. However, unlike CellSearch, the MagSweeper facilitates isolation of individual live CTCs without contaminating leukocytes. Importantly, mRNA-Seq analysis showed that the MagSweeper isolation process did not have a discernible impact on the transcriptional profile of single LNCaPs isolated from spiked human blood, suggesting that any perturbations caused by the MagSweeper process on the transcriptional signature of isolated cells are modest. Although the RNA from patient CTCs showed signs of significant degradation, consistent with reports of short half-lives and apoptosis amongst CTCs, transcriptional signatures of prostate tissue and of cancer were readily detectable with single CTC mRNA-Seq. These results demonstrate that the MagSweeper provides access to intact CTCs and that these CTCs can potentially supply clinically relevant information.

  18. PCA3 Silencing Sensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to Enzalutamide-mediated Androgen Receptor Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Emre; Celik, Ayca Iribas; Darendeliler, Emin; Gezer, Ugur

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease. Novel anti-androgens (i.e. enzalutamide) have recently been developed for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Evidence is accumulating that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is involved in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Here, in combination with enzalutamide-mediated AR blockade, we investigated the effect of PCA3 targeting on the viability of PCa cells. In hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells, AR-overexpressing LNCaP-AR + cells and VCaP cells (representing CRPC), PCA3 was silenced using siRNA oligonucleotides. Gene expression and cell viability was assessed in PCA3-silenced and/or AR-blocked cells. PCA3 targeting reduced the expression of AR-related genes (i.e. prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific transcript 1 (non-protein coding) (PCGEM1)) and potentiated the effect of enzalutamide. Proliferation of PCa cells was suppressed upon PCA3 silencing with a greater effect in LNCaP-AR + cells. Furthermore, PCA3 silencing sensitized PCa cells to enzalutamide-induced loss of cell growth. PCA3, as a therapeutic target in PCa, might be used to potentiate AR antagonists. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagran, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A.; Pantoja, Diego F.; Alarcon, Jose C.; Fariña, Macarena A.; Amigo, Romina F.; Muñoz-Godoy, Natalia A. [Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Laboratory, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Pinilla, Mabel G. [Department of Medical Specialties, School of Medicine, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Peña, Eduardo A.; Gonzalez-Chavarria, Ivan; Toledo, Jorge R.; Rivas, Coralia I.; Vera, Juan C. [Department of Physiopathology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); McNerney, Eileen M. [Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Laboratory, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Onate, Sergio A., E-mail: sergio.onate@udec.cl [Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Laboratory, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Medical Specialties, School of Medicine, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Urology, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-11-27

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in co

  20. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagran, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A.; Pantoja, Diego F.; Alarcon, Jose C.; Fariña, Macarena A.; Amigo, Romina F.; Muñoz-Godoy, Natalia A.; Pinilla, Mabel G.; Peña, Eduardo A.; Gonzalez-Chavarria, Ivan; Toledo, Jorge R.; Rivas, Coralia I.; Vera, Juan C.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Onate, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in co

  1. Toll-like Receptor 3 Regulates Angiogenesis and Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines through Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Paone

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs recognize microbial/viral-derived components that trigger innate immune response and conflicting data implicate TLR agonists in cancer, either as protumor or antitumor agents. We previously demonstrated that TLR3 activation mediated by its agonist poly(I:C induces antitumor signaling, leading to apoptosis of prostate cancer cells LNCaP and PC3 with much more efficiency in the former than in the second more aggressive line. The transcription factor hypoxia-induciblefactor 1 (HIF-1regulates several cellular processes, includingapoptosis, in response to hypoxia and to other stimuli also in normoxic conditions. Here we describe a novel protumor machinery triggered by TLR3 activation in PC3 cells consisting of increased expression of the specific 1.3 isoform of HIF-1α and nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 complex in normoxia, resulting in reduced apoptosis and in secretion of functional vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Moreover, we report that, in the less aggressive LNCaP cells, TLR3 activation fails to induce nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. However, the transfection of 1.3 isoform of hif-1α in LNCaP cells allows poly(I:CI-induced HIF-1 activation, resulting in apoptosis protection and VEGF secretion. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that differences in the basal level of HIF-1α expression in different prostate cancer cell lines underlie their differential response to TLR3 activation, suggesting a correlation between different stages of malignancy, hypoxic gene expression, and beneficial responsiveness to TLR agonists.

  2. PDHA1 gene knockout in prostate cancer cells results in metabolic reprogramming towards greater glutamine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yali; Ji, Yasai; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Hongquan; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Alternative pathways of metabolism endowed cancer cells with metabolic stress. Inhibiting the related compensatory pathways might achieve synergistic anticancer results. This study demonstrated that pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α gene knockout (PDHA1 KO) resulted in alterations in tumor cell metabolism by rendering the cells with increased expression of glutaminase1 (GLS1) and glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GLUD1), leading to an increase in glutamine-dependent cell survival. Deprivation of glutamine induced cell growth inhibition, increased reactive oxygen species and decreased ATP production. Pharmacological blockade of the glutaminolysis pathway resulted in massive tumor cells apoptosis and dysfunction of ROS scavenge in the LNCaP PDHA1 KO cells. Further examination of the key glutaminolysis enzymes in human prostate cancer samples also revealed that higher levels of GLS1 and GLUD1 expression were significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor clinical outcome. These insights supply evidence that glutaminolysis plays a compensatory role for cell survival upon alternative energy metabolism and targeting the glutamine anaplerosis of energy metabolism via GLS1 and GLUD1 in cancer cells may offer a potential novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462778

  3. Development of cell-penetrating bispecific antibodies targeting the N-terminal domain of androgen receptor for prostate cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicochea, Nancy L; Garnovskaya, Maria; Blanton, Mary G; Chan, Grace; Weisbart, Richard; Lilly, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer cells exhibit continued androgen receptor signaling in spite of low levels of ligand. Current therapies to block androgen receptor signaling act by inhibiting ligand production or binding. We developed bispecific antibodies capable of penetrating cells and binding androgen receptor outside of the ligand-binding domain. Half of the bispecific antibody molecule consists of a single-chain variable fragment of 3E10, an anti-DNA antibody that enters cells. The other half is a single-chain variable fragment version of AR441, an anti-AR antibody. The resulting 3E10-AR441 bispecific antibody enters human LNCaP prostate cells and accumulates in the nucleus. The antibody binds to wild-type, mutant and splice variant androgen receptor. Binding affinity of 3E10-AR441 to androgen receptor (284 nM) was lower than that of the parental AR441 mAb (4.6 nM), but could be improved (45 nM) through alternative placement of the affinity tags, and ordering of the VH and VK domains. The 3E10-AR441 bispecific antibody blocked genomic signaling by wild-type or splice variant androgen receptor in LNCaP cells. It also blocked non-genomic signaling by the wild-type receptor. Furthermore, bispecific antibody inhibited the growth of C4-2 prostate cancer cells under androgen-stimulated conditions. The 3E10-AR441 biAb can enter prostate cancer cells and inhibits androgen receptor function in a ligand-independent manner. It may be an attractive prototype agent for prostate cancer therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2–4 mg/L (about 5–10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer. PMID:25243063

  5. Impact of Hypoxia on the Metastatic Potential of Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yao; Bae, Kyungmi; Siemann, Dietmar W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intratumoral hypoxia is known to be associated with radioresistance and metastasis. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on the metastatic potential of prostate cancer PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells. Methods and Materials: Cell proliferation and clonogenicity were tested by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. 'Wound-healing' and Matrigel-based chamber assays were used to monitor cell motility and invasion. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression was tested by Western blot, and HIF-1-target gene expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined by gelatin zymography. Results: When PC-3 cells were exposed to 1% oxygen (hypoxia) for various periods of time, chronic hypoxia (≥24 h) decreased cell proliferation and induced cell death. In contrast, prostate cancer cells exposed to acute hypoxia (≤6 h) displayed increased motility, clonogenic survival, and invasive capacity. At the molecular level, both hypoxia and anoxia transiently stabilized HIF-1α. Exposure to hypoxia also induced the early expression of MMP-2, an invasiveness-related gene. Treatment with the HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced migration, invasion, and MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: The length of oxygen deprivation strongly affected the functional behavior of all three prostate cancer cell lines. Acute hypoxia in particular was found to promote a more aggressive metastatic phenotype.

  6. Altered CXCR3 isoform expression regulates prostate cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma cells must circumvent the normally suppressive signals to disseminate. While often considered 'stop' signals for adherent cells, CXCR3-binding chemokines have recently been correlated positively with cancer progression though the molecular basis remains unclear. Results Here, we examined the expression and function of two CXCR3 variants in human prostate cancer biopsies and cell lines. Globally, both CXCR3 mRNA and protein were elevated in localized and metastatic human cancer biopsies compared to normal. Additionally, CXCR3A mRNA level was upregulated while CXCR3B mRNA was downregulated in these prostate cancer specimens. In contrast to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1, CXCR3A was up to half the receptor in the invasive and metastatic DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, but not in the localized LNCaP cells. Instead of inhibiting cell migration as in RWPE-1 cells, the CXCR3 ligands CXCL4/PF4 and CXCL10/IP10 promoted cell motility and invasiveness in both DU-145 and PC-3 cells via PLCβ3 and μ-calpain activation. CXCR3-mediated diminution of cell motility in RWPE-1 cells is likely a result of cAMP upregulation and m-calpain inhibition via CXCR3B signal transduction. Interestingly, overexpression of CXCR3B in DU-145 cells decreased cell movement and invasion. Conclusion These data suggest that the aberrant expression of CXCR3A and down-regulation of CXCR3B may switch a progression "stop" to a "go" signal to promote prostate tumor metastasis via stimulating cell migration and invasion.

  7. Vaccines with dendritic cells in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that autologous D Cs pulsed with peptides specific for prostate specific Ag (PSA) or prostate-specific membrane Ag are capable of stimulating potent CT L in vitro. However there is evidence to believe that multiple tumour derived antigens would be more potent to elicit anti-tumour responses. Based on these observations a Phase I/II clinical trial in has been initiated. Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC s) were transfected with mRNA from three prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP and P C-3) and used for vaccination. Twenty patients have been enrolled and 19 have finished vaccination. Each patient received at least four weekly injections. Of them, 10 patients were vaccinated intranodally under ultrasonic guidance and 9 others received the vaccine intradermally. Safety and feasibility were evaluated. No evidence of toxicity and adverse events was observed. Immune response was measured as DTH and by vitro immunoassays including ELISPOT, T cell proliferation test and cytotoxicity test in pre- and post-vaccination peripheral blood samples. Twelve patients developed a specific immune response to tumour cells. Ten patients showed a significant decrease in log slope PSA. Patients with lower PSA tend to give a better response. The early clinical outcome was significantly related to immune responses (p<0.05). We conclude that the strategy of vaccinating with mRNA transfected D Cs functions to elicit cellular immune responses specific for antigens associated with prostate cancer cells and such responses may result in a clinical benefit for the patients

  8. Intratumoral conversion of adrenal androgen precursors drives androgen receptor-activated cell growth in prostate cancer more potently than de novo steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Jinpei; Hofland, Johannes; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Dits, Natasja F J; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Jenster, Guido; Homma, Yukio; de Jong, Frank H; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2013-11-01

    Despite an initial response to hormonal therapy, patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) almost always progress to castration-resistant disease (CRPC). Although serum testosterone (T) is reduced by androgen deprivation therapy, intratumoral T levels in CRPC are comparable to those in prostate tissue of eugonadal men. These levels could originate from intratumoral conversion of adrenal androgens and/or from de novo steroid synthesis. However, the relative contribution of de novo steroidogenesis to AR-driven cell growth is unknown. The relative contribution of androgen biosynthetic pathways to activate androgen receptor (AR)-regulated cell growth and expression of PSA, FKBP5, and TMPRSS2 was studied at physiologically relevant levels of adrenal androgen precursors and intermediates of de novo androgen biosynthesis in human prostate cancer cell lines, PC346C, VCaP, and LNCaP. In PC346C and VCaP, responses to pregnenolone and progesterone were absent or minimal, while large effects of adrenal androgen precursors were found. VCaP CRPC clones overexpressing CYP17A1 did not acquire an increased ability to use pregnenolone or progesterone to activate AR. In contrast, all precursors stimulated growth and gene expression in LNCaP cells, presumably resulting from the mutated AR in these cells. Our data indicate that at physiological levels of T precursors PC cells can generally convert adrenal androgens, while de novo steroidogenesis is not generally possible in PC cells and is not able to support AR transactivation and PC growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Androgen receptor or estrogen receptor-beta blockade alters DHEA-, DHT-, and E(2)-induced proliferation and PSA production in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Julia T; Liu, Xunxian; Allen, Jeffrey D; Le, Hanh; McFann, Kimberly K; Blackman, Marc R

    2007-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid that is metabolized to androgens and/or estrogens in the human prostate. DHEA levels decline with age, and use of DHEA supplements to retard the aging process is of unproved effectiveness and safety. LNCaP and LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells were used to determine whether DHEA-modulated proliferation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) production were mediated via the androgen receptor (AR) and/or ERbeta. Cells were treated with DHEA, DHT, or E(2) and antagonists to AR (Casodex-bicalutamide) or ER (ICI 182,780) or siRNA to the respective receptors. Proliferation was assessed by MTT assay and PSA mRNA and protein secretion were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Associations of AR and ERbeta were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation studies and fluorescent confocal microscopy. DHEA-, T-, and E(2)-induced proliferation of LNCaP cells was blunted by Casodex but not by ICI treatment. In LNCaP cells, Casodex and ICI suppressed hormone-induced PSA production. In LAPC-4 cells, DHT-stimulated PSA mRNA was inhibited by Casodex and ICI, and the minimal stimulation by DHEA was inhibited by ICI. Use of siRNAs confirmed involvement of AR and ERbeta in hormone-induced PSA production while AR-ERbeta co-association was suggested by immunoprecipitation and nuclear co-localization. These findings support involvement of both AR and ERbeta in mediating DHEA-, DHT-, and E(2)-induced PSA expression in prostate cancer cells. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis peruviana and Their Selective Cytotoxicity to Prostate Cancer and Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Babyak, Ashley L; Marks, Hanna R; Brooks, Alan D; Tewary, Poonam; Xuan, Li-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Sayers, Thomas J; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-07-28

    Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. All withanolides were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumor cell lines including LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma), 22Rv1 (androgen-resistant human prostate adenocarcinoma), ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma), M14 (human melanoma), SK-MEL-28 (human melanoma), and normal human foreskin fibroblast cells. Of these, the 17β-hydroxywithanolides (17-BHWs) 6, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, and 19-22 showed selective cytotoxic activity against the two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and 22Rv1, whereas 13 and 20 exhibited selective toxicity for the ACHN renal carcinoma cell line. These cytotoxicity data provide additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17-BHWs.

  11. Andrographolide sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Jing Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a promising agent for anticancer therapy. The identification of small molecules that can establish the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is crucial for the targeted treatment of PCa. PC3, DU145, JAC-1, TsuPr1, and LNCaP cells were treated with Andrographolide (Andro and TRAIL, and the apoptosis was measured using the Annexin V/PI double staining method. Real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of target molecules. RNA interference technique was used to down-regulate the expression of the target protein. We established a nude mouse xenograft model of PCa, which was used to measure the caspase-3 activity in the tumor cells using flow cytometry. In this research study, our results demonstrated that Andro preferentially increased the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at subtoxic concentrations, and the regulation mechanism was related to the up-regulation of DR4. In addition, it also increased the p53 expression and led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the cells. Further research revealed that the DR4 inhibition, p53 expression, and ROS generation can significantly reduce the apoptosis induced by the combination of TRAIL and Andro in PCa cells. In conclusion, Andro increases the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the generation of ROS and up-regulation of p53 and then promotes PCa cell apoptosis associated with the activation of DR4.

  12. Shifted Golgi targeting of glycosyltransferases and α-mannosidase IA from giantin to GM130-GRASP65 results in formation of high mannose N-glycans in aggressive prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ganapati; Hothpet, Vishwanath-Reddy; Lin, Ming-Fong; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2017-11-01

    There is a pressing need for biomarkers that can distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer to prevent over-treatment of patients with indolent tumor. Golgi targeting of glycosyltransferases was characterized by confocal microscopy after knockdown of GM130, giantin, or both. N-glycans on a trans-Golgi enzyme β4galactosyltransferase-1 isolated by immunoprecipitation from androgen-sensitive and independent prostate cancer cells were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In situ proximity ligation assay was employed to determine co-localization of (a) α-mannosidase IA, an enzyme required for processing Man 8 GlcNAc 2 down to Man 5 GlcNAc 2 to enable synthesis of complex-type N-glycans, with giantin, GM130, and GRASP65, and (b) trans-Golgi glycosyltransferases with high mannose N-glycans terminated with α3-mannose. Defective giantin in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells results in a shift of Golgi targeting of glycosyltransferases and α-mannosidase IA from giantin to GM130-GRASP65. Consequently, trans-Golgi enzymes and cell surface glycoproteins acquire high mannose N-glycans, which are absent in cells with functional giantin. In situ proximity ligation assays of co-localization of α-mannosidase IA with GM130 and GRASP65, and trans-Golgi glycosyltransferases with high mannose N-glycans are negative in androgen-sensitive LNCaP C-33 cells but positive in androgen-independent LNCaP C-81 and DU145 cells, and LNCaP C-33 cells devoid of giantin. In situ proximity ligation assays of Golgi localization of α-mannosidase IA at giantin versus GM130-GRASP65 site, and absence or presence of N-glycans terminated with α3-mannose on trans-Golgi glycosyltransferases may be useful for distinguishing indolent from aggressive prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  14. CD147 modulates androgen receptor activity through the Akt/Gsk-3β/β-catenin/AR pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Qin, Yingxin; Hao, Feng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Shuang; Zhao, Liangzhong; Wang, Liguo; Cai, Jianhui

    2016-08-01

    The androgen signaling pathway serves an important role in the development of prostate cancer. β-Catenin is an androgen receptor (AR) cofactor and augments AR signaling. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a target of phosphorylated serine/threonine protein kinase B (p-Akt), regulates β-catenin stability. In addition, β-catenin, a coregulator of AR, physically interacts with AR and enhances AR-mediated target gene transcription. The multifunctional glycoprotein cluster of differentiation (CD) 147 is highly expressed on the cell surface of the majority of cancer cells, and it promotes tumor invasion, metastasis and growth. In the present study, the molecular effects of CD147 on the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin/AR signaling network were investigated in LNCaP cells. Using short hairpin-mediated RNA knockdown of CD147 in LNCaP cells, it was demonstrated that downregulation of CD147 resulted in inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β, and then promoted degeneration of β-catenin and reduced nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In addition, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CD147 downregulation decreased the formation of a complex between β-catenin and AR. It was shown that CD147 knockdown suppressed the expression of the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen and the growth of AR-positive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 augmented CD147-mediated function. The present study indicates that the PI3K/Akt pathway may facilitate CD147-mediated activation of the AR pathway.

  15. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  16. Novel Biomarker Discovery for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 2: Prepare fluorinated RNA aptamer library for screening indolent and aggressive LNCaP cells. The pool of RNA aptamers is amplified from the...transcribed Fluorination of the nucleic acid backbone stabilizes the RNA aptamers against RNAse degradation. Status: completed. Task 3: Perform first...to metastasis-prone prostate cancer cell surface targets, and exert cell- specific toxicity . We propose that these aptamers may help to discriminate between progressive and indolent prostate cancer in clinical applications.

  17. Elevated YKL40 is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and positively regulates invasion and migration of PCa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Varinder; Tevz, Gregor; Lehman, Melanie; Hollier, Brett; Nelson, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 or YKL40) is a secreted glycoprotein highly expressed in tumours from patients with advanced stage cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). The exact function of YKL40 is poorly understood, but it has been shown to play an important role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. The therapeutic value and biological function of YKL40 are unknown in PCa. The objective of this study was to examine the expression and function of YKL40 in PCa. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that YKL40 was highly expressed in metastatic PCa cells when compared with less invasive and normal prostate epithelial cell lines. In addition, the expression was primarily limited to androgen receptor-positive cell lines. Evaluation of YKL40 tissue expression in PCa patients showed a progressive increase in patients with aggressive disease when compared with those with less aggressive cancers and normal controls. Treatment of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with androgens increased YKL40 expression, whereas treatment with an anti-androgen agent decreased the gene expression of YKL40 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, knockdown of YKL40 significantly decreased invasion and migration of PCa cells, whereas overexpression rendered them more invasive and migratory, which was commensurate with an enhancement in the anchorage-independent growth of cells. To our knowledge, this study characterises the role of YKL40 for the first time in PCa. Together, these results suggest that YKL40 plays an important role in PCa progression and thus inhibition of YKL40 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCa. © 2014 The authors.

  18. Silibinin inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α-mediated signaling, angiogenesis and lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells: In vitro evidence and in vivo functional imaging and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Nambiar, Dhanya K; Jain, Anil K; Ramteke, Anand M; Serkova, Natalie J; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa) patients suggesting that PCa growth and progression could be controlled via targeting hypoxia-induced signaling and biological effects. Here, we analyzed silibinin (a natural flavonoid) efficacy to target cell growth, angiogenesis, and metabolic changes in human PCa, LNCaP, and 22Rv1 cells under hypoxic condition. Silibinin treatment inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity, and endothelial cells tube formation by hypoxic (1% O 2 ) PCa cells. Interestingly, hypoxia promoted a lipogenic phenotype in PCa cells via activating acetyl-Co A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) that was inhibited by silibinin treatment. Importantly, silibinin treatment strongly decreased hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression in PCa cells together with a strong reduction in hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. HIF-1α overexpression in LNCaP cells significantly increased the lipid accumulation and NOX activity; however, silibinin treatment reduced HIF-1α expression, lipid levels, clonogenicity, and NOX activity even in HIF-1α overexpressing LNCaP cells. In vivo, silibinin feeding (200 mg/kg body weight) to male nude mice with 22Rv1 tumors, specifically inhibited tumor vascularity (measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) resulting in tumor growth inhibition without directly inducing necrosis (as revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI). Silibinin feeding did not significantly affect tumor glucose uptake measured by FDG-PET; however, reduced the lipid synthesis measured by quantitative 1 H-NMR metabolomics. IHC analyses of tumor tissues confirmed that silibinin feeding decreased proliferation and angiogenesis as well as reduced HIF-1α, FASN, and ACC levels. Together, these findings further support silibinin usefulness against PCa through inhibiting hypoxia-induced signaling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lemur tyrosine kinase (LMTK-3 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. Abnormal expression of LMTK-3 exists in various types of cancers, especially in endocrine-resistant breast cancers; however, the precise level of expression and the biological function in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we determined the expression of LMTK-3 in prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We infected PC3 and LNCaP cells with lentivirus-LMTK-3 and observed the biologic characteristics of the PC3 and LNCaP cells in vitro with TUNEL, and migration and invasion assays, respectively. We also established a transplant tumor model of human prostate cancer with infected cells in 15 BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. Results: LMTK-3 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells. There was a significant decline in the level of LMTK-3 expression in prostate cancers compared to normal tissues. LMTK-3 inhibited PC3 and LNCaP cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We also observed that LMTK-3 induced PC3 cell apoptosis in vivo. Further study showed that LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK. Conclusion: Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of LMTK-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. AKT and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to the process.

