WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer kidney tissues

  1. Comparison of effective atomic numbers of the cancerous and normal kidney tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Ne) of normal kidney and cancerous kidney have been computed for total and partial photon interactions by computing the molecular, atomic, and electronic cross section in the wide energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV using WinXCOM. The mean Zeff and Ne of normal kidney and cancerous kidney in the various energy ranges and for total and partial photon interactions are tabulated. The variation of effective Ne with energy is shown graphically for all photon interactions. In addition to this computer tomography (CT), numbers of normal kidney and cancerous kidney for photon interaction and energy absorption is also computed. The role of Zeff in the dual-energy dividing radiography is also discussed. The values of Zeff and Ne for cancerous kidney are higher than normal kidney. This is due to the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As, and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. The soft tissue and cancerous tissue are very similar, but their atomic number differs. The cancerous tissue exhibits a higher Zeff than the normal tissue. This fact helps in the dual-energy dividing radiography which enables to improve the diagnosis of the kidney cancer. Hence, the computed values may be useful in the diagnosis of the kidney cancer. CT numbers for normal kidney are higher than cancerous kidney. (author)

  2. The AKT-mTOR signalling pathway in kidney cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirina, L. V.; Usynin, Y. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Yurmazov, Z. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Kolegova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    An increased expression of phospho-AKT, m-TOR, glycogen regulator GSK-3-beta and transcription inhibitor 4E-BP1 was observed in kidney cancer tissues. Tumor size growth was associated with a high level of c-Raf and low content of phospho-m-TOR. Cancer metastasis development led to a decreased PTEN and phospho-AKT expression.

  3. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  4. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  5. Tissue engineering the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Marc R

    2003-04-01

    The means by which kidney function can be replaced in humans include dialysis and renal allotransplantation. Dialytic therapies are lifesaving, but often poorly tolerated. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donor organs. During the past decades, a number of different approaches have been applied toward tissue engineering the kidney as a means to replace renal function. The goals of one or another of them included the recapitulation of renal filtration, reabsorptive and secretory functions, and replacement of endocrine/metabolic activities. This review will delineate the progress to date recorded for five approaches: (1) integration of new nephrons into the kidney; (2) growing new kidneys in situ; (3) use of stem cells; (4) generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation; and (5) bioengineering of an artificial kidney. All five approaches utilize cellular therapy. The first four employ transplantation as well, and the fifth uses dialysis.

  6. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  7. Ablation and Other Local Therapy for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  8. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  9. How Is Kidney Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people find disturbing. Some centers provide headphones with music to block this noise out. MRI scans are used less often than CT scans in people with kidney cancer. They may be done in cases where CT ...

  10. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  11. Soft tissue sarcomas of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Köhle; Dominik Abt; Christian Rothermundt; Christian Öhlschlegel; Christiane Brugnolaro; Hans-Peter Schmid

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors. Amongst others, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney and synovial sarcoma of the kidney belong to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, most frequently, however, in the lower (62%) or upper extremities (21%). Metastases occur in 50-70% of cases, and thus the prognosis is poor. PNETs are rare, highly aggressive neoplastic lesions which mainly occur in the torso or axial skel...

  12. Do We Know What Causes Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can kidney cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes kidney cancer? Although many risk ... genes − the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  13. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many people in the United States are living normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Some people do not have any working kidneys ... the same treatments that are also used for kidney cancers, such as surgery, ... on many factors, such as the size of the tumor and if it is causing ...

  14. Assessing the Application of Tissue Microarray Technology to Kidney Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Su, Yinghao; Yao, Bing; Zheng, Wei; deCaestecker, Mark; Harris, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) is a new high-throughput method that enables simultaneous analysis of the profiles of protein expression in multiple tissue samples. TMA technology has not previously been adapted for physiological and pathophysiological studies of rodent kidneys. We have evaluated the validity and reliability of using TMA to assess protein expression in mouse and rat kidneys. A representative TMA block that we have produced included: (1) mouse and rat kidney cortex, outer medulla, and...

  15. Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Masakazu; Sakauchi, Fumio; SONODA, Tomoko; Ikeda, Toshiko; Mori, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of kidney cancer and resulting mortality has been increasing in recent years. Its incidence is highest in Western and Northern Europe and North America, moderate in Japan, and low elsewhere in Asia. Although the incidence of kidney cancer in Japan is lower than in the other developed countries, there is no doubt that there has been an increasing occurrence of this disease recently in Japan, which may be partly due to the adoption of a Western life style.Obesity/overweight is ass...

  16. Renal cancer in kidney transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy.

  17. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of kidney cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for kidney cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease.

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  19. Genes overexpressed in different human solid cancers exhibit different tissue-specific expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Lotem, Joseph; Sachs, Leo; Domany, Eytan

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed gene expression in different normal human tissues and different types of solid cancers derived from these tissues. The cancers analyzed include brain (astrocytoma and glioblastoma), breast, colon, endometrium, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, skin, and thyroid cancers. Comparing gene expression in each normal tissue to 12 other normal tissues, we identified 4,917 tissue-selective genes that were selectively expressed in different normal tissues. We also identified 2,929 ...

  20. Renal Tissue Oxygenation in Essential Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Menno Pruijm; Lucie Hofmann; Bruno Vogt; Marie-Eve Muller; Maciej Piskunowicz; Matthias Stuber; Michel Burnier

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies perform...

  1. Subcapsular transplantation of tissue in the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Leonard D.; Goodwin, Neal; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Hosur, Vishnu; Lyons, Bonnie L.; Greiner, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple sites used for engraftment of primary human cells and tissues. Leukemias as usually best engrafted intravenously in adult mice (tail vein) or in newborn mice (superficial temporal vein or in the heart ventricle) (Pearson et al. 2008). Leukemic cells have also been engrafted directly into the bone marrow cavity of adult mice. Some solid tumors such as colon tumors grow well following subcutaneous engraftment. Matrigel™ is often used to provide artificial basement membrane. I...

  2. What You Need to Know about Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This booklet is not about transitional cell cancer (TCC) of the kidney. TCC is a different disease with different treatment options. For the latest information about TCC, visit: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/transitionalcell ...

  3. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Tissue engineering of a bioartificial kidney: a universal donor organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, H D

    1996-08-01

    Cell therapy and tissue engineering may well likely dominate medical therapeutics in the next century. Growing a functional glomerular filter and tubule reabsorber from a combination of cells, biomaterials, and synthetic polymers to replace renal excretory and regulatory functions is a specific example of these evolving technologies. The kidney was the first organ whose function was substituted by an artificial device. The kidney was also the first organ to be successfully transplanted. The ability to replace renal function with these revolutionary technologies in the past was due to the fact that renal excretory function is based on natural physical forces which govern solute and fluid movement from the body compartment to the external environment. The need for coordinated mechanical or electrical activities got renal substitution was not required. Accordingly, the kidney may well be the first organ to be available as a tissue-engineered implantable device as a fully functional replacement part for the human body. The prospects of a "universal donor" bioartificial kidney for the treatment of end-stage renal disease are clearly achievable as we approach the next millennium.

  5. Classification of kidney and liver tissue using ultrasound backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Rivaz, Hassan; Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Jago, James; Safdar, Nabile; Boctor, Emad M.; Linguraru, Marius G.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) tissue characterization provides valuable information for the initialization of automatic segmentation algorithms, and can further provide complementary information for diagnosis of pathologies. US tissue characterization is challenging due to the presence of various types of image artifacts and dependence on the sonographer's skills. One way of overcoming this challenge is by characterizing images based on the distribution of the backscatter data derived from the interaction between US waves and tissue. The goal of this work is to classify liver versus kidney tissue in 3D volumetric US data using the distribution of backscatter US data recovered from end-user displayed Bmode image available in clinical systems. To this end, we first propose the computation of a large set of features based on the homodyned-K distribution of the speckle as well as the correlation coefficients between small patches in 3D images. We then utilize the random forests framework to select the most important features for classification. Experiments on in-vivo 3D US data from nine pediatric patients with hydronephrosis showed an average accuracy of 94% for the classification of liver and kidney tissues showing a good potential of this work to assist in the classification and segmentation of abdominal soft tissue.

  6. Renal Tissue Oxygenation in Essential Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Pruijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI, detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD. In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.

  7. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  8. NIH scientists provide new insight into rare kidney cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH scientists have discovered a unique feature of a rare, hereditary form of kidney cancer that may provide a better understanding of its progression and metastasis, possibly laying the foundation for the development of new targeted therapies.

  9. The role of inflammation in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivar Chevez, Antonio Roma; Finke, James; Bukowski, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes more than 90 % of primary kidney tumors with the development of metastatic disease in the lung, bone, liver, and brain. Clear-cell RCC (CCRCC) is the most common histologic form of sporadic kidney cancer where the majority of tumors have inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor-suppressor gene resulting in the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) leading to dysregulation of cell growth and angiogenesis. Understanding of the genetic changes in RCC and the downstream events have led to the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that target HIF-regulated proteins which currently represents front-line therapy for metastatic disease although resistance develops in most patients overtime. Despite the fact that RCC is an immunogenic tumor, there is mounting evidence that immune cells and inflammatory pathways can enhance tumor growth and immune escape. However, recent studies are beginning to uncover the mechanisms of immune escape in RCC, and the role inflammatory immune cells and cytokines play is this process. These new findings have led to renewed interest in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of this disease that includes strategies to regulate inflammatory responses. Here, we will discuss the different inflammatory signaling pathways (e.g., VHL, hypoxia, TNF-α, STAT, and TGF-β) and the downstream transcription factors, cytokines, and chemokines involved in tumor development, and disease progression. This will include assessment of the role inflammatory molecules (e.g., pVHL, TGFb, IL6, select chemokines/chemokine receptors) play in promoting cell transformation, survival, proliferation of tumor cells, and metastasis derived from in vitro and in vivo studies. Included is a section on how select inflammatory cells (TAM, MDSC, and neutrophils) promote tumor evasion of immune cells. We also provide examples of molecules/cells that correlate negatively (CXCL12, CXCR4, and MMP, neutrophils, and

  10. Autophagy, Innate Immunity and Tissue Repair in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Duann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney is a vital organ with high energy demands to actively maintain plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis. Among the nephron segments, the renal tubular epithelium is endowed with high mitochondria density for their function in active transport. Acute kidney injury (AKI is an important clinical syndrome and a global public health issue with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapy. AKI results in acute cell death and necrosis of renal tubule epithelial cells accompanied with leakage of tubular fluid and inflammation. The inflammatory immune response triggered by the tubular cell death, mitochondrial damage, associative oxidative stress, and the release of many tissue damage factors have been identified as key elements driving the pathophysiology of AKI. Autophagy, the cellular mechanism that removes damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, had been proposed to be renoprotective. An in-depth understanding of the intricate interplay between autophagy and innate immune response, and their roles in AKI pathology could lead to novel therapies in AKI. This review addresses the current pathophysiology of AKI in aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunity, and molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Recent advances in renal tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

  11. Tissue Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Expression in the Prediction of Renal Function for Several Years after Kidney Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Simic Ogrizovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Retrospective study was designed to examine the importance of tissue kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 expression in predicting kidney function in sixty patients (27 males aged 34.15 ± 12.23 years with different kidney diseases over three years after kidney biopsy. Materials and Methods. Tissue KIM-1 expression was determined immunohistochemically and KIM-1 staining was scored semiquantitatively, as well as tubulointerstitialis (TIN, inflammation, atrophy, and fibrosis. Kidney function (MDRD formula and proteinuria/day were evaluated at the time of biopsy (GFR0 and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months later. Results. Significantly positive correlations between tissue KIM-1 expression and age (r=0.313, TIN inflammation (r=0.456, fibrosis (r=0.317, and proteinuria at 6 months (r=0.394 as well as negative correlations with GFR0 (r=−0.572, GFR6 (r=−0.442, GFR24 (r=−0.398, and GFR36 (r=−0.412 were found. Meanwhile, TIN inflammation was the best predictor of all measured kidney functions during three years, while tissue KIM-1 expression (P=0.016 was a predictor only at 6 months after biopsy. Conclusion. Tissue KIM-1 expression significantly predicts kidney function solely at 6 months after biopsy, when the effects of immune and nonimmune treatments are the strongest.

  12. [Molecular biological predictors for kidney cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Tarakanova, V O; Zavyalova, M V

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the data available in the modern literature on studies of potential molecular predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Investigations of cell death markers, namely; Bcl-2 as an inhibitor of apoptosis, are of interest. Its high expression correlates with a more favorable prognosis. Inactivation of Berclin 1 that is an authophagy indicator in intact tissues gives rise to t high risk for tumorigenesis. At the same time, high Beclin 1 expression in the tissue of the tumor itself results in the lower efficiency of performed chemotherapy. Excess annexin A2 in the tumor promotes the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Patients with tumor over-expression of SAM68 protein involved in cell proliferation have a lower overall survival rate. The lifespan of patients without distinct metastases survive significantly longer in the overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). High PD-L1 protein expression on the cell membrane is considered to be a potential marker of effective immunotherapy for RCC. PMID:27077146

  13. Hormonal treatment of obstructed kidneys in patients with prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Miskowiak, J; Rolff, H

    1993-01-01

    A review of 1288 patients with previously untreated prostatic cancer revealed 209 patients (16%) with ureteric obstruction; the obstruction was bilateral in 36%. The effect of hormonal treatment was assessed in 88 patients with 120 obstructed kidneys: 77 patients had androgen deprivation...

  14. Deep Tissue Microscopic Imaging of the Kidney with a Gradient-Index Lens System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Weiming

    2008-04-01

    Intravital microscopy using two-photon excitation is proven to be a valuable tool for studying the kidney and associated disease processes. However, routine performance of intravital kidney imaging is limited by the fact that fluorescence signal is attenuated by the tissue and at certain tissue depth lost its strength completely. For most of the animal tissues, this finite imaging depth is limited to a few hundred microns. Currently it is not possible to non-invasively image the kidney beyond the superficial tissue layers of the cortex. This has imposed significant limitations on the animal models one can use for imaging since structure such the glomerulus is typically located below the superficial layer of the cortex that can not be imaged using a conventional fluorescence microscope. Here we report the use of a needle-like lens system based on gradient-index (GRIN) microlenses capable of transferring high quality fluorescence images of the tissue through a regular microscope objective for deep tissue imaging of the kidney. By combining this GRIN lens system with a Zeiss LSM 510 NLO microscope, we are able to extend the imaging depth for kidney tissues far beyond the few hundred microns limit. This GRIN lens imaging system provides an alternative microendoscopic imaging tool that will enhance current intravital kidney imaging techniques for studying structural and functional properties of local tissues at locations below the superficial layers of the kidney.

  15. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  16. Somatic Mutaome Profile in Human Cancer Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nayoung; Hong, Yourae; Kwon, Doyoung; Yoon, Sukjoon

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutation is a major cause of cancer progression and varied responses of tumors against anticancer agents. Thus, we must obtain and characterize genome-wide mutational profiles in individual cancer subtypes. The Cancer Genome Atlas database includes large amounts of sequencing and omics data generated from diverse human cancer tissues. In the present study, we integrated and analyzed the exome sequencing data from ~3,000 tissue samples and summarized the major mutant genes in each of t...

  17. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC. We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids of patient at high risk for this disease; we provide pilot data for such a urinary bioassay. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the knowledge of networks, processes, and pathways altered in kidney cancer may be used to influence the choice of optimal therapy.

  18. Kidney cancer mortality in Spain: geographic patterns and possible hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the second half of the 1990s, kidney cancer mortality has tended to stabilize and decline in many European countries, due to the decrease in the prevalence of smokers. Nevertheless, incidence of kidney cancer is rising across the sexes in some of these countries, a trend which may possibly reflect the fact that improvements in diagnostic techniques are being outweighed by the increased prevalence of some of this tumor's risk factors. This study sought to: examine the geographic pattern of kidney cancer mortality in Spain; suggest possible hypotheses that would help explain these patterns; and enhance existing knowledge about the large proportion of kidney tumors whose cause remains unknown. Methods Smoothed municipal relative risks (RRs for kidney cancer mortality were calculated in men and women, using the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Results Municipal maps displayed a marked geographic pattern, with excess mortality in both sexes, mainly in towns along the Bay of Biscay, including areas of Asturias, the Basque Country and, to a lesser extent, Cantabria. Among women, the geographic pattern was strikingly singular, not in evidence for any other tumors, and marked by excess risk in towns situated in the Salamanca area and Extremaduran Autonomous Region. This difference would lead one to postulate the existence of different exposures of environmental origin in the various regions. Conclusion The reasons for this pattern of distribution are not clear, and it would thus be of interest if the effect of industrial emissions on this disease could be studied. The excess mortality observed among women in towns situated in areas with a high degree of natural radiation could reflect the influence of exposures which derive from the geologic composition of the

  19. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats. PMID:25539049

  20. Assessment of photoacoustic computed tomography to classify tissue in a polycystic-kidney disease mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Gattone, Vincent H., II; Kruger, Robert A.; Stantz, Keith M.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate PCT Imaging technique to classify tissue and extract kidney cysts in pcy mice model of human adolescent nephronophthisis. Method: Four mice with late stages of nephronophthisis with polycystic kidney disease-PKD and one normal mouse were scanned in the PCT Small Animal Scanner. Both vivo and ex-vivo images of mice kidney were taken at wavelength from 680 nm to 940 nm. The ex-vivo PCT images were compared with histology photographs to check the sensitivity of detecting cysts. Histograms of kidney images were generated over slices and fitted to Gaussian-curve model for volumetric analysis. The portions of cysts in kidneys were estimated and kidney images were segmented by three different colors to present the distribution of different tissues. Result: A good correspondence between PCT imaging findings and PKD histology result was observed. Histogram curves from images of pcy kidneys and normal kidneys were fitted to Gaussian-curve model. Portions of cysts, parenchyma and area of high level hemoglobin were estimated according to the curve fit result. A growth of cysts associated with relatively volume decrease of parenchyma and tissues with high perfusion of hemoglobin was observed. Conclusion: The PCT enabled visualization of renal cysts for mouse model and had the potential for volumetric measurements of kidney.

  1. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, F; Woodley, LN; Shousha, S; Moyes, A; Humphreys-Williams, E; Strekopytov, S; Halliday, AN; Rehkämper, M; Coombes, RC

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn i...

  2. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  3. RNA-Seq Accurately Identifies Cancer Biomarker Signatures to Distinguish Tissue of Origin1

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Iris H.; Shi, Yang; Jiang, Hui; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Arul M Chinnaiyan

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for up to 5% of all new cancer cases, with a 5-year survival rate of only 10%. Accurate identification of tissue of origin would allow for directed, personalized therapies to improve clinical outcomes. Our objective was to use transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify lineage-specific biomarker signatures for the cancer types that most commonly metastasize as CUP (colorectum, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and stomach)....

  4. Acute kidney injury in critically ill cancer patients: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, Norbert; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer represent a growing group among actual ICU admissions (up to 20 %). Due to their increased susceptibility to infectious and noninfectious complications related to the underlying cancer itself or its treatment, these patients frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). A wide variety of definitions for AKI are still used in the cancer literature, despite existing guidelines on definitions and staging of AKI. Alternative diagnostic investigations such as Cystatin C and urinary biomarkers are discussed briefly. This review summarizes the literature between 2010 and 2015 on epidemiology and prognosis of AKI in this population. Overall, the causes of AKI in the setting of malignancy are similar to those in other clinical settings, including preexisting chronic kidney disease. In addition, nephrotoxicity induced by the anticancer treatments including the more recently introduced targeted therapies is increasingly observed. However, data are sometimes difficult to interpret because they are often presented from the oncological rather than from the nephrological point of view. Because the development of the acute tumor lysis syndrome is one of the major causes of AKI in patients with a high tumor burden or a high cell turnover, the diagnosis, risk factors, and preventive measures of the syndrome will be discussed. Finally, we will briefly discuss renal replacement therapy modalities and the emergence of chronic kidney disease in the growing subgroup of critically ill post-AKI survivors. PMID:27480256

  5. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  6. Quantitative proteomics in resected renal cancer tissue for biomarker discovery and profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Atrih, A; Mudaliar, M A V; Zakikhani, P; Lamont, D J; Huang, J T-J; Bray, S.E.; Barton, G.; Fleming, S; Nabi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proteomics-based approaches for biomarker discovery are promising strategies used in cancer research. We present state-of-art label-free quantitative proteomics method to assess proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compared with noncancer renal tissues. Methods: Fresh frozen tissue samples from eight primary RCC lesions and autologous adjacent normal renal tissues were obtained from surgically resected tumour-bearing kidneys. Proteins were extracted by complete solubilisation of...

  7. Nonmuscle Tissues Contribution to Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Argilés, Josep M.; Britta Stemmler; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Silvia Busquets

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting, and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. In spite of the fact that muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be the main tissue involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia, recent developments suggest that tissues/organs such as adipose (both brown and white), brain, liver, gut, and heart are directly involved in the cachectic pro...

  8. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  9. Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  10. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  11. Variation in Cancer Incidence among Patients with ESRD during Kidney Function and Nonfunction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Christina A; Snyder, Jon J; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    Among patients with ESRD, cancer risk is affected by kidney dysfunction and by immunosuppression after transplant. Assessing patterns across periods of dialysis and kidney transplantation may inform cancer etiology. We evaluated 202,195 kidney transplant candidates and recipients from a linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and cancer registries, and compared incidence in kidney function intervals (time with a transplant) with incidence in nonfunction intervals (waitlist or time after transplant failure), adjusting for demographic factors. Incidence of infection-related and immune-related cancer was higher during kidney function intervals than during nonfunction intervals. Incidence was most elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.7 to 18), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.7), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.3), lip cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.0), and nonepithelial skin cancers (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5 to 5.8). Conversely, ESRD-related cancer incidence was lower during kidney function intervals (kidney cancer: HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.8 and thyroid cancer: HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.8). With each successive interval, incidence changed in alternating directions for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and lung, pancreatic, and nonepithelial skin cancers (higher during function intervals), and kidney and thyroid cancers (higher during nonfunction intervals). For many cancers, incidence remained higher than in the general population across all intervals. These data indicate strong short-term effects of kidney dysfunction and immunosuppression on cancer incidence in patients with ESRD, suggesting a need for persistent cancer screening and prevention. PMID:26563384

  12. A morphological and functional comparison of proximal tubule cell lines established from human urine and kidney tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Schophuizen, C M S; Wilmer, M J; Lahham, S H M; Mutsaers, H A M; Wetzels, J F M; Bank, R A; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2014-01-01

    Promising renal replacement therapies include the development of a bioartificial kidney using functional human kidney cell models. In this study, human conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cell (ciPTEC) lines originating from kidney tissue (ciPTEC-T1 and ciPTEC-T2) were compared to

  13. Prediction of survival in patients with Stage IV kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment was evaluated and the predictors of adjusted survival (AS were identified in patients with disseminated kidney cancer treated at the Republican Research and Practical Center for Oncology and Medical Radiology in 1999 to 2011 (A.E. Okeanov, P.I. Moiseev, L.F. Levin. Malignant tumors in Belarus, 2001–2012. Edited by O.G. Sukonko. Seven factors (regional lymph node metastases; distant bone metastases; a high-grade tumor; sarcomatous tumor differentiation; hemoglobin levels of < 125 g/l in women and < 150 g/l in men; an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 40 mm/h; palliative surgery were found to have an independent, unfavorable impact on AS. A multidimensional model was built to define what risk group low (no more than 2 poor factors, moderate (3–4 poor factors, and high (more than 4 poor factors the patients with Stage IV kidney cancer belonged to. In these groups, the median survival was 34.7, 17.2, and 4.0 months and 3-year AS rates were 48.6, 24.6, and 3.2 %, respectively. 