  20. Optimizing structural and mechanical properties of cryogel scaffolds for use in prostate cancer cell culturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecilia, A.; Baecker, A.; Hamann, E.; Rack, A.; Kamp, T. van de; Gruhl, F.J.; Hofmann, R.; Moosmann, J.; Hahn, S.; Kashef, J.; Bauer, S.; Farago, T.; Helfen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and the second most cause of cancer death after lung cancer in Western societies. This sets the necessity of modelling prostatic disorders to optimize a therapy against them. The conventional approach to investigating prostatic diseases is based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culturing. This method, however, does not provide a three-dimensional (3D) environment, therefore impeding a satisfying simulation of the prostate gland in which the PCa cells proliferate. Cryogel scaffolds represent a valid alternative to 2D culturing systems for studying the normal and pathological behavior of the prostate cells thanks to their 3D pore architecture that reflects more closely the physiological environment in which PCa cells develop. In this work the 3D morphology of three potential scaffolds for PCa cell culturing was investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography (SXCμT) fitting the according requirements of high spatial resolution, 3D imaging capability and low dose requirements very well. In combination with mechanical tests, the results allowed identifying an optimal cryogel architecture, meeting the needs for a well-suited scaffold to be used for 3D PCa cell culture applications. The selected cryogel was then used for culturing prostatic lymph node metastasis (LNCaP) cells and subsequently, the presence of multi-cellular tumor spheroids inside the matrix was demonstrated again by using SXCμT. - Highlights: • Synthesis of cryogel scaffolds for prostate cancer cell culturing. • Study of cryogel morphology by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography. • Analysis of cryogel mechanical properties with laboratory techniques. • Culturing of prostate cancer cell in the optimal cryogel composition for 21 days. • 3D visualization of the cells by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography.

  1. Optimizing structural and mechanical properties of cryogel scaffolds for use in prostate cancer cell culturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baecker, A. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 Bldg 329, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe D-76344 (Germany); Hamann, E. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rack, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Kamp, T. van de [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 6980, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruhl, F.J. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 Bldg 329, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe D-76344 (Germany); Hofmann, R. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moosmann, J. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Hahn, S.; Kashef, J.; Bauer, S.; Farago, T. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helfen, L. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); and others

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and the second most cause of cancer death after lung cancer in Western societies. This sets the necessity of modelling prostatic disorders to optimize a therapy against them. The conventional approach to investigating prostatic diseases is based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culturing. This method, however, does not provide a three-dimensional (3D) environment, therefore impeding a satisfying simulation of the prostate gland in which the PCa cells proliferate. Cryogel scaffolds represent a valid alternative to 2D culturing systems for studying the normal and pathological behavior of the prostate cells thanks to their 3D pore architecture that reflects more closely the physiological environment in which PCa cells develop. In this work the 3D morphology of three potential scaffolds for PCa cell culturing was investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography (SXCμT) fitting the according requirements of high spatial resolution, 3D imaging capability and low dose requirements very well. In combination with mechanical tests, the results allowed identifying an optimal cryogel architecture, meeting the needs for a well-suited scaffold to be used for 3D PCa cell culture applications. The selected cryogel was then used for culturing prostatic lymph node metastasis (LNCaP) cells and subsequently, the presence of multi-cellular tumor spheroids inside the matrix was demonstrated again by using SXCμT. - Highlights: • Synthesis of cryogel scaffolds for prostate cancer cell culturing. • Study of cryogel morphology by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography. • Analysis of cryogel mechanical properties with laboratory techniques. • Culturing of prostate cancer cell in the optimal cryogel composition for 21 days. • 3D visualization of the cells by synchrotron X-ray computed micro tomography.

  2. Several genes encoding ribosomal proteins are over-expressed in prostate-cancer cell lines: confirmation of L7a and L37 over-expression in prostate-cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, M H; Porvari, K S; Kyllönen, A P; Mustonen, M V; Lukkarinen, O; Vihko, P T

    1998-09-25

    A cDNA library specific for mRNA over-expressed in prostate cancer was generated by subtractive hybridization of transcripts originating from prostatic hyperplasia and cancer tissues. cDNA encoding ribosomal proteins L4, L5, L7a, L23a, L30, L37, S14 and S18 was found to be present among 100 analyzed clones. Levels of ribosomal mRNA were significantly higher at least in one of the prostate-cancer cell lines, LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3, than in hyperplastic tissue, as determined by slot-blot hybridization. Furthermore, L23a- and S14-transcript levels were significantly elevated in PC-3 cells as compared with those in the normal prostate epithelial cell line PrEC. Generally, dramatic changes in the mRNA content of the ribosomal proteins were not detected, the most evident over-expression being that of L37 mRNA, which was 3.4 times more abundant in LNCaP cells than in hyperplastic prostate tissue. The over-expression of L7a and L37 mRNA was confirmed in prostate-cancer tissue samples by in situ hybridization. Elevated cancer-related expression of L4 and L30 has not been reported, but levels of the other ribosomal proteins are known to be increased in several types of cancers. These results therefore suggest that prostate cancer is comparable with other types of cancers, in that a larger pool of some ribosomal proteins is gained during the transformation process, by an unknown mechanism.

  3. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  5. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  6. SU-F-T-674: In Vitro Study of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Photo Dynamic Therapy in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Wang, B; Gupta, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PTD) is a promising cancer treatment modality. 5-sminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a clinically approved photosensitizer. Here we studied the effect of 5-ALA administration with irradiation on several cell lines in vitro. Methods: Human head and neck (FaDu), lung (A549) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells (104/well) were seeded overnight in 96-well plates (Figure 1). 5-ALA at a range from 0.1 to 30.0mg/ml was added to confluent cells 3h before irradiation in 100ul of culture medium. 15MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste linear accelerator were used to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells. Cell viability was evaluated by WST1 assay. The development of orange color was measured 3h after the addition of WST-1 reagent at 450nm on an Envision Multilabel Reader (Figure 2) and directly correlated to cell number. Control, untreated cells were incubated without 5-ALA. The experiment was performed twice for each cell line. Results: The cell viability rates for the head and neck cancer line are shown in Figure 3. FaDu cell viability was reduced significantly to 36.5% (5-ALA) and 18.1% (5-ALA + RT) only at the highest concentration of 5-ALA, 30mg/ml. This effect was observed in neither A549, nor LNCaP cell line. No toxicity was detected at lower 5-ALA concentrations. Conclusion: Application of 5-ALA and subsequent PDT was found to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of the photosensitizer used in the FaDu head and neck cell line, and their effect was synergistic. Further efforts are necessary to study the potential therapeutic effects of 5-ALA PTD in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest 5-ALA may improve the efficacy of radiotherapy by acting as a radiomediator in head and neck cancer.

  7. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Härmä

    Full Text Available The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP, and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility.

  8. Local advanced transitional cell cancer and squamous cell cancer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 51-year-old man presented with a locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the periurethral tissues as well as an underlying isolated transitional cell cancer of the urethra. Chemotherapy with Gemcitabin and Cisplatinum together with local radiation to the pelvis and the perineum was given. There was ...

  9. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-12-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  10. Prazosin Displays Anticancer Activity against Human Prostate Cancers: Targeting DNA, Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Chia Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinazoline-based α1,-adrenoceptor antagonists, in particular doxazosin, terazosin, are suggested to display antineoplastic activity against prostate cancers. However, there are few studies elucidating the effect of prazosin. In this study, prazosin displayed antiproliferative activity superior to that of other α1-blockers, including doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, phentolamine. Prazosin induced G2 checkpoint arrest, subsequent apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP cells. In p53-null PC-3 cells, prazosin induced an increase in DNA str, breaks, ATM/ATR checkpoint pathways, leading to the activation of downstream signaling cascades, including Cdc25c phosphorylation at Ser216, nuclear export of Cdc25c, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk 1 phosphorylation at Tyr15. The data, together with sustained elevated cyclin A levels (other than cyclin B1 levels, suggested that Cdki activity was inactivated by prazosin. Moreover, prazosin triggered mitochondria-mediated, caspaseexecuted apoptotic pathways in PC-3 cells. The oral administration of prazosin significantly reduced tumor mass in PC-3-derived cancer xenografts in nude mice. In summary, we suggest that prazosin is a potential antitumor agent that induces cell apoptosis through the induction of DNA damage stress, leading to Cdki inactivation, G2 checkpoint arrest. Subsequently, mitochondriamediated caspase cascades are triggered to induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells.

  11. Melatonin Decreases Glucose Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells: A 13C Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, David; Gonzalez-Menendez, Pedro; Fernandez-Fernandez, Mario; Cueto, Sergio; Mayo, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    The pineal neuroindole melatonin exerts an exceptional variety of systemic functions. Some of them are exerted through its specific membrane receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2) while others are mediated by receptor-independent mechanisms. A potential transport of melatonin through facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT/SLC2A) was proposed in prostate cancer cells. The prostate cells have a particular metabolism that changes during tumor progression. During the first steps of carcinogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation is reactivated while the switch to the “Warburg effect” only occurs in advanced tumors and in the metastatic stage. Here, we investigated whether melatonin might change prostate cancer cell metabolism. To do so, 13C stable isotope-resolved metabolomics in androgen sensitive LNCaP and insensitive PC-3 prostate cancer cells were employed. In addition to metabolite 13C-labeling, ATP/AMP levels, and lactate dehydrogenase or pentose phosphate pathway activity were measured. Melatonin reduces lactate labeling in androgen-sensitive cells and it also lowers 13C-labeling of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and ATP production. In addition, melatonin reduces lactate 13C-labeling in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells. Results demonstrated that melatonin limits glycolysis as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway in prostate cancer cells, suggesting that the reduction of glucose uptake is a major target of the indole in this tumor type. PMID:28933733

  12. Melatonin Decreases Glucose Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells: A 13C Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, David; Gonzalez-Menendez, Pedro; Fernandez-Fernandez, Mario; Cueto, Sergio; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Garcia-Alonso, Jose I; Mayo, Juan C; Sainz, Rosa M

    2017-07-26

    The pineal neuroindole melatonin exerts an exceptional variety of systemic functions. Some of them are exerted through its specific membrane receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2) while others are mediated by receptor-independent mechanisms. A potential transport of melatonin through facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT/ SLC2A ) was proposed in prostate cancer cells. The prostate cells have a particular metabolism that changes during tumor progression. During the first steps of carcinogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation is reactivated while the switch to the "Warburg effect" only occurs in advanced tumors and in the metastatic stage. Here, we investigated whether melatonin might change prostate cancer cell metabolism. To do so, 13 C stable isotope-resolved metabolomics in androgen sensitive LNCaP and insensitive PC-3 prostate cancer cells were employed. In addition to metabolite 13 C-labeling, ATP/AMP levels, and lactate dehydrogenase or pentose phosphate pathway activity were measured. Melatonin reduces lactate labeling in androgen-sensitive cells and it also lowers 13 C-labeling of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and ATP production. In addition, melatonin reduces lactate 13 C-labeling in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells. Results demonstrated that melatonin limits glycolysis as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway in prostate cancer cells, suggesting that the reduction of glucose uptake is a major target of the indole in this tumor type.

  13. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  14. Selenium-regulated hierarchy of human selenoproteome in cancerous and immortalized cells lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Bianga, Juliusz; Jean-Jacques, Hélène; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard; Chavatte, Laurent

    2018-04-13

    Selenoproteins (25 genes in human) co-translationally incorporate selenocysteine using a UGA codon, normally used as a stop signal. The human selenoproteome is primarily regulated by selenium bioavailability with a tissue-specific hierarchy. We investigated the hierarchy of selenoprotein expression in response to selenium concentration variation in four cell lines originating from kidney (HEK293, immortalized), prostate (LNCaP, cancer), skin (HaCaT, immortalized) and liver (HepG2, cancer), using complementary analytical methods. We performed (i) enzymatic activity, (ii) RT-qPCR, (iii) immuno-detection, (iv) selenium-specific mass spectrometric detection after non-radioactive 76 Se labeling of selenoproteins, and (v) luciferase-based reporter constructs in various cell extracts. We characterized cell-line specific alterations of the selenoproteome in response to selenium variation that, in most of the cases, resulted from a translational control of gene expression. We established that UGA-selenocysteine recoding efficiency, which depends on the nature of the SECIS element, dictates the response to selenium variation. We characterized that selenoprotein hierarchy is cell-line specific with conserved features. This analysis should be done prior to any experiments in a novel cell line. We reported a strategy based on complementary methods to evaluate selenoproteome regulation in human cells in culture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The promotion on cell growth of androgen-dependent prostate cancer by antimony via mimicking androgen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwen; Li, Penghao; Wen, Yingwu; Feng, Guowei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yangyi; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-15

    Antimony is a widely used heavier pnictogens in industry, and its toxicity has been a matter of concern. Although previous studies have suggested that antimony may have the function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in several cancers, the molecular basis underlying antimony-mediated transformation is still unclear. In the current study, we attempt to elucidate the potential role of antimony in the development of prostate cancer. Our results showed that the concentration of antimony was much higher in serum of prostate cancer patients, and was closely associated with poor outcome of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Additionally, low dose of antimony could promote proliferation and invasion of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that exposure to antimony triggered the phosphorylation of androgen receptor (AR), which transcriptionally regulates the expression of androgen-related targets, including PSA and NKX3.1. Overall, our results unearthed that antimony could promote tumor growth by mimicking androgen activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Therefore, these findings expanded our understanding on the molecular mechanism of antimony in tumorigenesis and tumor progression of prostate cancer, and it appears to be an inspiring strategy to restrain prostate cancer by inhibiting antimony-induced androgen-like effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of AR and (beta)-Catenin Signaling by Pin 1 in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Shaoyong

    2006-01-01

    .... Another finding is that APC is expressed mainly in LNCaP nucleus and our preliminary results showed reduction of APC expression in LNCaP and PC3 cells leads to enhanced beta-catenin/Tcf4 activity.

  17. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  18. Melatonin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7-Induced Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB Activation and NF-κB Activator-Induced AR-V7 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells: Potential Implications for the Use of Melatonin in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Wing Sun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we showed that in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells transiently overexpressing androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB was activated and could result in up-regulated interleukin (IL-6 gene expression, indicating a positive interaction between AR-V7 expression and activated NF-κB/IL-6 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC pathogenesis. Importantly, both AR-V7-induced NF-κB activation and IL-6 gene transcription in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells could be inhibited by melatonin. Furthermore, stimulation of AR-V7 mRNA expression in LNCaP cells by betulinic acid, a pharmacological NF-κB activator, was reduced by melatonin treatment. Our data support the presence of bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 expression and NF-κB activation in CRPC pathogenesis. Of note, melatonin, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the previously-reported MT1 receptor-mediated antiproliferative pathway, can disrupt these bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 and NF-κB and thereby delay the development of castration resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Apparently, this therapeutic potential of melatonin in advanced prostate cancer/CRPC management is worth translation in the clinic via combined androgen depletion and melatonin repletion.

  19. Melatonin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7)-Induced Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Activation and NF-κB Activator-Induced AR-V7 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells: Potential Implications for the Use of Melatonin in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Vincent Wing Sun; Yau, Wing Lung; Tam, Chun Wai; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Shiu, Stephen Yuen Wing

    2017-05-31

    A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we showed that in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells transiently overexpressing androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was activated and could result in up-regulated interleukin ( IL ) -6 gene expression, indicating a positive interaction between AR-V7 expression and activated NF-κB/IL-6 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) pathogenesis. Importantly, both AR-V7-induced NF-κB activation and IL-6 gene transcription in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells could be inhibited by melatonin. Furthermore, stimulation of AR-V7 mRNA expression in LNCaP cells by betulinic acid, a pharmacological NF-κB activator, was reduced by melatonin treatment. Our data support the presence of bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 expression and NF-κB activation in CRPC pathogenesis. Of note, melatonin, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the previously-reported MT₁ receptor-mediated antiproliferative pathway, can disrupt these bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 and NF-κB and thereby delay the development of castration resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Apparently, this therapeutic potential of melatonin in advanced prostate cancer/CRPC management is worth translation in the clinic via combined androgen depletion and melatonin repletion.

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Daniela; Vacca, Rosa A; de Bari, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an anti-tumour drug effective on hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumour cell types, which affects both glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, depleting cellular ATP pool. Here we tested 3-BP on human prostate cancer cells showing, differently from other tumour types, efficient ATP production and functional mitochondrial metabolism. We found that 3-BP rapidly induced cultured androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell death at low concentrations (IC(50) values of 50 and 70 μM, respectively) with a multimodal mechanism of action. In particular, 3-BP-treated PC-3 cells showed a selective, strong reduction of glyceraldeide 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, due to the direct interaction of the drug with the enzyme. Moreover, 3-BP strongly impaired both glutamate/malate- and succinate-dependent mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential generation and ATP synthesis, concomitant with the inhibition of respiratory chain complex I, II and ATP synthase activities. The drastic reduction of cellular ATP levels and depletion of GSH pool, associated with significant increase in cell oxidative stress, were found after 3-BP treatment of PC-3 cells. Interestingly, the activity of both glyoxalase I and II, devoted to the elimination of the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, was strongly inhibited by 3-BP. Both N-acetylcysteine and aminoguanidine, GSH precursor and methylglyoxal scavenger, respectively, prevented 3-BP-induced PC-3 cell death, showing that impaired cell antioxidant and detoxifying capacities are crucial events leading to cell death. The provided information on the multi-target cytotoxic action of 3-BP, finally leading to PC-3 cell necrosis, might be useful for future development of 3-BP as a therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.

  1. The retinoblastoma protein regulates hypoxia-inducible genetic programs, tumor cell invasiveness and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Mark P.; Takhar, Mandeep K.; Nason, Rebecca; Santacruz, Stephanie; Tam, Kevin J.; Massah, Shabnam; Haegert, Anne; Bell, Robert H.; Altamirano-Dimas, Manuel; Collins, Colin C.; Lee, Frank J.S.; Prefontaine, Gratien G.; Cox, Michael E.; Beischlag, Timothy V.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of tumor suppressor proteins, such as the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), results in tumor progression and metastasis. Metastasis is facilitated by low oxygen availability within the tumor that is detected by hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). The HIF1 complex, HIF1α and dimerization partner the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), is the master regulator of the hypoxic response. Previously, we demonstrated that Rb represses the transcriptional response to hypoxia by virtue of its association with HIF1. In this report, we further characterized the role Rb plays in mediating hypoxia-regulated genetic programs by stably ablating Rb expression with retrovirally-introduced short hairpin RNA in LNCaP and 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that loss of Rb in conjunction with hypoxia leads to aberrant expression of hypoxia-regulated genetic programs that increase cell invasion and promote neuroendocrine differentiation. For the first time, we have established a direct link between hypoxic tumor environments, Rb inactivation and progression to late stage metastatic neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for progression of benign prostate tumors to metastasized and lethal forms will aid in the development of more effective prostate cancer therapies. PMID:27015368

  2. Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pachymic acid from Poria cocos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapter, Leslie; Wang, Zaisen; Glinski, Jan; Ng, Ka-yun

    2005-01-01

    Pachymic acid (PA) is a natural triterpenoid known to inhibit the phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ) family of arachidonic acid (AA)-producing enzymes. PLA 2 is elevated in prostatic adenocarcinoma and conversion of AA to prostaglandins leads to AKT pro-survival activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of PA on the growth of human prostate cancer cells. PA significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, with androgen-insensitive DU145 prostate cancer cells showing greater growth inhibition relative to androgen-responsive LNCaP. Despite elevated protein expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, apoptosis occurred in the absence of cell cycle arrest. PA-treatment decreased Bad phosphorylation, increased Bcl-2 phosphorylation, and activated caspases-9 and -3, suggesting that PA initiated apoptosis through mitochondria dysfunction. PA-treatment also decreased the expression and activation of proteins within the AKT signal pathway. We speculate that PA influenced apoptosis by reducing prostaglandin synthesis and AKT activity

  3. Androgen receptor requires JunD as a coactivator to switch on an oxidative stress generation pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Basu, Hirak S; Church, Dawn R; Hoffmann, F Michael; Wilding, George

    2010-06-01

    Relatively high oxidative stress levels in the prostate are postulated to be a major factor for prostate carcinogenesis and prostate cancer (CaP) progression. We focused on elucidating metabolic pathways of oxidative stress generation in CaP cells. Previously, we showed that the transcription factor JunD is essential for androgen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in androgen-dependent human CaP cells. We also recently showed that androgen induces the first and regulatory enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in a polyamine catabolic pathway that produces copious amounts of metabolic ROS. Here, we present coimmunoprecipitation and Gaussia luciferase reconstitution assay data that show that JunD forms a complex with androgen-activated androgen receptor (AR) in situ. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation assay data show that JunD binds directly to a specific SSAT promoter sequence only in androgen-treated LNCaP cells. Using a vector containing a luciferase reporter gene connected to the SSAT promoter and a JunD-silenced LNCaP cell line, we show that JunD is essential for androgen-induced SSAT gene expression. The elucidation of JunD-AR complex inducing SSAT expression leading to polyamine oxidation establishes the mechanistic basis of androgen-induced ROS production in CaP cells and opens up a new prostate-specific target for CaP chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic drug development. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  4. General Information about Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) Axitinib Bevacizumab Cabometyx ( ...

  7. GSTP1 Loss results in accumulation of oxidative DNA base damage and promotes prostate cancer cell survival following exposure to protracted oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Omar Y; Khattab, Mohamed H; Hedayati, Mohammad; Coulter, Jonathan; Abubaker-Sharif, Budri; Schwaninger, Julie M; Veeraswamy, Ravi K; Brooks, James D; Hopkins, Lisa; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Cornblatt, Brian; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; DeWeese, Theodore L

    2016-02-01

    Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase π (GSTP1) is a hallmark of transformation from normal prostatic epithelium to adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The functional significance of this loss is incompletely understood. The present study explores the effects of restored GSTP1 expression on glutathione levels, accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, and prostate cancer cell survival following oxidative stress induced by protracted, low dose rate ionizing radiation (LDR). GSTP1 protein expression was stably restored in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The effect of GSTP1 restoration on protracted LDR-induced oxidative DNA damage was measured by GC-MS quantitation of modified bases. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels were measured in control and GSTP1 expressing populations. Clonogenic survival studies of GSTP1- transfected LNCaP cells after exposure to protracted LDR were performed. Global gene expression profiling and pathway analysis were performed. GSTP1 expressing cells accumulated less oxidized DNA base damage and exhibited decreased survival compared to control LNCaP-Neo cells following oxidative injury induced by protracted LDR. Restoration of GSTP1 expression resulted in changes in modified glutathione levels that correlated with GSTP1 protein levels in response to protracted LDR-induced oxidative stress. Survival differences were not attributable to depletion of cellular glutathione stores. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis following GSTP1 restoration suggests this protein plays a key role in regulating prostate cancer cell survival. The ubiquitous epigenetic silencing of GSTP1 in prostate cancer results in enhanced survival and accumulation of potentially promutagenic DNA adducts following exposure of cells to protracted oxidative injury suggesting a protective, anti-neoplastic function of GSTP1. The present work provides mechanistic backing to the tumor suppressor function of GSTP1 and its role in prostate carcinogenesis. © 2015

  8. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  9. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstedt, Sophia C; Hooten, Carla J; Callewaert, Manika C; Jenkins, Aaron R; Romero, Anntherese E; Pullin, Michael J; Kornienko, Alexander; Lowrey, Timothy K; Slambrouck, Severine Van; Steelant, Wim F A

    2008-05-01

    Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products plays a significant role in the discovery and development of potential medicinal agents. Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, have a history of use in Chinese, Arabian and Native American traditional medicine, to treat a variety of diseases including cancer. To date, however, very few studies have been reported on the anti-carcinogenic activity of Taraxacum officinale (TO). In the present study, three aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves, flowers and roots, and investigated on tumor progression related processes such as proliferation and invasion. Our results show that the crude extract of dandelion leaf (DLE) decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells in an ERK-dependent manner, whereas the aqueous extracts of dandelion flower (DFE) and root (DRE) had no effect on the growth of either cell line. Furthermore, DRE was found to block invasion of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells while DLE blocked the invasion of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, into collagen type I. Inhibition of invasion was further evidenced by decreased phosphorylation levels of FAK and src as well as reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study provides new scientific data on TO and suggests that TO extracts or individual components present in the extracts may be of value as novel anti-cancer agents.

  10. The Y-located gonadoblastoma gene TSPY amplifies its own expression through a positive feedback loop in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, Tatsuo; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris, E-mail: Chris.Lau@UCSF.edu

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Y-encoded proto-oncoprotein TSPY amplifies its expression level via a positive feedback loop. • TSPY binds to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of TSPY gene. • TSPY enhances the gene expression in a TSPY exon 1 sequence dependent manner. • The conserved SET/NAP-domain is essential for TSPY transactivation. • Insights on probable mechanisms on TSPY exacerbation on cancer development in men. - Abstract: The testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is a repetitive gene located on the gonadoblastoma region of the Y chromosome, and has been considered to be the putative gene for this oncogenic locus on the male-only chromosome. It is expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes in normal human testis, but abundantly in gonadoblastoma, testicular germ cell tumors and a variety of somatic cancers, including melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer. Various studies suggest that TSPY accelerates cell proliferation and growth, and promotes tumorigenesis. In this report, we show that TSPY could bind directly to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of its own gene, and greatly enhance the transcriptional activities of the endogenous gene in the LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Domain mapping analyses of TSPY have localized the critical and sufficient domain to the SET/NAP-domain. These results suggest that TSPY could efficiently amplify its expression and oncogenic functions through a positive feedback loop, and contribute to the overall tumorigenic processes when it is expressed in various human cancers.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of novel imidazopyridine derivatives on castration-resistant human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Chou, Yu-Wei; Ingersoll, Matthew A; Devine, Alexus; Morris, Marisha; Odero-Marah, Valerie A; Khan, Shafiq A; Chaney, William G; Bu, Xiu R; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2014-10-10

    Metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) relapses after a short period of androgen deprivation therapy and becomes the castration-resistant prostate cancer (CR PCa); to which the treatment is limited. Hence, it is imperative to identify novel therapeutic agents towards this patient population. In the present study, antiproliferative activities of novel imidazopyridines were compared. Among three derivatives, PHE, AMD and AMN, examined, AMD showed the highest inhibitory activity on LNCaP C-81 cell proliferation, following dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, AMD exhibited significant antiproliferative effect against a panel of PCa cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells. Further, when compared to AMD, its derivative DME showed higher inhibitory activities on PCa cell proliferation, clonogenic potential and in vitro tumorigenicity. The inhibitory activity was apparently in part due to the induction of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies indicate that AMD and DME treatments inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt signaling. The results suggest that better understanding of inhibitory mechanisms of AMD and DME could help design novel therapeutic agents for improving the treatment of CR PCa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 enhance docetaxel-induced prostate cancer cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Sato,1 Naoki Itcho,1 Hitoshi Ishiguro,2,3 Daiki Okamoto,1 Naohito Kobayashi,4 Kazuaki Kawai,5 Hiroshi Kasai,5 Daisuke Kurioka,1 Hiroji Uemura,2 Yoshinobu Kubota,2 Masatoshi Watanabe11Laboratory for Medical Engineering, Division of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan; 2Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan; 3Photocatalyst Group, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Japan; 4Department of Molecular Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan; 5Department of Environmental Oncology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, JapanAbstract: Docetaxel (DTX is one of the most important anticancer drugs; however, the severity of its adverse effects detracts from its practical use in the clinic. Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 (MgNPs-Fe3O4 can enhance the delivery and efficacy of anticancer drugs. We investigated the effects of MgNPs-Fe3O4 or DTX alone, and in combination with prostate cancer cell growth in vitro, as well as with the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects. MgNPs-Fe3O4 caused dose-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species levels in DU145, PC-3, and LNCaP cells; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels were also elevated. MgNPs-Fe3O4 alone reduced the viability of LNCaP and PC-3 cells; however, MgNPs-Fe3O4 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of a low dose of DTX in all three cell lines. MgNPs-Fe3O4 also augmented the percentage of DU145 cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with low dose DTX. Expression of nuclear transcription factor κB in DU145 was not affected by MgNPs-Fe3O4 or DTX alone; however, combined treatment suppressed nuclear transcription factor κB expression. These findings offer the possibility that MgNPs-Fe3O4–low dose DTX combination therapy may be

  13. Thioredoxin 1 modulates apoptosis induced by bioactive compounds in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Rodriguez-Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that natural bioactive compounds, alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents, could be used as potential therapies to fight cancer. In this study, we employed four natural bioactive compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, melatonin, and silibinin and studied their role in redox control and ability to promote apoptosis in androgen sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Here is shown that curcumin and resveratrol promote ROS production and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3. An increase in reactive species is a trigger event in curcumin-induced apoptosis and a consequence of resveratrol effects on other pathways within these cells. Moreover, here we demonstrated that these four compounds affect differently one of the main intracellular redox regulator, the thioredoxin system. Exposure to curcumin and resveratrol promoted TRX1 oxidation and altered its subcellular location. Furthermore, resveratrol diminished TRX1 levels in PC-3 cells and increased the expression of its inhibitor TXNIP. Conversly, melatonin and silibinin only worked as cytostatic agents, reducing ROS levels and showing preventive effects against TRX oxidation. All together, this work explores the effect of compounds currently tested as chemo-preventive agents in prostate cancer therapy, on the TRX1 redox state and function. Our work shows the importance that the TRX system might have within the differences found in their mechanisms of action. These bioactive compounds trigger different responses and affect ROS production and redox systems in prostate cancer cells, suggesting the key role that redox-related pathways might play in processes like differentiation or survival in prostate cancer. Keywords: Thioredoxin, Thioredoxin reductase, TXNIP, Prostate cancer, Redox signaling, Apoptosis

  14. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is expressed in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines and expression is differentially regulated in vitro by ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that is expressed in the stomach and a range of peripheral tissues, where it frequently acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Ghrelin is modified by a unique acylation required for it to activate its cognate receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which mediates many of the actions of ghrelin. Recently, the enzyme responsible for adding the fatty acid residue (octanoyl/acyl group) to the third amino acid of ghrelin, GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase), was identified. Methods We used cell culture, quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the expression of GOAT in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues from patients. Real-time RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the expression of prohormone convertase (PC)1/3, PC2 and furin in prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate-derived cell lines were treated with ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin and the effect on GOAT expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results We have demonstrated that GOAT mRNA and protein are expressed in the normal prostate and human prostate cancer tissue samples. The RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 normal prostate-derived cell lines and the LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines express GOAT and at least one other enzyme that is necessary to produce mature, acylated ghrelin from proghrelin (PC1/3, PC2 or furin). Finally, ghrelin, but not desacyl ghrelin (unacylated ghrelin), can directly regulate the expression of GOAT in the RWPE-1 normal prostate derived cell line and the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Ghrelin treatment (100nM) for 6 hours significantly decreased GOAT mRNA expression two-fold (P ghrelin did not regulate GOAT expression in the DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions This study demonstrates that GOAT is expressed in prostate cancer specimens and cell lines. Ghrelin regulates GOAT expression, however, this is likely to be cell-type specific

  15. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-05

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but essential to cure the malignant foci completely. Herein, we review the recent evidence for intestinal stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, methods to detect the tumor-initiating cells, and clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers. We also describe the emerging problems of cancer stem cell theory, including bidirectional conversion and intertumoral heterogeneity of stem cell phenotype.

  16. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom in prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase pathway via inactivation of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Hee; Choi, Myoung Suk; Kwak, Dong Hoon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Yoon, Do Young; Han, Sang Bae; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2011-06-01

    Bee venom has been used as a traditional medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, back pain, cancerous tumors, and skin diseases. However, the effects of bee venom on the prostate cancer and their action mechanisms have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of bee venom and its major component, melittin on the prostate cancer cells, apoptosis is analyzed by tunnel assay and apoptotic gene expression. For xenograft studies, bee venom was administrated intraperitoneally twice per week for 4 weeks, and the tumor growth was measured and the tumor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. To investigate whether bee venom and melittin can inactivate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), we assessed NF-κB activity in vitro and in vivo. Bee venom (1-10 µg/ml) and melittin (0.5-2.5 µg/ml) inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptotic cell death in LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. These effects were mediated by the suppression of constitutively activated NF-κB. Bee venom and melittin decreased anti-apoptotic proteins but induced pro-apoptotic proteins. However, pan caspase inhibitor abolished bee venom and melittin-induced apoptotic cell death and NF-κB inactivation. Bee venom (3-6 mg/kg) administration to nude mice implanted with PC-3 cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and activity of NF-κB accompanied with apoptotic cell death. Therefore, these results indicated that bee venom and melittin could inhibit prostate cancer in in vitro and in vivo, and these effects may be related to NF-κB/caspase signal mediated induction of apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Differential effects of genistein on prostate cancer cells depend on mutational status of the androgen receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M Mahmoud

    Full Text Available Blocking the androgen receptor (AR activity is the main goal of therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa. However, relapse with a more aggressive, hormone refractory PCa arises, which harbors restored AR activity. One mechanism of such reactivation occurs through acquisition of AR mutations that enable its activation by various steroidal and non-steroidal structures. Thus, natural and chemical compounds that contribute to inappropriate (androgen-independent activation of the AR become an area of intensive research. Here, we demonstrate that genistein, a soy phytoestrogen binds to both the wild and the Thr877Ala (T877A mutant types of AR competitively with androgen, nevertheless, it exerts a pleiotropic effect on PCa cell proliferation and AR activity depending on the mutational status of the AR. Genistein inhibited, in a dose-dependent way, cell proliferation and AR nuclear localization and expression in LAPC-4 cells that have wild AR. However, in LNCaP cells that express the T877A mutant AR, genistein induced a biphasic effect where physiological doses (0.5-5 µmol/L stimulated cell growth and increased AR expression and transcriptional activity, and higher doses induced inhibitory effects. Similar biphasic results were achieved in PC-3 cells transfected with AR mutants; T877A, W741C and H874Y. These findings suggest that genistein, at physiological concentrations, potentially act as an agonist and activate the mutant AR that can be present in advanced PCa after androgen ablation therapy.

  18. The transcription factor ERG increases expression of neurotransmitter receptors on prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Haydn T.; On, Seung T.; Dunn, Laura K.; Sanda, Martin G.; Asara, John M.; Pellegrini, Kathryn L.; Noel, Jonathan K.; Arredouani, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in about half of prostate cancer (PCa) cases and results in overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Overexpression of ERG has many effects on cellular function. However, how these changes enhance cell growth and promote tumor development is unclear. To investigate the role of ERG, LNCaP and PC3 cells were transfected with ERG and gene expression and metabolic profile were analyzed. Our data show that expression of ERG induces overexpression of many nicotinicacetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In addition, metabolic profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed elevated production of several neurotransmitters in cells expressing ERG. Consistently, treatment of ERG-expressing cells with nicotine induced elevated calcium influx, GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that PCa patientswho are smokers have larger tumors if their tumors are TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion positive. Collectively, our data suggest that ERG sensitizes prostate tumor cells to neurotransmitter receptor agonists like nicotine. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1612-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  19. TSA-induced cell death in prostate cancer cell lines is caspase-2 dependent and involves the PIDDosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyev, Agshin F; Guseva, Natalya V; Glover, Rebecca A; Rokhlin, Oskar W; Cohen, Michael B

    2006-09-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) has previously been found to induce caspase activity in the human prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and LNCaP. TSA treatment resulted in the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria in DU145, and activation of caspase-9 in both cell lines. We concluded that TSA mediated its effect via the mitochondrial pathway. The aim of the current study was to determine how TSA initiated the caspase cascade. The results revealed that caspase-2 plays an important role in TSA-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase-2 by siRNA or expression of caspase-2dn substantially decreased caspase activity after TSA treatment in both cell lines, siRNA caspase-2 also inhibited TSA-induced cell death. Caspase-2 acts upstream of caspase-8 and -9 and mediates mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that caspase-2 formed protein complexes with RADD/RAIDD and PIDD. Together, these data indicate that caspase-2 initiates caspase cascade after TSA treatment and involves the formation of the PIDDosome.

  20. Radiosensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines for Irradiation from Beta Particle-emitting Radionuclide ¹⁷⁷Lu Compared to Alpha Particles and Gamma Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgqvist, Jörgen; Timmermand, Oskar Vilhelmsson; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the radiosensitivity of the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 when irradiated with beta particles emitted from (177)Lu, and to compare the effect with irradiation using alpha particles or gamma rays. Cells were irradiated with beta particles emitted from (177)Lu, alpha particles from (241)Am, or gamma rays from (137)Cs. A non-specific polyclonal antibody was labeled with (177)Lu and used to irradiate cells in suspension with beta particles. A previously described in-house developed alpha-particle irradiator based on a (241)Am source was used to irradiate cells with alpha particles. External gamma-ray irradiation was achieved using a standard (137)Cs irradiator. Cells were irradiated to absorbed doses equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 Gy. The absorbed doses were calculated as mean absorbed doses. For evaluation of cell survival, the tetrazolium-based WST-1 assay was used. After irradiation, WST-1 was added to the cell solutions, incubated, and then measured for level of absorbance at 450 nm, indicating the live and viable cells. LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cell lines all had similar patterns of survival for the different radiation types. No significant difference in surviving fractions were observed between cells treated with beta-particle and gamma-ray irradiation, represented for example by the surviving fraction values (mean±SD) at 2, 6, and 10 Gy (SF2, SF6, and SF10) for DU145 after beta-particle irradiation: 0.700±0.090, 0.186±0.050 and 0.056±0.010, respectively. A strong radiosensitivity to alpha particles was observed, with SF2 values of 0.048±0.008, 0.018±0.006 and 0.015±0.005 for LNCaP, DU145, and PC3, respectively. The surviving fractions after irradiation using beta particles or gamma rays did not differ significantly at the absorbed dose levels and dose rates used. Irradiation using alpha particles led to a high level of cell killing. The results show that the beta-particle emitter

  1. Inhibition of human prostate cancer cells proliferation by a selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist labedipinedilol-A involves cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, S.-F.; Lin, H.-H.; Liang, J.-C.; Chen, I.-J.; Yeh, J.-L.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we conducted an in vitro analysis to evaluate the prostate cancer cells response to labedipinedilol-A in order to determine the effect of this selective α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we report that treatment of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive (PC-3) prostate cancer cells with labedipinedilol-A inhibited cell proliferation in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. Moreover, norepinephrine-stimulated proliferation of both cell lines are markedly inhibited by labedipinedilol-A. The probable involvement of α 1 -adrenoceptors in this cellular response is suggested. Labedipinedilol-A-induced growth inhibition was associated with G 0 /G 1 arrest, and G 2 /M arrest depending upon concentrations. Cell cycle blockade was associated with reduced amounts of cyclin D1/2, cyclin E, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 and increased levels of the Cdk inhibitory proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27). In addition, labedipinedilol-A also induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells, as determined by using Hoechst 33342 staining, DNA fragmentation, and Annexin V staining assay. Furthermore, labedipinedilol-A triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by increasing the expression of Bax, but decreasing the level of Bcl-2, resulting in mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. We further investigated the role of MAPK cascades in the anti-proliferative and apoptosis effects of labedipinedilol-A, and confirmed that labedipinedilol-A could activate JNK1/2 but not p38 in both cell lines. Unlike JNK1/2, however, labedipinedilol-A treatment resulted in down-regulation of phospho-ERK1/2 expression. We concluded that labedipinedilol-A possessed the growth-suppressive and apoptotic effects on LNCaP and PC-3 cells by its α 1 -adrenoceptor blockade, and the apoptotic effects of labedipinedilol-A primarily through

  2. Correlation Between PSMA and VEGF Expression as Markers for LNCaP Tumor Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Tsui

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is the identification and correlation of changes in tumor-associated protein expression which results from therapy. LNCaP tumors, excised from nude mice treated either by orchiectomy or with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, were evaluated for the expression of proteins and receptors associated with growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis using immunohistologic procedures. Compared to untreated control tumors, both treatments reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, androgen receptor (AR, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. The effect of paclitaxel treatment on AR expression was the most significant (P=.005. Of particular interest was identifying a significant correlation (P<.000801 between PSMA and VEGF expression regardless of treatment modality. These altered expressions suggest that PSMA may also be a marker for angiogenesis and could represent a target for deliverable agents recognizing either prostatic tumors or endothelial development. Cell surface PSMA would then present a unique target for treatment of patients early in their development of prostatic metastases.

  3. Structure and Function of the Splice Variants of TMPRSS2-ERG, a Prevalent Genomic Alteration in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    expression in prostate cancer (4). Lower or no ERG expression in a subset of aggressive tumors with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may reflect attenuation of androgen...Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda MD 20814, USA 2. Cancer Vaccine Development Laboratory, Department of Surgery, United...negative for ERG. The ERG MAb did not show cross reactivity to FLI-1 in LNCaP cells infected with a FLI-1 adenovirus expression vector (Fig 1A

  4. Overexpression of HepaCAM inhibits cell viability and motility through suppressing nucleus translocation of androgen receptor and ERK signaling in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuedong; Wang, Yin; Du, Hongfei; Fan, Yanru; Yang, Xue; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Xiaohou; Luo, Chunli

    2014-07-01

    HepaCAM is suppressed in a variety of human cancers, and involved in cell adhesion, growth, migration, invasion, and survival. However, the expression and function of HepaCAM in prostate cancer are still unknown. HepaCAM expression has been detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining in prostate cell lines RWPE-1, LNCap, DU145, PC3, and in 75 human prostate tissue specimens, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell proliferation ability was detected by WST-8 assay. The role of HepaCAM in prostate cancer cell migration and invasion was examined by wound healing and transwell assay. And flow cytometry was used to observe the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Then we detected changes of Androgen Receptor translocation and ERK signaling using immunofluorescence staining and western blot after overexpression of HepaCAM. The HepaCAM expression was significantly down-regulated in prostate cancer tissues and undetected in prostate cancer cells. However, the low HepaCAM expression was not statistically associated with clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer. Overexpression of HepaCAM in prostate cancer cells decreased the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced the cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, HepaCAM prevented the androgen receptor translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and down-regulated the MAPK/ERK signaling. Our results suggested that HepaCAM acted as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. HepaCAM inhibited cell viability and motility which might be through suppressing the nuclear translocation of Androgen Receptor and down-regulating the ERK signaling. Therefore, it was indicated that HepaCAM may be a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Homeopathic medicines do not alter growth and gene expression in prostate and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Gaddipati, Jaya P; Rajeshkumar, N V; Sharma, Anuj; Singh, Anoop K; Ives, John A; Maheshwari, Radha K; Jonas, Wayne B

    2006-12-01

    Homeopathy is an alternative medical system practiced in all parts of the world. Although several theories are proposed to explain the mechanisms of action, none are scientifically verified. In this study, the authors investigate the effect of selected homeopathic remedies often used to treat prostate and breast cancer. The authors investigated the effect of the homeopathic medicines Conium maculatum, Sabal serrulata, Thuja occidentalis, Asterias, Phytolacca, and Carcinosin on prostate and breast cancer cell (DU-145, LNCaP, MAT-LyLu, MDA-MB-231) growth and on gene expression that regulates apoptosis, using MTT and multiprobe ribonuclease protection assay. None of the homeopathic remedies tested in different potencies produced significant inhibitory or growth-promoting activity in either prostate or breast cancer cells. Also, gene expression studies by ribonuclease protection assay produced no significant changes in mRNA levels of bax, bcl-2, bcl-x, caspase-1, caspase-2, caspase-3, Fas, or FasL after treatment with homeopathic medicines. The results demonstrate that the highly diluted homeopathic remedies used by homeopathic practitioners for cancer show no measurable effects on cell growth or gene expression in vitro using currently available methodologies.

  6. The Nrf1 and Nrf2 Balance in Oxidative Stress Regulation and Androgen Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Michelle A. [Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University Medical Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Abdel-Mageed, Asim B. [Department of Urology, Tulane University Medical Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Mondal, Debasis, E-mail: dmondal@tulane.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University Medical Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling has recently sparked a surge of interest as being the molecular underpinning for cancer cell survival, but the precise mechanisms involved have not been completely elucidated. This review covers the possible roles of two ROS-induced transcription factors, Nrf1 and Nrf2, and the antioxidant proteins peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1) and Thioredoxin-1 (Txn-1) in modulating AR expression and signaling in aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) cells. In androgen independent (AI) C4-2B cells, in comparison to the parental androgen dependent (AD) LNCaP cells, we present evidence of high Nrf1 and Prx-1 expression and low Nrf2 expression in these aggressive PCa cells. Furthermore, in DHT treated C4-2B cells, increased expression of the p65 (active) isoform of Nrf1 correlated with enhanced AR transactivation. Our findings implicate a crucial balance of Nrf1 and Nrf2 signaling in regulating AR activity in AI-PCa cells. Here we will discuss how understanding the mechanisms by which oxidative stress may affect AR signaling may aid in developing novel therapies for AI-PCa.

  7. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were analyzed for CTC count before and after chemotherapy. Clinical relevance of. CTCs with ... reduction (p < 0.001) in CTC count was also observed after one cycle of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Patients with low CTC ... type of cancer in China with 21.7 % of males and. 14.3 % of females. The incidence of ...

  8. Targeting cancer cells using 3-bromopyruvate for selective cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H Baghdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment deserves more research efforts despite intensive conventional treatment modalities for many types of malignancies. Metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy receive a lot of global research efforts. The current advances in cancer biology may improve targeting the critical metabolic differences that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Cancer cells are highly glycolytic for energy production, exhibit the Warburg effect, establish aggressive acidic microenvironment, maintain cancer stem cells, exhibit resistance to chemotherapy, have low antioxidant systems but different ΔΨm (delta psi, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, express P-glycoprotein for multidrug resistance, upregulate glucose transporters and monocarboxylate transporters and are under high steady-state reactive oxygen species conditions. Normal cells differ in all these aspects. Lactate produced through the Warburg effect helps cancer metastasis. Targeting glycolysis reactions for energy production in cancer cells seems promising in decreasing the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate makes use of cancer biology in treating cancer cells, cancer stem cells and preventing metastasis in human cancer as discussed in this review. Updated advances are analyzed here, which include research analysis of background, experience, readings in the field of cancer biology, oncology and biochemistry.

  9. p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) repress prostate specific antigen levels in human prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lilian I L; Labrecque, Mark P; Ibuki, Naokazu; Cox, Michael E; Elliott, John E; Beischlag, Timothy V

    2015-03-25

    Despite stringent restrictions on their use by many countries since the 1970s, the endocrine disrupting chemicals, DDT and DDE are still ubiquitous in the environment. However, little attention has been directed to p,p'-DDT and the anti-androgen, p,p'-DDE on androgen receptor (AR) target gene transcription in human cells. Inhibitors of androgenic activity may have a deleterious clinical outcome in prostate cancer screens and progression, therefore we determined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE negatively impact AR-regulated expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and other AR target genes in human LNCaP and VCaP prostate cancer cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immuno-blotting techniques were used to measure intracellular PSA, PSMA and AR mRNA and protein levels. We have shown for the first time that p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE repressed R1881-inducible PSA mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we used the fully automated COBAS PSA detection system to determine that extracellular PSA levels were also significantly repressed. These chemicals achieve this by blocking the recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter region at 10 μM, as demonstrated by the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in LNCaP cells. Both p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE repressed R1881-inducible AR protein accumulation at 10 μM. Thus, we conclude that men who have been exposed to either DDT or DDE may produce a false-negative PSA test when screening for prostate cancer, resulting in an inaccurate clinical diagnosis. More importantly, prolonged exposure to these anti-androgens may mimic androgen ablation therapy in individuals with prostate cancer, thus exacerbating the condition by inadvertently forcing adaptation to this stress early in the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    et al., Skp2 regulates androgen receptor through ubiquitin-mediated degradation independent of Akt /mTOR pathways in prostate cancer. Prostate, 2014...I remained fairly steady with only marginal production of LC-3 II, so did the p- Akt . Because of the relative stable AR expression and yet...show ubiquitination of AR via co- immunoprecipitation of AR and ubiquitin. LNCaP C4-2B cells were treated with metformin alone or in combinations

  11. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... certain genes, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) ...