  14. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury. PMID:27194718

  15. Potential role of genetic markers in the management of kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junker, K.; Ficarra, V.; Kwon, E.D.; Leibovich, B.C.; Thompson, R.H.; Oosterwijk, E.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Kidney cancer is not a single entity but comprises a number of different types of cancer that occur in the kidney including renal cell tumours as the most common type. Four major renal cell tumour subtypes can be distinguished based on morphologic and genetic characteristics. To individuali

  16. Modest improvement in 20 years of kidney cancer care in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, S.A. van de; Aben, K.K.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Haanen, J.B.; Herpen, C.M. van; Verhoeven, R.H.; Karim-Kos, H.E.; Oosterwijk, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: For an evaluation of the progress achieved in the field of kidney cancer care in the Netherlands in the last decades, we described trends in incidence, treatment, mortality and relative survival. METHODS: All adult patients newly diagnosed with kidney cancer between 1989 and 2009 (N=32,545) wer

  17. PERCUTANEOUS VERTEBROPLASTY IN PATIENTS WITH KIDNEY CANCER METASTASES TO THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostritsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on 19 patients with kidney cancer with metastatic involvement of the vertebral column, who had undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty, were retrospectively analyzed. The role of percutaneous vertebroplasty was assessed in patients with bony metastases from kidney cancer to the vertebral column and this surgical treatment was found to achieve satisfactory results in improving the quality of life in patients.

  18. PERCUTANEOUS VERTEBROPLASTY IN PATIENTS WITH KIDNEY CANCER METASTASES TO THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostritsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 19 patients with kidney cancer with metastatic involvement of the vertebral column, who had undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty, were retrospectively analyzed. The role of percutaneous vertebroplasty was assessed in patients with bony metastases from kidney cancer to the vertebral column and this surgical treatment was found to achieve satisfactory results in improving the quality of life in patients.

  19. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenosi, Thomas J; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E; Nevison, Stephanie E; Kerr, Michael A; Urquhart, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  20. Construction of metastatic spinal cancer tissue microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinghai; Chen Huajiang; Xiao Jianru; Yuan Wen; Jia Lianshun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the construction of metastatic spinal cancer (MSC) tissue microarrays and validate its value in immunohistochemical study of MSC. Methods: Paraffin-embedded specimens from 71 MSC cases and 6 primary tumor cases were selected as donor blocks and prepared into MSC tissue microarrays by tissue array arrangement, the steps of which included location, punching, sampling, sample seeding, and re-diagnosis by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) as well as MMP-9 and MMP-14 immunohistochemical staining. Results: The MSC tissue microarrays thus constructed were intact and crackless, containing 154 complete and well arranged microarray points. None of the sectioned tissue microarrays was lost, and the results of HE staining was consistent with the primary pathologic diagnoses. Immunohistochemical staining was also good without non-specific or marginal effect. Conclusion: The MSC tissue microarrays have a high value in the immunohistochemical study of MSC.

  1. Direct fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of bacterial kidney disease in paraffin-embedded tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Yasutake, W.T.; Gould, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) was successfully used to detect the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), Renibacterium salmoninarum, in Bouin's solution flexed and paraffinembedded egg and tissue sections. This method is superior to gram stain and may be particularly useful in detecting the BKD organism in fish with low-grade infection.

  2. Determinants of renal tissue hypoxia in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Connie P C; Abdelkader, Amany; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Evans, Roger G

    2014-11-15

    Renal tissue oxygen tension (PO2) and its determinants have not been quantified in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Therefore, we measured kidney tissue PO2 in the Lewis rat model of PKD (LPK) and in Lewis control rats. We also determined the relative contributions of altered renal oxygen delivery and consumption to renal tissue hypoxia in LPK rats. PO2 of the superficial cortex of 11- to 13-wk-old LPK rats, measured by Clark electrode with the rat under anesthesia, was higher within the cysts (32.8 ± 4.0 mmHg) than the superficial cortical parenchyma (18.3 ± 3.5 mmHg). PO2 in the superficial cortical parenchyma of Lewis rats was 2.5-fold greater (46.0 ± 3.1 mmHg) than in LPK rats. At each depth below the cortical surface, tissue PO2 in LPK rats was approximately half that in Lewis rats. Renal blood flow was 60% less in LPK than in Lewis rats, and arterial hemoglobin concentration was 57% less, so renal oxygen delivery was 78% less. Renal venous PO2 was 38% less in LPK than Lewis rats. Sodium reabsorption was 98% less in LPK than Lewis rats, but renal oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between the two groups. Thus, in this model of PKD, kidney tissue is severely hypoxic, at least partly because of deficient renal oxygen delivery. Nevertheless, the observation of similar renal oxygen consumption, despite markedly less sodium reabsorption, in the kidneys of LPK compared with Lewis rats, indicates the presence of inappropriately high oxygen consumption in the polycystic kidney.

  3. Determinants of renal tissue hypoxia in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Connie P C; Abdelkader, Amany; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Evans, Roger G

    2014-11-15

    Renal tissue oxygen tension (PO2) and its determinants have not been quantified in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Therefore, we measured kidney tissue PO2 in the Lewis rat model of PKD (LPK) and in Lewis control rats. We also determined the relative contributions of altered renal oxygen delivery and consumption to renal tissue hypoxia in LPK rats. PO2 of the superficial cortex of 11- to 13-wk-old LPK rats, measured by Clark electrode with the rat under anesthesia, was higher within the cysts (32.8 ± 4.0 mmHg) than the superficial cortical parenchyma (18.3 ± 3.5 mmHg). PO2 in the superficial cortical parenchyma of Lewis rats was 2.5-fold greater (46.0 ± 3.1 mmHg) than in LPK rats. At each depth below the cortical surface, tissue PO2 in LPK rats was approximately half that in Lewis rats. Renal blood flow was 60% less in LPK than in Lewis rats, and arterial hemoglobin concentration was 57% less, so renal oxygen delivery was 78% less. Renal venous PO2 was 38% less in LPK than Lewis rats. Sodium reabsorption was 98% less in LPK than Lewis rats, but renal oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between the two groups. Thus, in this model of PKD, kidney tissue is severely hypoxic, at least partly because of deficient renal oxygen delivery. Nevertheless, the observation of similar renal oxygen consumption, despite markedly less sodium reabsorption, in the kidneys of LPK compared with Lewis rats, indicates the presence of inappropriately high oxygen consumption in the polycystic kidney. PMID:25209412

  4. Biomarkers for Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Microarray Study of Kidney Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjachat, Thitima; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen; Somparn, Poorichaya; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Prom-On, Santitham; Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Townamchai, Natavudh

    2015-06-23

    The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN) is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy.

  5. Biomarkers for Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Microarray Study of Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitima Benjachat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy.

  6. The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Ha, Jaehyeok; Lee, June-Hee; Yoo, Kye-mook; Rho, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysi...

  7. Concentration of uranium in human cancerous tissues of Southern Iraqi patients using fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of nuclear fission track analysis with solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has been applied to determine concentrations of uranium in cancerous samples of human tissues that excised from patients in the three key southern Iraqi governorates namely, Basrah, Dhi-Qar, and Muthanna. These provinces were the sites of intensive military events during the Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003. The investigation was based on the study of 24 abnormal samples and 12 normal samples for comparing the results. These samples include four types of soft tissues (kidney, breast, stomach and uterus). The results show that uranium concentrations in the normal tissues ranged between (1.42-4.76 μg kg-1), whereas in the cancerous tissues ranged between (3.37-7.22 μg kg-1). The uranium concentrations in the normal tissues were significantly lower than in the abnormal tissues (P < 0.001). (author)

  8. Isotonicity of liver and of kidney tissue in solutions of electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OPIE, E L

    1959-07-01

    Solutions of a wide variety of electrolytes, isotonic with liver or with kidney tissue, have approximately the same osmotic pressure as solutions of sodium chloride isotonic with tissues of the two organs respectively; that is, with solutions approximately twice as concentrated as the sodium chloride of mammalian blood plasma. The molar concentration of various electrolytes isotonic with liver or with kidney tissue immediately after its removal from the body is determined by the molecular weight, valency, and ion-dissociation of these electrolytes in accordance with the well known conditions of osmosis. The plasma membranes of liver and of kidney cells are imperfectly semipermeable to electrolytes, and those that enter the cell, though retarded in so doing, bring about injury which increases permeability to water. The osmotic activity of cells of mammalian liver and kidney immediately after their removal from the body resembles that of plant cells, egg cells of marine invertebrates, and mammalian red blood corpuscles and presumably represents a basic property of living cells by which osmotic pressure may be adjusted to functional need. PMID:13664872

  9. [Transurethral prostate resection prior to kidney transplantation leading to urethral cicatricial tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Jensen, Katrine; Mohammad, Wael

    2015-01-26

    In Denmark, kidney transplantations in patients above 50 years have increased during the last decade. Consequently, the number of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to prostate hypertrophy increases accordingly. We describe two patients, who both had a resection of the prostate while having anuria and waiting for a kidney transplantation from a deceased donor. In both cases it was impossible to place a urethral catheter during the following transplantation due to total urethral occlusion, so a suprapubic catheter was inserted until the scar tissue was dilated or resected by a later transurethral intervention. PMID:25612989

  10. Laser Capture Microdissection of Archival Kidney Tissue for qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Tim D; Christie, Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    Whole-organ molecular analysis of the kidney potentially misses important factors involved in the pathogenesis of disease in glomeruli and tubules. Organ wide analysis can however be augmented by using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate morphologically similar cells and nephron structures from a heterogeneous tissue section via direct visualization of the cells. The protocol here provides a practical approach utilizing LCM in combination with RNA isolation techniques for downstream analysis. This technique is readily applicable to study mRNA expression in isolated glomeruli and tubules in both experimental animal models and human kidney biopsy material.

  11. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  12. Temporal Trends in the Histology of the Rabbit Kidney after Cavitational Tissue Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy L.; Kieran, Kathleen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.

    2007-05-01

    Tissue can be mechanically ablated through inertial cavitation generated by high intensity pulsed ultrasound. The ablation appears acutely as a fine slurry with absent cellular structure. Long-term effects and the evolution of histologic changes in disrupted tissue remain poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the 0-60 day histology of cavitational ablation in a rabbit model. 29 New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized and exposed to high intensity pulses of ultrasound (60000 pulses, 20 usec duration, 750 kHz, 1 kHz PRF, 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure, lower pole, left kidney). Kidneys were harvested immediately from five rabbits. The others were recovered and the kidneys were harvested 1, 2, 7, 20, or 60 days after treatment. Grossly, kidneys from 0-2 days displayed subcapsular bruising near the exposure site and some hemorrhage in the adjacent perirenal fat; microscopically, a disrupted, acellular zone measuring 3-5 mm by 5-10 mm accompanied by local infiltration of neutrophils (acute inflammation) was seen. Kidneys harvested after 7 days displayed tubular dilatation adjacent to the targeted area and collagen deposition consistent with scar formation. Decreased collagen deposition, decreased size of the disrupted zone, and regeneration of the tubular basal cell layer of dilated tubules was evident by day 20. Kidneys harvested at 20 and 60 days had contour defects near the exposure site with an apparent volume loss. Cavitation causes orderly and predictable histologic changes. Local renal damage induced during histotripsy may be partially reversible. Further research is needed to identify the clinical correlates of the observed histologic findings.

  13. Lung Cancer Presenting as a Soft-Tissue Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Baldeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft-tissue metastasis refers to the growth of cancer cells, originating from internal cancer, in soft tissues. In most cases, soft-tissue metastases develop after initial diagnosis of the primary internal malignancy and late in the course of the disease. In very rare cases, they may occur at the same time or before the primary cancer has been detected. In our cases, the soft-tissue metastases and the primary lung cancer were diagnosed at the same time.

  14. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  15. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Acute and Chronic Kidney Damage in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burgos-Silva

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic kidney injuries (AKI and CKI constitute syndromes responsible for a large part of renal failures, and are today still associated with high mortality rates. Given the lack of more effective therapies, there has been intense focus on the use stem cells for organ protective and regenerative effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases of immune character, although there is still debate on its mechanism of action. Thus, for a greater understanding of the role of MSCs, we evaluated the effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (AdSCs in an experimental model of nephrotoxicity induced by folic acid (FA in FVB mice. AdSC-treated animals displayed kidney functional improvement 24h after therapy, represented by reduced serum urea after FA. These data correlated with cell cycle regulation and immune response modulation via reduced chemokine expression and reduced neutrophil infiltrate. Long-term analyses, 4 weeks after FA, indicated that AdSC treatment reduced kidney fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These were demonstrated by reduced interstitial collagen deposition and tissue chemokine and cytokine expression. Thus, we concluded that AdSC treatment played a protective role in the framework of nephrotoxic injury via modulation of inflammation and cell cycle regulation, resulting in reduced kidney damage and functional improvement, inhibiting organ fibrosis and providing long-term immune regulation.

  16. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  17. Interleukin-19 mediates tissue damage in murine ischemic acute kidney injury.

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    Yu-Hsiang Hsu

    Full Text Available Inflammation and renal tubular injury are major features of acute kidney injury (AKI. Many cytokines and chemokines are released from injured tubular cells and acts as proinflammatory mediators. However, the role of IL-19 in the pathogenesis of AKI is not defined yet. In bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI-induced and HgCl2-induced AKI animal models, real-time quantitative (RTQ-PCR showed that the kidneys, livers, and lungs of AKI mice expressed significantly higher IL-19 and its receptors than did sham control mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that IL-19 and its receptors were strongly stained in the kidney, liver, and lung tissue of AKI mice. In vitro, IL-19 upregulated MCP-1, TGF-β1, and IL-19, and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in murine renal tubular epithelial M-1 cells. IL-19 upregulated TNF-α and IL-10 in cultured HepG2 cells, and it increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression in cultured A549 cells. In vivo, after renal IRI or a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2 treatment, IL-20R1-deficient mice (the deficiency blocks IL-19 signaling showed lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in serum and less tubular damage than did wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that IL-19 mediates kidney, liver, and lung tissue damage in murine AKI and that blocking IL-19 signaling may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for treating AKI.

  18. Inside the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium: part 1 - kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Sebastiano; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Bersanelli, Melissa; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Moscone West Building, San Francisco, CA, USA, 7-9 January 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held in San Francisco (CA, USA), from 7 to 9 January 2016, focused on 'patient-centric care: translating research to results'. Every year, this meeting is a must for anyone studying genitourinary tumors to keep abreast of the most recent innovations in this field, exchange views on behaviors customarily adopted in daily clinical practice, and discuss future topics of scientific research. This two-part report highlights the key themes presented at the 2016 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, with part 1 reporting the main novelties of kidney cancer and part 2 discussing the most relevant issues which have emerged for bladder and prostate tumors.

  19. Mathematical models of tumor growth using Voronoi tessellations in pathology slides of kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, Aydin; Yiyu Dong; Gundry, Stephen; Hsieh, James; Uyar, M Umit

    2015-08-01

    The impact of patient-specific spatial distribution features of cell nuclei on tumor growth characteristics was analyzed. Tumor tissues from kidney cancer patients were allowed to grow in mice to apply H&E staining and to measure tumor volume during preclinical phase of our study. Imaging the H&E stained slides under a digital light microscope, the morphological characteristics of nuclei positions were determined. Using artificial intelligence based techniques, Voronoi features were derived from diagrams, where cell nuclei were considered as distinct nodes. By identifying the effect of each Voronoi feature, tumor growth was expressed mathematically. Consistency between the computed growth curves and preclinical measurements indicates that the information obtained from the H&E slides can be used as biomarkers to build personalized mathematical models for tumor growth. PMID:26737283

  20. Rejuvenating of Kidney Tissues on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice under the Effect of Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Sharma; Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui; Gurudayal Ram; Ranjeet Kumar Yadav; Arti Kumari; Gaurav Sharma; Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder in human and responsible for different complications and also causes mortality and morbidity. A wide number of herbal products are employed in the treatment of diabetes for their better efficacy and safety compared to synthetic medicine. The present studies have established the antidiabetic potential and rejuvenating capacity of kidney tissues under the effect of extract. Diabetes was induced in the Swiss albino mice by injecting alloxan at the dose of...

  1. Review of new evidence regarding the relationship of gasoline exposure to kidney cancer and leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Enterline, P E

    1993-01-01

    Four new or updated epidemiologic studies were presented at a meeting on the health effects of gasoline exposure held in Miami, Florida, November 5-8, 1991. A focus of these studies was whether there is a relationship between gasoline exposure and kidney cancer and leukemia. For gasoline distribution workers, who have a relatively high exposure, there was some evidence for a kidney cancer relationship in three studies but none in the fourth. There was evidence for an acute myelocytic leukemia...

  2. Characterization of a thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human kidney and other tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA encoding a specific form of thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human liver, kidney, placenta, and brain was isolated from a human kidney library. Identical clones were found in human placenta and HepG2 cDNA libraries. The cDNA encodes a 490-amino acid protein. When expressed and translated in vitro, the protein products binds triiodothyronine with K/sub a/ of 2.3 /times/ 109 M/sup /minus/1/. This protein, designated human thyroid hormone receptor type α2 (hTRα2), has the same domain structure as other members of the v-erbA-related superfamily of receptor genes. It is similar to thyroid hormone receptor type α described in chicken and rat and less similar to human thyroid hormone receptor type β (formerly referred to as c-erbAβ) from placenta. However, it is distinguished from these receptors by an extension of the C-terminal hormone binding domain making it 80 amino acids longer than rat thyroid hormone receptor type α1. Different sizes of mRNA found in liver and kidney suggest that there may be tissue-specific processing of the primary transcript of this gene. Identification of human thyroid hormone receptor type α2 indicates that two or more forms of thyroid hormone receptor exist in human tissues and may explain the normal variation in thyroid hormone responsiveness of various organs and the selective tissue abnormalities found in the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes

  3. Benefit of a Second Opinion for Lung Cancer: No Metastasis to the Kidney but a Synchronous Primary Renal Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen J. ter Avest

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The finding of a renal mass on imaging is suggestive of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in the presence of a lung tumor but can also have another origin. Case Report: We describe the case of a patient diagnosed with stage IV lung cancer based on a renal metastasis. A second opinion including review of histopathological data and additional imaging followed by lung surgery and cryoablation of the kidney lesion revealed two tumors of different origins, non-small cell lung cancer and a renal cell carcinoma. Discussion: The presence of a renal mass diagnosed on a CT scan in a patient with lung cancer is not always synonymous with metastatic disease. Confirmation of diagnosis by tissue sampling is mandatory, especially if a synchronous primary tumor is possible.

  4. Trends in kidney cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Joergensen, Simon Moeller; Jensen, Niels Viggo;

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to elucidate incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of kidney cancer in elderly persons compared with younger persons in Denmark. Material and methods Cancer of the kidney was defined as ICD-10 code DC 64. Data derived from the NORDCAN database...... with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. Results The proportion...... of patients diagnosed with kidney cancer over the age of 70 years has decreased from 43% in 1980 to 32% in 2012 in men and remained almost constant in women, around 50%. Incidence rates were at least five times higher in men aged 70 years more but there was no particular trend with time. In men aged less than...

  5. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  6. Characterizing cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Thomas A; Lacerda Lara; Xu Wei; Robertson Fredika; Ueno Naoto T; Lucci Anthony; Landis Melissa D; Rodriguez Angel A; Li Li; Cohen Evan; Gao Hui; Krishnamurthy Savitri; Zhang Xiaomei; Debeb Bisrat G; Cristofanilli Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the first suggestion of prospectively identifiable cancer stem cells in solid tumors, efforts have been made to characterize reported cancer stem cell surrogates in existing cancer cell lines, and cell lines rich with these surrogates have been used to screen for cancer stem cell targeted agents. Although 293T cells were derived from human embryonic kidney, transplantation of these cells into the mammary fat pad yields aggressive tumors that self-renew as evidenced b...

  7. Association of Kidney Tissue Barrier Disrupture and Renal Dysfunction in Resuscitated Murine Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Tatjana; Weidgang, Clair; Wagner, Katja; Wagner, Florian; Gröger, Michael; Weber, Sandra; Stahl, Bettina; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Calzia, Enrico; Denk, Stephanie; Georgieff, Michael; Huber-Lang, Markus; Radermacher, Peter; McCook, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Septic shock-related kidney failure is characterized by almost normal morphological appearance upon pathological examination. Endothelial barrier disrupture has been suggested to be of crucial importance for septic shock-induced organ dysfunction. Therefore, in murine resuscitated cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic shock, we tested the hypothesis whether there is a direct relationship between the kidney endothelial barrier injury and renal dysfunction. Anesthetized mice underwent CLP, and 15 h later, were anesthetized again and surgically instrumented for a 5-h period of intensive care comprising lung-protective mechanical ventilation, fluid resuscitation, continuous i.v. norepinephrine to maintain target hemodynamics, and measurement of creatinine clearance (CrCl). Animals were stratified according to low or high CrCl. Nitrotyrosine formation, expression of the inducible isoform of the nitric oxide synthase, and blood cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, interleukin-10) and chemokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, keratinocyte-derived chemokine) levels were significantly higher in animals with low CrCl. When plotted against CrCl and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels, extravascular albumin accumulation, and tissue expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 showed significant mathematical relationships related to kidney (dys)function. Preservation of the constitutive expression of the hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathione-γ-lyase was associated with maintenance of organ function. The direct quantitative relation between microvascular leakage and kidney (dys)function may provide a missing link between near-normal tissue morphology and septic shock-related renal failure, thus further highlighting the important role of vascular integrity in septic shock-related renal failure.

  8. The development of a real-time PCR to detect pathogenic Leptospira species in kidney tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, C; Wakeley, P R; Gallego-Beltran, J; Dalley, C; Williamson, S; Gaudie, C; Woodward, M J

    2008-08-01

    A LightCycler real-time PCR hybridization probe-based assay that detects a conserved region of the16S rRNA gene of pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species was developed for the rapid detection of pathogenic leptospires directly from processed tissue samples. In addition, a differential PCR specific for saprophytic leptospires and a control PCR targeting the porcine beta-actin gene were developed. To assess the suitability of these PCR methods for diagnosis, a trial was performed on kidneys taken from adult pigs with evidence of leptospiral infection, primarily a history of reproductive disease and serological evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires (n=180) and aborted pig foetuses (n=24). Leptospire DNA was detected by the 'pathogenic' specific PCR in 25 tissues (14%) and the control beta-actin PCR was positive in all 204 samples confirming DNA was extracted from all samples. No leptospires were isolated from these samples by culture and no positives were detected with the 'saprophytic' PCR. In a subsidiary experiment, the 'pathogenic' PCR was used to analyse kidney samples from rodents (n=7) collected as part of vermin control in a zoo, with show animals with high microagglutination titres to Leptospira species, and five were positive. Fifteen PCR amplicons from 1 mouse, 2 rat and 14 pig kidney samples, were selected at random from positive PCRs (n=30) and sequenced. Sequence data indicated L. interrogans DNA in the pig and rat samples and L. inadai DNA, which is considered of intermediate pathogenicity, in the mouse sample. The only successful culture was from this mouse kidney and the isolate was confirmed to be L. inadai by classical serology. These data suggest this suite of PCRs is suitable for testing for the presence of pathogenic leptospires in pig herds where abortions and infertility occur and potentially in other animals such as rodents.

  9. THE FIRST RESULTS OF TARGETED THERAPY FOR KIDNEY CANCER IN MOSCOW

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    V. I. Shirokorad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the first interim analysis of a database including information on 427 metastatic kidney cancer patients receiving targeted therapy in the cancer facilities of the Moscow Healthcare Department. It shows a comparative analysis of the periods of first-line targeted therapy with different drugs until progression is established.

  10. THE FIRST RESULTS OF TARGETED THERAPY FOR KIDNEY CANCER IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shirokorad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the first interim analysis of a database including information on 427 metastatic kidney cancer patients receiving targeted therapy in the cancer facilities of the Moscow Healthcare Department. It shows a comparative analysis of the periods of first-line targeted therapy with different drugs until progression is established.