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... certain genes, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... certain genes, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) ...

  14. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... certain genes, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) ...

  15. How Can We Treat Cancer Disease Not Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Woo-Young; Seo, Ji Hae; Lee, Ho-Young

    2017-01-01

    Since molecular biology studies began, researches in biological science have centered on proteins and genes at molecular level of a single cell. Cancer research has also focused on various functions of proteins and genes that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Accordingly, most contemporary anticancer drugs have been developed to target abnormal characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the great advances in the development of anticancer drugs, vast majority of patients with advanced cancer have shown grim prognosis and high rate of relapse. To resolve this problem, we must reevaluate our focuses in current cancer research. Cancer should be considered as a systemic disease because cancer cells undergo a complex interaction with various surrounding cells in cancer tissue and spread to whole body through metastasis under the control of the systemic modulation. Human body relies on the cooperative interaction between various tissues and organs, and each organ performs its specialized function through tissue-specific cell networks. Therefore, investigation of the tumor-specific cell networks can provide novel strategy to overcome the limitation of current cancer research. This review presents the limitations of the current cancer research, emphasizing the necessity of studying tissue-specific cell network which could be a new perspective on treating cancer disease, not cancer cells.

  16. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  17. Determination of Six Transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 Gene Expression and Intracellular Localization in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora İrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between the RNA and protein expression profile of six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2 gene and androgen and the intracellular localization of STAMP2. Materials and Methods: RNA and protein were obtained from androgen treated lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP cells, untreated LNCaP cells, DU145 cells with no androgen receptor, and STAMP2 transfected COS-7 cells. The expression profile of STAMP2 gene and the effect of androgenes on the expression was shown in RNA and protein levels by using Northern and Western blotting methods. In addition, intracellular localization of the naturally synthesized STAMP2 protein and the transfected STAMP2 protein in COS-7 cells after androgen administration in both LNCaP cells was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found that the RNA and protein expression of STAMP2 gene in LNCaP cells are regulated by androgenes, the power of expression is increased with the duration of androgen treatment and there is no STAMP2 expression in DU145 cells which has no androgen receptor. As a result of the immunofluorescence microscopy study we observed that STAMP2 protein was localized at golgi complex and cell membrane. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have demonstrated that STAMP2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the prostate cancer and in the androgen-dependent androgen-independent staging of prostate cancer. In addition, STAMP2 protein, which is localized in the intracellular golgi complex and cell membrane, may be a new target molecule for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Adoptive T cell cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhandzhugazyan, Karine N.; Guldberg, Per; Kirkin, Alexei F.

    2018-06-01

    Tumour heterogeneity and off-target toxicity are current challenges of cancer immunotherapy. Karine Dzhandzhugazyan, Per Guldberg and Alexei Kirkin discuss how epigenetic induction of tumour antigens in antigen-presenting cells may form the basis for multi-target therapies.

  19. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 functions as an epigenetic activator of the androgen receptor to promote prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X; Shao, G; Zhang, H-T; Li, C; Zhang, D; Cheng, L; Elzey, B D; Pili, R; Ratliff, T L; Huang, J; Hu, C-D

    2017-03-02

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an emerging epigenetic enzyme that mainly represses transcription of target genes via symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3. Accumulating evidence suggests that PRMT5 may function as an oncogene to drive cancer cell growth by epigenetic inactivation of several tumor suppressors. Here, we provide evidence that PRMT5 promotes prostate cancer cell growth by epigenetically activating transcription of the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of PRMT5 or inhibition of PRMT5 by a specific inhibitor reduces the expression of AR and suppresses the growth of multiple AR-positive, but not AR-negative, prostate cancer cells. Significantly, knockdown of PRMT5 in AR-positive LNCaP cells completely suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Molecular analysis reveals that PRMT5 binds to the proximal promoter region of the AR gene and contributes mainly to the enriched symmetric dimethylation of H4R3 in the same region. Mechanistically, PRMT5 is recruited to the AR promoter by its interaction with Sp1, the major transcription factor responsible for AR transcription, and forms a complex with Brg1, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler, on the proximal promoter region of the AR gene. Furthermore, PRMT5 expression in prostate cancer tissues is significantly higher than that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, and PRMT5 expression correlates positively with AR expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, our results identify PRMT5 as a novel epigenetic activator of AR in prostate cancer. Given that inhibiting AR transcriptional activity or androgen synthesis remains the major mechanism of action for most existing anti-androgen agents, our findings also raise an interesting possibility that targeting PRMT5 may represent a novel approach for prostate cancer treatment by eliminating AR expression.

  20. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  1. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  2. Overexpression of p53 activated by small activating RNA suppresses the growth of human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Q

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiangqiang Ge,1,* Chenghe Wang,2,* Yajun Ruan,1,* Zhong Chen,1 Jihong Liu,1 Zhangqun Ye1 1Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 2Department of Urology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Previous research has reported that a particular double-stranded RNA, named dsP53-285, has the capacity to induce expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 in chimpanzee cells by targeting its promoter. Usually, it is the wild-type p53 protein, rather than mutants, which exhibits potent cancer-inhibiting effects. In addition, nonhuman primates, such as chimpanzees, share almost identical genome sequences with humans. This prompted us to speculate whether dsP53-285 can trigger wild-type p53 protein expression in human prostate cancer (PCa cells and consequently suppress cell growth. The human PCa cell lines LNCaP and DU145 were transfected with dsP53-285 for 72 hours. Compared with the dsControl and mock transfection groups, expression of both p53 messenger RNA and p53 protein was significantly enhanced after dsP53-285 transfection, and this enhancement was followed by upregulation of p21, which indirectly indicated that dsP53-285 induced wild-type p53 expression. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type p53 mediated by dsP53-285 downregulated the expression of Cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, thereby inducing PCa cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and then inhibiting cell proliferation and clonogenicity. More importantly, dsP53-285 suppressed PCa cells mainly by modulating wild-type p53 expression. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that dsP53-285 can significantly stimulate wild-type p53 expression in the human PCa cell lines LNCaP and DU145 and can exert potent antitumor effects. Keywords: p53, small activating RNA, prostate

  3. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  4. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R.; Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Fernandes, Maria H.; Costa-Rodrigues, João

    2016-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  5. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  6. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  7. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents.

  8. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Matthew A; Lyons, Anastesia S; Muniyan, Sakthivel; D'Cunha, Napoleon; Robinson, Tashika; Hoelting, Kyle; Dwyer, Jennifer G; Bu, Xiu R; Batra, Surinder K; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents.

  9. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  10. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells can generate tumors from only a small number of cells, whereas differentiated cancer cells cannot. The prominent feature of cancer stem cells is its ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells have several distinct tumorigenic abilities, including stem cell signal transduction, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs, which are regulated by genetic or epigenetic changes. Like normal adult stem cells involved in various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis, cancer stem cells maintain their self-renewal capacity by activating multiple stem cell signaling pathways and inhibiting differentiation signaling pathways during cancer initiation and progression. Recently, many studies have focused on targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate malignancies by regulating stem cell signaling pathways, and products of some of these strategies are in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we describe the crucial features of cancer stem cells related to tumor relapse and drug resistance, as well as the new therapeutic strategy to target cancer stem cells named "differentiation therapy."

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits the growth of hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells by promoting the degradation of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhimei; Qi, Haixia; Zhang, Ruixue; Zhang, Kun; Shi, Zhemin; Chang, Yanan; Chen, Linfeng; Esmaeili, Mohsen; Baniahmad, Aria; Hong, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical data have demonstrated the preventative effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on prostate cancer. However, there are inconsistencies in these previous studies and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the androgen receptor (AR), which is a transcription factor involved in cell proliferation and prostate carcinogenesis, was identified as a target of DHA. It was revealed that DHA inhibited hormone‑dependent growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with DHA caused no alteration in the transcribed mRNA expression levels of the AR gene. However, immunoblotting revealed that this treatment reduces the protein expression level of the AR. The androgen‑induced genes were subsequently repressed by treatment with DHA. It was demonstrated that DHA exhibits no effect on the translation process of the AR, however, it promotes the proteasome‑mediated degradation of the AR. Therefore, the present study provided a novel mechanism by which DHA exhibits an inhibitory effect on growth of prostate cancer cells.

  12. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-directed nanoparticle targeting for extreme nearfield ablation of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung S; Roche, Philip Jr; Giannopoulos, Paresa N; Mitmaker, Elliot J; Tamilia, Michael; Paliouras, Miltiadis; Trifiro, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Almost all biological therapeutic interventions cannot overcome neoplastic heterogeneity. Physical ablation therapy is immune to tumor heterogeneity, but nearby tissue damage is the limiting factor in delivering lethal doses. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes offer a number of unique properties: chemical stability, photonic properties including efficient light absorption, thermal conductivity, and extensive surface area availability for covalent chemical ligation. When combined together with a targeting moiety such as an antibody or small molecule, one can deliver highly localized temperature increases and cause extensive cellular damage. We have functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes by conjugating an antibody against prostate-specific membrane antigen. In our in vitro studies using prostate-specific membrane antigen-positive LNCaP prostate cancer cells, we have effectively demonstrated cell ablation of >80% with a single 30-s exposure to a 2.7-W, 532-nm laser for the first time without bulk heating. We also confirmed the specificity and selectivity of prostate-specific membrane antigen targeting by assessing prostate-specific membrane antigen-null PC3 cell lines under the same conditions (<10% cell ablation). This suggests that we can achieve an extreme nearfield cell ablation effect, thus restricting potential tissue damage when transferred to in vivo clinical applications. Developing this new platform will introduce novel approaches toward current therapeutic modalities and will usher in a new age of effective cancer treatment squarely addressing tumoral heterogeneity.

  13. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...... offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models...

  14. Dentatin Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells via Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Survivin Downregulation, Caspase-9, -3/7 Activation, and NF-κB Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Adam Arbab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was set to investigate antiproliferative potential of dentatin (a natural coumarin isolated from Clausena excavata Burm. F against prostate cancer and to delineate the underlying mechanism of action. Treatment with dentatin dose-dependently inhibited cell growth of PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, whereas it showed less cytotoxic effects on normal prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. The inhibitory effect of dentatin on prostate cancer cell growth was due to induction of apoptosis as evidenced by Annexin V staining and cell shrinkage. We found that dentatin-mediated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulated expression levels of antiapoptotic molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Survivin, leading to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cell membrane permeability, and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. These effects were associated with induction of caspase-9, -3/7 activities, and subsequent DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found that dentatin inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation of p65, suggesting dentatin as a potential NF-κB inhibitor. Thus, we suggest that dentatin may have therapeutic value in prostate cancer treatment worthy of further development.

  15. Antiandrogens act as selective androgen receptor modulators at the proteome level in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Greg N; Gamble, Simon C; Hough, Michael A; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M; Fioretti, Flavia M; Bryan, Rosie A; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  16. Regulation of the ITGA2 gene by epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Suyin Paulynn; Marthick, James R; West, Alison C; Short, Annabel K; Chuckowree, Jyoti; Polanowski, Andrea M; Thomson, Russell J; Holloway, Adele F; Dickinson, Joanne L

    2015-05-01

    Integrin alpha2 beta1 (α2 β1 ) plays an integral role in tumour cell invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, and altered expression of the receptor has been linked to tumour prognosis in several solid tumours. However, the relationship is complex, with both increased and decreased expression associated with different stages of tumour metastases in several tumour types. The ITGA2 gene, which codes for the α2 subunit, was examined to investigate whether a large CpG island associated with its promoter region is involved in the differential expression of ITGA2 observed in prostate cancer. Bisulphite sequencing of the ITGA2 promoter was used to assess methylation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate tumour specimens and prostate cancer cell lines, PC3, 22Rv1 and LNCaP. Changes in ITGA2 mRNA expression were measured using quantitative PCR. ITGA2 functionality was interrogated using cell migration scratch assays and siRNA knockdown experiments. Bisulphite sequencing revealed strikingly decreased methylation at key CpG sites within the promoter of tumour samples, when compared with normal prostate tissue. Altered methylation of this CpG island is also associated with differences in expression in the non-invasive LNCaP, and the highly metastatic PC3 and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell lines. Further bisulphite sequencing confirmed that selected CpGs were highly methylated in LNCaP cells, whilst only low levels of methylation were observed in PC3 and 22Rv1 cells, correlating with ITGA2 transcript levels. Examination of the increased expression of ITGA2 was shown to influence migratory potential via scratch assay in PC3, 22Rv1 and LNCaP cells, and was confirmed by siRNA knockdown experiments. Taken together, our data supports the assertion that epigenetic modification of the ITGA2 promoter is a mechanism by which ITGA2 expression is regulated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Combination of Proteasomal Inhibitors Lactacystin and MG132 Induced Synergistic Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Shirley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor Velcade (bortezomib/PS-341 has been shown to block the targeted proteolytic degradation of short-lived proteins that are involved in cell maintenance, growth, division, and death, advocating the use of proteasomal inhibitors as therapeutic agents. Although many studies focused on the use of one proteasomal inhibitor for therapy, we hypothesized that the combination of proteasome inhibitors Lactacystin (AG Scientific, Inc., San Diego, CA and MG132 (Biomol International, Plymouth Meeting, PA may be more effective in inducing apoptosis. Additionally, this regimen would enable the use of sublethal doses of individual drugs, thus reducing adverse effects. Results indicate a significant increase in apoptosis when LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with increasing levels of Lactacystin, MG132, or a combination of sublethal doses of these two inhibitors. Furthermore, induction in apoptosis coincided with a significant loss of IKKα, IKKβ, and IKKγ proteins and NFκB activity. In addition to describing effective therapeutic agents, we provide a model system to facilitate the investigation of the mechanism of action of these drugs and their effects on the IKK-NFκB axis.

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-κB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells. PMID:26115086

  19. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-06-24

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-kB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells.

  20. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  1. Physical and Functional Interactions between ELL2 and RB in the Suppression of Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor, RNA polymerase II, 2 (ELL2 is expressed and regulated by androgens in the prostate. ELL2 and ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2 form a stable complex, and their orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans appear to be functionally similar. In C. elegans, the EAF2 ortholog eaf-1 was reported to interact with the retinoblastoma (RB pathway to control development and fertility in worms. Because RB loss is frequent in prostate cancer, ELL2 interaction with RB might be important for prostate homeostasis. The present study explored physical and functional interaction of ELL2 with RB in prostate cancer. ELL2 expression in human prostate cancer specimens was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction coupled with laser capture microdissection. Co-immunoprecipitation coupled with deletion mutagenesis was used to determine ELL2 association with RB. Functional interaction between ELL2 and RB was tested using siRNA knockdown, BrdU incorporation, Transwell, and/or invasion assays in LNCaP, C4-2, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. ELL2 expression was downregulated in high–Gleason score prostate cancer specimens. ELL2 could be bound and stabilized by RB, and this interaction was mediated through the N-terminus of ELL2 and the C-terminus of RB. Concurrent siRNA knockdown of ELL2 and RB enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as compared to knockdown of ELL2 or RB alone in prostate cancer cells. ELL2 and RB can interact physically and functionally to suppress prostate cancer progression.

  2. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth–death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  3. Targetless T cells in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, Eivind Per; Garrido, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Attention has recently focused on new cancer immunotherapy protocols aiming to activate T cell mediated anti-tumor responses. To this end, administration of antibodies that target inhibitory molecules regulating T-cell cytotoxicity has achieved impressive clinical responses, as has adoptive cell...... infiltrate tumor tissues and destroy HLA class I positive tumor cells expressing the specific antigen. In fact, current progress in the field of cancer immune therapy is based on the capacity of T cells to kill cancer cells that present tumor antigen in the context on an HLA class I molecule. However......, it is also well established that cancer cells are often characterized by loss or down regulation of HLA class I molecules, documented in a variety of human tumors. Consequently, immune therapy building on CD8 T cells will be futile in patients harboring HLA class-I negative or deficient cancer cells...

  4. Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    protease activity of PSA [14]. Semenogelins are expressed in other male genital organs, such as the vas def - erens, epididymis, and prostate, as well...expression and secretion in prostate cancer lines stably expressing SgI. Cell extracts (A) or acetone-precipitated proteins in con - ditioned media... con - firmed this by demonstrating the failure to detect SgI signals in the conditioned medium after culturing control LNCaP with endogenous SgI and

  5. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  6. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...CA130273 - Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM...hypothesis, we originally proposed to transform neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vivo by expressing an activated form

  7. CDK2 and mTOR are direct molecular targets of isoangustone A in the suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Son, Joe Eun; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Yeong A [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Kangdong [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jung Han Yoon [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Science, Hallym University, Chuncheon, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Zigang [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Lee, Ki Won, E-mail: kiwon@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyong Joo, E-mail: leehyjo@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Licorice extract which is used as a natural sweetener has been shown to possess inhibitory effects against prostate cancer, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we report a compound, isoangustone A (IAA) in licorice that potently suppresses the growth of aggressive prostate cancer and sought to clarify its mechanism of action. We analyzed its inhibitory effects on the growth of PTEN-deleted human prostate cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Administration of IAA significantly attenuated the growth of prostate cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. These effects were found to be attributable to inhibition of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition and the accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. The elevated p27{sup kip1} expression levels were concurrent with the decrease of its phosphorylation at threonine 187 through suppression of CDK2 kinase activity and the reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473 by diminishing the kinase activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Further analysis using recombinant proteins and immunoprecipitated cell lysates determined that IAA exerts suppressive effects against CDK2 and mTOR kinase activity by direct binding with both proteins. These findings suggested that the licorice compound IAA is a potent molecular inhibitor of CDK2 and mTOR, with strong implications for the treatment of prostate cancer. Thus, licorice-derived extracts with high IAA content warrant further clinical investigation for nutritional sources for prostate cancer patients. - Highlights: • Isoangustone A suppresses growth of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. • Administration of isoangustone A inhibits tumor growth in mice. • Treatment of isoangustone A induces cell cycle arrest and accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. • Isoangustone A inhibits CDK2 and mTOR activity. • Isoangustone A directly binds with CDK2 and mTOR complex in prostate cancer cells.

  8. Ultrasound-guided delivery of siRNA and a chemotherapeutic drug by using microbubble complexes: In vitro and in vivo evaluations in a prostate cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Yoon, Young Il; Lee, Hak Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Delivery of siRNA and a Chemotherapeutic Drug by Using Microbubble Complexes: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations in a Prostate Cancer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 16229 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-Jong [Department of Applied Bioscience, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pocheon 11160 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak Jong [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 16229 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Delivery of siRNA and a Chemotherapeutic Drug by Using Microbubble Complexes: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations in a Prostate Cancer Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Yoon, Young Il; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Lee, Hak Jong

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells of the Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (A549) Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Noor Hanis Abu; Zakaria, Norashikin; Satar, Nazilah Abdul; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.

  12. Analysis of the molecular networks in androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer revealed fragile and robust subsystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Tasseff

    Full Text Available Androgen ablation therapy is currently the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, in nearly all cases, androgen ablation fails to permanently arrest cancer progression. As androgens like testosterone are withdrawn, prostate cancer cells lose their androgen sensitivity and begin to proliferate without hormone growth factors. In this study, we constructed and analyzed a mathematical model of the integration between hormone growth factor signaling, androgen receptor activation, and the expression of cyclin D and Prostate-Specific Antigen in human LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells. The objective of the study was to investigate which signaling systems were important in the loss of androgen dependence. The model was formulated as a set of ordinary differential equations which described 212 species and 384 interactions, including both the mRNA and protein levels for key species. An ensemble approach was chosen to constrain model parameters and to estimate the impact of parametric uncertainty on model predictions. Model parameters were identified using 14 steady-state and dynamic LNCaP data sets taken from literature sources. Alterations in the rate of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase expression was sufficient to capture varying levels of androgen dependence. Analysis of the model provided insight into the importance of network components as a function of androgen dependence. The importance of androgen receptor availability and the MAPK/Akt signaling axes was independent of androgen status. Interestingly, androgen receptor availability was important even in androgen-independent LNCaP cells. Translation became progressively more important in androgen-independent LNCaP cells. Further analysis suggested a positive synergy between the MAPK and Akt signaling axes and the translation of key proliferative markers like cyclin D in androgen-independent cells. Taken together, the results support the targeting of both the Akt and MAPK

  13. Stem cells and cancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the small units of multicellular creature. Regeneration and self-renewal are the ability of the stem cells. Each tissue is having particular stem cells, specific to it. These normal stem cells are converted into cancer stem cells through mutations in it. Although the expression of oncogenes is enhanced a lot, the tumor-supressing gene is lessened. Cancer stem cells are isolated and visualized through different techniques like immunocytochemical staining, spectral karyotyping, immunohistochemistry, induction method and dissection measures, then are performed histological procedures which include fascination, immunohistochemistry, dispensation, in situ hybridization and also quantitative examination of tissue flow cytometric analysis. For the analysis of quantization, statistical tests are also performed as two-sample t-test, Chi-square test, SD and arithmetic mean. Tumor cells generate glioma spheres. These are used in cancer study. Axin 1 is the gene suppressing cancer. Its removal causes the generation of liver cancer. Curcumin is the most effective for suppressing cancer as it increases the normal stem cell function and decreases the cancer stem cell function. Brahma-related gene 1 is crucial for the safeguarding of the stem cell residents in tissue-specific comportment. Different types of cancers originate through genetic mutation, tissue disorganization and cell proliferation. Tumor configuration is produced by the alteration in original cell culture having stem cells and progenitor cell populations. The developmental facets about cancer cells and cancer stem cells as well as their personal natal functions sustain an intricate steadiness to settle on their personal donations to the efficacy or harmfulness of the biological organization.

  14. The stem cell division theory of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    All cancer registries constantly show striking differences in cancer incidence by age and among tissues. For example, lung cancer is diagnosed hundreds of times more often at age 70 than at age 20, and lung cancer in nonsmokers occurs thousands of times more frequently than heart cancer in smokers. An analysis of these differences using basic concepts in cell biology indicates that cancer is the end-result of the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells. In other words, the main determinant of carcinogenesis is the number of cell divisions that the DNA of a stem cell has accumulated in any type of cell from the zygote. Cell division, process by which a cell copies and separates its cellular components to finally split into two cells, is necessary to produce the large number of cells required for living. However, cell division can lead to a variety of cancer-promoting errors, such as mutations and epigenetic mistakes occurring during DNA replication, chromosome aberrations arising during mitosis, errors in the distribution of cell-fate determinants between the daughter cells, and failures to restore physical interactions with other tissue components. Some of these errors are spontaneous, others are promoted by endogenous DNA damage occurring during quiescence, and others are influenced by pathological and environmental factors. The cell divisions required for carcinogenesis are primarily caused by multiple local and systemic physiological signals rather than by errors in the DNA of the cells. As carcinogenesis progresses, the accumulation of DNA errors promotes cell division and eventually triggers cell division under permissive extracellular environments. The accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells drives not only the accumulation of the DNA alterations required for carcinogenesis, but also the formation and growth of the abnormal cell populations that characterize the disease. This model of carcinogenesis provides a new framework for understanding the

  15. Cytologic studies on irradiated gestric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, S; Takeda, T; Amakasu, H; Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    The smears of the biopsy and resected specimens obtained from 74 cases of irradiated gastric cancer were cytologically analyzed for effects of irradiation. Irradiation increased the amount of both necrotic materials and neutrophils in the smears. Cancer cells were decreased in number almost in inverse proportion to irradiation dose. Clusters of cancer cells shrank in size and cells were less stratified after irradiation. Irradiated cytoplasms were swollen, vacuolated and stained abnormally. Irradiation with less than 3,000 rads gave rise to swelling of cytoplasms in almost all cases. Nuclei became enlarged, multiple, pyknotic and/or stained pale after irradiation. Nuclear swelling was more remarkable in cancer cells of differentiated adenocarcinomas.

  16. Dissecting the expression of EEF1A1/2 genes in human prostate cancer cells: the potential of EEF1A2 as a hallmark for prostate transformation and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaggiante, B; Dapas, B; Bonin, S; Grassi, M; Zennaro, C; Farra, R; Cristiano, L; Siracusano, S; Zanconati, F; Giansante, C; Grassi, G

    2012-01-03

    In prostate adenocarcinoma, the dissection of the expression behaviour of the eukaryotic elongation factors (eEF1A1/2) has not yet fully elucidated. The EEF1A1/A2 expressions were investigated by real-time PCR, western blotting (cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal/nuclear-enriched fractions) and immunofluorescence in the androgen-responsive LNCaP and the non-responsive DU-145 and PC-3 cells, displaying a low, moderate and high aggressive phenotype, respectively. Targeted experiments were also conducted in the androgen-responsive 22Rv1, a cell line marking the progression towards androgen-refractory tumour. The non-tumourigenic prostate PZHPV-7 cell line was the control. Compared with PZHPV-7, cancer cells showed no major variations in EEF1A1 mRNA; eEF1A1 protein increased only in cytoskeletal/nuclear fraction. On the contrary, a significant rise of EEF1A2 mRNA and protein were found, with the highest levels detected in LNCaP. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 immunostaining confirmed the western blotting results. Pilot evaluation in archive prostate tissues showed the presence of EEF1A2 mRNA in near all neoplastic and perineoplastic but not in normal samples or in benign adenoma; in contrast, EEF1A1 mRNA was everywhere detectable. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 switch-on, observed in cultured tumour prostate cells and in human prostate tumour samples, may represent a feature of prostate cancer; in contrast, a minor involvement is assigned to EEF1A1. These observations suggest to consider EEF1A2 as a marker for prostate cell transformation and/or possibly as a hallmark of cancer progression.

  17. Natural Killer T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells. Finally, we discuss future perspectives to better harness the potential of NKT cells for cancer therapy. PMID:29018445

  18. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J

    2000-02-01

    In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.

  19. The Implications of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Jiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are universally recognized as the most effective anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances directed towards elucidating molecular mechanisms and developing clinical trials, cancer still remains a major public health issue. Recent studies have showed that cancer stem cells (CSCs, a small subpopulation of tumor cells, can generate bulk populations of nontumorigenic cancer cell progeny through the self-renewal and differentiation processes. As CSCs are proposed to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors, development of CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies holds new hope for improving survival and quality of life in patients with cancer. Therapeutic innovations will emerge from a better understanding of the biology and environment of CSCs, which, however, are largely unexplored. This review summarizes the characteristics, evidences and development of CSCs, as well as implications and challenges for cancer treatment.

  20. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  1. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  2. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identification of a genetic interaction between the tumor suppressor EAF2 and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) signaling pathway in C. elegans and prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Liquan; Wang, Dan [Department of Urology, The University of Pittsburgh, 5200 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15216 (United States); Fisher, Alfred L., E-mail: fishera2@uthscsa.edu [Division of Geriatrics, Gerontology, and Palliative Medicine, Department of Medicine, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Center for Healthy Aging, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); GRECC, STVAHCS, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Wang, Zhou, E-mail: wangz2@upmc.edu [Department of Urology, The University of Pittsburgh, 5200 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15216 (United States); GRECC, STVAHCS, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • RNAi screen identified genetic enhancers for the C. elegans homolog of EAF2. • EAF2 and RBBP4 proteins physically bind to each other and alter transcription. • Overexpression of EAF2 and RBBP4 induces the cell death in prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: The tumor suppressor EAF2 is regulated by androgen signaling and associated with prostate cancer. While EAF2 and its partner ELL have been shown to be members of protein complexes involved in RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation, the biologic roles for EAF2 especially with regards to the development of cancer remains poorly understood. We have previously identified the eaf-1 gene in Caenorhabditiselegans as the ortholog of EAF2, and shown that eaf-1 interacts with the ELL ortholog ell-1 to control development and fertility in worms. To identify genetic pathways that interact with eaf-1, we screened RNAi libraries consisting of transcription factors, phosphatases, and chromatin-modifying factors to identify genes which enhance the effects of eaf-1(tm3976) on fertility. From this screen, we identified lin-53, hmg-1.2, pha-4, ruvb-2 and set-6 as hits. LIN-53 is the C. elegans ortholog of human retinoblastoma binding protein 4/7 (RBBP 4/7), which binds to the retinoblastoma protein and inhibits the Ras signaling pathway. We find that lin-53 showed a synthetic interaction with eaf-1(tm3976) where knockdown of lin-53 in an eaf-1(tm3976) mutant resulted in sterile worms. This phenotype may be due to cell death as the treated worms contain degenerated embryos with increased expression of the ced-1:GFP cell death marker. Further we find that the interaction between eaf-1 and lin-53/RBBP4/7 also exists in vertebrates, which is reflected by the formation of a protein complex between EAF2 and RBBP4/7. Finally, overexpression of either human EAF2 or RBBP4 in LNCaP cells induced the cell death while knockdown of EAF2 in LNCaP enhanced cell proliferation, indicating an important role of EAF2 in

  4. Adipocyte activation of cancer stem cell signaling in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Wolfson; Gabriel; Eades; Qun; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Signaling within the tumor microenvironment has a critical role in cancer initiation and progression. Adipocytes, one of the major components of the breast microenvironment,have been shown to provide pro-tumorigenic signals that promote cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Adipocyte secreted factors such as leptin and interleukin-6(IL-6) have a paracrine effect on breast cancer cells. In adipocyte-adjacent breast cancer cells, the leptin and IL-6 signaling pathways activate janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activatorof transcription 5, promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and upregulating stemness regulators such as Notch, Wnt and the Sex determining region Y-box 2/octamer binding transcription factor 4/Nanog signaling axis. In this review we will summarize the major signaling pathways that regulate cancer stem cells in breast cancer and describe the effects that adipocyte secreted IL-6 and leptin have on breast cancer stem cell signaling. Finally we will introduce a new potential treatment paradigm of inhibiting the adipocyte-breast cancer cell signaling via targeting the IL-6 or leptin pathways.

  5. Genetic and cellular studies highlight that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 19 is a protective biomarker in human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyne, Gerard; Rudnicka, Caroline; Sang, Qing-Xiang; Roycik, Mark; Howarth, Sarah; Leedman, Peter; Schlaich, Markus; Candy, Patrick; Matthews, Vance

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Current treatments include surgery, androgen ablation and radiation. Introduction of more targeted therapies in prostate cancer, based on a detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways, aims to reduce side effects, leading to better clinical outcomes for the patient. ADAM19 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 19) is a transmembrane and soluble protein which can regulate cell phenotype through cell adhesion and proteolysis. ADAM19 has been positively associated with numerous diseases, but has not been shown to be a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of any human cancers. Our group sought to investigate the role of ADAM19 in human prostate cancer. ADAM19 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in well characterised human prostate cancer cohorts. ADAM19 expression was assessed in normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC3) using western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Proliferation assays were conducted in LNCaP cells in which ADAM19 was over-expressed. In vitro scratch assays were performed in PC3 cells over-expressing ADAM19. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted that ADAM19 protein levels were elevated in normal prostate tissue compared to prostate cancer biopsies. Results from the clinical cohorts demonstrated that high levels of ADAM19 in microarrays are positively associated with lower stage (p = 0.02591) and reduced relapse (p = 0.00277) of human prostate cancer. In vitro, ADAM19 expression was higher in RWPE-1 cells compared to LNCaP cells. In addition, human ADAM19 over-expression reduced LNCaP cell proliferation and PC3 cell migration. Taken together, our immunohistochemical and microarray results and cellular studies have shown for the first time that ADAM19 is a protective factor for human prostate cancer. Further, this study suggests that upregulation of ADAM19 expression could be of therapeutic potential in human prostate cancer

  6. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  7. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion

  8. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Stivarou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  9. Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer. Cellular senescence is a programmed response to oncogenic (tumour-causing) stress that aims to halt the expansion of cells with malignant potential. It does this by stopping the proliferation of pre-cancerous lesions and recruitment of the immune system for their elimination.

  10. Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    165-72. 60. Vestergaard J, Pedersen MW, Pedersen N, Ensinger C, Tumer Z, Tommerup N, et al. Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent......NUMBER Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0471 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  11. Identification of beta-2 as a key cell adhesion molecule in PCa cell neurotropic behavior: a novel ex vivo and biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Keith H; Castillo, Deborah G; Morris, Joseph W; Boggs, Mary E; Czymmek, Kirk J; Adams, Elizabeth L; Schramm, Lawrence P; Sikes, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (β) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC

  12. Engineered T cells for pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katari, Usha L; Keirnan, Jacqueline M; Worth, Anna C; Hodges, Sally E; Leen, Ann M; Fisher, William E; Vera, Juan F

    2011-01-01

    Objective Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy produce marginal survival benefits in pancreatic cancer, underscoring the need for novel therapies. The aim of this study is to develop an adoptive T cell transfer approach to target tumours expressing prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a tumour-associated antigen that is frequently expressed by pancreatic cancer cells. Methods Expression of PSCA on cell lines and primary tumour samples was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Healthy donor- and patient-derived T cells were isolated, activated in vitro using CD3/CD28, and transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting PSCA. The ability of these cells to kill tumour cells was analysed by chromium-51 (Cr51) release. Results Prostate stem cell antigen was expressed on >70% of the primary tumour samples screened. Activated, CAR-modified T cells could be readily generated in clinically relevant numbers and were specifically able to kill PSCA-expressing pancreatic cancer cell lines with no non-specific killing of PSCA-negative target cells, thus indicating the potential efficacy and safety of this approach. Conclusions Prostate stem cell antigen is frequently expressed on pancreatic cancer cells and can be targeted for immune-mediated destruction using CAR-modified, adoptively transferred T cells. The safety and efficacy of this approach indicate that it deserves further study and may represent a promising novel treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:21843265

  13. An immunosurveillance mechanism controls cancer cell ploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Martins, Isabelle; Tailler, Maximilien; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Adjemian, Sandy; Kepp, Oliver; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Shen, Shensi; Mariño, Guillermo; Criollo, Alfredo; Boilève, Alice; Job, Bastien; Ladoire, Sylvain; Ghiringhelli, François; Sistigu, Antonella; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Locher, Clara; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Talbot, Monique; Valent, Alexander; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Fueyo, Antonio; Messina, Nicole L; Li, Ming; Chan, Christopher J; Sigl, Verena; Pourcher, Guillaume; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lazar, Vladimir; Penninger, Josef M; Madeo, Frank; López-Otín, Carlos; Smyth, Mark J; Zitvogel, Laurence; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-09-28

    Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.

  14. Are cancer cells really softer than normal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Charlotte; Goud, Bruno; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-05-01

    Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells. We then focus on the intracellular elements that could be responsible for the softening of cancer cells. Finally, we ask whether the mechanical differences between normal and cancer cells can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of cancer progression. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  16. Influence of free fatty acids on glucose uptake in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntalkumar; Koziorowski, Jacek; Lewis, Jason S.; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study focuses on the interaction between glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) in malignant human prostate cancer cell lines by an in vitro observation of uptake of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and acetate. Methods: Human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, CWR22Rv1, LNCaP, and DU145) were incubated for 2 h and 24 h in glucose-containing (5.5 mM) Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) with varying concentrations of the free fatty acid palmitate (0–1.0 mM). Then the cells were incubated with [ 18 F]-FDG (1 μCi/mL; 0.037 MBq/mL) in DMEM either in presence or absence of glucose and in presence of varying concentrations of palmitate for 1 h. Standardized procedures regarding cell counting and measuring for 18 F radioactivity were applied. Cell uptake studies with 14 C-1-acetate under the same conditions were performed on PC3 cells. Results: In glucose containing media there was significantly increased FDG uptake after 24 h incubation in all cell lines, except DU145, when upper physiological levels of palmitate were added. A 4-fold increase of FDG uptake in PC3 cells (15.11% vs. 3.94%/10 6 cells) was observed in media with 1.0 mM palmitate compared to media with no palmitate. The same tendency was observed in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 cells after 2 h incubation. In glucose-free media no significant differences in FDG uptake after 24 h incubation were observed. The significant differences after 2 h incubation all pointed in the direction of increased FDG uptake when palmitate was added. Acetate uptake in PC3 cells was significantly lower when palmitate was added in glucose-free DMEM. No clear tendency when comparing FDG or acetate uptake in the same media at different time points of incubation was observed. Conclusions: Our results indicate a FFA dependent metabolic boost/switch of glucose uptake in PCa, with patterns reflecting the true heterogeneity of the disease

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Role of EZH2 in the Growth, Invasion, and Aggression of a Panel of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolas, Breanne D.W.; Figueiredo, Marxa L.; Wu, Lily

    2010-01-01

    Background Although most prostate cancers respond well to initial treatments, a fraction of prostate cancers are more aggressive and will recur and metastasize. At that point, there are few treatment options available. Significant efforts have been made to identify biomarkers that will identify these more aggressive cancers to tailor a more vigorous treatment in order to improve outcome. Polycomb Group protein Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) was found to be overexpressed in metastatic prostate tumors, and is considered an excellent candidate for such a biomarker. Scattered studies have found that EZH2 overexpression causes neoplastic transformation, invasion, and growth of prostate cells. However, these studies utilized different systems and cell lines, and so are difficult to correlate with one another. Methods In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the phenotypic effects of EZH2 in a panel of five prostate cancer cell lines was performed. By using multiple cell lines, and examining overexpression and knockdown of EZH2 concurrently, a broad view of EZH2's role in prostate cancer was achieved. Results Overexpression of EZH2 led to more aggressive behaviors in all prostate cell lines tested. In contrast, downregulation of EZH2 reduced invasion and tumorigenicity of androgen-independent cell lines CWR22Rv1, PC3, and DU145, but not of androgen-dependent cell lines LAPC4 and LNCaP. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest androgen-independent prostate tumors are more dependent on EZH2 expression than androgen-dependent tumors. Our observations provide an explanation for the strong correlation between EZH2 overexpression and advanced stage, aggressive prostate cancers. PMID:20087897

  18. Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapasso S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia Allegra, Serena TrapassoOtolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal, giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differentiation (asymmetric division. A final characteristic is tumorigenicity, a fundamental property, which outlines the tumor stem cell as the only cell able to initiate the formation of a tumor when implanted in immune-deficient mice. The hypothesis of a hierarchical organization of tumor cells dates back more than 40 years, but only in 1997, thanks to the work of John Dick and Dominique Bonnet, was there the formal proof of such an organization in acute myeloid leukemia. Following this, many other research groups were able to isolate CSCs, by appropriate selection markers, in various malignancies, such as breast, brain, colon, pancreas, and liver cancers and in melanoma. To date, however, it is not possible to isolate stem cells from all types of neoplasia, particularly in solid tumors. From a therapeutic point of view, the concept of tumor stem cells implies a complete revision of conventional antineoplastic treatment. Conventional cytotoxic agents are designed to target actively proliferating cells. In the majority of cases, this is not sufficient to eliminate the CSCs, which thanks to their reduced proliferative activity and/or the presence of proteins capable of extruding chemotherapeutics from the cell are not targeted. Therefore, the theory of cancer stem cells can pose new paradigms in terms of cancer treatment. Potential approaches, even in the very early experimental stages, relate to the selective inhibition of pathways connected with self-renewal, or more specifically based on

  19. Ionizing radiation induces stemness in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC model posits the presence of a small number of CSCs in the heterogeneous cancer cell population that are ultimately responsible for tumor initiation, as well as cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a variety of human cancers and are able to generate a hierarchical and heterogeneous cancer cell population. CSCs are also resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here we report that ionizing radiation can induce stem cell-like properties in heterogeneous cancer cells. Exposure of non-stem cancer cells to ionizing radiation enhanced spherogenesis, and this was accompanied by upregulation of the pluripotency genes Sox2 and Oct3/4. Knockdown of Sox2 or Oct3/4 inhibited radiation-induced spherogenesis and increased cellular sensitivity to radiation. These data demonstrate that ionizing radiation can activate stemness pathways in heterogeneous cancer cells, resulting in the enrichment of a CSC subpopulation with higher resistance to radiotherapy.

  20. Regulatory T Cells in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple layers of suppressive components including regulatory T (TReg cells, suppressive antigen-presenting cells, and inhibitory cytokines form suppressive networks in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. It has been demonstrated that as a major suppressive element, TReg cells infiltrate tumor, interact with several types of immune cells, and mediate immune suppression through different molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on human ovarian cancer and will discuss the nature of TReg cells including their subsets, trafficking, expansion, and function. We will briefly review the development of manipulation of TReg cells in preclinical and clinical settings.

  1. Withaferin A Induces Cell Death Selectively in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells but Not in Normal Fibroblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WA, a major bioactive component of the Indian herb Withania somnifera, induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis in multiple types of tumor cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this cytotoxicity remains elusive. We report here that 2 μM WA induced cell death selectively in androgen-insensitive PC-3 and DU-145 prostate adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its toxicity was less severe in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells and normal human fibroblasts (TIG-1 and KD. WA also killed PC-3 cells in spheroid-forming medium. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WA significantly increased mRNA levels of c-Fos and 11 heat-shock proteins (HSPs in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in LNCaP and TIG-1. Western analysis revealed increased expression of c-Fos and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP(L. Expression of HSPs such as HSPA6 and Hsp70 was conspicuously elevated; however, because siRNA-mediated depletion of HSF-1, an HSP-inducing transcription factor, reduced PC-3 cell viability, it is likely that these heat-shock genes were involved in protecting against cell death. Moreover, WA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in normal fibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that WA disrupted the vimentin cytoskeleton, possibly inducing the ROS generation, c-Fos expression and c-FLIP(L suppression. These observations suggest that multiple events followed by disruption of the vimentin cytoskeleton play pivotal roles in WA-mediated cell death.

  2. Cancer Cell Metabolism: One Hallmark, Many Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, Jason R.; Sabatini, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells must rewire cellular metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and proliferation. Although many of the metabolic alterations are largely similar to those in normal proliferating cells, they are aberrantly driven in cancer by a combination of genetic lesions and nongenetic factors such as the tumor microenvironment. However, a single model of altered tumor metabolism does not describe the sum of metabolic changes that can support cell growth. Instead, the diversity of such chang...

  3. T cell recognition of breast cancer antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick

    Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... recognition utilizing DNA barcode labeled MHC multimers to screen peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients and healthy donor samples. Signif-icantly more TAA specific T cell responses were detected in breast cancer patients than healthy donors for both HLA-A*0201 (P

  4. Cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Matthew J; Wickremesekera, Susrutha K; Peng, Lifeng; Tan, Swee T; Itinteang, Tinte

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men. Adenocarcinoma accounts for 90% of CRC cases. There has been accumulating evidence in support of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept of cancer which proposes that CSCs are central in the initiation of cancer. CSCs have been the focus of study in a range of cancers, including CRC. This has led to the identification and understanding of genes involved in the induction and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, and markers for CSCs, including those investigated specifically in CRC. Knowledge of the expression pattern of CSCs in CRC has been increasing in recent years, revealing a heterogeneous population of cells within CRC ranging from pluripotent to differentiated cells, with overlapping and sometimes unique combinations of markers. This review summarises current literature on the understanding of CSCs in CRC, including evidence of the presence of CSC subpopulations, and the stem cell markers currently used to identify and localise these CSC subpopulations. Future research into this field may lead to improved methods for early detection of CRC, novel therapy and monitoring of treatment for CRC and other cancer types. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. ► Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. ► Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. ► Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. ► This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called “cancer stem cells”, within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the “stemness” of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  6. SU-E-T-668: Radiosensitizing Effect of Bosutinib On Prostate and Colon Cancers: A Pilot in Vitro Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wang, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recently it has been reported that Bosutinib, a clinical kinase inhibitor, can enhance the tumor cell chemosensitivity by overriding DNA damage checkpoints. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on its effect on cell radiosensitivity in the literature. The objective of the present study is to determine whether Bosutinib has the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer for various cancer cell lines. Methods: In this study, we tested 4 cell lines derived from human prostate (LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145) and colon (HT-29) cancers. The cells were seeded into 12-well plates 24 hours prior to the radiation treatments. For each cell line, we designed 4 study groups, namely, the control, Bosutinib, radiotherapy, and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. We used 6 MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste accelerator to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells in the radiotherapy and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. Immediately after irradiation, the cells in the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group were treated with Bosutinib (1µM) for 3 hours. The cell survival was evaluated through clonogenic assays. Results: The cell survival rates of the LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145, and HT-29 cells were found to be 21%, 92%, 76%, and 93% for the radiotherapy group; 21%, 69%, 67%, and 81% for the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group; and 103%, 107%, 86%, and 102% for the Bosutinib group, respectively. Although synergetic cell killing was not seen for the LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines in this study, the cell survival data from the clonogenic assay indicated that Bosutinib could enhance the sensitivity of PC-3 and HT-29 cells to radiation treatment. Conclusion: Our preliminary results demonstrated the possibility of Bosutinib as a radiosensitizer for certain prostate and colon cancers, which are resistant to radiotherapy. Further studies are warranted to quantify the radiosensitizing effect of Bosutinib.

  7. SU-E-T-668: Radiosensitizing Effect of Bosutinib On Prostate and Colon Cancers: A Pilot in Vitro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C; Wang, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recently it has been reported that Bosutinib, a clinical kinase inhibitor, can enhance the tumor cell chemosensitivity by overriding DNA damage checkpoints. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on its effect on cell radiosensitivity in the literature. The objective of the present study is to determine whether Bosutinib has the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer for various cancer cell lines. Methods: In this study, we tested 4 cell lines derived from human prostate (LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145) and colon (HT-29) cancers. The cells were seeded into 12-well plates 24 hours prior to the radiation treatments. For each cell line, we designed 4 study groups, namely, the control, Bosutinib, radiotherapy, and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. We used 6 MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste accelerator to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells in the radiotherapy and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. Immediately after irradiation, the cells in the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group were treated with Bosutinib (1µM) for 3 hours. The cell survival was evaluated through clonogenic assays. Results: The cell survival rates of the LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145, and HT-29 cells were found to be 21%, 92%, 76%, and 93% for the radiotherapy group; 21%, 69%, 67%, and 81% for the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group; and 103%, 107%, 86%, and 102% for the Bosutinib group, respectively. Although synergetic cell killing was not seen for the LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines in this study, the cell survival data from the clonogenic assay indicated that Bosutinib could enhance the sensitivity of PC-3 and HT-29 cells to radiation treatment. Conclusion: Our preliminary results demonstrated the possibility of Bosutinib as a radiosensitizer for certain prostate and colon cancers, which are resistant to radiotherapy. Further studies are warranted to quantify the radiosensitizing effect of Bosutinib

  8. Identification of oxidized protein hydrolase as a potential prodrug target in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, Christopher A; Jiang, Yu-Lin; Paromov, Victor; Brannon, Marianne; Krishnan, Koyamangalath; Stone, William L

    2014-01-01

    Esterases are often overexpressed in cancer cells and can have chiral specificities different from that of the corresponding normal tissues. For this reason, ester prodrugs could be a promising approach in chemotherapy. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of differentially expressed esterases between non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Cellular lysates from LNCaP, DU 145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines, tumorigenic RWPE-2 prostate epithelial cells, and non-tumorigenic RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (n-PAGE) and the esterase activity bands visualized using α-naphthyl acetate or α-naphthyl-N-acetylalaninate (ANAA) chiral esters and Fast Blue RR salt. The esterases were identified using nanospray LC/MS-MS tandem mass spectrometry and confirmed by Western blotting, native electroblotting, inhibition assays, and activity towards a known specific substrate. The serine protease/esterase oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH) was overexpressed in COS-7 cells to verify our results. The major esterase observed with the ANAA substrates within the n-PAGE activity bands was identified as OPH. OPH (EC 3.4.19.1) is a serine protease/esterase and a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family. We found that LNCaP lysates contained approximately 40% more OPH compared to RWPE-1 lysates. RWPE-2, DU145 and PC3 cell lysates had similar levels of OPH activity. OPH within all of the cell lysates tested had a chiral preference for the S-isomer of ANAA. LNCaP cells were stained more intensely with ANAA substrates than RWPE-1 cells and COS-7 cells overexpressing OPH were found to have a higher activity towards the ANAA and AcApNA than parent COS-7 cells. These data suggest that prodrug derivatives of ANAA and AcApNA could have potential as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer tumors that overexpress OPH

  9. Nucleoporin 62 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase kinase 2 regulate androgen receptor activity in castrate resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacosta, Loukia G; Kuroski, Laura A; Hofmann, Wilma A; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Mastri, Michalis; Gocher, Angela M; Dai, Shuhang; Hoste, Allen J; Edelman, Arthur M

    2016-02-15

    Re-activation of the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is an important factor mediating progression from androgen-responsive to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the mechanisms regulating AR activity in CRPC remain incompletely understood. Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) 2 was previously shown to regulate AR activity in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells. Our objective was to further explore the basis of this regulation in CRPC cells. The abundance of CaMKK2 in nuclear fractions of androgen-responsive prostate cancer and CRPC, cells were determined by subcellular fractionation and Western blotting. CaMKK2 association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and nucleoporins (Nups) including Nup62, were imaged by structured illumination and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. The abundance and subcellular localization of CaMKK2 and Nup62 in human clinical specimens of prostate cancer was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The role of Nups in the growth and viability of CRPC cells was assessed by RNA interference and cell counting. The involvement of CaMKK2 and Nup62 in regulating AR transcriptional activity was addressed by RNA interference, chromatin immunoprecipitation, androgen response element reporter assay, and Western blotting. CaMKK2 was expressed at higher levels in the nuclear fraction of CPRC C4-2 cells, than in that of androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. In C4-2 cells, CaMKK2 associated with NPCs of the nuclear envelope and physically interacted with Nup62. CaMKK2 and Nup62 demonstrated pronounced, and similar increases in both expression and perinuclear/nuclear localization in human clinical specimens of advanced prostate cancer relative to normal prostate. Knockdown of Nup62, but not of Nups, 98 or 88, reduced growth and viability of C4-2 cells. Knockdown of Nup62 produced a greater reduction of the growth and viability of C4-2 cells than of non

  10. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  11. Direct Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity by Potent CYP17 Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Harris S.; Souleimanian, Naira; Wu, Sijian; Voskresenskiy, Anatoliy M.; Kisaayak Collak, Filiz; Cinar, Bekir; Stein, Cy A.