  11. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  12. BILATERAL TUMORS AND TUMORS IN A SOLITARY FUNCTIONING KIDNEY IN COMBINATION WITH CONTRALATERAL NEO-CANCER

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    R. Kh. Galeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of kidney cancer is 2–3 % of all malignancies and tends to rise. If the problems of treatment in patients with a renal tumor and a normally functioning contralateral kidney have mainly been solved, how to treat patients with bilateral tumors and a tumor in a solitary functioning kidney continues to be discussed. In particular, the limited decrease in renal function of the remaining kidney in a patient after nephrectomy, whose achievement does not require renal replacement therapy, has not been conclusively defined; what part of a solitary kidney with tumors will be able to maintain a good quality of life in the patient, without doing hemodyalisis, has not been elucidated either.

  13. Detection of infectious organisms in archival prostate cancer tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Yow, Melissa A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Severi, Gianluca; Bolton, Damien M; Pedersen, John; Longano, Anthony; Suzanne M Garland; Southey, Melissa C.; Graham G Giles

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroepidemiological studies have reported associations between exposure to sexually transmitted organisms and prostate cancer risk. This study sought DNA evidence of candidate organisms in archival prostate cancer tissues with the aim of assessing if a subset of these cancers show any association with common genital infections. Methods 221 archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks representing 128 histopathologically confirmed prostate cancers comprising 52 “aggressive” (Gleason sco...

  14. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethylene (PERC is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994–2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Breast Tissue Constituents for Cancer Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zaeimdar, Shima

    2014-01-01

    Breast elastography is a method of cancer detection that uses the response of soft tissue to deformations, leading to discovery of abnormalities. The methods of Clinical Breast Examination and Breast Self-Examination are based primarily on stiffness and, hence, on the mechanics of tissue constituents examined by palpation (Goodson, 1996). However, little is known about the mechanical characteristics of breast tissue under compression and the contribution of tissue mechanics to breast cancer d...

  16. Comparative tissue transcriptomics reveal prompt inter-organ communication in response to local bacterial kidney infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhen Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal infections elicit inflammatory responses via regulated signaling pathways. Infection outcome depends strongly on early events occurring immediately when bacteria start interacting with cells in the mucosal membrane. Hitherto reported transcription profiles on host-pathogen interactions are strongly biased towards in vitro studies. To detail the local in vivo genetic response to infection, we here profiled host gene expression in a recent experimental model that assures high spatial and temporal control of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC infection within the kidney of a live rat. Results Transcriptional profiling of tissue biopsies from UPEC-infected kidney tissue revealed 59 differentially expressed genes 8 h post-infection. Their relevance for the infection process was supported by a Gene Ontology (GO analysis. Early differential expression at 3 h and 5 h post-infection was of low statistical significance, which correlated to the low degree of infection. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of the 8 h data set and online available studies of early local infection and inflammation defined a core of 80 genes constituting a "General tissue response to early local bacterial infections". Among these, 25% were annotated as interferon-γ (IFN-γ regulated. Subsequent experimental analyses confirmed a systemic increase of IFN-γ in rats with an ongoing local kidney infection, correlating to splenic, rather than renal Ifng induction and suggested this inter-organ communication to be mediated by interleukin (IL-23. The use of comparative transcriptomics allowed expansion of the statistical data handling, whereby relevant data could also be extracted from the 5 h data set. Out of the 31 differentially expressed core genes, some represented specific 5 h responses, illustrating the value of comparative transcriptomics when studying the dynamic nature of gene regulation in response to infections. Conclusion Our hypothesis

  17. Urine metabolomic analysis identifies potential biomarkers and pathogenic pathways in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Ganti, Sheila; Guo, Lining; Osier, Michael V; Weiss, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the Western world, its incidence is increasing, and it is frequently metastatic at presentation, at which stage patient survival statistics are grim. In addition, there are no useful biofluid markers for this disease, such that diagnosis is dependent on imaging techniques that are not generally used for screening. In the present study, we use metabolomics techniques to identify metabolites in kidney cancer patients' urine, which appear at different levels (when normalized to account for urine volume and concentration) from the same metabolites in nonkidney cancer patients. We found that quinolinate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and gentisate are differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of 0.26, and these metabolites are involved in common pathways of specific amino acid and energetic metabolism, consistent with high tumor protein breakdown and utilization, and the Warburg effect. When added to four different (three kidney cancer-derived and one "normal") cell lines, several of the significantly altered metabolites, quinolinate, α-ketoglutarate, and gentisate, showed increased or unchanged cell proliferation that was cell line-dependent. Further evaluation of the global metabolomics analysis, as well as confirmation of the specific potential biomarkers using a larger sample size, will lead to new avenues of kidney cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:21348635

  18. Reduced mrna expression level of corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein is associated with aggressive human kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significance of Urocortin (Ucn or UcnI), Ucn2, Ucn3 and their receptors, Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 and 2 (CRFR1 and CRFR2), and the binding protein, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Binding Protein (CRHBP) in oncology is growing rapidly. The objective of our study was to assess the expression of the CRHBP mRNA and protein in renal cancer. Tumoral tissues of 78 patients with clear cell renal cell cancer and their corresponding normal tissues were analyzed using quantitative mRNA expression analysis for detection of mRNA expression level. Protein expression and tissue localization of CRHBP protein in renal specimens was evaluated using western blotting, immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence, respectively. We found an approx. 33 fold decrease of average CRHBP mRNA level in tumoral tissues compared to paired normal tissues (p<0.001). Diminished CRHBP mRNA expression was positively correlated with advanced, metastasized and higher stage of disease (p<0.001, p=0.026, p=0.028 respectively). CRHBP protein was detected in glomeruli and proximal tubules of normal kidney while none or weak immunopositivity was found in cc-RCC (p<0.001). The expression analysis of CRHBP shows that cc-RCC is characterized by a significant loss of CRHBP mRNA expression that furthermore is associated with a more aggressive state of tumors. Depletion of CRHBP proteins also indicate that the protein as part of the UCN system may be involved in renal carcinogenesis

  19. Insulin-like growth factors and risk of kidney cancer in men

    OpenAIRE

    Major, J M; Pollak, M N; Snyder, K; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase kidney growth, glomerular filtration rate, and renal function. Methods: In the prospective Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study of 29 133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, serum concentrations of IGF were measured in samples collected in 1985–1988. A total of 100 men with kidney cancer diagnosed ⩾5 years after blood collection through 1997 were compared with a subcohort of 400 men; logis...

  20. Hypertension and obesity and the risk of kidney cancer in 2 large cohorts of US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Kristen M; McTigue, Kathleen M; Fidler, Christian J; Neaton, James D; Chang, Yuefang; Fried, Linda F; Liu, Simin; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-05-01

    Kidney cancer incidence is increasing globally. Reasons for this rise are unclear but could relate to obesity and hypertension. We analyzed longitudinal relationships between hypertension and obesity and kidney cancer incidence in 156 774 participants of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials and observational studies over 10.8 years. In addition, we examined the effect of blood pressure (BP) on kidney cancer deaths for over 25 years among the 353 340 men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). In the Women's Health Initiative, systolic BP (SBP) was categorized in 6 groups from 160 mm Hg, and body mass index was categorized using standard criteria. In age-adjusted analyses, kidney cancer risk increased across SBP categories (P value for trend 160 versus hypertension can reduce kidney cancer risk.

  1. Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sachiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Miyoshi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopic images of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectrometer. For the systematic identification of cancer tumors, the principal component analysis and the clustering analysis were applied. In three of the four samples, the cancer tissue was recognized as an aggregate of the data points in the principal component plots. By the agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the data points were well categorized into cancer and the other tissues. This method can be also applied to various kinds of automatic discrimination of plural components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

  2. Distribution of trace metal concentrations in paired cancerous and non-cancerous human stomach tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Yaman; Gokce Kaya; Hayrettin Yekeler

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether trace metal concentrations (which influence metabolism as both essential and non-essential elements) are increased or decreased in cancerous tissues and to understand the precise role of these metals in carcinogenesis.METHODS: Concentrations of trace metals including Cd,Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Ca in both cancerous and noncancerous stomach tissue samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Tissue samples were digested using microwave energy. Slotted tube atom trap was used to improve the sensitivity of copper and cadmium in flame AAS determinations.RESULTS: From the obtained data in this study,the concentrations of nickel, copper and iron in the cancerous human stomach were found to be significantly higher than those in the non-cancerous tissues, by using t-test for the paired samples. Furthermore, the average calcium concentrations in the cancerous stomach tissue samples were found to be significantly lower than those in the non-cancerous stomach tissue samples by using t-test. Exceedingly high Zn concentrations (207-826 mg/kg) were found in two paired stomach tissue samples from both cancerous and non-cancerous parts.CONCLUSION: In contrast to the literature data for Cu and Fe, the concentrations of copper, iron and nickel in cancerous tissue samples are higher than those in the non-cancerous samples. Furthermore, the Ca levels are lower in cancerous tissue samples than in non-cancerous tissue samples.

  3. [Studies on trace elements in cancerous stomach tissue of the patients with stomach cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M

    1990-05-01

    This study was performed to find out whether copper, zinc, manganese, selenium and iron concentrations in the cancerous and normal stomach tissues of the patients with stomach cancer vary within the malignant stages and Borrmann classification or not, and to investigate the interaction of copper, zinc, manganese, selenium and iron concentrations in blood of these patients. Copper concentration in cancerous tissues was not statistically significant as compared with normal tissues. Plasma and whole blood copper concentration of Stage IV showed a significant higher level than that of stage I. Zinc concentration in cancerous tissues was not statistically significant as compared with normal tissues. Selenium concentration in cancerous tissues showed a statistically significant high level as compared with that in normal tissues. Plasma selenium concentration of Stage III showed a significant lower level than that of stage I. Iron concentration in cancerous tissues showed a significantly lower level than that in normal tissues at stage IV. Whole blood iron concentration was low levels in proportion to the progress of stomach cancer. The correlation of selenium concentration between in cancerous tissues and in whole blood of these patients was significant with the correlation coefficient of 0.340. The correlation of iron concentration between in cancerous tissues and in whole blood of these patients was significant with the correlation coefficient of 0.423. The correlation between iron concentration in cancerous tissues and hemoglobin concentration in whole blood of these patients was significant with the correlation coefficient of 0.361.

  4. Cumulative Doses of T-Cell Depleting Antibody and Cancer Risk after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H C Chen

    Full Text Available T-cell depleting antibody is associated with an increased risk of cancer after kidney transplantation, but a dose-dependent relationship has not been established. This study aimed to determine the association between cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody and the risk of cancer after kidney transplantation. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997-2012, we assessed the risk of incident cancer and cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody using adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 503 kidney transplant recipients with 2835 person-years of follow-up, 276 (55%, 209 (41% and 18 (4% patients received T-cell depleting antibody for induction, rejection or induction and rejection respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate was 1,118 cancers per 100,000 patient-years, with 975, 1093 and 1377 cancers per 100,000 patient-years among those who had received 1-5 doses, 6-10 doses and >10 doses, respectively. There was no association between cumulative doses of T cell depleting antibody and risk of incident cancer (1-5: referent, 6-10: adjusted hazard ratio (HR 1.19, 95%CI 0.48-2.95, >10: HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.50-4.02, p = 0.801. This lack of association is contradictory to our hypothesis and is likely attributed to the low event rates resulting in insufficient power to detect significant differences.

  5. Complex pattern of colon cancer recurrence including a kidney metastasis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helfried Waleczek; Moritz N Wente; Jürgen Kozianka

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of a 77-year-old female with a local recurrence of cancer after right hemicolectomy which infiltrated the pancreatic head affording pancreatoduodenectomy, who developed 3 years later recurrent tumor masses localized in the mesentery of the jejunum and in the lower pole of the left kidney. Partial nephrectomy and a segment resection of the small bowel were performed. Histological examination of both specimens revealed a necrotic metastasis of the primary carcinoma of the colon. Although intraluminal implantation of colon cancer cells in the renal pelvic mucosa from ureteric metastasis has been described, metastasis of a colorectal cancer in the kidney parenchyma is extremely rare and can be treated in an organ preserving manner. A complex pattern of colon cancer recurrence with unusual and rare sites of metastasis is reported.

  6. Plumb as a cause of kidney cancer (case study: Iran from 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to plumb (Pb, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic. Some hazards that threat human health are the results of environmental factors and the relevant pollutions. Some important categories of diseases including (cancers have considerable differences in various places, as observed in their spatial prevalence and distribution maps. The present study sets out to investigate the correlation between kidney cancer and the concentration of Pb in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, the first challenge was to collect some relevant information. In this connection, the authors managed to gain access to data concerning kidney cancer in Iran. The data were collected by a health centre for the period of 2008-2010. Besides, a map of Pb distribution in soil, drawn by the Mineral Exploration Organization, and Plumb Concentration Information, collected by Agriculture Jihad Organization, were used. Using a geographic information system (GIS software such as ArcGIS (USA, the researchers drew the map of the spatial distribution of kidney cancer in the Iran country. In the indirect methods, one measures vegetation stress caused by heavy metal soil contamination. In direct methods, target detection algorithms are used to detect a selected material on the basis of its unique spectral signature. In this research, we applied target detection algorithms on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS images to detect Pb. MODIS is a sensor placed on the Terra satellite that collects data in 35 spectral bands with 250-1,000 m special resolutions. Results: The spatial distribution of kidney cancer in Iran country delineated above revealed a positive correlation between the amount of lead and the high frequency of kidney cancer. Regression analyses also confirmed this relationship (R2 = 0.77 and R = 0.87. Conclusion: The findings of the current study underscore not only the

  7. Direct cancer tissue proteomics: a method to identify candidate cancer biomarkers from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S-I; Thumar, J; Lundgren, D H; Rezaul, K; Mayya, V; Wu, L; Eng, J; Wright, M E; Han, D K

    2007-01-01

    Successful treatment of multiple cancer types requires early detection and identification of reliable biomarkers present in specific cancer tissues. To test the feasibility of identifying proteins from archival cancer tissues, we have developed a methodology, termed direct tissue proteomics (DTP), which can be used to identify proteins directly from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissue samples. Using minute prostate biopsy sections, we demonstrate the identification of 428 prostate-expressed proteins using the shotgun method. Because the DTP method is not quantitative, we employed the absolute quantification method and demonstrate picogram level quantification of prostate-specific antigen. In depth bioinformatics analysis of these expressed proteins affords the categorization of metabolic pathways that may be important for distinct stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we validate Wnt-3 as an upregulated protein in cancerous prostate cells by immunohistochemistry. We propose that this general strategy provides a roadmap for successful identification of critical molecular targets of multiple cancer types.

  8. Glutathione protects liver and kidney tissue from cadmium- and lead-provoked lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd and Pb represent a serious ecological problem due to their soluble nature, their mobility and ability to accumulate in the soil. The exposure to these heavy metals can originate from different sources (drinking water, food, air, and they can make their way into the human body through the respiratory and digestive system. We investigated the effects of glutathione on Cd and Pb accumulation and lipid peroxidation effects in the liver and kidneys of heavy metal intoxicated rats. The content of the marker of lipid peroxidation - malondialdehyde was increased several fold the in tissues of exposed animals, the effects being more pronounced in liver. The treatment of intoxicated animals with glutathione drastically suppressed lipid peroxidation. Our results imply that the application of glutathione may have protective role in heavy metal intoxication by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. However, precaution should be made when it comes to Cd, since it seems that glutathione promoted Cd accumulation in the liver.

  9. RNA-Seq accurately identifies cancer biomarker signatures to distinguish tissue of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Iris H; Shi, Yang; Jiang, Hui; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for up to 5% of all new cancer cases, with a 5-year survival rate of only 10%. Accurate identification of tissue of origin would allow for directed, personalized therapies to improve clinical outcomes. Our objective was to use transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify lineage-specific biomarker signatures for the cancer types that most commonly metastasize as CUP (colorectum, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and stomach). RNA-Seq data of 17,471 transcripts from a total of 3,244 cancer samples across 26 different tissue types were compiled from in-house sequencing data and publically available International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Robust cancer biomarker signatures were extracted using a 10-fold cross-validation method of log transformation, quantile normalization, transcript ranking by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and stepwise logistic regression. The entire algorithm was then repeated with a new set of randomly generated training and test sets, yielding highly concordant biomarker signatures. External validation of the cancer-specific signatures yielded high sensitivity (92.0% ± 3.15%; mean ± standard deviation) and specificity (97.7% ± 2.99%) for each cancer biomarker signature. The overall performance of this RNA-Seq biomarker-generating algorithm yielded an accuracy of 90.5%. In conclusion, we demonstrate a computational model for producing highly sensitive and specific cancer biomarker signatures from RNA-Seq data, generating signatures for the top eight cancer types responsible for CUP to accurately identify tumor origin. PMID:25425966

  10. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P brain (P brain, liver, and kidney (all P brain (all P brain (P drug tissue targeting index, and the tissue-plasma hysteresis-like plots also showed sex-based ibuprofen-sunitinib drug interaction differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences.

  11. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)). Here, we describe the use of KIS(TM) test for the detection of penicillin G res...

  12. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)) from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test. A high dose of penicillin G procaine relative to a label dose is commonly used ...

  13. Diagnostic determination of melamine and related compounds in kidney tissue by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigenzi, Michael S; Puschner, Birgit; Aston, Linda S; Poppenga, Robert H

    2008-09-10

    In 2007, it was determined that melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid (abbreviated as MARC for melamine and related contaminants) had been added to wheat gluten and rice protein that were subsequently incorporated into pet food. The consumption of food tainted by MARC compounds was implicated in numerous instances of renal failure in cats and dogs. A method for the analysis of MARC compounds in kidney tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) has been developed. MARC analytes were extracted by homogenization of kidney tissue in 50/40/10 acetonitrile/water/diethylamine. The homogenate was centrifuged, and an aliquot of supernatant was diluted with acetonitrile, concentrated, and fortified with a stable isotope-labeled analogue of melamine. Analytes were detected using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Quantitation of positive samples was performed using the internal standard method and five-point calibration curves ranging between 50 and 1000 ng/mL of each analyte. The method was validated by analysis of replicate kidney tissue samples fortified with the individual analytes and by analysis of kidney samples fortified with melamine cyanurate powder at two different concentrations. This method was successfully used for routine postmortem diagnosis of melamine toxicosis in animals. Melamine was also detected by this method in paraffin-embedded tissue from animals suspected to have died of melamine toxicosis. PMID:18652475

  14. Histochemical demonstration of two mercury pools in trout tissues: mercury in kidney and liver after mercuric chloride exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Nielsen, M G; Danscher, G

    1987-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to 100 ppb mercury (as HgCl2) in the water for 14 days. Concentrations of mercury in water and fish organs were monitored using radiolabeled mercury. Tissues from kidney and liver were fixed, and sections were developed by autometallography, a...

  15. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhongzan; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Geng, Heyuan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electropho...

  16. Determinants of renal tissue oxygenation as measured with BOLD-MRI in chronic kidney disease and hypertension in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Pruijm, Menno; Hofmann, Lucie; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Muller, Marie-Eve; Zweiacker, Carole; Bassi, Isabelle; Vogt, Bruno; Stuber, Matthias; Burnier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally renal tissue hypoxia appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial hypertension (AHT). In this study we measured renal tissue oxygenation and its determinants in humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) under standardized hydration conditions. Four coronal slices were selected, and a multi gradient echo sequence was used to acquire T2* weighted images. The mean cortical and medullar...

  17. Determinants of Renal Tissue Oxygenation as Measured with BOLD-MRI in Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Menno Pruijm; Lucie Hofmann; Maciej Piskunowicz; Marie-Eve Muller; Carole Zweiacker; Isabelle Bassi; Bruno Vogt; Matthias Stuber; Michel Burnier

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally renal tissue hypoxia appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial hypertension (AHT). In this study we measured renal tissue oxygenation and its determinants in humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) under standardized hydration conditions. Four coronal slices were selected, and a multi gradient echo sequence was used to acquire T2* weighted images. The mean cortical and medullar...

  18. Clinical use of cabozantinib in the treatment of advanced kidney cancer: efficacy, safety, and patient selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu SS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Steven S Yu, David I Quinn, Tanya B Dorff Division of Oncology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Clear cell (cc renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common type of cancer found in the kidney accounting for ~90% of all kidney cancers. In 2012, there were ~337,000 new cases of RCC diagnosed worldwide with an estimated 143,000 deaths, with the highest incidence and mortality in Western countries. Despite improvements in cancer control achieved with VEGF- and mTOR-targeted therapy for RCC, progression remains virtually universal and additional therapies are needed. The pivotal results of the METEOR trial led to cabozantinib’s designation as a breakthrough drug by the US Food and Drug Administration and its approval for treatment of advanced RCC in 2016. Subsequent data from the CABOSUN trial, where caboxantinib is compared with sunitinib, will provide information on the relative activity of cabozantinib as first-line therapy for ccRCC. We review the development of cabozantinib in advanced RCC and its role in the treatment landscape for advanced RCC. Keywords: cabozantinib, renal cell carcinoma, kidney cancer, clear cell carcinoma, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

  19. Cancer of the Soft Tissue including Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fast Stats Build tables and graphs of cancer statistics by: Cancer Site Race / Ethnicity Sex Race / Sex Age at Diagnosis or Death Data ... population who are the same age, race, and sex and who have not been diagnosed with cancer. Because survival statistics are based on large groups of people, they ...

  20. TOF-SIMS analysis of adipose tissue from patients with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, Peter; Johansson, Björn; Belazi, Dalila; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt; Lausmaa, Jukka; Schalling, Martin

    2008-12-01

    In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used for detecting systematic variations in the spatial and compositional distributions of lipids in human tissue samples. Freeze-dried sections of subcutaneous adipose tissue from six chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and six control subjects were analysed by TOF-SIMS using 25 keV Bi 3+ primary ions. Principal component analysis of signal intensities from different fatty acids, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol ions showed evidence for systematic variations in the lipid distributions between different samples. The main observed difference in the spectra was a concerted variation in the signal intensities from the saturated lipids relative to the unsaturated lipids, while variations in the fatty acid chain lengths were considerably weaker. Furthermore, the three samples showing the lowest degree of saturation came from CKD patients, while three of the four samples with the highest degree of saturation were from control subjects, indicating that low saturation levels in the glycerol lipid distribution may be more frequent in patients with CKD. Systematic differences in the spatial distributions between saturated and unsaturated glycerol lipids were observed in several analysed areas.

  1. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  2. External validation of a claims-based algorithm for classifying kidney-cancer surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deapen Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other malignancies, there is no literature supporting the accuracy of medical claims data for identifying surgical treatments among patients with kidney cancer. We sought to validate externally a previously published Medicare-claims-based algorithm for classifying surgical treatments among patients with early-stage kidney cancer. To achieve this aim, we compared procedure assignments based on Medicare claims with the type of surgery specified in SEER registry data and clinical operative reports. Methods Using linked SEER-Medicare data, we calculated the agreement between Medicare claims and SEER data for identification of cancer-directed surgery among 6,515 patients diagnosed with early-stage kidney cancer. Next, for a subset of 120 cases, we determined the agreement between the claims algorithm and the medical record. Finally, using the medical record as the reference-standard, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the claims algorithm. Results Among 6,515 cases, Medicare claims and SEER data identified 5,483 (84.1% and 5,774 (88.6% patients, respectively, who underwent cancer-directed surgery (observed agreement = 93%, κ = 0.69, 95% CI 0.66 – 0.71. The two data sources demonstrated 97% agreement for classification of partial versus radical nephrectomy (κ = 0.83, 95% CI 0.81 – 0.86. We observed 97% agreement between the claims algorithm and clinical operative reports; the positive predictive value of the claims algorithm exceeded 90% for identification of both partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Medicare claims represent an accurate data source for ascertainment of population-based patterns of surgical care among patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

  3. Association of Vitamin E Intake with Reduced Risk of Kidney Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chongxing; Huang, Ying; Yi, Shanhong; Fang, Zhenqiang; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several observational studies suggested that vitamin E intake is related to the risk of kidney cancer; however, the results of published studies are inconsistent. Material/Methods A meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationship between vitamin E intake and the risk of kidney cancer by searching PubMed and Medline through August 2015. We computed pooled relative risks (RR) and 95%CI of kidney cancer for the highest versus lowest level of vitamin E intake. Results A total of...

  4. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  5. Survival of patients with kidney cancer in central and northern Denmark, 1998–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelant T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau Pelant1,2, Erik Højkjær Larsen1,2, Lars Lund3, Michael Borre4, Rune Erichsen1, Mette Nørgaard1, Jacob Bonde Jacobsen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; 2Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Denmark; 4Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, DenmarkObjective: For decades, kidney cancer patients in Denmark have had lower survival than patients in the other Scandinavian countries. Our aim was to study possible changes in survival of patients with kidney cancer after implementation of two national Danish cancer plans.Study design and setting: From 1998 through 2009 we included all patients (N = 2659 with an incident diagnosis of kidney cancer in two Danish regions (population 1.8 million. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Registry of Patients. We computed survival after 1, 3, and 5 years, stratified by age, and estimated mortality rate ratios (MRRs using Cox regression to assess changes over time, controlling for age and gender. We lacked data on stage distribution. Among patients who had a nephrectomy we also computed 30-day mortality and 30-day MRRs.Results: During the study period, we identified 2659 patients with kidney cancer. The annual number of patients increased from 583 in the period 1998–2000 to 853 in the period 2007–2009. The median age at diagnosis was 69 years throughout the study period. The overall 1-year survival improved from 56% (1998–2000 to 63% (2007–2009, corresponding to an adjusted MRR of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66–0.93. We predicted the 3-year survival to increase from 40% to 51% and the 5-year survival to increase from 33% to 42%, corresponding to predicted MRRs of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66–0.87 and 0.77 (95% CI 0.68–0.89, respectively. Survival increased in all age groups (15–59 years, 60–74 years, 75+ years and in both genders, except for men below 60

  6. Effects of melatonin on the tissue factor activities of kidney, heart and brain in experimental renovascular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Alturfan, Ebru Işık; Yarat, Ayşen; Şener, Göksel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on tissue factor activities (TFa) of kidney, heart and brain in an angiotensin II-dependent renovascular hypertension (RVH) in rats. Methods: RHV was induced in Wistar albino rats by placing renal artery clip (two-kidney, one-clip; 2K1C). Starting on the operation day (RHV-Mel-1) and 3 weeks after the operation (RHV-Mel-2), the rats received melatonin (10 mg/kg/day) while the control group received 1 mL/kg/day ...

  7. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  8. miRNA Expression Analyses in Prostate Cancer Clinical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucay, Nathan; Shahryari, Varahram; Majid, Shahana; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Saini, Sharanjot

    2015-01-01

    A critical challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) clinical management is posed by the inadequacy of currently used biomarkers for disease screening, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising alternate biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the development of miRNAs as effective biomarkers for prostate cancer heavily relies on their accurate detection in clinical tissues. miRNA analyses in prostate cancer clinical specimens is often challenging owing to tumor heterogeneity, sampling errors, stromal contamination etc. The goal of this article is to describe a simplified workflow for miRNA analyses in archived FFPE or fresh frozen prostate cancer clinical specimens using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Within this workflow, we optimize the existing methodologies for miRNA extraction from FFPE and frozen prostate tissues and expression analyses by Taqman-probe based miRNA RT-PCR. In addition, we describe an optimized method for ISH analyses formiRNA detection in prostate tissues using locked nucleic acid (LNA)- based probes. Our optimized miRNA ISH protocol can be applied to prostate cancer tissue slides or prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMA). PMID:26382040

  9. miRNA Expression Analyses in Prostate Cancer Clinical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucay, Nathan; Shahryari, Varahram; Majid, Shahana; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Saini, Sharanjot

    2015-09-08

    A critical challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) clinical management is posed by the inadequacy of currently used biomarkers for disease screening, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising alternate biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the development of miRNAs as effective biomarkers for prostate cancer heavily relies on their accurate detection in clinical tissues. miRNA analyses in prostate cancer clinical specimens is often challenging owing to tumor heterogeneity, sampling errors, stromal contamination etc. The goal of this article is to describe a simplified workflow for miRNA analyses in archived FFPE or fresh frozen prostate cancer clinical specimens using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Within this workflow, we optimize the existing methodologies for miRNA extraction from FFPE and frozen prostate tissues and expression analyses by Taqman-probe based miRNA RT-PCR. In addition, we describe an optimized method for ISH analyses formiRNA detection in prostate tissues using locked nucleic acid (LNA)- based probes. Our optimized miRNA ISH protocol can be applied to prostate cancer tissue slides or prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMA).

  10. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. Objectives To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. Results We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Conclusion Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies. PMID:27579740

  11. Effects of anionic xenobiotics on rat kidney. I--Tissue and mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, J B; Krall, A R; Silverthorn, S U

    1982-01-15

    The polar 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) metabolite, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (DDA), and the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), were previously shown to be accumulated to high levels in liver and kidney via the organic acid transport system, raising the possibility of organ-specific toxicity secondary to transport. In these studies, accumulation of DDA was shown to depress oxygen consumption by renal cortical slices at high doses (0.1 and 1mM). Isolated renal and hepatic mitochondria were uncoupled by low doses of DDA (5-10 nmoles/mg mitochondrial protein. Maximal uncoupling was seen at 50-70 nmoles/mg. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T also produced uncoupling, but at doses of 70 nmoles/mg or higher. All agents were more effective with alpha-ketoglutarate or pyruvate-malate), all three agents also depressed State 3 (ADP-stimulated) respiration. Again, DDA was more effective than 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T. These results suggest that accumulation of these or other anionic xenobiotics may lead to toxicity in those tissues possessing the organic anion transport system.

  12. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  13. Gene expression profiles in liver cancer and normal liver tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Xin Liu; Hong Chi Jiang; An Long Zhu; Jin Zhou; Xiu Qin Wang; Min Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To describe a liver cancer = specific gene expression profile and to identify genes that showed alteredexpression between liver cancer tissues and their adjacent nearly normal tissues.METHODS The cDNA probes which were labeled with a-32P dATP were synthesized from total RNA ofliver cancer and adjacent normal tissues and hybridized separately to two identical Atlas human cancer eDNAexpression array membranes containing 588 known genes.RESULTS Autoradiographic results were analyzed by specific Atlas ImageTM (version 1. 0) software.Among the 588 genes analyzed, 18 genes were found up-regulated in cancer, including TFDP2, Aktl, E2F-3etc, and 25 genes were down-regulated in cancer, including TDGF1, BAK, LAR, etc. Expression levels ofgenes that associated with the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, cell-cellinteraction, invasion regulators and eytokines altered mostly.CONCLUSION The result obtained from Atlas microarray provides a comprehensive liver cancer-specificexpression profile. The results can lead to the identification of liver cancer-specific biomarkers and may behelpful in early diagnosis and dentifiction of target genes for designing rational therapeutic strategies.

  14. Color-Doppler sonographic tissue perfusion measurements reveal significantly diminished renal cortical perfusion in kidneys with vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholbach, T M; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and its sequelae may lead to reduced renal perfusion and loss of renal function. Methods to describe and monitor tissue perfusion are needed. We investigated dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM) with the PixelFlux-software to measure microvascular changes in the renal cortex in 35 children with VUR and 28 healthy children. DTPM of defined horizontal slices of the renal cortex was carried out. A kidney was assigned to the "low grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade of the voiding cystourethrogram was 1 to 3 and to the "high grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade was 4 to 5. Kidneys with VUR showed a significantly reduced cortical perfusion. Compared to healthy kidneys, this decline reached in low and high grade refluxes within the proximal 50% of the cortex: 3% and 12 %, in the distal 50% of the cortex: 21% and 44 % and in the most distal 20 % of the cortex 41% and 44%. DTPM reveals a perfusion loss in kidneys depending on the degree of VUR, which is most pronounced in the peripheral cortex. Thus, DTPM offers the tool to evaluate microvascular perfusion, to help planning treatment decisions in children with VUR.

  15. Keeping Your Single Kidney Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for kidney problems? Certain treatments for childhood cancer can sometimes cause kidney problems. These include radiation to the kidney , chemotherapy that can affect the kidney (cisplatin, carboplatin, methotrexate and/or ifosfamide), or other medications that can ...

  16. bFGF and TGFβ expression in rat kidneys after ischemic/ reperfusional gut injury and its relationship with tissue repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Hui Yang; Xiao Bing Fu; Tong Zhu Sun; Li Xian Jiang; Xiao Man Gu

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion ( I/ R ) occur commonly in critically ill patients. It is well recognized that gut I/R may cause tissue damage and dysfunction of intestine, and induce remote organ injury including kidney, lung, and liver[1]. It may also lead to complications after severe burn or injury. Previous studies have focused on cellular elements, cytokines and inflammatory mediators.Relatively little attention has been paid endogenous protective mechanisms, I.e. The growth factors.

  17. Interleukin 18 expression in the primary breast cancer tumour tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahida Srabović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the presence and expression levels of the IL-18 in the primary breast cancer tissue in relation to the unchangedbreast tissue in same patients and the breast tissue in patients withbenign breast disease, as well as the correlation between the IL-18 expression levels and pathohistological factors, including thecorrelation between IL-18 expression and the estrogens and progesterone receptor status. Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the Policlinic for Laboratory Diagnostics of the University Clinical Centre of Tuzla. 50 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast diseases were included in the study. The tree-step immunohistochemical staining was used for testing the levels of IL-18 expression and hormone receptor status. Results IL-18 was present in the breast cancer tumour, in the surrounding unchanged tissue of the same patients and in the breast tissue of patients with benign breast tumour and other benign breast disease. The expression of this interleukin was signiicantly higher in breast cancer tumour tissue as compared to its expression in surrounding unchanged tissue of the same patients (p<0,05, whereas IL-18 expression was not signiicantly higher in breast cancer tumours compared to its expression in breast tissue of the patients with benign breast diseases (p=0,057. There was no signiicant correlation between IL-18 expression and the lymph node status, and between IL-18 expression and the pathohistological factors. Conclusion The results suggest possible involvement of IL-18 in complex mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis.

  18. Expression of a novel immunoglobulin gene SNC73 in humar cancer and non-cancerous tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bin Hu; Shu Zheng; Yong-Chuan Deng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of immunoglobulin gene SNC73 in malignant tumors and non-cancerous normal tissues.METHODS: Expression level of SNC73 in tumors and noncancerous tissues from the same patient was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) in 90cases of malignant tumors, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and liver cancer. Analysis on the correlation of SNC73 expression with sex, age, site,grade of differentiation, depth of invasion, and metastases in colorectal cancer patients was made.RESULTS: Expression level of SNC73 in non-cancerous colorectal mucosa and colorectal cancerous tissues was 1.234±0.842 and 0.737±0.731, respectively (P<0.01), with the mean ratio of 7.134±14.092 (range, 0.36-59.54).Expression of SNC73 showed no significant difference among gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and liver cancer when compared with non-cancerous tissues (P>0.05). No correlation was found between SNC73 expression level and various clinicopathological factors, including sex, age, site,grade of differentiation, depth of invasion and metastases of CRC patients.CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of SNC73 expression may be a relatively specific phenomenon in colorectal cancer.SNC73 is a potential genetic marker for the carcinongenesis of colorectal cancer. The relationship of SNC73 expression and carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer merits further study.

  19. Limitations of tissue micro array in Duke's B colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Frifeldt, Sanne; Lindebjerg, Jan; Brunner, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    Tissue micro array (TMA) is widely used in cancer research in search of new predictive and prognostic markers. Colon cancer is known to be heterogeneous and the present study addresses some methodological aspects using cores of different size and analysing markers with different cellular...... distribution. We selected 61 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks representing patients diagnosed with Dukes B colon cancer. Two 1 mm and two 2 mm cores were taken from both the centre and the invasive front of the tumour respectively. The immunostaining included MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, p53, COX-2, TIMP and Betacatenin...... moderate to high agreement (kappa = 0.54-0.9) whereas TIMP-1 had the lowest score (kappa 0.19-0.25). The application of TMA in Dukes B colon cancer has several pitfalls and depends substantially on the immunohistochemical marker in question. Therefore a validation study seems justified before applying...

  20. Heterogeneous Effects of Direct Hypoxia Pathway Activation in Kidney Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Salama

    Full Text Available General activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathways is classically associated with adverse prognosis in cancer and has been proposed to contribute to oncogenic drive. In clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC HIF pathways are upregulated by inactivation of the von-Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor. However HIF-1α and HIF-2α have contrasting effects on experimental tumor progression. To better understand this paradox we examined pan-genomic patterns of HIF DNA binding and associated gene expression in response to manipulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and related the findings to CCRC prognosis. Our findings reveal distinct pan-genomic organization of canonical and non-canonical HIF isoform-specific DNA binding at thousands of sites. Overall associations were observed between HIF-1α-specific binding, and genes associated with favorable prognosis and between HIF-2α-specific binding and adverse prognosis. However within each isoform-specific set, individual gene associations were heterogeneous in sign and magnitude, suggesting that activation of each HIF-α isoform contributes a highly complex mix of pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects.

  1. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...

  2. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  3. Automated prostate tissue referencing for cancer detection and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Kajdacsy-Balla, André Alexander; Sinha, Saurabh; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background The current practice of histopathology review is limited in speed and accuracy. The current diagnostic paradigm does not fully describe the complex and complicated patterns of cancer. To address these needs, we develop an automated and objective system that facilitates a comprehensive and easy information management and decision-making. We also develop a tissue similarity measure scheme to broaden our understanding of tissue characteristics. Results The system includes a database o...

  4. Tissue Microarray A New Tool for Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai Outdo Biotech Co.Ltd. (Outdo Biotech) is a leading company in human/animal Tissue Microarrays (TMA) and "Clinical-Type" Gene Chip (CTGC) in China. Our shareholders are Shanghai Biochip Co., Ltd. & National Engineering Center for Biochip at Shanghai, Shanghai Cancer institute and Eastern Liver and Bladder Hospital of Second Military Medical University. TMA is a mean of combining tens to hundreds of specimens of tissue, paraffin embedded or frozen, onto a single slide for analysis at once. Our constr...

  5. Cellular Mechanisms of Tissue Fibrosis. 3. Novel mechanisms of kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campanholle, Gabriela; Ligresti, Giovanni; Gharib, Sina A; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined as loss of kidney function for more than three months, is characterized pathologically by glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, peritubular capillary rarefaction, and inflammation. Recent studies have identified a previously poorly appreciated, yet extensive population of mesenchymal cells, called either pericytes when attached to peritubular capillaries or resident fibroblasts when embedded in matrix, as the progenitors of scar-forming ce...

  6. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response

  7. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: federica.marchesi@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-28

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  8. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marchesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  9. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp. in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubules and tubulardilation. Liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and focal areasof necrosis, haemorrhagia and hepatitis. In intestine, atrophy of epithelial cells and enteritis on thelamina propria and submucosal layer were seen. It was concluded that unfavourable environmentalcontamination of aquarium may induced several histopathological alterations in the tissues of goldfishand angelfishes.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS TO UPHILL AND DOWNHILL EXERCISE IN HEART, SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND KIDNEY TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. B. Lollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP, but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric and downhill (predominantly eccentric muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7% and downhill (-7% of inclination. At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal. When the contraction was concentric (uphill and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL-1 in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively. The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus

  11. Differences in gene expression in prostate cancer, normal appearing prostate tissue adjacent to cancer and prostate tissue from cancer free organ donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical high throughput microarrays experiments compare gene expression across two specimen classes – an experimental class and baseline (or comparison) class. The choice of specimen classes is a major factor in the differential gene expression patterns revealed by these experiments. In most studies of prostate cancer, histologically malignant tissue is chosen as the experimental class while normal appearing prostate tissue adjacent to the tumor (adjacent normal) is chosen as the baseline against which comparison is made. However, normal appearing prostate tissue from tumor free organ donors represents an alterative source of baseline tissue for differential expression studies. To examine the effect of using donor normal tissue as opposed to adjacent normal tissue as a baseline for prostate cancer expression studies, we compared, using oligonucleotide microarrays, the expression profiles of primary prostate cancer (tumor), adjacent normal tissue and normal tissue from tumor free donors. Statistical analysis using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) demonstrates the presence of unique gene expression profiles for each of these specimen classes. The tumor v donor expression profile was more extensive that the tumor v adjacent normal profile. The differentially expressed gene lists from tumor v donor, tumor v adjacent normal and adjacent normal v donor comparisons were examined to identify regulated genes. When donors were used as the baseline, similar genes are highly regulated in both tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Significantly, both tumor and adjacent normal tissue exhibit significant up regulation of proliferation related genes including transcription factors, signal transducers and growth regulators compared to donor tissue. These genes were not picked up in a direct comparison of tumor and adjacent normal tissues. The up-regulation of these gene types in both tissue types is an unexpected finding and suggests that normal appearing prostate tissue

  12. Non-invasive measurement of the temperature rise in tissue surrounding a kidney stone subjected to ultrasonic propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F; Dunmire, Barbrina L; Cunitz, Bryan W; Bailey, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous focused ultrasound (US) is used to propel kidney stones using acoustic radiation force. It is important to estimate the level of heating generated at the stone/tissue interface for safety assessment. An in-vitro experiment is conducted to measure the temperature rise in a tissue-mimicking phantom with an embedded artificial stone and subjected to a focused beam from an imaging US array. A novel optical-imaging-based thermometry method is described using an optically clear tissue phantom. Measurements are compared to the output from a fine wire thermocouple placed on the stone surface. The optical method has good sensitivity, and it does not suffer from artificial viscous heating typically observed with invasive probes and thermocouples. PMID:26736818

  13. Role of markers for acute kidney injury in surgical management of patients with renal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    O I Kit; E. M. Frantsiyants; S. N. Dimitriadi; I. V. Kaplieva; L. K. Trepitaki; N. D. Cheryarina; Yu. A. Pogorelova

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the results of studying the urinary levels of markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) in 46 patients with renal cancer during separate ureteral catheterization before the surgery and 24 hours after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy performed due to elective indications under warm ischemia. The levels of cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and interleukin-18 were examined by enzyme immunoassay. It has been e...

  14. Surgical treatment in patients with kidney cancer metastasizing to the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostritsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of 60 patients with metastatic kidney cancer involving the vertebrae who had undergone different-volume surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The role of surgical volume was assessed. In patients with solitary spinal metastases, their radical removal was found to lead to better quality of life and longer survival. Puncture vertebroplasty with bone cement in patients with spinal metastatic involvement permits one to avoid traumatic fixing operations, without reducing the median survival at the same time.

  15. Cross-tissue Analysis of Gene and Protein Expression in Normal and Cancer Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosti, Idit; Jain, Nishant; Aran, Dvir; Butte, Atul J; Sirota, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology describes the translation of genetic information from mRNA to protein, but does not specify the quantitation or timing of this process across the genome. We have analyzed protein and gene expression in a diverse set of human tissues. To study concordance and discordance of gene and protein expression, we integrated mass spectrometry data from the Human Proteome Map project and RNA-Seq measurements from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. We analyzed 16,561 genes and the corresponding proteins in 14 tissue types across nearly 200 samples. A comprehensive tissue- and gene-specific analysis revealed that across the 14 tissues, correlation between mRNA and protein expression was positive and ranged from 0.36 to 0.5. We also identified 1,012 genes whose RNA and protein expression was correlated across all the tissues and examined genes and proteins that were concordantly and discordantly expressed for each tissue of interest. We extended our analysis to look for genes and proteins that were differentially correlated in cancer compared to normal tissues, showing higher levels of correlation in normal tissues. Finally, we explored the implications of these findings in the context of biomarker and drug target discovery. PMID:27142790

  16. Cross-tissue Analysis of Gene and Protein Expression in Normal and Cancer Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosti, Idit; Jain, Nishant; Aran, Dvir; Butte, Atul J; Sirota, Marina

    2016-05-04

    The central dogma of molecular biology describes the translation of genetic information from mRNA to protein, but does not specify the quantitation or timing of this process across the genome. We have analyzed protein and gene expression in a diverse set of human tissues. To study concordance and discordance of gene and protein expression, we integrated mass spectrometry data from the Human Proteome Map project and RNA-Seq measurements from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. We analyzed 16,561 genes and the corresponding proteins in 14 tissue types across nearly 200 samples. A comprehensive tissue- and gene-specific analysis revealed that across the 14 tissues, correlation between mRNA and protein expression was positive and ranged from 0.36 to 0.5. We also identified 1,012 genes whose RNA and protein expression was correlated across all the tissues and examined genes and proteins that were concordantly and discordantly expressed for each tissue of interest. We extended our analysis to look for genes and proteins that were differentially correlated in cancer compared to normal tissues, showing higher levels of correlation in normal tissues. Finally, we explored the implications of these findings in the context of biomarker and drug target discovery.

  17. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  18. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelfus, Tatiane; da Costa, Paula Moiana; Scherer, Marcos; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure. PMID:26692157

  19. The association of pioglitazone and urinary tract disease in type 2 diabetic Taiwanese: bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yueh Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although studies have shown an association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer, the associated factors have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that may link pioglitazone to bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 34,970 study subjects were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2003 with follow-up from 2005 to 2009. The demographic characteristics of patients who had used and had never used pioglitazone, including age, sex, diabetes duration, urinary tract disease, nephropathy, bladder cancer, and cumulative dose and duration of pioglitazone therapy, were analyzed using the χ2 test. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of pioglitazone on bladder cancer and newly developed chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: Among 3,497 ever users and 31,473 never users of pioglitazone, the respective incident cases of bladder cancer were 12 (0.4% and 72 (0.2%, and for newly developed chronic kidney disease 245 (8.1% and 663 (2.3%, respectively. Ever use of pioglitazone [1.59(1.32-1.91], cumulative dose of pioglitazone 10,500 mg [1.34 (1.04-1.73], and duration of therapy 12 months [1.39 (1.09-1.76] were associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association of pioglitazone use with bladder cancer development, however, there was an association with an increased risk of newly developed chronic kidney disease.

  20. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

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    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  1. Role of Adipose Tissue in Determining Muscle Mass in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is a powerful predictor of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its etiology is unclear. We hypothesized that the adipocyte-derived proteins leptin and adiponectin, inflammation (as measured by C-reactive protein, CRP), and insulin resistance (as measured by ho...