    2012-01-01

    TOK-001 and abiraterone are potent 17-heteroarylsteroid (17-HAS) inhibitors of Cyp17, one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of testosterone from cholesterol in prostate cancer cells. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the prevention of prostate cell growth by 17-HASs still remains elusive. Here, we assess the effects of 17-HASs on androgen receptor (AR) activity in LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells. We demonstrate that both TOK-001 and abiraterone reduced AR protein and mRNA expression, and antagonized AR-dependent promoter activation induced by androgen. TOK-001, but not abiraterone, is an effective apparent competitor of the radioligand [3H]R1881 for binding to the wild type and various mutant AR (W741C, W741L) proteins. In agreement with these data, TOK-001 is a consistently superior inhibitor than abiraterone of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of both wild type and mutant AR. However, neither agent was able to trans-activate the AR in the absence of R1881. Our data demonstrate that phospho-4EBP1 levels are significantly reduced by TOK-001 and to a lesser extent by abiraterone alcohol, and suggest a mechanism by which cap-dependent translation is suppressed by blocking assembly of the eIF4F and eIF4G complex to the mRNA 5′ cap. Thus, the effects of these 17-HASs on AR signaling are complex, ranging from a decrease in testosterone production through the inhibition of Cyp17 as previously described, to directly reducing both AR protein expression and R1881-induced AR trans-activation. PMID:22174412

  12. Depletion of intrinsic expression of Interleukin-8 in prostate cancer cells causes cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokeshwar Bal L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of all cancers is characterized by increased-cell proliferation and decreased-apoptosis. The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC is the terminal stage of the disease. Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host. The AIPC cells, but not androgen-responsive cells, constitutively express abundant amount of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present. The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference. Results The functional consequence of IL-8 depletion in AIPC cells was investigated by RNA interference in two IL-8 secreting AIPC cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. The non-IL-8 secreting LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells served as controls. Cells were transfected with RISC-free siRNA (control or validated-pool of IL-8 siRNA. Transfection with 50 nM IL-8 siRNA caused >95% depletion of IL-8 mRNA and >92% decrease in IL-8 protein. This reduction in IL-8 led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S boundary and decreases in cell cycle-regulated proteins: Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 (both decreased >50% and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by >50%. Further, the spontaneous apoptosis was increased by >43% in IL-8 depleted cells, evidenced by increases in caspase-9 activation and cleaved-PARP. IL-8 depletion caused significant decreases in anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xL due to decrease in both mRNA and post-translational stability, and increased levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD proteins. More significantly, depletion of intracellular IL-8 increased the cytotoxic activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of Docetaxel

  13. Mechanisms of Cancer Cell Dormancy--Another Hallmark of Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Albert C; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2015-12-01

    Disease relapse in cancer patients many years after clinical remission, often referred to as cancer dormancy, is well documented but remains an incompletely understood phenomenon on the biologic level. Recent reviews have summarized potential models that can explain this phenomenon, including angiogenic, immunologic, and cellular dormancy. We focus on mechanisms of cellular dormancy as newer biologic insights have enabled better understanding of this process. We provide a historical context, synthesize current advances in the field, and propose a mechanistic framework that treats cancer cell dormancy as a dynamic cell state conferring a fitness advantage to an evolving malignancy under stress. Cellular dormancy appears to be an active process that can be toggled through a variety of signaling mechanisms that ultimately downregulate the RAS/MAPK and PI(3)K/AKT pathways, an ability that is preserved even in cancers that constitutively depend on these pathways for their growth and survival. Just as unbridled proliferation is a key hallmark of cancer, the ability of cancer cells to become quiescent may be critical to evolving malignancies, with implications for understanding cancer initiation, progression, and treatment resistance. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation partly via epigenetic activation of miR-143 and miR-143 mediated autophagy inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Li, Min; Wang, Yuewei; Luo, Jianchao

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin has been reported as a radiosensitizer in prostate cancer. But the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we firstly assessed how curcumin affects the expression of miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Then, we investigated whether miR-143 is involved in regulation of radiosensitivity and its association with autophagy in prostate cancer cells. Our data showed that PC3, DU145 and LNCaP cells treated with curcumin had significantly restored miR-143 and miR-145 expression. Curcumin showed similar effect as 5-AZA-dC on reducing methylation of CpG dinucleotides in miR-143 promoter. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, which contribute to promoter hypermethylation of the miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Therefore, we infer that curcumin can restore miR-143 and miR-145 expression via hypomethylation. MiR-143 overexpression and curcumin pretreatment enhanced radiation induced cancer cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. MiR-143 and curcumin remarkably reduced radiation-induced autophagy in PC3 and DU145 cells. MiR-143 overexpression alone also reduced the basal level of autophagy in DU145 cells. Mechanistically, miR-143 can suppress autophagy in prostate cancer cells at least via downregulating ATG2B. Based on these findings, we infer that curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation partly via epigenetic activation of miR-143 and miR-143 mediated autophagy inhibition.

  15. c-Myc-Dependent Cell Competition in Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Shah, Heta S; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2017-07-01

    Cell Competition is an interaction between cells for existence in heterogeneous cell populations of multicellular organisms. This phenomenon is involved in initiation and progression of cancer where heterogeneous cell populations compete directly or indirectly for the survival of the fittest based on differential gene expression. In Drosophila, cells having lower dMyc expression are eliminated by cell competition through apoptosis when present in the milieu of cells having higher dMyc expression. Thus, we designed a study to develop c-Myc (human homolog) dependent in vitro cell competition model of human cancer cells. Cells with higher c-Myc were transfected with c-myc shRNA to prepare cells with lower c-Myc and then co-cultured with the same type of cells having a higher c-Myc in equal ratio. Cells with lower c-Myc showed a significant decrease in numbers when compared with higher c-Myc cells, suggesting "loser" and "winner" status of cells, respectively. During microscopy, engulfment of loser cells by winner cells was observed with higher expression of JNK in loser cells. Furthermore, elimination of loser cells was prevented significantly, when co-cultured cells were treated with the JNK (apoptosis) inhibitor. Above results indicate elimination of loser cells in the presence of winner cells by c-Myc-dependent mechanisms of cell competition in human cancer cells. This could be an important mechanism in human tumors where normal cells are eliminated by c-Myc-overexpressed tumor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1782-1791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Are Mast Cells MASTers in Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Marone, Giancarlo; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged low-grade inflammation or smoldering inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Mast cells form a heterogeneous population of immune cells with differences in their ultra-structure, morphology, mediator content, and surface receptors. Mast cells are widely distributed throughout all tissues and are stromal components of the inflammatory microenvironment that modulates tumor initiation and development. Although canonically associated with allergic disorders, mast cells are a major source of pro-tumorigenic (e.g., angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors) and antitumorigenic molecules (e.g., TNF-α and IL-9), depending on the milieu. In certain neoplasias (e.g., gastric, thyroid and Hodgkin's lymphoma) mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, in others (e.g., breast cancer) a protective role, whereas in yet others they are apparently innocent bystanders. These seemingly conflicting results suggest that the role of mast cells and their mediators could be cancer specific. The microlocalization (e.g., peritumoral vs intratumoral) of mast cells is another important aspect in the initiation/progression of solid and hematologic tumors. Increasing evidence in certain experimental models indicates that targeting mast cells and/or their mediators represent a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Thus, mast cells deserve focused consideration also as therapeutic targets in different types of tumors. There are many unanswered questions that should be addressed before we understand whether mast cells are an ally, adversary, or innocent bystanders in human cancers.

  17. Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Cardile, Venera; Abraham, Nader G.; Sorrenti, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer

  18. Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni [Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cardile, Venera [Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Abraham, Nader G. [Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25701 (United States); Sorrenti, Valeria, E-mail: sorrenti@unict.it [Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-19

    Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer.

  19. Disruption of MEK/ERK/c-Myc signaling radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Carmela; Di Rocco, Agnese; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mauro, Annunziata; Festuccia, Claudio; Del Fattore, Andrea; Berardinelli, Paolo; De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bouché, Marina; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Zani, Bianca Maria; Marampon, Francesco

    2018-06-29

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cell radioresistance causes the failure of radiation therapy (RT) in localized or locally advanced disease. The aberrant accumulation of c-Myc oncoprotein, known to promote PCa onset and progression, may be due to the control of gene transcription and/or MEK/ERK-regulated protein stabilization. Here, we investigated the role of MEK/ERK signaling in PCa. LnCAP, 22Rv1, DU145, and PC3 PCa cell lines were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. U0126, trametinib MEK/ERK inhibitors, and c-Myc shRNAs were used. Radiation was delivered using an x-6 MV photon linear accelerator. U0126 in vivo activity alone or in combination with irradiation was determined in murine xenografts. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling down-regulated c-Myc protein in PCa cell lines to varying extents by affecting expression of RNA and protein, which in turn determined radiosensitization in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of PCa cells. The crucial role played by c-Myc in the MEK/ERK pathways was demonstrated in 22Rv1 cells by the silencing of c-Myc by means of short hairpin mRNA, which yielded effects resembling the targeting of MEK/ERK signaling. The clinically approved compound trametinib used in vitro yielded the same effects as U0126 on growth and C-Myc expression. Notably, U0126 and trametinib induced a drastic down-regulation of BMX, which is known to prevent apoptosis in cancer cells. The results of our study suggest that signal transduction-based therapy can, by disrupting the MEK/ERK/c-Myc axis, reduce human PCa radioresistance caused by increased c-Myc expression in vivo and in vitro and restores apoptosis signals.

  20. Metabolic cooperation between cancer and non-cancerous stromal cells is pivotal in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Coelho, Filipa; Gouveia-Fernandes, Sofia; Serpa, Jacinta

    2018-02-01

    The way cancer cells adapt to microenvironment is crucial for the success of carcinogenesis, and metabolic fitness is essential for a cancer cell to survive and proliferate in a certain organ/tissue. The metabolic remodeling in a tumor niche is endured not only by cancer cells but also by non-cancerous cells that share the same microenvironment. For this reason, tumor cells and stromal cells constitute a complex network of signal and organic compound transfer that supports cellular viability and proliferation. The intensive dual-address cooperation of all components of a tumor sustains disease progression and metastasis. Herein, we will detail the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer-associated adipocytes, and inflammatory cells, mainly monocytes/macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages), in the remodeling and metabolic adaptation of tumors.

  1. [Overexpression of miR-519d-3p inhibits the proliferation of DU-145 prostate cancer cells by reducing TRAF4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Han, Xingtao; Yang, Jinhui; Sun, Jiantao; Wei, Pengtao

    2018-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of microRNA-519d-3p (miR-519d-3p) on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and explore the possible molecular mechanism. Methods The expression level of miR-519d-3p in PC-3, DU-145, 22RV1, PC-3M, LNCaP human prostate cancer cells and RWPE-1 human normal prostate epithelial cells was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. miR-519d-3p mimics or negative control microRNAs (miR-NC) was transfected into the prostate cancer cells with the lowest level of miR-519d-3p expression. Transfection efficiency was examined. The effect of miR-519d-3p on the cell cycle of prostate cancer was detected by flow cytometry. MTT assay and plate clone formation assay were used to detect its effect on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Bioinformatics software was used to predict and dual luciferase reporter assay was used to validate the target gene of miR-519d-3p. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-519d-3p target gene. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of target gene protein and downstream protein. Results The expression of miR-519d-3p in normal prostate epithelial cells was significantly higher than that in prostate cancer cells, and the lowest was found in DU-145 cells. After transfected with miR-519d-3p mimics, the expression level of miR-519d-3p in DU-145 cells increased significantly. Bioinformatics prediction and dual luciferase reporter gene confirmed that tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 4 (TRAF4) was the target gene of miR-519d-3p. Overexpression of miR-519d-3p significantly reduced the expression of TRAF4 gene and its downstream TGF-β signaling pathway proteins in the prostate cancer cells. Conclusion The expression of miR-519d-3p is down-regulated in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-519d-3p can inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. The possible mechanism is that miR-519d-3p inhibits the expression of TRAF4.

  2. Radiosensitivity of prostatic cell lines: bicalutamide effect (Casodex), micro-RNAs actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, J.L.

    2011-10-01

    The first aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the association between bicalutamide, an androgen receptor inhibitor, and ionizing radiation in three prostate cancer cell lines. The second aim was to examine a possible correlation between the expression of miR-210 or miR-373, the tolerance to hypoxia tolerance and the responses to radiation.We found that bicalutamide produced cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in the androgen receptor- positive LNCaP cell line. The androgen receptor-negative DU145 and PC3 cell lines were more resistant to bicalutamide. However, these cell lines were affected by high bicalutamide concentration with the same endpoints as for LNCaP cells. The inhibition of proliferation by bicalutamide was associated with G1 cell cycle phase arrest, increased expression of p27KIP1 protein, and decreased expression of HER2 protein. Last but not least, bicalutamide elicited a marked radioprotective effect in LNCaP cells when associated with concomitant irradiation. This result suggests that bicalutamide and radiotherapy should not be delivered in close temporal proximity, especially in case of hypo-fractionated radiotherapy protocols.Hypoxia is a well known radioresistance factor in tumors and is associated with a bad prognosis in prostate cancer. In this study, we found that hypoxia promotes the expression of HIF-1α, CA9, VEGF and miR-210 but not miR-373 in prostate cancer cell lines irrespective of their androgen receptor status.Our findings suggest that miR-210 expression is correlated with resistance to hypoxia and could be used as a prognostic marker in prostate cancer. Conversely, miR-210 inhibition did not impact the radiation susceptibility of PC3 prostate cancer cell line under hypoxia. (author)

  3. Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Spindle cell metaplastic breast cancer must be considered in differential diagnosis of breast cancers, and preoperative immunohistochemical examination, including cytokeratin and vimentin, must be added to pathological examination in intervening cases. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 259-262

  4. T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedei, Amedeo; Della Bella, Chiara; Silvestri, Elena; Prisco, Domenico; D'Elios, Mario M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer. PMID:22693525

  5. Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wicha, Max S

    2006-01-01

    .... Development of this new tool will greatly facilitate future studies. Preliminary results both in xenograft models as well as in neoadjuvant trial are providing strong support for our hypothesis for resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy...

  6. Stem Cells and Cancer; Celulas madre y cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segrelles, C.; Paraminio, J. M.; Lorz, C.

    2014-04-01

    Stem cell research has thrived over the last years due to their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Scientific breakthroughs in the field are immediately translated from the scientific journals to the mass media, which is not surprising as the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of stem cells is crucial for the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. In the Molecular Oncology Unit at Ciemat we work to unravel the role of cancer stem cells in tumour development, and to find new antitumor therapies. (Author)

  7. Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and preferentially kills cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang W.; Lee, Hyemi; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Williams, Brent; Powers, John; Santos, Troy Dos; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Park, Heon Joo

    2012-01-01

    The anti-cancer effects of metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation were studied with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and FSaII mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of metformin caused significant clonogenic death in cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer stem cells relative to non-cancer stem cells. Metformin increased the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, and significantly enhanced the radiation-induced growth delay of FSaII tumors (s.c.) in the legs of C3H mice. Both metformin and ionizing radiation activated AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR and suppression of its downstream effectors such as S6K1 and 4EBP1, a crucial signaling pathway for proliferation and survival of cancer cells, in vitro as well as in the in vivo tumors. Conclusion: Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and eradicates radioresistant cancer stem cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR. PMID:22500211

  8. Cancer stem cells: a metastasizing menace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhavkar, Saurabh

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and is estimated to be a reason of death of more than 18 billion people in the coming 5 years. Progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of cancer; however, a sound understanding of the underlying cell biology still remains an unsolved mystery. Current treatments include a combination of radiation, surgery, and/or chemotherapy. However, these treatments are not a complete cure, aimed simply at shrinking the tumor and in majority of cases, there is a relapse of tumor. Several evidences suggest the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating stem-like cells, a small population of cells present in the tumor, capable of self-renewal and generation of differentiated progeny. The presence of these CSCs can be attributed to the failure of cancer treatments as these cells are believed to exhibit therapy resistance. As a result, increasing attention has been given to CSC research to resolve the therapeutic problems related to cancer. Progress in this field of research has led to the development of novel strategies to treat several malignancies and has become a hot topic of discussion. In this review, we will briefly focus on the main characteristics, therapeutic implications, and perspectives of CSCs in cancer therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Novel role of cold/menthol-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8 (TRPM8) in the activation of store-operated channels in LNCaP human prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thebault, S.C.; Lemonnier, L.; Bidaux, G.; Flourakis, M.; Bavencoffe, A.; Gordienko, D.; Roudbaraki, M.; Delcourt, P.; Panchin, Y.; Shuba, Y.; Skryma, R.; Prevarskaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    Recent cloning of a cold/menthol-sensitive TRPM8 channel (transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8) from rodent sensory neurons has provided the molecular basis for the cold sensation. Surprisingly, the human orthologue of rodent TRPM8 also appears to be strongly expressed in the

  10. Mechanisms of Cancer Cell Dormancy – Another Hallmark of Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Albert C.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Disease relapse in cancer patients many years after clinical remission, often referred to as cancer dormancy, is well documented but remains an incompletely understood phenomenon on the biological level. Recent reviews have summarized potential models that can explain this phenomenon, including angiogenic, immunologic, and cellular dormancy. We focus on mechanisms of cellular dormancy as newer biological insights have enabled better understanding of this process. We provide a historical context, synthesize current advances in the field, and propose a mechanistic framework that treats cancer cell dormancy as a dynamic cell state conferring a fitness advantage to an evolving malignancy under stress. Cellular dormancy appears to be an active process that can be toggled through a variety of signaling mechanisms that ultimately down-regulate the Ras/MAPK and PI(3)K/AKT pathways, an ability that is preserved even in cancers that constitutively depend on these pathways for their growth and survival. Just as unbridled proliferation is a key hallmark of cancer, the ability of cancer cells to become quiescent may be critical to evolving malignancies, with implications for understanding cancer initiation, progression, and treatment resistance. PMID:26354021

  11. Cell plasticity and heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Nemanja D; Weinberg, Robert A; Chaffer, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a given cancer arises from diverse cell types recruited to the tumor and from genetic and/or epigenetic differences amongst the cancer cells themselves. These factors conspire to create a disease with various phenotypes. There are 2 established models of cancer development and progression to metastatic disease. These are the clonal evolution and cancer stem cell models. The clonal evolution theory suggests that successive mutations accumulating in a given cell generate clonal outgrowths that thrive in response to microenvironmental selection pressures, dictating the phenotype of the tumor. The alternative cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that cancer cells with similar genetic backgrounds can be hierarchically organized according to their tumorigenic potential. Accordingly, CSCs reside at the apex of the hierarchy and are thought to possess the majority of a cancer's tumor-initiating and metastatic ability. A defining feature of this model is its apparent unidirectional nature, whereby CSCs undergo symmetric division to replenish the CSC pool and irreversible asymmetric division to generate daughter cells (non-CSCs) with low tumorigenic potential. However, evolving evidence supports a new model of tumorigenicity, in which considerable plasticity exists between the non-CSC and CSC compartments, such that non-CSCs can reacquire a CSC phenotype. These findings suggest that some tumors may adhere to a plastic CSC model, in which bidirectional conversions are common and essential components of tumorigenicity. Accumulating evidence surrounding the plasticity of cancer cells, in particular, suggests that aggressive CSCs can be created de novo within a tumor. Given the current focus on therapeutic targeting of CSCs, we discuss the implications of non-CSC-to-CSC conversions on the development of future therapies. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  12. The reverse-mode NCX1 activity inhibitor KB-R7943 promotes prostate cancer cell death by activating the JNK pathway and blocking autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhou; Chen, BaiJun; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, ZhenXing; Dong, XingYou; Xia, LiuBin; Huang, ShengQuan; Hu, XiaoYan; Song, Bo; Li, LongKun

    2016-07-05

    We explored the effects of KB-R7943, an inhibitor of reverse-mode NCX1 activity, in prostate cancer (PCa). NCX1 was overexpressed in PCa tissues and cell lines, and higher NCX1 levels were associated higher PCa grades. At concentrations greater than 10 μM, KB-R7943 dose-dependently decreased PC3 and LNCaP cell viability. KB-R7943 also increased cell cycle G1/S phase arrest and induced apoptosis in PC3 cells. KB-R7943 increased autophagosome accumulation in PCa cells as indicated by increases in LC3-II levels and eGFP-LC3 puncta. Combined treatment with chloroquine (CQ) and KB-R7943 decreased P62 and increased LC3-II protein levels in PC3 cells, indicating that KB-R7943 blocked autophagic flux. KB-R7943 induced autophagosome accumulation mainly by downregulating the PI3K/AKT/m-TOR pathway and upregulating the JNK pathway. In xenograft experiments, KB-R7943 inhibited tumor growth. Combined treatment with KB-R7943 and an autophagy inhibitor inhibited growth and increased apoptosis. These results indicate that KB-R7943 promotes cell death in PCa by activating the JNK signaling pathway and blocking autophagic flux.