  2. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  3. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  4. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Kidney Cancer in Uniquely Exposed Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H.; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E.; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007–2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of 1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend < 0.001), respectively. Odds ratios were not elevated for renal cell cancer. With these new findings, including evidence of dose-response, we believe there is now sufficient evidence in humans that drinking-water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer. PMID:23764934

  5. Eliminating tissue-fold artifacts in histopathological whole-slide images for improved image-based prediction of cancer grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Kothari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of tissue biopsy whole-slide images (WSIs depends on effective detection and elimination of image artifacts. We present a novel method to detect tissue-fold artifacts in histopathological WSIs. We also study the effect of tissue folds on image features and prediction models. Materials and Methods: We use WSIs of samples from two cancer endpoints - kidney clear cell carcinoma (KiCa and ovarian serous adenocarcinoma (OvCa - publicly available from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We detect tissue folds in low-resolution WSIs using color properties and two adaptive connectivity-based thresholds. We optimize and validate our tissue-fold detection method using 105 manually annotated WSIs from both cancer endpoints. In addition to detecting tissue folds, we extract 461 image features from the high-resolution WSIs for all samples. We use the rank-sum test to find image features that are statistically different among features extracted from the same set of WSIs with and without folds. We then use features that are affected by tissue folds to develop models for predicting cancer grades. Results: When compared to the ground truth, our method detects tissue folds in KiCa with 0.50 adjusted Rand index (ARI, 0.77 average true rate (ATR, 0.55 true positive rate (TPR, and 0.98 true negative rate (TNR; and in OvCa with 0.40 ARI, 0.73 ATR, 0.47 TPR, and 0.98 TNR. Compared to two other methods, our method is more accurate in terms of ARI and ATR. We found that 53 and 30 image features were significantly affected by the presence of tissue-fold artifacts (detected using our method in OvCa and KiCa, respectively. After eliminating tissue folds, the performance of cancer-grade prediction models improved by 5% and 1% in OvCa and KiCa, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed connectivity-based method is more effective in detecting tissue folds compared to other methods. Reducing tissue-fold artifacts will increase the performance of cancer-grade prediction

  6. Role of markers for acute kidney injury in surgical management of patients with renal cancer

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    O. I. Kit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of studying the urinary levels of markers of acute kidney injury (AKI in 46 patients with renal cancer during separate ureteral catheterization before the surgery and 24 hours after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy performed due to elective indications under warm ischemia. The levels of cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, and interleukin-18 were examined by enzyme immunoassay. It has been established that the risk of early postoperative AKI may be predicted from the baseline urinary levels of cystatin C and LFABP in patients with renal cancer resulting from 15-20-min warm ischemia time during the partial nephrectomy. An approach based on estimation of the baseline urinary levels of cystatin C and L-FABP to be incorporated into a preoperative examination scheme is proposed for surgical treatment policy choosing in patients with renal cancer. A scheme for examining patients with renal cancer is also suggested for the risk of complications and the degree of AKI assessing in the early post-operative period.

  7. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

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    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  8. THE LOCALIZATION OF ADRENOMEDULLIN IN RAT KIDNEY TISSUE AND ITS INHIBITORY EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF CULTURED RAT MESANGIAL CELLSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学光; 张志刚; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To observe the localization of adrenomedullin(AM) in rat kidney tissue and its inhibitory effect on the growth of cultured rat mesangial cells (MsC).Methods:A monoclonal antibody against AM developed by our laboratory was used to detect the localization of AM protein in rat kidney tissue by avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry.The expressions of AM and its receptor CRLR mRNA on cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC)and MsC were investigated by Northern blot assay,and the possible effect of AM secreted by GEC on MsC proliferation was observed using [3H] thymidine incorporation as an index.Results:A specific monoclonal antibody against AM was successfull developed.AM was immunohistochemically localized mainly in glomeruli (GEC and endothelial cells),some cortical proximal tubules,medullary collecting duct cells,interstitial cells,vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.Northern blot assay showed the AM mRNA was expressed only on cultured GEC,but not on MsC,however,AM receptor CRLR mRNA was only expressed on MsC.GEC conditioned medium containing AM can inhibit MsC growth and AM receptor blocker CGRP8-37 may partially decreased this inhibitory effect.Conclusion:AM produced by GEC inhibits the proliferation of MsC,which suggests that AM as an important regulator is involved in glomerular normal physiological functions and pathologic processes.

  9. Determinants of renal tissue oxygenation as measured with BOLD-MRI in chronic kidney disease and hypertension in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Pruijm

    Full Text Available Experimentally renal tissue hypoxia appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD and arterial hypertension (AHT. In this study we measured renal tissue oxygenation and its determinants in humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI under standardized hydration conditions. Four coronal slices were selected, and a multi gradient echo sequence was used to acquire T2* weighted images. The mean cortical and medullary R2* values ( = 1/T2* were calculated before and after administration of IV furosemide, a low R2* indicating a high tissue oxygenation. We studied 195 subjects (95 CKD, 58 treated AHT, and 42 healthy controls. Mean cortical R2 and medullary R2* were not significantly different between the groups at baseline. In stimulated conditions (furosemide injection, the decrease in R2* was significantly blunted in patients with CKD and AHT. In multivariate linear regression analyses, neither cortical nor medullary R2* were associated with eGFR or blood pressure, but cortical R2* correlated positively with male gender, blood glucose and uric acid levels. In conclusion, our data show that kidney oxygenation is tightly regulated in CKD and hypertensive patients at rest. However, the metabolic response to acute changes in sodium transport is altered in CKD and in AHT, despite preserved renal function in the latter group. This suggests the presence of early renal metabolic alterations in hypertension. The correlations between cortical R2* values, male gender, glycemia and uric acid levels suggest that these factors interfere with the regulation of renal tissue oxygenation.

  10. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and kidney cancer in uniquely exposed Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007-2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of 1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer.

  11. An informatics model for tissue banks – Lessons learned from the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in molecular biology and growing requirements from biomarker validation studies have generated a need for tissue banks to provide quality-controlled tissue samples with standardized clinical annotation. The NCI Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR is a distributed tissue bank that comprises four academic centers and provides thousands of clinically annotated prostate cancer specimens to researchers. Here we describe the CPCTR information management system architecture, common data element (CDE development, query interfaces, data curation, and quality control. Methods Data managers review the medical records to collect and continuously update information for the 145 clinical, pathological and inventorial CDEs that the Resource maintains for each case. An Access-based data entry tool provides de-identification and a standard communication mechanism between each group and a central CPCTR database. Standardized automated quality control audits have been implemented. Centrally, an Oracle database has web interfaces allowing multiple user-types, including the general public, to mine de-identified information from all of the sites with three levels of specificity and granularity as well as to request tissues through a formal letter of intent. Results Since July 2003, CPCTR has offered over 6,000 cases (38,000 blocks of highly characterized prostate cancer biospecimens, including several tissue microarrays (TMA. The Resource developed a website with interfaces for the general public as well as researchers and internal members. These user groups have utilized the web-tools for public query of summary data on the cases that were available, to prepare requests, and to receive tissues. As of December 2005, the Resource received over 130 tissue requests, of which 45 have been reviewed, approved and filled. Additionally, the Resource implemented the TMA Data Exchange Specification in its TMA program and created a

  12. Monitoring of human liver and kidney allograft tolerance: a tissue/histopathology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetris, Anthony J; Lunz, John G; Randhawa, Parmjeet; Wu, Tong; Nalesnik, Michael; Thomson, Angus W

    2009-01-01

    Several factors acting together have recently enabled clinicians to seriously consider whether chronic immunosuppression is needed in all solid organ allograft recipients. This has prompted a dozen or so centers throughout the world to prospectively wean immunosuppression from conventionally treated liver allograft recipients. The goal is to lessen the impact of chronic immunosuppression and empirically identify occasional recipients who show operational tolerance, defined as gross phenotype of tolerance in the presence of an immune response and/or immune deficit that has little or no significant clinical impact. Rare operationally tolerant kidney allograft recipients have also been identified, usually by single case reports, but only a couple of prospective weaning trials in conventionally treated kidney allograft recipients have been attempted and reported. Pre- and postweaning allograft biopsy monitoring of recipients adds a critical dimension to these trials, not only for patient safety but also for determining whether events in the allografts can contribute to a mechanistic understanding of allograft acceptance. The following is based on a literature review and personal experience regarding the practical and scientific aspects of biopsy monitoring of potential or actual operationally tolerant human liver and kidney allograft recipients where the goal, intended or attained, was complete withdrawal of immunosuppression.

  13. Prostate cancer outcome and tissue levels of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; MacIas, V.; Gao, W.; Liang, W.-M.; Beam, C.; Gray, Michael A.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are several studies examining prostate cancer and exposure to cadmium, iron, selenium, and zinc. Less data are available on the possible influence of these metal ions on prostate cancer outcome. This study measured levels of these ions in prostatectomy samples in order to examine possible associations between metal concentrations and disease outcome. METHODS We obtained formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of prostatectomy samples of 40 patients with PSA recurrence, matched 1:1 (for year of surgery, race, age, Gleason grading, and pathology TNM classification) with tissue blocks from 40 patients without recurrence (n = 80). Case-control pairs were compared for the levels of metals in areas adjacent to tumors. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantification of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Se. RESULTS Patients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence of disease had 12% lower median iron (95 ??g/g vs. 111 ??g/g; P = 0.04) and 21% lower zinc (279 ??g/g vs. 346 ??g/g; P = 0.04) concentrations in the normal-appearing tissue immediately adjacent to cancer areas. Differences in cadmium (0.489 ??g/g vs. 0.439 ??g/g; 4% higher) and selenium (1.68 ??g/g vs. 1.58 ??g/g; 5% higher) levels were not statistically significant in recurrence cases, when compared to non-recurrences (P = 0.40 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between low zinc and low iron prostate tissue levels and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Whether these novel findings are a cause or effect of more aggressive tumors, or whether low zinc and iron prostatic levels raise implications for therapy, remains to be investigated. Copyright ?? 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Malarial Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice Alters the Redox State in Kidney and Liver Tissues and Confers Protection against Lupus Nephritis

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    Saleh Al-Quraishy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by an imbalanced redox state and increased apoptosis. Tropical infections, particularly malaria, may confer protection against SLE. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of SLE. We have measured changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glutathione (GSH in both kidney and liver tissues of female BWF1 lupus mice, an experimental model of SLE, after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. We observed a decrease in NO, H2O2, and MDA levels in kidney tissues after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. Similarly, the levels of NO and H2O2 were significantly decreased in the liver tissues of lupus mice after infection with live malaria. Conversely, GSH levels were obviously increased in both kidney and liver tissues after infection of lupus mice with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. Liver and kidney functions were significantly altered after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. We further investigated the ultrastructural changes and detected the number of apoptotic cells in kidney and liver tissues in situ by electron microscopy and TUNEL assays. Our data reveal that infection of lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis.

  15. Diet and risk of kidney stones in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Appleby, Paul N; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E

    2014-05-01

    The lifetime prevalence of kidney stones is around 10 % and incidence rates are increasing. Diet may be an important determinant of kidney stone development. Our objective was to investigate the association between diet and kidney stone risk in a population with a wide range of diets. This association was examined among 51,336 participants in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England and Scottish Morbidity Records. In the cohort, 303 participants attended hospital with a new kidney stone episode. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Compared to those with high intake of meat (>100 g/day), the HR estimates for moderate meat-eaters (50-99 g/day), low meat-eaters (kidney stone formation. A high intake of zinc was associated with a higher risk. In conclusion, vegetarians have a lower risk of developing kidney stones compared with those who eat a high meat diet. This information may be important to advise the public about prevention of kidney stone formation. PMID:24752465

  16. Detection and Localization of Pre-Cancerous Lesions and Early Lung Cancer Using Tissue Autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jaclyn Yip-Chan

    In this work, two different yet related hypotheses were tested by experimental means as follows: (i) pre-cancerous and non-invasive (early) lung cancer can be detected and localized using the fluorescence properties of tumour localizing drugs at non-photosensitizing doses to skin tissue; (ii) significant differences exist in laser-induced autofluorescence between normal, pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues such that these differences alone can be exploited to detect and delineate early lung cancer without using exogenous drug(s). Exogenous fluorescent tumour markers such as hematoporphyrin derivatives (e.g. Photofrin) have been used to enhance to detection of occult lung lesions. Photofrin is preferentially retained in tumor tissues compared to the surrounding normal tissues; it fluoresces at 630 nm and 690 nm when excited at -405 nm. Based on this principle several imaging and non-imaging devices have been developed. However, wider clinical applications were limited due to the skin photosensitivity property of Photofrin. We have postulated that this could be solved by employing a much lower dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg) which was believed to be less photosensitizing to human patients. This postulate was experimentally tested by ratio fluorometry and early lung cancers were detected with no false negative results and no apparent skin photosensitivity. An important finding in this study was that the mechanism for detection of early cancer was mainly due to the differences in the green autofluorescence between normal and malignant tissues, rather than fluorescence of tumour localizing drug. This discovery led to the second postulate of this thesis that tissue autofluorescence alone can be exploited for the detection of early lung cancer. The results indicated that algorithm(s) could be developed to clearly delineate early lesions from the normal tissues. Several algorithms were then tested using a non-imaging ratio fluorometer device and a prototype imaging

  17. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Sørensen, Nanna Møller;

    2005-01-01

    biological functions of TIMP-1 such as growth-stimulating functions, as well as anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic effects, may in part explain this paradox. The purpose of this review is to give an update on the current status of TIMP-1 in breast cancer, emphasizing the prognostic utility of the inhibitor......Whether patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer are offered adjuvant systemic therapy following surgical removal of the tumor is based on prognosis. Prognosis is estimated in every patient using established prognostic variables. Unfortunately, when using the currently available prognostic...... parameters a significant proportion of patients are over-treated. Thus, in order to improve stratification of breast cancer patients, additional prognostic factors need to be identified. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is one of the promising candidates for new prognostic markers in breast...

  18. Carbon tetrachloride induced kidney and lung tissue damages and antioxidant activities of the aqueous rhizome extract of Podophyllum hexandrum

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    Zargar Bilal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum. The antioxidant potential of the plant extract under in vitro situations was evaluated by using two separate methods, inhibition of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide radical. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a well known toxicant and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes tissue damage by the formation of free radicals. Methods 36 albino rats were divided into six groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed food and water ad libitum. Group I (control was given olive oil, while the rest groups were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg as a 50% (v/v solution in olive oil. Group II received CCl4 only. Group III animals received vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/kg body weight and animals of groups IV, V and VI were given extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at concentration dose of 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activities of antioxidative enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD; as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In addition, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity of the extract was also determined. Results Results showed that the extract possessed strong superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity comparable to that of known antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT. Our results also showed that CCl4 caused a marked increase in TBARS levels whereas GSH, SOD, GR, GPX and GST levels were decreased in kidney and lung tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. Aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum successfully prevented the alterations

  19. Electrical impedance characterization of normal and cancerous human hepatic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shlomi; Ivorra, Antoni; Reuter, Victor E; Rubinsky, Boris; Solomon, Stephen B

    2010-07-01

    The four-electrode method was used to measure the ex vivo complex electrical impedance of tissues from 14 hepatic tumors and the surrounding normal liver from six patients. Measurements were done in the frequency range 1-400 kHz. It was found that the conductivity of the tumor tissue was much higher than that of the normal liver tissue in this frequency range (from 0.14 +/- 0.06 S m(-1) versus 0.03 +/- 0.01 S m(-1) at 1 kHz to 0.25 +/- 0.06 S m(-1) versus 0.15 +/- 0.03 S m(-1) at 400 kHz). The Cole-Cole models were estimated from the experimental data and the four parameters (rho(0), rho(infinity), alpha, f(c)) were obtained using a least-squares fit algorithm. The Cole-Cole parameters for the cancerous and normal liver are 9 +/- 4 Omega m(-1), 2.2 +/- 0.7 Omega m(-1), 0.5 +/- 0.2, 140 +/- 103 kHz and 50 +/- 28 Omega m(-1), 3.2 +/- 0.6 Omega m(-1), 0.64 +/- 0.04, 10 +/- 7 kHz, respectively. These data can contribute to developing bioelectric applications for tissue diagnostics and in tissue treatment planning with electrical fields such as radiofrequency tissue ablation, electrochemotherapy and gene therapy with reversible electroporation, nanoscale pulsing and irreversible electroporation.

  20. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Long Yang; Li Liu; Meng-Yao Li; Meng Shi; Lie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the associated p...

  1. Increased Mortality Risk for Cancers of the Kidney 
and Other Urinary Organs among Chinese Herbalists

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Wang, Jung-Der; Lo, Tsai-Chang; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Background A national survey in Taiwan has shown that Chinese herbal therapy increases the risk of chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether herbal therapy will increase the risk of urological cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Chinese herbalists are at higher risk for urological cancers. Methods We studied all Chinese herbalists in Taiwan that were registered in the Chinese Herbalist Labor Union between 1985 and 2000. We retrospectively followed their su...

  2. Robust multi-tissue gene panel for cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talantov Dmitri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have identified a set of genes whose relative mRNA expression levels in various solid tumors can be used to robustly distinguish cancer from matching normal tissue. Our current feature set consists of 113 gene probes for 104 unique genes, originally identified as differentially expressed in solid primary tumors in microarray data on Affymetrix HG-U133A platform in five tissue types: breast, colon, lung, prostate and ovary. For each dataset, we first identified a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in tumor vs. normal tissue at p-value = 0.05 using an experimentally derived error model. Our common cancer gene panel is the intersection of these sets of significantly dysregulated genes and can distinguish tumors from normal tissue on all these five tissue types. Methods Frozen tumor specimens were obtained from two commercial vendors Clinomics (Pittsfield, MA and Asterand (Detroit, MI. Biotinylated targets were prepared using published methods (Affymetrix, CA and hybridized to Affymetrix U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix, CA. Expression values for each gene were calculated using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis software MAS 5.0. We then used a software package called Genes@Work for differential expression discovery, and SVM light linear kernel for building classification models. Results We validate the predictability of this gene list on several publicly available data sets generated on the same platform. Of note, when analysing the lung cancer data set of Spira et al, using an SVM linear kernel classifier, our gene panel had 94.7% leave-one-out accuracy compared to 87.8% using the gene panel in the original paper. In addition, we performed high-throughput validation on the Dana Farber Cancer Institute GCOD database and several GEO datasets. Conclusions Our result showed the potential for this panel as a robust classification tool for multiple tumor types on the Affymetrix platform, as well as other whole genome arrays

  3. Histopathologic changes in the kidney tissue of Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae induced by sublethal concentration of Trichlorfon exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leite da Veiga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to analyse the kidney histopathological alterations of "curimbatá", Prochilodus lineatus, were analyzed. An acute bioassay was made by the water contamination with 0.2muml/l of Dipterex 500 (Trichlorfon. The kidney tissue collected after 24 hours of exposure showed an enlargement of intercapsular space with glomerular atrophy, hypertrophy of the kidney tube cells, with small granules on its cytoplasm and little nuclear alteration. Blood overflowing from capillaries with pyknotic nuclei and vacuoles in the cytoplasm it was also noticed. After 48 hours, the kidney tissue showed glomerular expansion, impossibility to visualize the intercapsular space as well as cytoplasm limit of many cells. The parietal capsular epithelium and the basal membrane presented loss of cell content, the tubular cells appeared swollen vacuolated and with thin and thick cytoplasmatic granulations. Some of the cell nuclei kept relatively regular form with a condensed chromatin on its central region, while others showed themselves relatively small and pyknotics advancing to a cariolisis and necrosis focus.Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as alterações histopatológicas no tecido renal de curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus, através de bioensaio agudo provocado pela contaminação da água por 0,2mil/litro de solução de Dipterex 500 (Trichlorfon diluído em solução aquosa. Alterações comportamentais dos peixes pertencentes ao grupo contaminado, foram observadas a partir de 24 horas após o início da exposição. O tecido renal coletado após 24 horas de exposição apresentou aumento do espaço intercapsular com glomérulos atróficos, hipertrofia das células dos túbulos renais, extravasamento sangüíneo a partir de capilares e áreas de necrose. Após 48 horas o tecido renal apresentou dilatação glomerular, perda do conteúdo celular do epitélio capsular parietal e da membrana basal, inchaço, vacuolização e granulações finas e

  4. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.

  5. Intersecting Guidelines: Administering Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents to Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Becker, Pamela S.; Kraut, Eric H.; Samaras, Athena T.; West, Dennis P.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a dramatic sea change in the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) for anemic persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. An important area that has not been addressed previously is a CKD patient who also has a malignancy. Clinical guidelines exist that outline recommended treatments for each disease, but the intersection of the two disease processes presents difficult decisions for patients and physicians. Herein, we review the background underlying recent revisions in clinical alerts and guidelines for ESAs, and provide guidance for treating anemia among CKD patients who are receiving no therapy, chemotherapy with curative intent, or chemotherapy with palliative intent. The guiding principle is that comprehensive assessment of risks and benefits in the relevant clinical setting is imperative. PMID:19175532

  6. Renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system in the kidney and novel potential drugs for salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto; Majima, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    A large variety of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and others, are prescribed to hypertensive patients, with good control of the condition. In addition, all individuals are generally believed to be salt sensitive and, thus, severe restriction of salt intake is recommended to all. Nevertheless, the physiological defense mechanisms in the kidney against excess salt intake have not been well clarified. The present review article demonstrated that the renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is ideally situated within the nephrons of the kidney, where it functions to inhibit the reabsorption of NaCl through the activation of bradykinin (BK)-B2 receptors localized along the epithelial cells of the collecting ducts (CD). Kinins generated in the CD are immediately inactivated by two kidney-specific kinin-inactivating enzymes (kininases), carboxypeptidase Y-like exopeptidase (CPY), and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Our work demonstrated that ebelactone B and poststatin are selective inhibitors of these kininases. The reduced secretion of the urinary kallikrein is linked to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension, whereas potassium ions and ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers ameliorate salt-sensitive hypertension by accelerating the release of renal kallikrein. On the other hand, ebelactone B and poststatin prolong the life of kinins in the CD after excess salt intake, thereby leading to the augmentation of natriuresis and diuresis, and the ensuing suppression of salt-sensitive hypertension. In conclusion, accelerators of the renal kallikrein release and selective renal kininase inhibitors are both novel types of antihypertensive agents that may be useful for treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:25130040

  7. FTIR study of protective action of deferoxamine and deferiprone on the kidney tissues of aluminum loaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.; Raja, B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the FTIR spectra of the aluminum exposed kidney tissues and recovered by chelating agents DFO and DFP then showed significant alteration on the major biochemical constituents such as lipids, proteins and glycogen at molecular level. The significant increased in the peak area of glycogen from 0.006 ± 0.001 to 0.187 ± 0.032 may be the interruption of aluminum in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The peak area value of amide A significantly decreased from control (4.931 ± 1.446) to aluminum (1.234 ± 0.052), but improved by DFP and DFO + DFP from 2.658 ± 0.153 to 3.252 ± 0.070 respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area values also decreased from 1.690 ± 0.133 to 0.811 ± 0.192 and 1.158 ± 0.050 to 0.489 ± 0.047 but treated with DFP and DFO + DFP significantly improved. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of Olefinicdbnd CH stretching band, Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides and ring breathing mode in the DNA bases in aluminum exposure kidney suggests an altered lipid levels. Treated with DFP and DFO + DFP mice were considerably increased in lipid peroxidative markers. Further, assessed the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and measured the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants. Concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Histopathology of chelating agents treated kidney showed reduced renal damage in aluminum induced mice. Thus, histopathological findings confirmed the biochemical observations of this study. This results demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can be successfully applied to toxicological and biotoxicology studies.

  8. Protective effect of lycopene on deltamethrin-induced histological and ultrastructural changes in kidney tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gerbed, Mohamed S A

    2014-03-01

    Deltamethrin is globally used in crop protection and control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. It has a potent insecticidal activity with an appreciable safety margin. However, a number of studies have demonstrated nephrotoxicity of deltamethrin in mammalian and nonmammalian species. Lycopene, a carotenoid occurring naturally in tomatoes, has attracted considerable attention as an antioxidant. This study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of coadministration of lycopene on deltamethrin toxicity. In this study, male albino rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: group I served as control, which received standard diet; group II received oral administration of deltamethrin (1.28 mg/kg per day) for 30 days; group III received both deltamethrin and lycopene (1 mg/kg per day); group IV received lycopene (1 mg/kg per day). After the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in the serum was measured; the kidney was taken for histological and ultrastructural studies. Deltamethrin significantly increased the TNF-α. The histopathological examination of kidney showed mild necrotic changes. Ultrastructural changes in renal proximal tubules of deltamethrin-treated group included an increased number and irregular shape of mitochondria with sparse fragmented cristae, serious ultrastructural lesions in renal proximal tubular lining cells, vacuolar degeneration in the epithelial cells, increased number of lysosomes and loss of apical microvilli. In addition, focal segmental thickening and the duplication of glomerular basement membrane and podocyte changes were observed. Histopathological and ultrastructural study showed some protective effect of lycopene on kidney tissues.

  9. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-02-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material contain the differentiated luminal and basal cell types, whereas organoids derived from prostate cancer tissue mimic the histology of the tumor. We explain how to establish these cultures in the fully defined serum-free conditioned medium that is required to sustain organoid growth. Starting with the plating of digested tissue material, full-grown organoids can usually be obtained in ∼2 weeks. The culture protocol we describe here is currently the only one that allows the growth of both the luminal and basal prostatic epithelial lineages, as well as the growth of advanced prostate cancers. Organoids established using this protocol can be used to study many different aspects of prostate biology, including homeostasis, tumorigenesis and drug discovery.

  10. Effects of radiosensitising agent nicotinamide on relative tissue perfusion and kidney junction in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotinamide is an effective radiosensitiser of murine tumours, functioning by improving tumour perfusion by decreasing the proportion of intermittently closed capillaries. The effect of nicotinamide on relative tissue perfusion of RIF-1 tumour and normal skin, muscle, lung, liver, kidney and spleen were investigated using the 86Rb extraction technique. A dose of 1000 mg/kg was shown to have transient effects on tumour, skin and lung perfusion but to have sustained effects on muscle (a drop to 80% of control), liver, kidney and spleen (with increased ranging from 165% to 280% of control) from 0.5 to 4 h after treatment i.e. during the period of maximum radiosensitisation. These increases were evident at doses as low as 100 mg/kg. The data suggest that the radiosensitisation induced by nicotinamide in the mouse may be associated with these perfusion changes. Nicotinamide was also shown to have a substantial inhibitory effect on renal function, inhibiting 51CrEDTA clearance by a factor (± 2 SE) of 2.56 ± 0.19 and 125I-iodohippurate clearance by a factor of 2.07 ± 0.45 at 1000 mg/kg. These effects were shown to be dose-related, and to be evident at doses from 400 mg/kg upwards. This suggests that nicotinamide potentiation of co-administered cytotoxic agents may be mediated by reduced renal clearance of the cytotoxic drug, thus increasing the plasma half-life. (author)

  11. Predictors of the immediate results of thrombectomy in kidney cancer patients with venous tumor thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Davydov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the predictors of perioperative complications and deaths in surgically treated patients with kidney cancer complicated by venous tumor thrombosis.Subjects and methods. The investigation included data on 463 kidney cancer patients with venous tumor thrombosis. The patients, median age was 57 years. The male / female ratio was 2.5:1. Perirenal, subhepatic, retrohepatic, and supradiaphragmatic tumor thrombi were diagnosed in 161 (34.8 %, 135 (29.2 %, 82 (17.7 %, and 85 (18.3 % patients, respectively. Regional and distant metastases occurred in 90 (19.4 % and 145 (31.3 % cases, respectively. All the patients underwent thrombectomy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy; a tumor-affected kidney was removed in 452 (97.6 % patients.Results. Median surgery duration was 259 (30–580 min; median blood loss was 3500 (100–27 000 ml. The incidence of intraoperative complications was 24.6 % (114 / 463; mortality was 0.9 % (4 / 463. The independent risk factors of intraoperative complications were cranial margin of a tumor thrombus (odds ratio (OR 1.9; 95 % CI 1.4–2.6; p < 0.0001 and circular resection of the inferior vena cava (OR 5.8; 95 % CI 1.2–27.8; p < 0.0001. The incidence of postoperative complications was 25.7 % (118 / 459;mortality was 6.0 % (28 / 459. Resurgery was required in 31 (6.8 % cases. Regression analysis identified the risk factors of postoperative complications (highly located cranial thrombus margin (OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.1–6.4; p = 0.037 and lactate acidosis (OR27.1; 95 % CI 1.2–613.1; p = 0.038, postoperative death (hepatic vein thrombosis (OR 15.6; 95 % CI 4.5–54.3; p < 0.0001,lactate acidosis (OR 23.1; 95 % CI 3.4–158.4; p = 0.001 thrombus removal from the heart (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 2.1–12.2; p < 0.0001,perioperative death (cranial thrombus margin (OR 1.9; 95 % CI 1.2–3.2; р = 0.007, contralateral renal vein thrombosis (O R 4.4;95 % CI 1.2–15.8; p = 0.025, lactate acidosis (OR 28.4; 95 % CI 4

  12. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activation in Cancer Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki, E-mail: mejina@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Section of Oncopathology and Regenerative Biology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) plays critical roles in cancer progression through its specific receptor, MET. HGF/SF is usually synthesized and secreted as an inactive proform (pro-HGF/SF) by stromal cells, such as fibroblasts. Several serine proteases are reported to convert pro-HGF/SF to mature HGF/SF and among these, HGF activator (HGFA) and matriptase are the most potent activators. Increased activities of both proteases have been observed in various cancers. HGFA is synthesized mainly by the liver and secreted as an inactive pro-form. In cancer tissues, pro-HGFA is likely activated by thrombin and/or human kallikrein 1-related peptidase (KLK)-4 and KLK-5. Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed by most epithelial cells and is also synthesized as an inactive zymogen. Matriptase activation is likely to be mediated by autoactivation or by other trypsin-like proteases. Recent studies revealed that matriptase autoactivation is promoted by an acidic environment. Given the mildly acidic extracellular environment of solid tumors, matriptase activation may, thus, be accelerated in the tumor microenvironment. HGFA and matriptase activities are regulated by HGFA inhibitor (HAI)-1 (HAI-1) and/or HAI-2 in the pericellular microenvironment. HAIs may have an important role in cancer cell biology by regulating HGF/SF-activating proteases.

  13. Electrical impedance characterization of normal and cancerous human hepatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four-electrode method was used to measure the ex vivo complex electrical impedance of tissues from 14 hepatic tumors and the surrounding normal liver from six patients. Measurements were done in the frequency range 1–400 kHz. It was found that the conductivity of the tumor tissue was much higher than that of the normal liver tissue in this frequency range (from 0.14 ± 0.06 S m−1 versus 0.03 ± 0.01 S m−1 at 1 kHz to 0.25 ± 0.06 S m−1 versus 0.15 ± 0.03 S m−1 at 400 kHz). The Cole–Cole models were estimated from the experimental data and the four parameters (ρ0, ρ∞, α, fc) were obtained using a least-squares fit algorithm. The Cole–Cole parameters for the cancerous and normal liver are 9 ± 4 Ω m−1, 2.2 ± 0.7 Ω m−1, 0.5 ± 0.2, 140 ± 103 kHz and 50 ± 28 Ω m−1, 3.2 ± 0.6 Ω m−1, 0.64 ± 0.04, 10 ± 7 kHz, respectively. These data can contribute to developing bioelectric applications for tissue diagnostics and in tissue treatment planning with electrical fields such as radiofrequency tissue ablation, electrochemotherapy and gene therapy with reversible electroporation, nanoscale pulsing and irreversible electroporation

  14. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY ON CANCER RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉

    2003-01-01

    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  15. Trace elements in digestive cancer tissue by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental composition study of digestive cancer tissue with different localizations (esophagus, stomach, colon), by using PIXE analysis, is presented. A number of 20 tumors and normal (control) tissue samples was analyzed. Thin targets were prepared by mineralization with nitric acid of the lyophilized tissue and dropping on 2 μm Mylar foil. The measurements were carried out in vacuum using 3 MeV protons delivered by the Tandem Accelerator in Bucharest, Romania. The following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Although the results show relatively large variations from a sample to another, there were obtained mean ratios of tumor/normal concentrations which are significantly greater than one, in the limit of the standard deviation, for the following elements: K(1.45 ± 0.28), Ca(1.30 ± 0.21), Cr(2.33 ± 0.56), and Zn(1.18 ± 0.15). For other elements determined, no significant difference between the tumor and normal tissues , in the limit of the present standard deviation, was found. (authors)

  16. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial tissue and prostate cancer tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R.; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Summary This protocol describes a recently developed strategy to generate 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate (either bulk or FAC-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumour cells. Organoids derived from healthy material contain the differentiated luminal and basal cell types, whereas organoids derived from prostate cancer tissue mimic the histology of the tumour. The stepwise establishment of these cultures and the fully defined serum-free conditioned medium that is required to sustain organoid growth are outlined. Organoids established using this protocol can be used to study many different aspects of prostate biology, including homeostasis, tumorigenesis and drug discovery. PMID:26797458

  17. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information > Health Communication Programs > National Kidney Disease Education Program > Learn About Kidney Disease > Living With Kidney Disease > Kidney Failure | Share External Link Disclaimer Living With Kidney Disease ...

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transplantation would be indicated. Renal Cell Carcinoma (Kidney Cancer) Over the past 20 years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. Drs. Bjornsson, Short, ...

  19. Confocal Microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D Visualization of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  20. Confocal microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D visualizaiton of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  1. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineag...

  2. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangang; Geng Heyuan; Shao Yuhao; Han Zongxi; Cao Zhongzan; Liu Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel e...

  3. Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even

    2008-04-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain.

  4. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of inositol hexaphosphate in C.B17 SCID mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Julie; Lan, Jing; Guo, Jianxia; Joseph, Erin; Vucenik, Ivana

    2011-10-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is effective in preclinical cancer prevention and chemotherapy. In addition to cancer, IP(6) has many other beneficial effects for human health, such as reduction in risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes and inhibition of kidney stone formation. Studies presented here describe the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of IP(6) following intravenous (IV) or per os (PO) administration to mice. SCID mice bearing MDA-MB-231 xenografts were treated with 20 mg/kg IP(6) (3 μCi per mouse [(14)C]-uniformly ring-labeled IP(6)) and euthanized at various times after IP(6) treatment. Plasma and tissues were analyzed for [(14)C]-IP(6) and metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Following IV administration of IP(6), plasma IP(6) concentrations peaked at 5 minutes and were detectable until 45 minutes. Liver IP(6) concentrations were more than 10-fold higher than plasma concentrations, whereas other normal tissue concentrations were similar to plasma. Only inositol was detected in xenografts. After PO administration, IP(6) was detected in liver; but only inositol was detectable in other tissues. After both IV and PO administration, exogenous IP(6) was rapidly dephosphorylated to inositol; however, alterations in endogenous IPs were not examined.

  6. Expression of Uncoupling Protein 2 in Breast Cancer Tissue and Drug-resistant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yan; Yuan Yuan; Zhang Lili; Zhu Hong; Hu Sainan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in clinical breast cancer tissue and drug-resistant cells. Methods:The expression of UCP2 in breast cancer tissue and normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma as well as breast cancer cell MCF-7 and paclitaxel-resistant cell MX-1/T were respectively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results:The expression of UCP2 in breast cancer tissue was signiifcantly higher than in normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma, and that in paclitaxel-resistant cell MX-1/T obviously higher than in breast cancer cell MCF-7. Conclusion:UCP2 is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue and drug-resistant cells.

  7. Expression of Uncoupling Protein 2 in Breast Cancer Tissue and Drug-resistant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 in clinical breast cancer tissue and drug-resistant cells. Methods: The expression of UCP2 in breast cancer tissue and normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma as well as breast cancer cell MCF-7 and paclitaxel-resistant cell MX-1/T were respectively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: The expression of UCP2 in breast cancer tissue was significantly higher than in normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma, and that in paclitaxel-resistant cell MX-1/T obviously higher than in breast cancer cell MCF-7. Conclusion: UCP2 is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue and drug-resistant cells.

  8. Amelioration of Lead-induced Toxicity in Blood, Liver and Kidney Tissues of Male Wistar Rats by Fermented Ofada Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eferhire Aganbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of ‘ofada’ rice koji (ORK, fermented ofada rice and ascorbic acid (AA against lead (Pb-induced toxicity in the blood, liver and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats was investigated. The animals were divided into four treatment groups (A – D, n = 5. Groups B, C and D were intoxified by intra-peritoneal injection of 75 mg lead acetate/kg body weight. Groups C and D only had their feed mixed with ORK and AA, respectively. The results showed no significant difference in % packed cell volume (PCV and Pb concentrations. Feeding with ORK and AA significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activities (36.50 ± 3.54 and 34.02 ± 0.05 UL-1 respectively compared to Pb-only treated group (85.50 ± 3.25 UL-1. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP for organs increased significantly following intake of feeds mixed with ORK and AA; increases in FRAP was higher for ORK-treated group possibly due to increased total flavonoids concentration following fermentation. Furthermore, Pb-induced high plasma creatinine levels decreased upon treatment with feeds mixed with ORK and ascorbic acid. These findings strongly indicated that feed supplementation with ORK by 45% may be more effective at ameliorating the effects of Pb-induced toxicity in tissues compared to supplementation with AA by 2%.

  9. Tissue sodium storage: evidence for kidney-like extrarenal countercurrent systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Perisic, Stojan; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from chemical analysis of tissue electrolyte and water composition has shown that body Na+ content in experimental animals is not constant, does not always readily equilibrate with water, and cannot be exclusively controlled by the renal blood purification process. Instead, large amounts of Na+ are stored in the skin and in skeletal muscle. Quantitative non-invasive detection of Na+ reservoirs with 23NaMRI suggests that this mysterious Na+ storage is not only an animal researc...

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  11. A minimum spanning forest based hyperspectral image classification method for cancerous tissue detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert; Patton, Samuel K.; Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma V.; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a developing modality for cancer detection. The rich information associated with hyperspectral images allow for the examination between cancerous and healthy tissue. This study focuses on a new method that incorporates support vector machines into a minimum spanning forest algorithm for differentiating cancerous tissue from normal tissue. Spectral information was gathered to test the algorithm. Animal experiments were performed and hyperspectral images were acquired from tumor-bearing mice. In vivo imaging experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed classification method for cancer tissue classification on hyperspectral images.

  12. Folate receptor and Ki-67 nucleoprotein expressions in cervical cancer tissue and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yan; Feng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of both FR-α protein and ki-67 in cervical cancer tissues, and discuss the relationship between them and clinical significance.Methods:Using immunohistochemical method test normal cervical tissue and cervical cancer tissue before FR-α protein expression and the expression of Ki-67.Results:FR- protein expression in normal cervical tissues was positive for 7.0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 82.1%. The difference was statistically significant. Ki-67 protein expression in normal cervical tissues was 0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 80.2%. The difference was statistically significant. The two protein expression in cervical cancer stageⅠ,Ⅱ and stageⅢ were different, but the difference was not statistically significant. In cervical cancer tissues, both the two protein were positively correlated. There are correlations between them. Difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:FR-α elevated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. FR-α protein expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue has correlation with Ki-67, FR-α protein maybe participate in the occurrence and development of the cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

  13. The Protective Effects of Vitamins C and E on The Oxidative Stress Induced by Sodium Metabisulfite on The Kidney Tissue in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolnabi Peyravi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Sodium metabisulfite which is used as a food preservative in the food industry, has adverse effects on body organs such as kidney and body grouth rate. In this research we have studied the protective effect of Vitamin C and E as antioxidants, on the kidney tissue damage after the consumption of Sodium metabisulfite. Materials & methods: Forty-eight Adult male Wistar rats of 150-200 grams were divided into 6 groups of 8 each. Rats in the experimental groups received Sodium metabisulfite (520 mg / kg body weight by gavage feeding for 30 consecutive days. Also during this period, the experimental groups 2 and 3 received a daily dose of 100 mg / kg vitamins C and E, Respectively. The experimental group 4 received 50 mg / kg vitamin C plus 50 mg / kg of vitamin E by the same root. Control group received only normal diet and water. The placebo received vehicle (drug solvent as well as normal diet and water. At the end of the exprimental period the body growth rate was measured between the groups. The histhopatological examination was performed on the kidney tissue sections. by light microscope Results: The results showed sodium metabisulfite in daily dietary could lead to the kidney tissue damage and reduced body weight in rats (p <0.05. However, vitamins C and E can reduce the kidney tissue damage and allow a normal growth weight (p <0.05. Conclusion: With this study we could conclude that the antioxidant effect of that vitamins C and E have a protective effect on renal damage induced by sodium metabisulfite consumption

  14. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  15. Independent prognostic value of eosinophil and mast cell infiltration in colorectal cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hansen, Ulla; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    1999-01-01

    -operative adjuvant chemotherapy. Tissue blocks were cut from the periphery of the tumours and embedded in paraffin. All blocks included both tumour tissue and normal bowel tissue. Serial sections of 4 microm were analysed for tumour tissue inflammatory cell infiltration using a computer- and video......, the prognostic value of individual white cell counts in the peritumoural inflammatory infiltrate in colorectal cancer was assessed. Intra-operative tumour tissue samples from 584 patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer were included. None of the patients received pre- or post...... should investigate the potential biological role of tumour tissue eosinophils and mast cells in the modulation of tumour growth....

  16. Molecular Imaging of the Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zsolt; Alachkar, Nada; Xia, Jinsong; Mathews, William B.; Rabb, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging of the kidneys with gamma cameras involves the use of labeled molecules seeking functionally critical molecular mechanisms in order to detect the pathophysiology of the diseased kidneys and achieve an early, sensitive and accurate diagnosis. The most recent imaging technology, PET, permits quantitative imaging of the kidney at a spatial resolution appropriate for the organ. H215O, 82RbCl, and [64Cu] ETS are the most important radiopharmaceuticals for measuring renal blood flow. The renin angiotensin system is the most important regulator of renal blood flow; this role is being interrogated by detecting angiotensin receptor subtype AT1R using in vivo PET imaging. Membrane organic anion transporters are important for the function of the tubular epithelium; therefore, Tc-99m MAG3 as well as some novel radiopharmaceuticals such as copper-64 labeled mono oxo-tetraazamacrocyclic ligands have been utilized for molecular renal imaging. Additionally, other radioligands that interact with the organic cation transporters or peptide transporters have developed. Focusing on early detection of kidney injury at the molecular level is an evolving field of great significance. Potential imaging targets are the kidney injury molecule- 1 (KIM-1) that is highly expressed in kidney injury and renal cancer but not in normal kidneys. While pelvic clearance, in addition to parenchymal transport, is an important measure in obstructive nephropathy, techniques that focus on upregulated molecules in response to tissue stress resulted from obstruction will be of great implication. Monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1) is a well-suited molecule in this case. The greatest advances in molecular imaging of the kidneys have been recently achieved in detecting renal cancer. In addition to the ubiquitous [18F]FDG, other radioligands such as [11C]acetate and anti-[18F]FACBC have emerged. Radioimmuno-imaging with [124I]G250 could lead to radioimmunotherapy for renal cancer

  17. Ex vivo electrical impedance measurements on excised hepatic tissue from human patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Point-wise ex vivo electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were conducted on excised hepatic tissue from human patients with metastatic colorectal cancer using a linear four-electrode impedance probe. This study of 132 measurements from 10 colorectal cancer patients, the largest to date, reports that the equivalent electrical conductivity for tumor tissue is significantly higher than normal tissue (p < 0.01), ranging from 2–5 times greater over the measured frequency range of 100 Hz–1 MHz. Difference in tissue electrical permittivity is also found to be statistically significant across most frequencies. Furthermore, the complex impedance is also reported for both normal and tumor tissue. Consistent with trends for tissue electrical conductivity, normal tissue has a significantly higher impedance than tumor tissue (p < 0.01), as well as a higher net capacitive phase shift (33° for normal liver tissue in contrast to 10° for tumor tissue). (paper)

  18. Soft tissue sarcoma after treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a register study all women in the West of Sweden Health Care Region with a breast cancer diagnosed between 1960 and 1980 (n = 13 490) were followed up in the Swedish Cancer Register to the end of 1988 for later occurrence of a soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Nineteen sarcomas were reported, whereas 8.7 were expected and the relative risk (RR) was 2.2 (CI 95% 1.3-3.4). The absolute risk was (1.7(104)) person years (PY) in comparison with 0.8 expected. To obtain a more detailed analysis of the associations between arm lymphoedema, radiotherapy and STS development, and to control the quality of the register data, a case control study was also performed. Clinical records from the different hospitals in the region were collected for all the 19 cases as well as for three selected controls per case. The histopathology of the cases were reviewed, and one of the cases was reclassified as a malignant melanoma and excluded from further analysis. Thirteen of the cases were clustered around the treated breast area. To quantify the exposure to radiotherapy, the integral dose was estimated. The presence of lymphedema was included as a binary variable in the analysis. The exact conditional randomisation test indicated a significant correlation between the integral dose and the development of an STS (p = 0.008) and this association was still significant after stratification for arm oedema. A conditional logistic regression analysis with STS as the dependent variable and the integral dose as the explanatory variable gave an odds ratio (OR) of(5.2(100)) J (CI 95% 1.3-21.2), and if this regression was restricted only to the STS developing in the radiation fields the OR was(3.2(100)) J (CI 95% 0.8-12.9). Thus, the excess of STS in this breast cancer cohort was very low ((0.9(104)) PY). However the integral dose correlates well to the development of STS and can be useful in quantifying even small risks of secondary malignancies in the breast cancer population

  19. DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THROMBOMODULIN IN BOTH PLASMA AND TISSUE EXTRACTS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓华; 卢兴国; 徐根波; 朱蕾; 黄连生

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of thrombomodulin (TM) in both plasma and tissue extracts of cancer patients for evaluating its clinical significance. Methods: Plasma TM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both plasma of 188 cancer patients and 24 cancer tissue extracts including their adjacent non-cancer tissues. Results: The plasma TM levels both in cancer patients and in metastasis patients were significantly higher than that in controls [(33.47±14.25)μg/L, (41.68±16.96)μg/L, vs(20.40±7.22)μg/L,P0.05). The TM levels in cancer tissue extracts were significantly lower than that in their adjacent non-cancer tissue extracts [(647.71±317.51)μg/L vs (1455.63±772.22)μg/L, P<0.01]. On the contrary, the plasma TM levels in these cancers were significantly higher than that in controls. Conclusion: The rise of plasma TM levels in cancer patients was associated with metastasis and diffusion of cancers. The TM levels can be served as an sensitive index for judging progression and metastasis of cancers.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of Metadherin in proliferative and cancerous breast tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Qinghui; Su Peng; Yang Qifeng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Metadherin (MTDH) has been reported to be associated with cancer progression in various types of human cancers including breast cancer. Whether MTDH contributes to carcinogenesis of breast cancer is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MTDH in normal, UDH (usual ductal hyperplasia), ADH (atypical ductal hyperplasia), DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) and invasive cancer to explore the possible role of MTDH for breast cancer carcinogenesis. M...

  1. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  2. Up-regulation of ALG-2 in hepatomas and lung cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Winding, Pernille;

    2003-01-01

    , a result confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Staining of four different lung cancer tissue microarrays including specimens of 263 patients showed that ALG-2 is mainly localized to epithelial cells and significantly up-regulated in small-cell lung cancers and in non-small-cell lung cancers. Our...

  3. Identification of alternatively spliced TIMP-1 mRNA in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, Pernille Autzen; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Bartels, Annette;

    2007-01-01

    TIMP-1 is a promising new candidate as a prognostic marker in colorectal and breast cancer. We now describe the discovery of two alternatively spliced variants of TIMP-1 mRNA. The two variants lacking exon 2 (del-2) and 5 (del-5), respectively, were identified in human cancer cell lines by RT......-PCR. The del-2 variant was, furthermore, detected in extracts from 12 colorectal cancer tissue samples. By western blotting additional bands of lower molecular mass than full-length TIMP-1 were identified in tumor tissue, but not in plasma samples obtained from cancer patients. The two splice variants of TIMP...