  13. UG311, An Oncofetal Marker Lost with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    resulted in neonatal lethality and further exacerbation of the dwarfism to about 30% of control size [28]. By contrast, the overexpression of GH or IGF-1...inhibitory as retinoic acid (RA) treatment initiates rapid degradation of IGFBP-2 and an increased synthesis of IGF-2 [127]. As RA promotes cell growth both...upregulation of IGFBP-2 mRNA in response to low dose androgen treatment in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. It is not clear 19 whether this is

  14. Proteasome-associated deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates prostate cancer proliferation by deubiquitinating and stabilizing androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuning; Liu, Ningning; Hua, Xianliang; Cai, Jianyu; Xia, Xiaohong; Wang, Xuejun; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Jinbao

    2017-02-02

    Androgen receptor (AR) is frequently over-expressed and plays a critical role in the growth and progression of human prostate cancer. The therapy attempting to target AR signalling was established in decades ago but the treatment of prostate cancer is far from being satisfactory. The assignable cause is that our understanding of the mechanism of AR regulation and re-activation remains incomplete. Increasing evidence suggests that deubiquitinases are involved in the regulation of cancer development and progression but the specific underlying mechanism often is not elucidated. In the current study, we have identified ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) as a novel regulator of AR, inhibiting the degradation of AR via deubiquitinating this oncoprotein in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells. We found that (i) USP14 could bind to AR, and additionally, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of USP14 accelerated the ubiquitination and degradation of AR; (ii) downregulation or inhibition of USP14 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of LNcap cells and, conversely, overexpression of USP14 promoted the proliferation; and (iii) reduction or inhibition of USP14 induced G0/G1 phase arrest in LNcap prostate cancer cells. Hence, we conclude that USP14 promotes prostate cancer progression likely through stabilization of AR, suggesting that USP14 could be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

  15. Germ cell cancer and disorders of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    1998-01-01

    , including undescended testis, gonadal dysgenesis and androgen insensitivity syndrome? Why has there, during the past 50 years, been a quite dramatic increase in testicular cancer in many developed countries? These are just a few of many questions concerning testicular cancer. However, the recent progress...... in research in the early stages of testicular cancer (carcinoma in situ testis (CIS)) allows us to begin to answer some of these questions. There is more and more evidence that the CIS cell is a gonocyte with stem cell potential, which explains why an adult man can develop a non-seminoma, which...

  16. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  17. Cancer cell metabolism: one hallmark, many faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jason R; Sabatini, David M

    2012-10-01

    Cancer cells must rewire cellular metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and proliferation. Although many of the metabolic alterations are largely similar to those in normal proliferating cells, they are aberrantly driven in cancer by a combination of genetic lesions and nongenetic factors such as the tumor microenvironment. However, a single model of altered tumor metabolism does not describe the sum of metabolic changes that can support cell growth. Instead, the diversity of such changes within the metabolic program of a cancer cell can dictate by what means proliferative rewiring is driven, and can also impart heterogeneity in the metabolic dependencies of the cell. A better understanding of this heterogeneity may enable the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies that target tumor metabolism.

  18. Heat shock protein 90 chaperone complex inhibitor enhanced radiosensitivity through modification of response to hormone and degradation of androgen receptor in hormone sensitive prostate cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, N.; Harashima, K.; Akimoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    It is easily speculated that androgen or androgen deprivation affects proliferative activity or radiosensitivity, but there has been enough information how androgen or androgen deprivation influences the response to radiation. In this setting, the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on cellular growth and radiosensitivity was examined in hormone-responsive human prostate cancer cell line (LnCap). The binding of androgen receptor (AR) with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an important role in stability of the function of receptor. It was, therefore, examined how Hsp90 chaperone complex inhibitor modified the effect of DHT on radiosensitivity in addition to the effect of DHT, especially focusing on AR and its downstream signal transduction pathways. Hydroxy-flutamide (OH-flutamide) was also used to confirm the effect of activation of AR on radiosensitivity because AR of LnCap has a point mutation, leading to activation of AR caused by the binding of OH-flutamide. Radicicol was used as a Hsp90 chaperone complex inhibitor, and incubated with cells at a concentration of 500 nM. Radicicol was incubated with cells for 9 h, and cells were irradiated 1 h after the start of incubation. DHT and OH-flutamide were incubated with cells until staining. DHT or OH-flutamide resulted in stimulation of cellular growth in contrast to inhibition of cellular growth caused by higher concentrations, so that we adopted 1 nM as a concentration of DHT and 1μM as a concentration of OH-flutamide. DHT or OH-flutamide in combination with radiation resulted in slight decrease in radiosensitivity compared with radiation alone. Radicicol at a concentration of 500 nM in combination with DHT or OH-flutamide abolished decrease in radiosensitivity caused by DHT or OH-flutamide. In terms of the expression of AR, radicicol in combination with radiation and/or DHT, OH-flutamide induced degradation of AR. In consistent with degradation of AR, the expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA) decreased

  19. Poly[3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid] from Comfrey exerts anti-cancer efficacy against human prostate cancer via targeting androgen receptor, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Gagan, Deep; Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Raina, Komal; Barbakadze, Vakhtang; Merlani, Maia; Gogilashvili, Lali; Amiranashvili, Lela; Mulkijanyan, Karen; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2012-08-01

    The major obstacles in human prostate cancer (PCA) treatment are the development of resistance to androgen ablation therapy leading to hormone-refractory state and the toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, the identification of additional non-toxic agents that are effective against both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCA is needed. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a novel phytochemical poly[3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (p-DGA) from Caucasian species of comfrey (Symphytum caucasicum) and its synthetic derivative syn-2, 3-dihydroxy-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (m-DGA) against PCA LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. We found that both p-DGA and m-DGA suppressed the growth and induced death in PCA cells, with comparatively lesser cytotoxicity towards non-neoplastic human prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, we also found that both p-DGA and m-DGA caused G(1) arrest in PCA cells through modulating the expression of cell cycle regulators, especially an increase in CDKIs (p21 and p27). In addition, p-DGA and m-DGA induced apoptotic death by activating caspases, and also strongly decreased AR and PSA expression. Consistent with in vitro results, our in vivo study showed that p-DGA feeding strongly inhibited 22Rv1 tumors growth by 76% and 88% at 2.5 and 5mg/kg body weight doses, respectively, without any toxicity, together with a strong decrease in PSA level in plasma; and a decrease in PCNA, AR and PSA expression but increase in p21/p27 expression and apoptosis in tumor tissues from p-DGA-fed mice. Overall, present study identifies p-DGA as a potent agent against PCA without any toxicity, and supports its clinical application.

  20. Vacuolar-proton-ATPase is involved in the response of cancer cells to ionizing radiation and is a new target for radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, T.C.; Paglin, S.; McMahill, M.S.; Gilles, F.; Yahalom, J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently described a novel response of human cancer cells to radiation consisting of accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO) (Cancer Research, 61:439-444, 2001). Acidification of AVO was inhibited by bafilomycin A1 - a specific inhibitor of vacuolar-proton-ATPase. To examine the role of AVO function in the cellular response to radiation, we determined the effect of specific inhibitors of v-H+-ATPase (bafilomycin and concanamycin) on the clonogenic survival of various cancer cell lines. In addition, Northern analysis of mRNA encoding v-H+-ATPase was performed to elucidate possible mechanisms of post-radiation v-H+-ATPase regulation. Materials and Methods: Total RNA was isolated from human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (breast), LoVo (colon), and LNCaP (prostate) cells 48 hours post-irradiation, and Northern analyses were performed. RNA was separated on a denaturing formaldehyde gel and blotted to a nylon membrane. Probes made from cDNAs to v-H+-ATPase were radioactively labeled, hybridized to the membranes, and exposed to X-ray film for determination of mRNA expression levels. Clonogenic survival assays were performed with MCF-7 and LoVo cell lines. Cells were plated at 30 cells/cm 2 , and irradiated 24 hours post-plating. Bafilomycin or concanamycin were added to culture media in various concentrations at the time of irradiation. The media was changed after a 24-hour incubation, and colonies were stained with crystal violet for counting 7 days post-irradiation. Results: Radiation-induced accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles in MCF-7, LoVo and LNCaP cells was associated with a two-fold increase in the steady-state level of mRNA for subunit c of v-H+-ATPase. Bafilomycin and concanamycin increased clonogenic cell death after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations (bafilomycin 2nM, concanamycin 2pM) these agents acted as radiosensitizers, without significant toxicity to unirradiated cells. At 2nM, bafilomycin

  1. Cancer stem cells and chemoradiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hideshi; Mori, Masaki; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Ieta, Keisuke; Ohta, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Mimori, Koshi

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of genetic and epigenetic alterations, which are emphasized as the central mechanisms of tumor progression in the multistepwise model. Discovery of rare subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has created a new focus in cancer research. The heterogeneity of tumors can be explained with the help of CSCs supported by antiapoptotic signaling. CSCs mimic normal adult stem cells by demonstrating resistance to toxic injuries and chemoradiation therapy. Moreover, they might be responsible for tumor relapse following apparent beneficial treatments. Compared with hematopoietic malignancies, conventional therapy regimes in solid tumors have improved the overall survival marginally, illustrating the profound impact of treatment resistance. This implies that the present therapies, which follow total elimination of rapidly dividing and differentiated tumor cells, need to be modified to target CSCs that repopulate the tumor. In this review article, we report on recent findings regarding the involvement of CSCs in chemoradiation resistance and provide new insights into their therapeutic implications in cancer. (author)

  2. Proteomics in studying cancer stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Onno; Emmink, Benjamin L; Knol, Jaco; van Houdt, Winan J; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Jimenez, Connie R

    2012-06-01

    Normal multipotent tissue stem cells (SCs) are the driving force behind tissue turnover and repair. The cancer stem cell theory holds that tumors also contain stem-like cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis formation. However, very little is known about the regulation of SC maintenance pathways in cancer and how these are affected by cancer-specific genetic alterations and by treatment. Proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool to identify the signaling complexes and pathways that control multi- and pluri-potency and SC differentiation. Here, the authors review the novel insights that these studies have provided and present a comprehensive strategy for the use of proteomics in studying cancer SC biology.

  3. Cancer stem cells: a metastasizing menace!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandhavkar, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and is estimated to be a reason of death of more than 18 billion people in the coming 5 years. Progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of cancer; however, a sound understanding of the underlying cell biology still remains an unsolved mystery. Current treatments include a combination of radiation, surgery, and/or chemotherapy. However, these treatments are not a complete cure, aimed simply at shrinking the tumor and in majority of cases, there is a relapse of tumor. Several evidences suggest the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating stem-like cells, a small population of cells present in the tumor, capable of self-renewal and generation of differentiated progeny. The presence of these CSCs can be attributed to the failure of cancer treatments as these cells are believed to exhibit therapy resistance. As a result, increasing attention has been given to CSC research to resolve the therapeutic problems related to cancer. Progress in this field of research has led to the development of novel strategies to treat several malignancies and has become a hot topic of discussion. In this review, we will briefly focus on the main characteristics, therapeutic implications, and perspectives of CSCs in cancer therapy

  4. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  5. Induction of cancer stem cell properties in colon cancer cells by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobu Oshima

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered to be responsible for the dismal prognosis of cancer patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition and maintenance of CSC properties in cancer cells because of their rarity in clinical samples. We herein induced CSC properties in cancer cells using defined factors. We retrovirally introduced a set of defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4 into human colon cancer cells, followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium, not human embryonic stem cell medium. We then evaluated the CSC properties in the cells. The colon cancer cells transduced with the three factors showed significantly enhanced CSC properties in terms of the marker gene expression, sphere formation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. We designated the cells with CSC properties induced by the factors, a subset of the transduced cells, as induced CSCs (iCSCs. Moreover, we established a novel technology to isolate and collect the iCSCs based on the differences in the degree of the dye-effluxing activity enhancement. The xenografts derived from our iCSCs were not teratomas. Notably, in contrast to the tumors from the parental cancer cells, the iCSC-based tumors mimicked actual human colon cancer tissues in terms of their immunohistological findings, which showed colonic lineage differentiation. In addition, we confirmed that the phenotypes of our iCSCs were reproducible in serial transplantation experiments. By introducing defined factors, we generated iCSCs with lineage specificity directly from cancer cells, not via an induced pluripotent stem cell state. The novel method enables us to obtain abundant materials of CSCs that not only have enhanced tumorigenicity, but also the ability to differentiate to recapitulate a specific type of cancer tissues. Our method can be of great value to fully understand CSCs and develop new therapies targeting CSCs.

  6. Tumor suppressor function of PGP9.5 is associated with epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer--novel predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yozo; Shiina, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Miho; Arichi, Naoko; Hiraoka, Takeo; Sumura, Masahiro; Honda, Satoshi; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Igawa, Mikio

    2012-03-01

    The expression level of protein G product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is downregulated because of promoter CpG hypermethylation in several tumors. We speculated that impaired regulation of PGP9.5 through epigenetic pathways is associated with the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. CpG methylation of the PGP9.5 gene was analyzed in cultured prostate cancer cell lines, 226 localized prostate cancer samples from radical prostatectomy cases, and 80 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. Following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidune treatment, increased PGP9.5 mRNA transcript expression was found in the LNCaP and PC3 cell lines. With bisulfite DNA sequencing, partial methylation of the PGP9.5 promoter was shown in LNCaP whereas complete methylation was found in PC3 cells. After transfection of PGP9.5 siRNA, cell viability was significantly accelerated in LNCaP but not in PC3 cells as compared with control siRNA transfection. Promoter methylation of PGP9.5 was extremely low in only one of 80 BPH tissues, whereas it was found in 37 of 226 prostate cancer tissues. Expression of the mRNA transcript of PGP9.5 was significantly lower in methylation (+) than methylation (-) prostate cancer tissues. Multivariate analysis of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after an radical prostatectomy revealed pT category and PGP9.5 methylation as prognostically relevant. Further stratification with the pT category in addition to methylation status identified a stepwise reduction of BCR-free probability. This is the first clinical and comprehensive study of inactivation of the PGP9.5 gene via epigenetic pathways in primary prostate cancer. CpG methylation of PGP9.5 in primary prostate cancer might become useful as a molecular marker for early clinical prediction of BCR after radical prostatectomy. ©2012 AACR.

  7. CD24 negative lung cancer cells, possessing partial cancer stem cell properties, cannot be considered as cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haineng; Mu, Jiasheng; Xiao, Jing; Wu, Xiangsong; Li, Maolan; Liu, Tianrun; Liu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play vital role in lung cancer progression, resistance, metastasis and relapse. Identifying lung CSCs makers for lung CSCs targeting researches are critical for lung cancer therapy. In this study, utilizing previous identified lung CSCs as model, we compared the expression of CD24, CD133 and CD44 between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells. Increased ratio of CD24- cells were found in CSCs. CD24- cells were then sorted by flow cytometry and their proliferative ability, chemo-resistance property and in vivo tumor formation abilities were detected. A549 CD24- cells formed smaller colonies, slower proliferated in comparison to A549 CD24+ cells. Besides, A549 CD24- exhibited stronger resistance to chemotherapy drug. However, A549 CD24- didn't exert any stronger tumor formation ability in vivo, which is the gold standard of CSCs. These results showed that CD24- A549 cells showed some properties of CSCs but not actually CSCs. This study provides evidence that CD24 cannot be considered as lung CSCs marker.

  8. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junyi; Jiao, Li; Xu, Chuanliang; Yu, Yongwei; Zhang, Zhensheng; Chang, Zheng; Deng, Zhen; Sun, Yinghao

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer

  9. Arctigenin inhibits prostate tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Piwen Wang; Walter Solorzano; Tanya Diaz; Clara E. Magyar; Susanne M. Henning; Jaydutt V. Vadgama

    2017-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most phytochemicals limits their translation to humans. We investigated whether arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, has favorable bioavailability/potency against prostate cancer. The anticarcinogenic activity of arctigenin was investigated both in vitro using the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and LAPC-4 human prostate cancer cells and pre-malignant WPE1-NA22 cells, and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Arctigenin at lower dos...

  10. The CEA−/lo colorectal cancer cell population harbors cancer stem cells and metastatic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Mu, Lei; Huang, Kaiyu; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Chensen; Li, Xiaolan; Tao, Deding; Gong, Jianping; Qin, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most commonly used tumor marker in a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring. Recent studies have shown that colonic crypt cells expressing little or no CEA may enrich for stem cells. Numerous studies have clearly shown that there exist CRC patients with normal serum CEA levels during tumor progression or even tumor relapse, although CEA itself is considered to promote metastasis and block cell differentiation. These seemingly contradictory observations prompted us to investigate, herein, the biological properties as well as tumorigenic and metastatic capacity of CRC cells that express high (CEA+) versus low CEA (CEA−/lo) levels of CEA. Our findings show that the abundance of CEA−/lo cells correlate with poor differentiation and poor prognosis, and moreover, CEA−/lo cells form more spheres in vitro, generate more tumors and exhibit a higher potential in developing liver and lung metastases than corresponding CEA+ cells. Applying RNAi-mediated approach, we found that IGF1R mediated tumorigenic and capacity of CEA−/lo cells but did not mediate those of CEA+ cells. Notably, our data demonstrated that CEA molecule was capable of protecting CEA−/lo cells from anoikis, implying that CEA+ cells, although themselves possessing less tumorigenic and metastatic capacity, may promote metastasis of CEA−/lo cells via secreting CEA molecule. Our observations suggest that, besides targeting CEA molecule, CEA−/lo cells may represent a critical source of tumor progression and metastasis, and should therefore be the target of future therapies. PMID:27813496

  11. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  12. 1,25(OH)2D3 disrupts glucose metabolism in prostate cancer cells leading to a truncation of the TCA cycle and inhibition of TXNIP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El Maaty, Mohamed A; Alborzinia, Hamed; Khan, Shehryar J; Büttner, Michael; Wölfl, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cell metabolism exhibits distinct profiles pre- and post-malignancy. The malignant metabolic shift converts prostate cells from "citrate-producing" to "citrate-oxidizing" cells, thereby enhancing glucose metabolism, a phenotype that contrasts classical tumoral Warburg metabolism. An on-line biosensor chip system (BIONAS 2500) was used to monitor metabolic changes (glycolysis and respiration) in response to the putative anti-cancer nutraceutical 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ], in different prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines (LNCaP, VCaP, DU145 and PC3). LNCaP cells exhibited profound metabolic responsiveness to the treatment and thus extensive analysis of metabolism-modulating effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 were performed, including mRNA expression analysis of key metabolic genes (e.g. GLUT1 and PDHK1), analysis of TCA cycle metabolites, glucose uptake/consumption measurements, ATP production, and mitochondrial biogenesis/activity. Altogether, data demonstrate a vivid disruption of glucose metabolism by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , illustrated by a decreased glucose uptake and an accumulation of citrate/isocitrate due to TCA cycle truncation. Depletion of glycolytic intermediates led to a consistent decrease in TXNIP expression in response to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , an effect that coincided with the activation of AMPK signaling and a reduction in c-MYC expression. Reduction in TXNIP levels in response to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was rescued by an AMPK signaling inhibitor and mimicked by a MYC inhibitor highlighting the possible involvement of both pathways in mediating 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 's metabolic effects in PCa cells. Furthermore, pharmacological and genetic modulation of the androgen receptor showed similar and disparate effects on metabolic parameters compared to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment, highlighting the AR-independent nature of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 's metabolism-modulating effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer Stem Cells: From Identification To Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASSEM, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental problem in cancer research is identification of the cells within a tumor that sustain the growth of the neoplastic clone. The concept that only a subpopulation of rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for maintenance of the neoplasm emerged nearly 50 years ago: however, conclusive proof for the existence of a CSC was obtained only relatively recently. As definition, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cancer cells (found within solid tumors or hematological malignancies) that possess characteristics normally associated with stem cells as high self-renewal potential. These cells are believed to be tumorige forming) in contrast to the bulk of cancer cells, which are thought to be non-tumorigenic. The first conclusive evidence for CSCs was published in 1997 in Nature Medicine by Bonnet and Dick who isolated a subpopulation of leukemic cells in AML that express a specific surface marker CD34 but lacks the CD38 marker. The authors established that the CD34+/CD38– subpopulation is capable of initiating leukemia in NOD/SCID mice that is histologically similar to the donor [1]. This subpopulation of cells is termed SCID Leukemia-initiating cells (SLIC). A theory suggests that such cells act as a reservoir for disease recurrence, are the origin of metastasis and exert resistance towards classical antitumor regimens. This resistance was attributed to a combination of several factors [2], suggesting that conventional antitumor regimens are targeting the bulk of the tumor not the dormant stubborn CSCs. Purpose Better understanding of the leukemogenic process and the biology of CSCS to define the most applicable procedures for their identification and isolation in order to design specific targeted therapies aiming at reducing disease burden to very low levels .. up to eradication of the tumor

  14. Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants and side effects that may occur.

  15. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and ... The morphology of the HepG2 cell nucleus was investigated by Hoechst 33342, ..... Gong F, Liang Y, Xie P, Chau F. Information theory.

  16. NSAIDs and Cell Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Ettarh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is common worldwide and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Fortunately, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that continuous therapy with NSAIDs offers real promise of chemoprevention and adjunct therapy for colon cancer patients. Tumour growth is the result of complex regulation that determines the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. How NSAIDs affect this balance is important for understanding and improving treatment strategies and drug effectiveness. NSAIDs inhibit proliferation and impair the growth of colon cancer cell lines when tested in culture in vitro and many NSAIDs also prevent tumorigenesis and reduce tumour growth in animal models and in patients, but the relationship to inhibition of tumour cell proliferation is less convincing, principally due to gaps in the available data. High concentrations of NSAIDs are required in vitro to achieve cancer cell inhibition and growth retardation at varying time-points following treatment. However, the results from studies with colon cancer cell xenografts are promising and, together with better comparative data on anti-proliferative NSAID concentrations and doses (for in vitro and in vivo administration, could provide more information to improve our understanding of the relationships between these agents, dose and dosing regimen, and cellular environment.

  17. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  18. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis [CNRS UMR 7598, LJLL, & INRIA MAMBA team, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, luis@ann.jussieu.fr (France); Chisholm, Rebecca [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, rebecca.chisholm@gmail.com (Australia); Clairambault, Jean [INRIA MAMBA team & LJLL, UMR 7598, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, jean.clairambault@inria.fr, Corresponding author (France); Escargueil, Alexandre [INSERM “Cancer Biology and Therapeutics”, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR-S 938, CDR St Antoine, Hôpital St Antoine, 184 Fbg. St Antoine, 75571 Paris cedex 12, France, alexandre.escargueil@upmc.fr (France); Lorenzi, Tommaso [CMLA, ENS Cachan, 61, Av. du Président Wilson, 94230 Cachan cedex & INRIA MAMBA team, & LJLL, UMR 7598, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, tommaso.lorenzi@gmail.com (France); Lorz, Alexander [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LJLL, UMR 7598 & INRIA Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, alex.lorz@ann.jussieu.fr (France); Trélat, Emmanuel [Institut Universitaire de France, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LJLL, UMR 7598, Boîte courrier 187, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, emmanuel.trelat@upmc.fr (France)

    2016-06-08

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  19. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  20. IL-4-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todaro, Matilde; Perez Alea, Mileidys; Scopelliti, Alessandro; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Cancer stem cells are thus likely to be responsible for maintaining or spreading a cancer, and may be the most relevant targets for cancer therapy. The CD133 glycoprotein was recently

  1. Identification of an IL-1-induced gene expression pattern in AR+ PCa cells that mimics the molecular phenotype of AR- PCa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Jardin, Shayna E; Kanchwala, Mohammed S; Jacob, Joan; Merchant, Sana; Meade, Rachel K; Gahnim, Nagham M; Nawas, Afshan F; Xing, Chao; Delk, Nikki A

    2018-06-01

    In immunosurveillance, bone-derived immune cells infiltrate the tumor and secrete inflammatory cytokines to destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to usurp inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor progression. In particular, the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissue and serum, and promotes PCa bone metastasis. IL-1 also represses androgen receptor (AR) accumulation and activity in PCa cells, yet the cells remain viable and tumorigenic; suggesting that IL-1 may also contribute to AR-targeted therapy resistance. Furthermore, IL-1 and AR protein levels negatively correlate in PCa tumor cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that IL-1 reprograms AR positive (AR + ) PCa cells into AR negative (AR - ) PCa cells that co-opt IL-1 signaling to ensure AR-independent survival and tumor progression in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells were treated with IL-1β or HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium and analyzed by RNA sequencing and RT-QPCR. To verify genes identified by RNA sequencing, LNCaP, MDA-PCa-2b, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines were treated with the IL-1 family members, IL-1α or IL-1β, or exposed to HS-5 BMSC in the presence or absence of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA). Treated cells were analyzed by western blot and/or RT-QPCR. Comparative analysis of sequencing data from the AR + LNCaP PCa cell line versus the AR - PC3 PCa cell line reveals an IL-1-conferred gene suite in LNCaP cells that is constitutive in PC3 cells. Bioinformatics analysis of the IL-1 regulated gene suite revealed that inflammatory and immune response pathways are primarily elicited; likely facilitating PCa cell survival and tumorigenicity in an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Our data supports that IL-1 reprograms AR + PCa cells to mimic AR - PCa gene expression patterns that favor AR-targeted treatment resistance and cell survival. © 2018 Wiley

  2. Syncytin is involved in breast cancer-endothelial cell fusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Holck, S.; Christensen, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with normal host cells, including endothelial cells, and such fusions may strongly modulate the biological behaviour of tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We now show that human breast cancer cell lines and 63 out of 165 (38%) breast cancer...... specimens express syncytin, an endogenous retroviral envelope protein, previously implicated in fusions between placental trophoblast cells. Additionally, endothelial and cancer cells are shown to express ASCT-2, a receptor for syncytin. Syncytin antisense treatment decreases syncytin expression...... and inhibits fusions between breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, a syncytin inhibitory peptide also inhibits fusions between cancer and endothelial cells. These results are the first to show that syncytin is expressed by human cancer cells and is involved in cancer-endothelial cell fusions....