  4. Local tumour ablation for localized kidney cancer: Practice patterns in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Vincent; Larcher, Alessandro; Dell’Oglio, Paolo; Boehm, Katharina; Bishr, Mohamed; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Local tumour ablation (LTA) is a recommended option for the treatment of localized kidney cancer in nonsurgical candidates. We performed a survey to describe the practice patterns of this procedure in Canada. Methods: An electronic survey was sent by email to all urologists registered to the Canadian Urological Association (CUA). Urologists were queried about general demographic information, LTA availability at their institution (and reasons for non-availability, if it was the case), as well as the type and context of LTA use. Results: Overall, 103 individual responses were obtained (response rate of 19.5%). Of those, 58 (56.3%) had access to LTA at their institution. Urologists who had access to LTA were more likely to work at an academic institution (69 vs. 16%, p<0.001). Among individuals who did not use LTA, the main reasons were lack of staff, such as radiologists, who can assist and/or perform the procedure (64%); and lack of expertise with the procedure (62%). Among urologists who had access to LTA, percutaneous radiofrequency and cryoablation were the most commonly used (72% and 21%, respectively); however, urologists were rarely involved in those procedures (12%). Conclusions: In this national survey, we found that a significant proportion of Canadian urologists did not have access to LTA. We also found that when LTA was performed, urologists were rarely involved in the procedures. Those findings represent significant areas for improvement in the access to LTA. The conclusions of this study are limited by the low response rate. PMID:26788232

  5. [Binding capability of lidamycin apoprotein to human breast cancer detected by tissue microarrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Gao, Rui-Juan; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2010-05-01

    This study is to investigate the binding capability of lidamycin apoprotein (LDP), an enediyne-associated apoprotein of the chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic family, to human breast cancer and normal tissues, the correlation of LDP binding capability to human breast cancer tissues and the expression of tumor therapeutic targets such as VEGF and HER2. In this study, the binding capability of LDP to human breast cancer tissues was detected with tissue microarray. The correlation study of LDP binding capability to human breast tumor tissues and relevant therapeutic targets was performed on breast cancer tissue microarrays. Immunocytochemical examination was used to detect the binding capability of LDP to human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. As a result, tissue microarray showed that LDP staining of 73.2% (30/41) of breast cancer tissues was positive, whereas that of 48.3% (15/31) of the adjacent normal breast specimens was positive. The difference between the tumor and normal samples was significant (Chi2 = 4.63, P < 0.05). LDP immunoreactivity in breast cancer correlated significantly with the overexpression of VEGF and HER2 (P < 0.001 and < 0.01, r = 0.389 and 0.287, respectively). Determined with confocal immunofluorescent analysis, LDP showed the binding capability to mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells. It is demonstrated that LDP can bind to human breast cancer tissues and there is significant difference between the breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal tissues. Notably, the binding reactivity shows positive correlation with the expression of VEGF and HER2 in breast carcinoma tissues. The results imply that LDP may have a potential use as targeting drug carrier in the research and development of new anticancer therapeutics. This study may provide reference for drug combination of LDM and other therapeutic agents. PMID:20931759

  6. Enhanced ZAG production by subcutaneous adipose tissue is linked to weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mracek, T.; Stephens, N. A.; Gao, D.; Bao, Y.; Ross, J A; Rydén, M; Arner, P; Trayhurn, P.; Fearon, K C H; Bing, C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. Methods: In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss ⩾5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology was examined and serum ZAG conce...

  7. When fat becomes an ally of the enemy: adipose tissue as collaborator in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeire, Lore; Denys, Hannelore; Cocquyt, Véronique; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, our vision of adipose tissue as a static organ regulating mainly lipid storage and release has been completely overthrown, and adipose tissue is now seen as an active and integral organ in human physiology. In the past years, extensive research has tremendously given us more insights in the mechanisms and pathways involved not only in normal but also in 'sick' adipose tissue, for example, in obesity and lipodystrophy. With growing evidence of a link between obesity and several types of cancer, research focusing on the interaction between adipose tissue and cancer has begun to unravel the interesting but complex multi-lateral communication between the different players. With breast cancer as one of the first cancer types where a positive correlation between obesity and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in post-menopausal women was found, we have focused this review on the paracrine and endocrine role of adipose tissue in breast cancer initiation and progression. As important inter-species differences in adipose tissue occur, we mainly selected human adipose tissue- and breast cancer-based studies with a short reflection on therapeutic possibilities. This review is part of the special issue on "Adiposopathy in Cancer and (Cardio)Metabolic Diseases".

  8. Tissue Doppler-derived E/e' ratio as a parameter for assessing diastolic heart failure and as a predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Biro; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Jae Seok; Han, Byoung-Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Diastolic dysfunction occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with heart failure (HF) or mortality. We investigated whether the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/e' ratio), estimated using tissue Doppler imaging, has prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD. Methods For 186 patients with CKD of stages III to V, we obtained echo...

  9. Discovery of EST-SSRs in lung cancer: tagged ESTs with SSRs lead to differential amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats are found in both coding and non-coding sequences of higher organisms. These sequences can be used in cancer genetics and diagnosis to unravel the genetic basis of tumor formation and progression. In this study, a possible relationship between SSR distributions and lung cancer was studied by comparative analysis of EST-SSRs in normal and lung cancerous tissues. While the EST-SSR distribution was similar between tumorous tissues, this distribution was different between normal and tumorous tissues. Trinucleotides tandem repeats were highly different; the number of trinucleotides in ESTs of lung cancer was 3 times higher than normal tissue. Significant negative correlation between normal and cancerous tissue showed that cancerous tissue generates different types of trinucleotides. GGC and CGC were the more frequent expressed trinucleotides in cancerous tissue, but these SSRs were not expressed in normal tissue. Similar to the EST level, the expression pattern of EST-SSRs-derived amino acids was significantly different between normal and cancerous tissues. Arg, Pro, Ser, Gly, and Lys were the most abundant amino acids in cancerous tissues, and Leu, Cys, Phe, and His were significantly more abundant in normal tissues than in cancerous tissues. Next, the putative functions of triplet SSR-containing genes were analyzed. In cancerous tissue, EST-SSRs produce different types of proteins. Chromodomain helicase DNA binding proteins were one of the major protein products of EST-SSRs in the cancerous library, while these proteins were not produced from EST-SSRs in normal tissue. For the first time, the findings of this study confirmed that EST-SSRs in normal lung tissues are different than in unhealthy tissues, and tagged ESTs with SSRs cause remarkable differences in amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissue. We suggest that EST-SSRs and EST-SSRs differentially expressed in cancerous tissue may be suitable candidate

  10. Protons Offer Reduced Normal-Tissue Exposure for Patients Receiving Postoperative Radiotherapy for Resected Pancreatic Head Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Romaine C., E-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonsville, FL (United States); Huh, Soon N. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonsville, FL (United States); Prado, Karl L.; Yi, Byong Y.; Sharma, Navesh K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ho, Meng W.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonsville, FL (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential role for adjuvant proton-based radiotherapy (PT) for resected pancreatic head cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 2008 and November 2008, 8 consecutive patients with resected pancreatic head cancers underwent optimized intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. IMRT plans used between 10 and 18 fields and delivered 45 Gy to the initial planning target volume (PTV) and a 5.4 Gy boost to a reduced PTV. PTVs were defined according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 radiotherapy guidelines. Ninety-five percent of PTVs received 100% of the target dose and 100% of the PTVs received 95% of the target dose. Normal tissue constraints were as follows: right kidney V18 Gy to <70%; left kidney V18 Gy to <30%; small bowel/stomach V20 Gy to <50%, V45 Gy to <15%, V50 Gy to <10%, and V54 Gy to <5%; liver V30 Gy to <60%; and spinal cord maximum to 46 Gy. Optimized two- to three-field three-dimensional conformal proton plans were retrospectively generated on the same patients. The team generating the proton plans was blinded to the dose distributions achieved by the IMRT plans. The IMRT and proton plans were then compared. A Wilcoxon paired t-test was performed to compare various dosimetric points between the two plans for each patient. Results: All proton plans met all normal tissue constraints and were isoeffective with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of PTV coverage. The proton plans offered significantly reduced normal-tissue exposure over the IMRT plans with respect to the following: median small bowel V20 Gy, 15.4% with protons versus 47.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0156); median gastric V20 Gy, 2.3% with protons versus 20.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0313); and median right kidney V18 Gy, 27.3% with protons versus 50.5% with IMRT (p = 0.0156). Conclusions: By reducing small bowel and stomach exposure, protons have the potential to reduce the acute and late toxicities of postoperative chemoradiation in this setting.

  11. Expression and Clinical Significance of REGy in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Variously Differentiated Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Tian Tian; Xiaoyi Wang; Fan Li; Guosheng Ren

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the REGy expression in gastric cancer tissue and gastric cancer cell lines of various differentiation levels and its clinical significance.METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of REGy protein in 70 specimens of gastric cancer and 30 specimens of normal gastric mucosa. The relationship between the expression of REGy protein and the biological behaviors of gastric cancer was analyzed. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA level and the protein expression of REGγ in normal gastric cell line GES-1, well differentiated gastric cancer cell line MKN-28, moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line BGC-823.RESULTS The expression rate of REGγprotein in gastric cancer tissue (52/70, 74.29%) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric tissue (12/30, 40%) (P<0.01). The expression rate of REGywas correlated with tumor size (P<0.01), lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), differentiation degree (P<0.01), infiltration depth (P<0.01)and distant metastasis (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis showed that theexpression of REGγ mRNA was 0.459±0.079 in the normal gastric mucosa cell line, 0.588±0.118 in the well differentiated gastric cancer cell line, 0.715±0.066 in the moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line, and 0.873±0.099 in the poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line, showing a negative correla- tion between REGγmRNA expression and differentiation level (P <0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the expression of REGy protein was 0.712±0.065 in the normal gastric mucosa cell line, 1.176±0.185 in the well differentiated gastric cancer cell line, 1.533 ±0.127 in the moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line, and 2.061±0.398 in the poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line, showing a negative correlation between REGγprotein expression and differentiation level (P<0.05).CONCLUSION REGγ is expressed in gastric cancer

  12. Raman microspectroscopy of Hematoporphyrins. Imaging of the noncancerous and the cancerous human breast tissues with photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Pluska, B; Kopec, M

    2016-12-01

    Raman microspectroscopy combined with fluorescence were used to study the distribution of Hematoporphyrin (Hp) in noncancerous and cancerous breast tissues. The results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissue and to identify differences in the distribution and photodegradation of Hematoporphyrin, which is a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer. Presented results show that Hematoporphyrin level in the noncancerous breast tissue is lower compared to the cancerous one. We have proved also that the Raman intensity of lipids and proteins doesn't change dramatically after laser light irradiation, which indicates that the PDT treatment destroys preferably cancer cells, in which the photosensitizer is accumulated. The specific subcellular localization of photosensitizer for breast tissues samples soaked with Hematoporphyrin was not observed. PMID:27376758

  13. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  14. A Balanced Tissue Composition Reveals New Metabolic and Gene Expression Markers in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessem, May-Britt; Bertilsson, Helena; Angelsen, Anders; Bathen, Tone F; Drabløs, Finn; Rye, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis of patient tissue samples is essential to characterize the in vivo variability in human cancers which are not accessible in cell-lines or animal models. This applies particularly to studies of tumor metabolism. The challenge is, however, the complex mixture of various tissue types within each sample, such as benign epithelium, stroma and cancer tissue, which can introduce systematic biases when cancers are compared to normal samples. In this study we apply a simple strategy to remove such biases using sample selections where the average content of stroma tissue is balanced between the sample groups. The strategy is applied to a prostate cancer patient cohort where data from MR spectroscopy and gene expression have been collected from and integrated on the exact same tissue samples. We reveal in vivo changes in cancer-relevant metabolic pathways which are otherwise hidden in the data due to tissue confounding. In particular, lowered levels of putrescine are connected to increased expression of SRM, reduced levels of citrate are attributed to upregulation of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis, and increased succinate levels coincide with reduced expression of SUCLA2 and SDHD. In addition, the strategy also highlights important metabolic differences between the stroma, epithelium and prostate cancer. These results show that important in vivo metabolic features of cancer can be revealed from patient data only if the heterogeneous tissue composition is properly accounted for in the analysis. PMID:27100877

  15. 78 FR 11895 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of MUC-1 Tumor Associated Antigens as Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...-1 Tumor Associated Antigens as Cancer Vaccines for Bladder Cancer, Breast Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Liver Cancer, Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Prostate Cancer and Pancreatic..., gastric cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, ovarian......

  16. Cell type-specific properties and environment shape tissue specificity of cancer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin H; Serrano, Luis

    2016-02-09

    One of the biggest mysteries in cancer research remains why mutations in certain genes cause cancer only at specific sites in the human body. The poor correlation between the expression level of a cancer gene and the tissues in which it causes malignant transformations raises the question of which factors determine the tissue-specific effects of a mutation. Here, we explore why some cancer genes are associated only with few different cancer types (i.e., are specific), while others are found mutated in a large number of different types of cancer (i.e., are general). We do so by contrasting cellular functions of specific-cancer genes with those of general ones to identify properties that determine where in the body a gene mutation is causing malignant transformations. We identified different groups of cancer genes that did not behave as expected (i.e., DNA repair genes being tissue specific, immune response genes showing a bimodal specificity function or strong association of generally expressed genes to particular cancers). Analysis of these three groups demonstrates the importance of environmental impact for understanding why certain cancer genes are only involved in the development of some cancer types but are rarely found mutated in other types of cancer.

  17. Expression of BCRP Gene in the Normal Lung Tissue and Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of novel multidrugresistance transporter (BCRP gene) from human MCF-7/AdrVp breast cancer cells in normal lung tissue and non-small lung cancer tissue. Methods: RNA was extracted immediately from fresh normal lung tissue and viable tumor tissue harvested from surgically resected specimens of non-small cell lung cancer patients. cDNA of BCRP gene was prepared by RT-PCR and was then amplified by PCR. cDNA products from those specimens were transferred to blotting membrane through electrophoresis and transferring technique and southern blot hybridization was eventually performed to detect the expression of BCRP gene. Results: RNA were extracted from 8 tumor tissue alone and 12 pairs of tumor tissue and normal lung tissue harvested from the same lung. Four patients' RNA samples with poor quality due to degrading were discarded. cDNA products of BCRP gene were obtained by RT-PCR and were then amplified by PCR in the remain 16 patients' RNA samples. Through southern blot hybridization, BCRP gene was found to be slightly expressed in various amounts in all normal lung tissue (10/10) and only in a half of tumor tissue samples (8/16). Conclusion: BCRP gene is slightly expressed in different amount in all normal lung tissue and only in a half of tumor tissue of non-small cell lung cancer patients. It is possible to induce it's overexpression and to develop multidrug resistance during chemotherapy if using anthracycline anticancer drugs.

  18. Raman spectra of normal and cancerous mouse mammary gland tissue using near infrared excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaman; Serhatkulu, G. K.; Dai, H.; Shukla, N.; Weber, R.; Thakur, J. S.; Freeman, D. C.; Pandya, A. K.; Auner, G. W.; Naik, R.; Miller, R. F.; Cao, A.; Klein, M. D.; Rabah, R.

    2006-03-01

    Raman spectra of normal mammary gland tissues, malignant mammary gland tumors, and lymph nodes have been recorded using fresh tissue from mice. Tumors were induced in mice by subcutaneously injecting 4T1 BALB/c mammary tumor (a highly malignant) cell line. The Raman spectra were collected using the same tissues that were examined by histopathology for determining the cancerous/normal state of the tissue. Differences in various peak intensities, peak shifts and peak ratios were analyzed to determine the Raman spectral features that differentiate mammary gland tumors from non-tumorous tissue. Tissues that were confirmed by pathology as cancerous (tumors) show several distinctive features in the Raman spectra compared to the spectra of the normal tissues. For example, the cancerous tissues show Raman peaks at 621, 642, 1004, 1032, 1175 and 1208 cm-1 that are assignable to amino acids containing aromatic side-chains such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. Further, the cancerous tissues show a greatly reduced level of phospholipids compared to the normal tissues. The Raman spectral regions that are sensitive to pathologic alteration in the tissue will be discussed.

  19. Classification of normal and cancerous lung tissues by electrical impendence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianling; Yue, Shihong; Chen, Jun; Wang, Huaxiang

    2014-01-01

    Biological tissue impedance spectroscopy can provide rich physiological and pathological information by measuring the variation of the complex impedance of biological tissues under various frequencies of driven current. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) technique can measure the impedance spectroscopy of biological tissue in medical field. Before application, a key problem must be solved on how to generally distinguish normal tissues from the cancerous in terms of measurable EIT data. In this paper, the impedance spectroscopy characteristics of human lung tissue are studied. On the basis of the measured data of 109 lung cancer patients, Cole-Cole Circle radius (CCCR) and the complex modulus are extracted. In terms of the two characteristics, 71.6% and 66.4% samples of cancerous and normal tissues can be correctly classified, respectively. Furthermore, two characteristics of the measured EIT data of each patient consist of a two-dimensional vector and all such vectors comprise a set of vectors. When classifying the vector set, the rate of correctly partitioning normal and cancerous tissues can be raised to 78.2%. The main factors to affect the classification results on normal and cancerous tissues are generally analyzed. The proposed method will play an important role in further working out an efficient and feasible diagnostic method for potential lung cancer patients, and provide theoretical basis and reference data for electrical impedance tomography technology in monitoring pulmonary function.

  20. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  1. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter; Fuller, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  2. Overexpression of Gli1 in cancer interstitial tissues predicts early relapse after radical operation of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Hua Li; Hai-Feng Gao; Yan Wang; Fang Liu; Xiao-Feng Tian; Yang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate whether Gli1 expression is important in relapse after radical operation of breast cancer.Methods:Using immunohistochemistry,Glil expression was analyzed in human primary breast cancer (n=284) and paracancerous tissues (n=20),and also in local lymph nodes (n=28) and metastatic lymph nodes (n=28).Results:Initial analysis of Gli1 expression in a small cohort of 20 breast tumors and their paracancerous tissues showed a tendency towards Gli1 overexpression in breast cancer tissues (P<0.001).Further,Gli1 expression in 284 breast cancer tissue samples was analyzed and a significant correlation was found between increased expression of nuclear Gli1 and unfavorable recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P<0.05).The nuclear expression of Gli1 in metastatic lymph nodes following relapse after radical operation was much higher than that in the local lymph nodes of primary carcinoma (P<0.05).Most interestingly,the expression of Gli1 was much higher in the interstitial tissues of the relapsed group than of the non-relapsed group (P<0.001).Conclusions:Breast cancer shows a high prevalence of Gli1 expression,which is significantly correlated with aggressive features and unfavorable RFS.Nuclear Gli1 overexpression,especially in the interstitial tissues,signified early relapse after radical operation of breast cancer.

  3. Tissue elasticity estimated by acoustic radiation force impulse quantification depends on the applied transducer force: an experimental study in kidney transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Trygve; Berstad, Audun E.; Brabrand, Knut; Abildgaard, Andreas [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Midtvedt, Karsten [Oslo University Hospital, Medical Department, Section of Nephrology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Stroem, Erik H. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-15

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification estimates tissue elasticity by measuring shear-wave velocity (SWV) and has been applied to various organs. We evaluated the impact of variations in the transducer force applied to the skin on the SWV ultrasound measurements in kidney transplant cortex and ARFI's ability to detect fibrosis in kidney transplants. SWV measurements were performed in the cortex of 31 patients with kidney allografts referred for surveillance biopsies. A mechanical device held the transducer and applied forces were equal to a compression weight of 22, 275, 490, 975, 2,040 and 2,990 g. SWV group means were significantly different by repeat measures ANOVA [F(2.85,85.91) = 84.75, P < 0.0005 for 22, 275, 490, 975 and 2,040 g compression weight] and also by pairwise comparisons. Biopsy specimens were sufficient for histological evaluation in 29 of 31 patients. Twelve had grade 0, 11 grade 1, five grade 2 and one grade 3 fibrosis. One-way ANOVA showed no difference in SWV performed with any of the applied transducer forces between grafts with various degrees of fibrosis. SWV measurements in kidney transplants are dependent on the applied transducer force and do not differ in grafts with different grades of fibrosis. (orig.)

  4. The magnitude of linear dichroism of biological tissues as a result of cancer changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojchuk, T. M.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Fedonyuk, L. Y.; Petryshen, O. I.; Guminetsky, S. G.; Prydij, O. G.

    2012-01-01

    The results of studies of linear dichroism values of different types of biological tissues (human prostate, esophageal epithelial human muscle tissue in rats) both healthy and infected tumor at different stages of development are shown here. The significant differences in magnitude of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 330 - 750 nm both among the objects of study, and between biotissues: healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients are established. It is researched that in all cases in biological tissues (prostate gland, esophagus, human muscle tissue in rats) with cancer the linear dichroism arises, the value of which depends on the type of tissue and time of the tumor process. As for healthy tissues linear dichroism is absent, the results may have diagnostic value for detecting and assessing the degree of development of cancer.

  5. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel in cancerous and healthy tissues from patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer incidence among exposed human populations. Head and neck cancer is a significant public health issue in Tunisia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Ni in healthy and tumor tissues of head and neck cancer patients. Metal concentrations were determined in tumor and healthy tissues of 101 head and neck cancer patients, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The As, Cd, Cr, and Ni levels in tumor tissues were 3.4, 2.5, 1.3 and 1.5 times higher than those of healthy tissues (p 60 years) in both never-smokers and ever-smokers (< 20 and ≥ 20 pack per year). Healthy tissue Cd levels were negatively associated with age in those three groups of smokers. The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among both workers and non-workers were observed in tumor tissues. The Cd and Cr in tissues of farmers, bricklayers and painters were all significantly higher among the workers as compared with the non-workers group. Tissue metal levels have increased due to smoking and occupational exposure. Heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and occupational exposures may increase the risk of head and neck in the Tunisian population. - Highlights: ► Heavy metal levels in tumor tissues were higher than those in healthy tissues. ► Tumor tissue Cd levels were positively associated with age in smokers. ► Tumor tissue metal levels were higher in men than in women. ► The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among workers were observed in tumor tissues. ► Heavy metal exposure via occupational exposures may increase the risk of HNC

  6. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineages in the body have become defined by well-established markers, myofibroblasts have been much harder to identify with certainty. Recent insights from genetic fate mapping and the use of dynamic reporting of cells that make fibrillar collagen in mice have identified with greater clarity the major population of myofibroblasts and their precursors in the kidney. This review will explore the nature of these cells in health and disease of the kidney to underst and their central role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. PMID:24187654

  7. Non-Coding CK19 RNA in Peripheral Blood and Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Moazzezy; Saeid Bouzari; Najmeh Yardehnavi; Mana Oloomi

    2013-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the major cause of cancer-related death in women. The incidence of this carcinoma is rising and there are many attempts to decrease this problem. The aim of this study was detection of full-length cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA, in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer patients in early stage of cancer. In this study, RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) technique was used for detection of CK19 mRNA in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer pat...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this information. The majority of individuals ( ... the least common renal association with TSC, is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is ...

  9. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Villarroel, José Paul Perales; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Hong, Angela; Lampe, Joshua W; Becker, Lance B

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  10. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  11. Expression of CD44v6 and Livin in gastric cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yi-zhi; FANG Tai-yong; XU Hai-gang; ZHUO Zhi-qiang

    2012-01-01

    Background CD44v6 plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of tumor,Livin has anti-apoptotic effects.The present study aimed to explore the expression and clinical significance of CD44v6 and Livin in gastric cancer tissue.Methods Streptavidin-peroxidase linked immunohistochemical method was used to determine the expression of CD44v6 and Livin in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal gastric tissues from 59 patients with histopathologically confirmed gastric cancer,and in gastric tissue specimens of 15 patients with gastric polyps,and 15 patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis.The chi-square test was used for comparison of the relevant factors,Spearman's rank correlation test was applied for relationship among positive expression of the proteins.Results The expresion of CD44v6 was positive in 64.4% of the gastric cancer patients; 5.1%,0 and 13.3% in specimens of normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues,in gastric tissue specimens of patients with gastric polyps,and patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis,respectively.The expression of Livin was positive in 52.5% of the gastric cancer tissues,6.8%,0 and 6.7% in the adjacent normal gastric tissue,specimens of patients with gastric polyps and chronic non-atrophic gastritis,respectively.The expression of CD44v6 was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion,the degree of differentiation,and lymphnode metastasis of gastric cancer (P <0.05).The positive expression rate of Livin protein was also significantly correlated with degree of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and metastasis to lymphnodes (P <0.05),but not correlated with the depth of invasion and pathological types (P >0.05).The expression of CD44v6 and Livin in the gastric cancer tissue was positively correlated (rs=0.286,P=-0.028).Conclusions The increased expression of CD44v6 and Livin in gastric cancer tissue may be closely related with development and progression of gastric cancer.CD44v6 and Livin

  12. Progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 expression and clinical significance in breast cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Hong-Mei Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 expression and clinical significance in breast cancer tissues. Method:A total of 90 cases with breast cancer who were admitted in our hospital from Jan 2000 to Jan 2010 were selected. Meanwhile, normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues were selected as comparison. Diagnosis of all patients was confirmed by postoperative pathological examinations. Immunohistochemistry method was adopted to detect PAQR3 protein expression in breast cancer tissues and normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues and its clinical significance was discussed. Results:PAQR3 protein positive expression rate in breast cancer tissues was 25.6%, which was significantly lower than that (78.9%) in normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues;PAQR3 protein positive expression rate had nothing to do with age, tumor size, pathological types and differentiated degree of patients, but had significant correlation with TNM staging and lymphatic metastasis existence of patients. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis results showed that five years survival rate of patients with PAQR3 protein positive expression was significantly higher than whom with negative expression. Conclusion:PAQR3 protein expression in breast cancer tissues was significantly reduced, which indicated that PAQR3 protein possibly played an important role in pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  13. The nanomechanical signature of liver cancer tissues and its molecular origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengxin; Li, Yiran; Liu, Weiren; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Xifei; Wang, Xinyan; Ding, Zhenbin; Peng, Yuanfei; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yinghong

    2015-07-01

    Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the ``gold standard'' in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus distribution of surgically removed liver cancer tissues can serve as a mechanical fingerprint to evaluate the malignancy of liver cancer. Cirrhotic tissues shared the same LEP as normal tissues. However, a noticeable downward shift in the LEP was detected when the cirrhotic tissues progressed to a malignant state, making the tumor tissues more prone to microvascular invasion. Cell-level mechanistic studies revealed that the expression level of a Rho-family effector (mDia1) was consistent with the mechanical trend exhibited by the tissue. Our findings indicate that the mechanical profiles of liver cancer tissues directly varied with tumor progression, providing an additional platform for the future diagnosis of HCC.Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the ``gold standard'' in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus

  14. HER1-4 protein concentrations in normal breast tissue from breast cancer patients are expressed by the same profile as in the malignant tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorte Aa; Ostergaard, Birthe; Bokmand, Susanne;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 is overexpressed or amplified in 25%-30% of patients with breast cancer. The mechanism behind HER2 amplification is unknown, but may be a patho-physiological phenomenon caused by continuous stimulation and activation of the HER1......-4 system. We have mapped the protein concentrations of HER1-4 in breast cancer tissue, autologous reference tissue, normal breast tissue and serum samples, to see whether non-cancer cells from these patients express a protein profile indicating general activation. Methods: Tissue samples from malignant...... and adjacent normal breast tissue (autologous reference tissue) were collected from 118 women consecutively admitted for surgical treatment of breast cancer. In addition, 26 samples of normal breast tissue were collected from healthy women having breast reduction surgery. The tissue samples were homogenized...

  15. Comparison of the viscoelastic properties of cells from different kidney cancer phenotypes measured with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viscoelastic properties of human kidney cell lines from different tumor types (carcinoma (A-498) and adenocarcinoma (ACHN)) are compared to a non-tumorigenic cell line (RC-124). Our methodology is based on the mapping of viscoelastic properties (elasticity modulus E and apparent viscosity η) over the surface of tens of individual cells with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The viscoelastic properties are averaged over datasets as large as 15000 data points per cell line. We also propose a model to estimate the apparent viscosity of soft materials using the hysteresis observed in conventional AFM deflection–displacement curves, without any modification to the standard AFM apparatus. The comparison of the three cell lines show that the non-tumorigenic cells are less deformable and more viscous than cancerous cells, and that cancer cell lines have distinctive viscoelastic properties. In particular, we obtained that ERC−124 > EA−498 > EACHN and ηRC−124 > ηA−498 > ηACHN. (paper)

  16. Metastatic testicular cancer presenting with liver and kidney dysfunction treated with modified BEP chemotherapy combined with continuous hemodiafiltration and rasburicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimakura, Mai; Abe, Toyofumi; Nagahara, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Uemura, Motohide; Nonomura, Norio

    2016-04-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of right scrotal pain and upper abdominal pain. A computed tomographic scan indicated a right scrotal mass, a huge liver mass, and multiple lung masses, although there was no enlarged retroperitoneal lymph node swelling. Laboratory tests showed severe liver and kidney dysfunction and high levels of serum α-fetoprotein (11,997 ng/ml). Although needle biopsies of the testicular and liver masses were performed, the tissues were insufficient for a pathological diagnosis. As liver and kidney function worsened, we started chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP chemotherapy), which was modified because of the liver and renal dysfunction. We also used continuous hemodiafiltration and rasburicase to prevent tumor lysis syndrome. After induction of chemotherapy, the liver and kidney dysfunction improved immediately and the high orchiectomy was performed on day 8 after chemotherapy. The pathological diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor. He underwent four courses of the BEP regimen and five courses of the TIN regimen (paclitaxel, ifosphamide, and nedaplatin), followed by the resection of liver metastases. There was no evidence of viable cells in the resected liver and no recurrence was evident at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:26736135

  17. Histopathological changes in the liver and kidney tissues of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus induced by the action of Talstar 10EC insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PĂUNESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological biomarkers of toxicity in frog organs are a useful indicator of environmental pollution. The frogs were experimentally exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.5mg bifenthrin/g of body weight of Talstar 10EC for 3 weeks. The present study proves its toxic potential in terms of the damages in liver and kidney level. Tissues were normal in the control group. Hepatic lesions in frog exposed to bifenthrin were characterized by vacuolation of hepatocytes and nuclear pycnosis, perisinusoidal and periportal fibrosis, dilatation of Disse space and sinusoid capillaries, presence of cellular infiltrates. Kidney lesions consisted of dilation of Bowman’s space, tubular necrosis, and epithelial cells shows pycnotic nuclei, discrete degree of interstitial edema.

  18. NIH scientists map gene changes driving tumors in common pediatric soft-tissue cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have mapped the genetic changes that drive tumors in rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft-tissue cancer, and found that the disease is characterized by two distinct genotypes. The genetic alterations identified in this malignancy could be useful

  19. RELATED GENES IN LUNG CANCER TISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH RESIDENTIAL HIGH RADON EXPOSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏英; 杨梅英; 张守志; 叶常青

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the related genes in lung cancer tissues associated with residential high radon exposure. Methods: Differentially expressed gene fragments in lung cancer and normal lung tissues were discovered by differential display and reverse Northern blot hybridization method. The fragments positive in lung cancer and negative in normal lung tissue were determined. Results: Seven differential displayed fragments were sequenced. One of them named NA7 is 95% homologous with AI208667 in EAT of Genbank. Another fragment named NG2 is up to 98% homologous with five fragments. The remained one CA1 may be a new gene fragment. Conclusion: 3 gene fragments were discovered from lung cancer and normal lung tissues of high radon exposure resident.

  20. Robot-assisted surgery for kidney cancer increased access to a procedure that can reduce mortality and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amitabh; Snider, Julia Thornton; Wu, Yanyu; Jena, Anupam; Goldman, Dana P

    2015-02-01

    Surgeons increasingly use robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery for a variety of medical conditions. For hospitals, the acquisition and maintenance of a robot requires a significant investment, but financial returns are not linked to any improvement in long-term patient outcomes in the current reimbursement environment. Kidney cancer provides a useful case study for evaluating the long-term value that this innovation can provide. Kidney cancer is generally treated through partial or radical nephrectomy, with evidence favoring the former procedure for appropriate patients. We found that robot-assisted surgery increased access to partial nephrectomy and that partial nephrectomy reduced mortality and renal failure. The value of the benefits of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery to patients, in terms of quality-adjusted life-years gained, outweighed the health care and surgical costs to patients and payers by a ratio of five to one. In addition, we found no evidence that the availability of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery increased the likelihood that inappropriate patients received partial nephrectomy. PMID:25646101

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  3. [Management of High-Risk Prostate Cancer and Left Ectopic Ureter Inserting into Seminal Vesicle with Ipsilateral Hypoplastic Kidney of a Young Patient : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Teppei; Koie, Takuya; Soma, Osamu; Kusaka, Ayumu; Hosogoe, Shogo; Hamano, Itsuto; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara

    2016-06-01

    A 44-year-old male patient visited our hospital with a chief complaint of macroscopic hematuria. Prostate biopsies were performed due to prostate specific antigen (PSA) 11.6 ng/ml, and he was diagnosed with Gleason score 5+4 prostate cancer. Computed tomography showed a left hypoplastic kidney. T2- weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed the left ureter stump with ectopic insertion into the dilated left seminal vesicle. He was diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and left ectopic ureter inserting into the seminal vesicle with ipsilateral hypoplastic kidney. Laparoscopic left nephroureterectomy and open radical prostatectomy were performed. PMID:27452497

  4. Breast cancer phenotypes regulated by tissue factor-factor VII pathway: Possible therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2014-12-10

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, worldwide. Fortunately, breast cancer is relatively chemosensitive, with recent advances leading to the development of effective therapeutic strategies, significantly increasing disease cure rate. However, disease recurrence and treatment of cases lacking therapeutic molecular targets, such as epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptors, referred to as triple-negative breast cancers, still pose major hurdles in the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches to treat aggressive breast cancers are essential. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is produced in the liver and secreted into the blood stream. Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for fVII, is an integral membrane protein that plays key roles in the extrinsic coagulation cascade. TF is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. The TF-fVII complex may be formed in the absence of injury, because fVII potentially exists in the tissue fluid within cancer tissues. The active form of this complex (TF-fVIIa) may stimulate the expression of numerous malignant phenotypes in breast cancer cells. Thus, the TF-fVII pathway is a potentially attractive target for breast cancer treatment. To date, a number of studies investigating the mechanisms by which TF-fVII signaling contributes to breast cancer progression, have been conducted. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms controlling TF and fVII synthesis and regulation in breast cancer cells. Our current understanding of the TF-fVII pathway as a mediator of breast cancer progression will be also described. Finally, we will discuss how this knowledge can be applied to the design of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25493229

  5. Legal termination of a pregnancy resulting from transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue due to cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, EH; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2013-01-01

    To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer.......To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer....

  6. Analysis of blood and tissue in gallbladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, T.R. [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.com; Vijayan, V. [Dept. of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, SRM Nagar, Chennai (India); Sudarshan, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8 Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 098, West Bengal (India); Panigrahi, S. [Dept. of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2009-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission, particle induced {gamma}-ray emission studies has been carried out to analyse normal and carcinoma tissues and blood samples of gallbladder of both sexes and seventeen trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br and Pb were estimated in the tissue and blood samples. In the present study, concentration of Zn in the carcinoma gallbladder tissue is less than that of the normal gallbladder tissue. Tobacco habit could be one of the important factors to decrease the elemental concentrations in blood and tissue samples.

  7. Computational dissection of tissue contamination for identification of colon cancer-specific expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türeci, Ozlem; Ding, Jiayi; Hilton, Holly; Bian, Hongjin; Ohkawa, Hitomi; Braxenthaler, Michael; Seitz, Gerhard; Raddrizzani, Laura; Friess, Helmut; Buchler, Markus; Sahin, Ugur; Hammer, Juergen

    2003-03-01

    Microarray profiles of bulk tumor tissues reflect gene expression corresponding to malignant cells as well as to many different types of contaminating normal cells. In this report, we assess the feasibility of querying baseline multitissue transcriptome databases to dissect disease-specific genes. Using colon cancer as a model tumor, we show that the application of Boolean operators (AND, OR, BUTNOT) for database searches leads to genes with expression patterns of interest. The BUTNOT operator for example allows the assignment of "expression signatures" to normal tissue specimens. These expression signatures were then used to computationally identify contaminating cells within conventionally dissected tissue specimens. The combination of several logic operators together with an expression database based on multiple human tissue specimens can resolve the problem of tissue contamination, revealing novel cancer-specific gene expression. Several markers, previously not known to be colon cancer associated, are provided. PMID:12631577

  8. Diagnosis of colon cancer with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the malignant colon tissue samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yi-bin; LIU Qian; HE Fei; GUO Chun-guang; WANG Cheng-feng; ZHAO Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics discriminant analysis technology could improve diagnosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of FT-IR on malignant colon tissue samples in diagnosis of colon cancer.Methods Principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine classification were used to discriminate FT-IR spectra from malignant and normal tissue. Colon tissues samples from 85 patients were used to demonstrate the procedure.Results For this set of colon spectral data, the sensitivity and specificity of the support vector machine (SVM)classification were found both higher than 90%.Conclusions FT-IR provided important information about cancerous tissue, which could be used to discriminate malignant from normal tissues. The combination of PCA and SVM classification indicated that FT-IR has a potential clinical application in diagnosis of colon cancer.

  9. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  10. Molecular interaction of a kinase inhibitor midostaurin with anticancer drug targets, S100A8 and EGFR: transcriptional profiling and molecular docking study for kidney cancer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenat Mirza

    Full Text Available The S100A8 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR proteins are proto-oncogenes that are strongly expressed in a number of cancer types. EGFR promotes cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival by activating molecular pathways. Involvement of proinflammatory S100A8 in tumor cell differentiation and progression is largely unclear and not studied in kidney cancer (KC. S100A8 and EGFR are potential therapeutic biomarkers and anticancer drug targets for KC. In this study, we explored molecular mechanisms of interaction profiles of both molecules with potential anticancer drugs. We undertook transcriptional profiling in Saudi KCs using Affymetrix HuGene 1.0 ST arrays. We identified 1478 significantly expressed genes, including S100A8 and EGFR overexpression, using cut-off p value <0.05 and fold change ≥2. Additionally, we compared and confirmed our findings with expression data available at NCBI's GEO database. A significant number of genes associated with cancer showed involvement in cell cycle progression, DNA repair, tumor morphology, tissue development, and cell survival. Atherosclerosis signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, notch signaling, and IL-12 signaling were the most significantly disrupted signaling pathways. The present study provides an initial transcriptional profiling of Saudi KC patients. Our analysis suggests distinct transcriptomic signatures and pathways underlying molecular mechanisms of KC progression. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the kinase inhibitor "midostaurin" has amongst the selected drug targets, the best ligand properties to S100A8 and EGFR, with the implication that its binding inhibits downstream signaling in KC. This is the first structure-based docking study for the selected protein targets and anticancer drug, and the results indicate S100A8 and EGFR as attractive anticancer targets and midostaurin with effective drug properties for therapeutic intervention in KC.

  11. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...... of Henle's loop and collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. In rats, the abundance of inactive, phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) protein decreased during postnatal development. After feeding dams with litters lithium (50 mmol Li/kg chow, postnatal (P) day 7-28), the offspring showed...... plasma lithium concentration of 1.0 mmol/L. Kidneys from lithium-treated rat pups exhibited dilated distal nephron segments with microcysts. Stereological analysis showed reduced cortex and outer medullary volumes. Lithium increased pGSK-3β and the proliferation marker PCNA protein abundances in cortex...

  12. High level of ezrin expression in colorectal cancer tissues is closely related to tumor malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Jian Wang; Jin-Shui Zhu; Qiang Zhang; Qun Sun; Hua Guo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ezrin expression in normal colorectal mucosa and colorectal cancer tissues,and study the correlation between ezrin expression in colorectal cancer tissues and tumor invasion and metastasis.METHODS: Eighty paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples were selected from primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Twenty-eight patients had welldifferentiated,22 had moderately differentiated and 30had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Forty-five patients and 35 patients had lymph node metastasis.Forty-five patients were of Dukes A to B stage, and 35were of C to D stage. Another 22 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of normal colorectal epithelium (> 5 cm away from the edge of the tumor) were selected as the control group. All patients with colorectal cancer were treated surgically and diagnosed histologically, without preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The immunohistochemistry was used to detect the ezrin expression in paraffin-embedded normal colorectal mucosa tissues and colorectal cancer tissue samples.RESULTS: Ezrin expression in colorectal cancer was significantly higher than in normal colorectal mucosa (75.00% vs 9.09%, P < 0.01), and there was a close relationship between ezrin expression and the degree of tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and Dukes stage (88.46% vs 50.00%, P < 0.01; 94.28%vs 51.11%, P < 0.01; 94.28% vs 51.11%, P < 0.01).

  13. NOTCH1, HIF1A and other cancer-related proteins in lung tissue from uranium miners : variation by occupational exposure and subtype of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pesch, Beate; Casjens, Swaantje; Stricker, Ingo; Westerwick, Daniela; Taeger, Dirk; Rabstein, Sylvia; Wiethege, Thorsten; Tannapfel, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Johnen, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background Radon and arsenic are established pulmonary carcinogens. We investigated the association of cumulative exposure to these carcinogens with NOTCH1, HIF1A and other cancer-specific proteins in lung tissue from uranium miners. Methodology/Principal Findings Paraffin-embedded tissue of 147 miners was randomly selected from an autopsy repository by type of lung tissue, comprising adenocarcinoma (AdCa), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and cancer-free tissue....

  14. Comparison of nuclear matrix proteins between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Xian Zhang; Yi Ding; Zhuo Li; Xiao-Ping Le; Wei Zhang; Ling Sun; Hui-Rong Shi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alteration of nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) in gastric cancer.METHODS: The NMPs extracted from 22 cases of gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues were investigated by SDS-PAGE technique and the data were analyzed using Genetools analysis software.RESULTS: Compared with normal gastric tissue, the expression of 30 ku and 28 ku NMPs in gastric cancer decreased significantly (P=0.002, P=0.001, P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the expression of the two NMPs between the various differentiated grades (P=0.947, P=0.356) and clinical stages of gastric cancer (P=0.920, P=0.243, P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the alteration of NMPs in gastric cancer occurred at the early stage of gastric cancer development.

  15. The role of the tissue microenvironment in the regulation of cancer cell motility and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brábek Jan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During malignant neoplastic progression the cells undergo genetic and epigenetic cancer-specific alterations that finally lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and restructuring of the microenvironment. The invasion of cancer cells through connective tissue is a crucial prerequisite for metastasis formation. Although cell invasion is foremost a mechanical process, cancer research has focused largely on gene regulation and signaling that underlie uncontrolled cell growth. More recently, the genes and signals involved in the invasion and transendothelial migration of cancer cells, such as the role of adhesion molecules and matrix degrading enzymes, have become the focus of research. In this review we discuss how the structural and biomechanical properties of extracellular matrix and surrounding cells such as endothelial cells influence cancer cell motility and invasion. We conclude that the microenvironment is a critical determinant of the migration strategy and the efficiency of cancer cell invasion.

  16. Presence of S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in cancer tissues correlates with an early stage cancer and a better prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S100A9 was originally discovered as a factor secreted by inflammatory cells. Recently, S100A9 was found to be associated with several human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to investigate S100A9 expression in gastric cancer and explore its role in cancer progression. S100A9 expression in gastric tissue samples from 177 gastric cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of its dimerization partner S100A8 and the S100A8/A9 heterodimer were also assessed by the same method. The effect of exogenous S100A9 on motility of gastric cancer cells AGS and BGC-823 was then investigated. S100A9 was specifically expressed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils in human gastric cancer and gastritis tissues. Statistical analysis showed that a high S100A9 cell count (> = 200) per 200x magnification microscopic field in cancer tissues was predictive of early stage gastric cancer. High S100A9-positive cell count was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009) and tumor invasion (P = 0.011). S100A9 was identified as an independent prognostic predictor of overall survival of patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.04). Patients with high S100A9 cell count were with favorable prognosis (P = 0.021). Further investigation found that S100A8 distribution in human gastric cancer tissues was similar to S100A9. However, the number of S100A8-positive cells did not positively correlate with patient survival. The inflammatory cells infiltrating cancer were S100A8/A9 negative, while those in gastritis were positive. Furthermore, exogenous S100A9 protein inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Our results suggested S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in gastric cancer tissues are associated with early stage of gastric cancer and good prognosis

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in human pancreatic cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Chen; Run-Zhou Ni; Ming-Bing Xiao; Ji-Guang Guo; Jia-Wei Zhou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is dififcult because of the latent onset and lack of good biomarkers. This study aimed to look for and identify differentially expressed proteins in tissues of pancreatic cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues by proteomic approaches so as to provide information about possible pancreatic cancer markers and therapeutic targets. METHODS:Proteins extracted from 3 paired adjacent noncancerous and cancerous pancreatic tissue specimens were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The protein spots exhibiting statistical alternations between the two groups through computerized image analysis were then identiifed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In addition, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to verify the expression of certain candidate proteins. RESULTS:Twelve proteins were signiifcantly upregulated and 4 were downregulated between cancerous and paired adjacent noncancerous pancreatic tissues. Several proteins (S100A11, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, GSTO1 and peroxiredoxin 4) were found for the ifrst time to be associated with pancreatic cancer. Differential expression of some identiifed proteins was further conifrmed by Western blotting analysis and/or immunohistochemical analysis.CONCLUSIONS:Comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS is an effective method for identifying differentially expressed proteins that may be the potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.

  18. Tissue-specific expression of transgenic secreted ACE in vasculature can restore normal kidney functions, but not blood pressure, of Ace-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chattopadhyay

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS. Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.

  19. Extensive adipose tissue necrosis following pfannenstiel incision for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Maryse Céline; Plante, Marie; Lemieux, Marie-Carine; Roberge, Céline; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Grégoire, Jean; Roy, Michel; Sebastianelli, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Contexte : Les hématomes sont des complications postopératoires qui peuvent en venir à se manifester à la suite du recours à des incisions de Pfannenstiel. Habituellement, ils se résorbent de façon spontanée ou font l’objet d’un drainage (en fonction de leur ampleur). Des facteurs de risque importants (comme l’obésité et le diabète) pourraient mener à des complications surajoutées et aggraver davantage l’issue. Cas : Dix jours après avoir subi une hystérectomie abdominale totale par incision de Pfannenstiel en raison d’un cancer de l’endomètre, une femme de 73 ans a présenté un gros hématome sous-cutané. L’hématome en question a évolué et a mené à une nécrose étendue du tissu adipeux sous-cutané. La mise en œuvre d’un débridement de grande envergure s’est avérée nécessaire et la plaie a été traitée par pression négative au moyen de gaze afin de permettre une cicatrisation par deuxième intention. Une guérison satisfaisante a été constatée après 82 jours de traitement, sans greffe cutanée. Conclusion : Ce cas souligne l’utilité du traitement de plaie par pression négative au moyen de gaze, ainsi que la nécessité d’avoir recours à une approche multidisciplinaire au moment d’assurer la prise en charge de complications de plaie d’une telle complexité.

  20. Tissue proteomics in pancreatic cancer study: discovery, emerging technologies and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Sheng; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Kelly, Kimberly; Chen, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. The advances of proteomics technology, especially quantitative proteomics, have stimulated a great interest to apply this technology for pancreatic cancer study. A variety of tissue proteomics approaches have been applied to investigate pancreatic cancer and the associated diseases. These studies were carried out with various goals, aiming to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic t...

  1. Prostate cancer specific integrin αvβ3 modulates bone metastatic growth and tissue remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, NP; De, S.; Vasanji, A; Brainard, J; Byzova, TV

    2007-01-01

    The management of pain and morbidity owing to the spreading and growth of cancer within bone remains to be