  3. Profiling adrenal 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione metabolites in prostate cancer cells, tissue and plasma: UPC2-MS/MS quantification of 11β-hydroxytestosterone, 11keto-testosterone and 11keto-dihydrotestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Therina; Bloem, Liezl M; Quanson, Jonathan L; Ehlers, Riaan; Serafin, Antonio M; Swart, Amanda C

    2017-02-01

    Adrenal C 19 steroids serve as precursors to active androgens in the prostate. Androstenedione (A4), 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) and 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11OHT) are metabolised to potent androgen receptor (AR) agonists, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone (11KDHT). The identification of 11OHA4 metabolites, 11KT and 11KDHT, as active androgens has placed a new perspective on adrenal C11-oxy C 19 steroids and their contribution to prostate cancer (PCa). We investigated adrenal androgen metabolism in normal epithelial prostate (PNT2) cells and in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. We also analysed steroid profiles in PCa tissue and plasma, determining the presence of the C 19 steroids and their derivatives using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)- and ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC 2 -MS/MS). In PNT2 cells, sixty percent A4 (60%) was primarily metabolised to 5α-androstanedione (5αDIONE) (40%), testosterone (T) (10%), and androsterone (AST) (10%). T (30%) was primarily metabolised to DHT (10%) while low levels of A4, 5αDIONE and 3αADIOL (≈20%) were detected. Conjugated steroids were not detected and downstream products were present at <0.05μM. Only 20% of 11OHA4 and 11OHT were metabolised with the former yielding 11keto-androstenedione (11KA4), 11KDHT and 11β-hydroxy-5α-androstanedione (11OH-5αDIONE) and the latter yielding 11OHA4, 11KT and 11KDHT with downstream products <0.03μM. In LNCaP cells, A4 (90%) was metabolised to AST-glucuronide via the alternative pathway while T was detected as T-glucuronide with negligible conversion to downstream products. 11OHA4 (80%) and 11OHT (60%) were predominantly metabolised to 11KA4 and 11KT and in both assays more than 50% of 11KT was detected in the unconjugated form. In tissue, we detected C11-oxy C 19 metabolites at significantly higher levels than the C 19 steroids, with

  4. Mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells with emphasis on thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHombach-Klonisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance to anti-cancer treatments are common and main causes of death in cancer patients. Tumor cells mount complex and still poorly understood molecular defense mechanisms to counteract and evade oxygen deprivation, nutritional restrictions as well as radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment regimens aimed at destabilizing their genomes and important cellular processes. In thyroid cancer, as in other tumors, such defense strategies include the reactivation in cancer cells of early developmental programs normally active exclusively in stem cells, the stimulation of cancer stem-like cells resident within the tumor tissue and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitors into the tumor (Thomas et al., 2008;Klonisch et al., 2009;Derwahl, 2011. Metastasis and therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells involves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- mediated enhancement in cellular plasticity, which includes coordinated dynamic biochemical and nuclear changes (Ahmed et al., 2010. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the role of DNA repair mechanisms contributing to therapeutic resistance in thyroid cancer and highlight the emerging roles of autophagy and damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP responses in EMT and chemoresistance in tumor cells. Finally, we use the stem cell factor and nucleoprotein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2 as an example to demonstrate how factors intended to protect stem cells are wielded by cancer (stem cells to gain increased transformative cell plasticity which enhances metastasis, therapeutic resistance and cell survival. Wherever possible, we have included information on these cellular processes and associated factors as they relate to thyroid cancer cells.

  5. Targeting regulatory T cells in cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, William L

    2012-01-31

    Infiltration of tumors by regulatory T cells confers growth and metastatic advantages by inhibiting antitumor immunity and by production of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand, which may directly stimulate metastatic propagation of RANK-expressing cancer cells. Modulation of regulatory T cells can enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Strategies include depletion, interference with function, inhibition of tumoral migration, and exploitation of T-cell plasticity. Problems with these strategies include a lack of specificity, resulting in depletion of antitumor effector T cells or global interruption of regulatory T cells, which may predispose to autoimmune diseases. Emerging technologies, such as RNA interference and tetramer-based targeting, may have the potential to improve selectivity and efficacy.

  6. PSMA ligand conjugated PCL-PEG polymeric micelles targeted to prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jin

    Full Text Available In this content, a small molecular ligand of prostate specific membrane antigen (SMLP conjugated poly (caprolactone (PCL-b-poly (ethylene glycol (PEG copolymers with different block lengths were synthesized to construct a satisfactory drug delivery system. Four different docetaxel-loaded polymeric micelles (DTX-PMs were prepared by dialysis with particle sizes less than 60 nm as characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Optimization of the prepared micelles was conducted based on short-term stability and drug-loading content. The results showed that optimized systems were able to remain stable over 7 days. Compared with Taxotere, DTX-PMs with the same ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic chain length displayed similar sustained release behaviors. The cytotoxicity of the optimized targeted DTX-PCL12K-PEG5K-SMLP micelles (DTX-PMs2 and non-targeted DTX-PCL12K-mPEG5K micelles (DTX-PMs1 were evaluated by MTT assays using prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA positive prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP. The results showed that the targeted micelles had a much lower IC50 than their non-targeted counterparts (48 h: 0.87 ± 0.27 vs 13.48 ± 1.03 µg/ml; 72 h: 0.02 ± 0.008 vs 1.35 ± 0.54 µg/ml. In vitro cellular uptake of PMs2 showed 5-fold higher fluorescence intensity than that of PMs1 after 4 h incubation. According to these results, the novel nano-sized drug delivery system based on DTX-PCL-PEG-SMLP offers great promise for the treatment of prostatic cancer.

  7. Androgen deprivation results in time-dependent hypoxia in LNCaP prostate tumours: informed scheduling of the bioreductive drug AQ4N improves treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Louise; Byrne, Niall M; Camac, Sarah Nicole; Mitchell, Christopher A; Ward, Claire; Waugh, David J; McKeown, Stephanie R; Worthington, Jenny

    2013-03-15

    Androgen withdrawal induces hypoxia in androgen-sensitive tissue; this is important as in the tumour microenvironment, hypoxia is known to drive malignant progression. Our study examined the time-dependent effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on tumour oxygenation and investigated the role of ADT-induced hypoxia on malignant progression in prostate tumours. LNCaP xenografted tumours were treated with anti-androgens and tumour oxygenation measured. Dorsal skin fold (DSF) chambers were used to image tumour vasculature in vivo. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) identified differential gene expression following treatment with bicalutamide. Bicalutamide-treated and vehicle-only-treated tumours were re-established in vitro, and invasion and sensitivity to docetaxel were measured. Tumour growth delay was calculated following treatment with bicalutamide combined with the bioreductive drug AQ4N. Tumour oxygenation measurements showed a precipitate decrease following initiation of ADT. A clinically relevant dose of bicalutamide (2 mg/kg/day) decreased tumour oxygenation by 45% within 24 hr, reaching a nadir of 0.09% oxygen (0.67 ± 0.06 mmHg) by Day 7; this persisted until Day 14 when it increased up to Day 28. Using DSF chambers, LNCaP tumours treated with bicalutamide showed loss of small vessels at Days 7 and 14 with revascularisation occurring by Day 21. QPCR showed changes in gene expression consistent with the vascular changes and malignant progression. Cells from bicalutamide-treated tumours were more malignant than vehicle-treated controls. Combining bicalutamide with AQ4N (50 mg/kg, single dose) caused greater tumour growth delay than bicalutamide alone. Our study shows that bicalutamide-induced hypoxia selects for cells that show malignant progression; targeting hypoxic cells may provide greater clinical benefit. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...

  9. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  10. Modulation of AKR1C2 by curcumin decreases testosterone production in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Lu, Yan; Noguchi, Takahiro; Muto, Satoru; Okada, Hiroshi; Kawato, Suguru; Horie, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis has been recognized as an essential factor of castration-resistant prostate cancer. The present study investigated the effects of curcumin on the inhibition of intracrine androgen synthesis in prostate cancer. Human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells were incubated with or without curcumin after which cell proliferation was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Prostate tissues from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model were obtained after 1-month oral administration of 200 mg/kg/d curcumin. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in LNCaP prostate cancer cells were determined through LC-MS/MS assay. Curcumin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin decreased the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory proteins, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in prostate cancer cell lines, supporting the decrease of testosterone production. After 1-month oral administration of curcumin, Aldo-Keto reductase 1C2 (AKR1C2) expression was elevated. Simultaneously, decreased testosterone levels in the prostate tissues were observed in the TRAMP mice. Meanwhile, curcumin treatments considerably increased the expression of AKR1C2 in prostate cancer cell lines, supporting the decrease of dihydrotestosterone. Taken together, these results suggest that curcumin's natural bioactive compounds could have potent anticancer properties due to suppression of androgen production, and this could have therapeutic effects on prostate cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  12. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  13. Multimodal Nanomedicine Strategies for Targeting Cancer Cells as well as Cancer Stem Cell Signalling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Samarasinghe, Rasika M; Kamalapuram, Sishir K; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that stem cells, a small population of cells with unique selfrenewable and tumour regenerative capacity, are aiding tumour re-growth and multidrug resistance. Conventional therapies are highly ineffective at eliminating these cells leading to relapse of disease and formation of chemoresistance tumours. Cancer and stem cells targeted therapies that utilizes nanotherapeutics to delivery anti-cancer drugs to specific sites are continuously investigated. This review focuses on recent research using nanomedicine and targeting entities to eliminate cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Current nanotherapeutics in clinical trials along with more recent publications on targeted therapies are addressed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidard, Francois-Clement; Proudhon, Charlotte; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, technically reliable circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection methods allowed the collection of large datasets of CTC counts in cancer patients. These data can be used either as a dynamic prognostic biomarker or as tumor material for "liquid biopsy". Breast cancer appears to be the cancer type in which CTC have been the most extensively studied so far, with level-of-evidence-1 studies supporting the clinical validity of CTC count in both early and metastatic stage. This review summarizes and discusses the clinical results obtained in breast cancer patients, the issues faced by the molecular characterization of CTC and the biological findings about cancer biology and metastasis that were obtained from CTC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  16. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN, daidzein) from legumes and red...Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41...38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN

  17. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1780-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  19. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-mediated pathway of apoptosis through the inhibition of NF-κB. The present study investigated the expression of the LDOC-1 gene in LNCaP, PC-3, PNT1A and PNT2 prostate cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition LDOC-1 protein expression in normal prostate tissues and PCa was studied by immunohistochemistry. LDOC-1 messenger RNA resulted overexpressed in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines compared with the two normal prostate cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic LDOC-1 staining in all PCa and normal prostate samples, whereas no nuclear staining was observed in any sample. Furthermore, a more intense signal was evidenced in PCa samples. LDOC-1 gene overexpression in PCa suggests an activity of LDOC-1 in PCa cell lines. PMID:27698860

  20. Parallel Solid-Phase Synthesis Using a New Diethylsilylacetylenic Linker and Leading to Mestranol Derivatives with Potent Antiproliferative Activities on Multiple Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutour, Raphael; Maltais, Rene; Perreault, Martin; Roy, Jenny; Poirier, Donald

    2018-03-07

    RM-133 belongs to a new family of aminosteroid derivatives demonstrating interesting anticancer properties, as confirmed in vivo in four mouse cancer xenograft models. However, the metabolic stability of RM-133 needs to be improved. After investigation, the replacement of its androstane scaffold by a more stable estrane scaffold led to the development of the mestranol derivative RM-581. Using solid-phase strategy involving five steps, we quickly synthesized a series of RM-581 analogs using the recently-developed diethylsilyl acetylenic linker. To establish structure-activity relationships, we then investigated their antiproliferative potency on a panel of cancer cell lines from various cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian and pancreatic). Some of the mestranol derivatives have shown in vitro anticancer activities that are close to, or better than those observed for RM-581. Compound 23, a mestranol derivative having a ((3,5-dimethylbenzoyl)-L-prolyl)piperazine side chain at position C2, was found to be active as an antiproliferative agent (IC50 = 0.38 ± 0.34 to 3.17 ± 0.10 µM) and to be twice as active as RM-581 on LNCaP, PC-3, MCF-7, PANC-1 and OVCAR-3 cancer cells (IC50 = 0.56 ± 0.30, 0.89 ± 0.63, 1.36 ± 0.31, 2.47 ± 0.91 and 3.17 ± 0.10 µM, respectively). Easily synthesized in good yields by both solid-phase organic synthesis and classic solution-phase chemistry, this promising candidate could be used as an antiproliferative agent on a variety of cancers, notably pancreatic and ovarian cancers, both having very bad prognoses. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. MIM, a Potential Metastasis Suppressor Gene in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a modified version of the mRNA differential display technique, five human bladder cancer cell lines from low grade to metastatic were analyzed to identify differences in gene expression. A 316-bp cDNA (C11300 was isolated that was not expressed in the metastatic cell line TccSuP. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was identical to KIAA 0429, has a 5.3-kb transcript that mapped to 8824.1. The protein is predicted to be 356 amino acids in size and has an actin-binding WH2 domain. Northern blot revealed expression in multiple normal tissues, but none in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (SKBR3 or in metastatic prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3. We have named this gene Missing in Metastasis (MIM and our data suggest that it may be involved in cytoskeletal organization.

  2. Resistance to docetaxel in prostate cancer is associated with androgen receptor activation and loss of KDM5D expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Kazumasa; Jeong, Seong Ho; Hinohara, Kunihiko; Qu, Fangfang; Wang, Xiaodong; Hiraki, Masayuki; Azuma, Haruhito; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W.; Sweeney, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in prostate cancer, and suppression of its signaling with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer for more than 70 y. Chemotherapy has been reserved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-led trial E3805: ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer (CHAARTED) showed that the addition of docetaxel to ADT prolonged overall survival compared with ADT alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. This finding suggests that there is an interaction between AR signaling activity and docetaxel sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and LAPC4 display markedly different sensitivity to docetaxel with AR activation, and RNA-seq analysis of these cell lines identified KDM5D (lysine-specific demethylase 5D) encoded on the Y chromosome as a potential mediator of this sensitivity. Knocking down KDM5D expression in LNCaP leads to docetaxel resistance in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. KDM5D physically interacts with AR in the nucleus, and regulates its transcriptional activity by demethylating H3K4me3 active transcriptional marks. Attenuating KDM5D expression dysregulates AR signaling, resulting in docetaxel insensitivity. KDM5D deletion was also observed in the LNCaP-derived CRPC cell line 104R2, which displayed docetaxel insensitivity with AR activation, unlike parental LNCaP. Dataset analysis from the Oncomine database revealed significantly decreased KDM5D expression in CRPC and poorer prognosis with low KDM5D expression. Taking these data together, this work indicates that KDM5D modulates the AR axis and that this is associated with altered docetaxel sensitivity. PMID:27185910

  3. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  4. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Cancer: Lessons from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kid Törnquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin is found in the cell membrane of all eukaryotic cells, and was for a long time considered merely as a structural component. However, during the last two decades, metabolites of sphingomyelin, especially sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, have proven to be physiologically significant regulators of cell function. Through its five different G protein-coupled receptors, S1P regulates a wide array of cellular processes, ranging from stimulating cellular proliferation and migration, to the inhibition of apoptosis and induction of angiogenesis and modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis. Many of the processes regulated by S1P are important for normal cell physiology, but may also induce severe pathological conditions, especially in malignancies like cancer. Thus, understanding S1P signaling mechanisms has been the aim of a multitude of investigations. Great interest has also been shown in understanding the action of sphingosine kinase (SphK, i.e., the kinase phosphorylating sphingosine to S1P, and the interactions between S1P and growth factor signaling. In the present review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the possible importance of S1P and SphK in the etiology of thyroid cancer. Although clinical data is still scarce, our in vitro findings suggest that S1P may function as a “double-edged sword”, as the receptor profile of thyroid cancer cells largely determines whether S1P stimulates or blocks cellular migration. We will also discuss the interactions between S1P- and VEGF-evoked signaling, and the importance of a S1P1-VEGF receptor 2 complex in thyroid cancer cells.

  5. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  6. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of changes in lipid composition in breast and prostate cancer cells treated with MPA and R1881 hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Futia, Gregory L.; Aughenbaugh, Jessica; Schlaepfer, Isabel; Gibson, Emily A.

    2014-03-01

    Increasing interest in the role of lipids in cancer cell proliferation or resistance to drug therapies has motivated the need to develop better tools for cellular lipid analysis. Quantification of lipids in cells is typically done by destructive chromatography protocols that do not provide spatial information on lipid distribution and prevent dynamic live cell studies. Methods that allow the analysis of lipid content in live cells is therefore of great importance for research. Using Raman micro-spectroscopy we investigated whether the female hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and the synthetic androgen R1881 affect the lipid expression in breast (T47D) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells. Differences were noted in the spectral regions at 830-1800 cm-1 and 2800-3000 cm-1 when comparing different drug treatments. Significant changes were noticed for saturated (1063 - 1125 cm-1, 1295 cm-1 and 1439 cm-1), unsaturated (1262 cm-1 and 1656 cm-1, and 1720 - 1748 cm-1) chemical bonds, suggesting that the composition of the lipid droplets was changed by the hormone treatments. Also, significant differences were observed in the high frequency regions of lipids and proteins at 2851 cm-1 and around 2890 cm-1. Principal component analysis with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) of the Raman spectra was able to differentiate between cancer cells that were treated with MPA, R1881 or vehicle (P < 0.05). Future work includes analysis to determine exact lipid composition and concentrations as well as development of clinical techniques to characterize differences in patient tumor lipid profiles to determine response to drug treatment and prognosis.

  7. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs

  8. Cell-Cell Adhesion and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lodish, H., Baltimore, D., Berk, A., Zipurski, S. L, Matsudaira, P., and J. Darnell. (1995). Molecular Cell Biology. Scientific American Books , New...Bruhn, L., Wedlich, D., Grosschedl, R., and Birchmeier, W. (1996) Nature 382, 638-642 6. Molenaar , M., van de Wetering, M., Oosterwegel, M., Peterson

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions HLRCC Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer ( HLRCC ) is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  10. TOFA (5-tetradecyl-oxy-2-furoic acid) reduces fatty acid synthesis, inhibits expression of AR, neuropilin-1 and Mcl-1 and kills prostate cancer cells independent of p53 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Natalya V; Rokhlin, Oskar W; Glover, Rebecca A; Cohen, Michael B

    2011-07-01

    A key player in prostate cancer development and progression is the androgen receptor (AR). Tumor-associated lipogenesis can protect cancer cells from carcinogenic- and therapeutic-associated treatments. Increased synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol is regulated by androgens through induction of several genes in androgen-responsive cancer cells. Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-α (ACCA) is a key enzyme in the regulation of fatty acids synthesis. Here we show that AR binds in vivo to intron regions of human ACCA gene. We also show that the level of ACCA protein in LNCaP depends on AR expression and that DHT treatment increases ACCA expression and fatty acid synthesis. Inhibition of ACCA by TOFA (5-tetradecyl-oxy-2-furoic acid) decreases fatty acid synthesis and induces caspase activation and cell death in most PCa cell lines. Our data suggest that TOFA can kill cells via the mitochondrial pathway since we found cytochrome c release after TOFA treatment in androgen sensitive cell lines. The results also imply that the pro-apoptotic effect of TOFA may be mediated via a decrease of neuropilin-1(NRP1) and Mcl-1expression. We have previously reported that Mcl-1 is under AR regulation and plays an important role in resistance to drug-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and NRP1 is known to regulate Mcl-1 expression. Here, we show for the first time that NRP1 expression is under AR control. Taken together, our data suggest that TOFA is a potent cell death inducing agent in prostate cancer cells.

  11. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  12. Application of affymetrix array and massively parallel signature sequencing for identification of genes involved in prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudes, Asa J; Roach, Jared C; Walashek, Laura S; Eichner, Lillian J; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Liu, Alvin Y

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix GeneChip Array and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) are two high throughput methodologies used to profile transcriptomes. Each method has certain strengths and weaknesses; however, no comparison has been made between the data derived from Affymetrix arrays and MPSS. In this study, two lineage-related prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and C4-2, were used for transcriptome analysis with the aim of identifying genes associated with prostate cancer progression. Affymetrix GeneChip array and MPSS analyses were performed. Data was analyzed with GeneSpring 6.2 and in-house perl scripts. Expression array results were verified with RT-PCR. Comparison of the data revealed that both technologies detected genes the other did not. In LNCaP, 3,180 genes were only detected by Affymetrix and 1,169 genes were only detected by MPSS. Similarly, in C4-2, 4,121 genes were only detected by Affymetrix and 1,014 genes were only detected by MPSS. Analysis of the combined transcriptomes identified 66 genes unique to LNCaP cells and 33 genes unique to C4-2 cells. Expression analysis of these genes in prostate cancer specimens showed CA1 to be highly expressed in bone metastasis but not expressed in primary tumor and EPHA7 to be expressed in normal prostate and primary tumor but not bone metastasis. Our data indicates that transcriptome profiling with a single methodology will not fully assess the expression of all genes in a cell line. A combination of transcription profiling technologies such as DNA array and MPSS provides a more robust means to assess the expression profile of an RNA sample. Finally, genes that were differentially expressed in cell lines were also differentially expressed in primary prostate cancer and its metastases

  13. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    .003) and cytokines. Yet, these systemic adaptations had no effect on breast cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p ... no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.......Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses...

  14. Principles of cancer cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    The basics of cell culture are now relatively common, though it was not always so. The pioneers of cell culture would envy our simple access to manufactured plastics, media and equipment for such studies. The prerequisites for cell culture are a well lit and suitably ventilated laboratory with a laminar flow hood (Class II), CO(2) incubator, benchtop centrifuge, microscope, plasticware (flasks and plates) and a supply of media with or without serum supplements. Not only can all of this be ordered easily over the internet, but large numbers of well-characterised cell lines are available from libraries maintained to a very high standard allowing the researcher to commence experiments rapidly and economically. Attention to safety and disposal is important, and maintenance of equipment remains essential. This chapter should enable researchers with little prior knowledge to set up a suitable laboratory to do basic cell culture, but there is still no substitute for experience within an existing well-run laboratory.

  15. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth facto...

  16. Tumor-Initiating Label-Retaining Cancer Cells in Human Gastrointestinal Cancers Undergo Asymmetric Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M.; Mullinax, John E.; Ambe, Chenwi M.; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J.; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Garfield, Susan H.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell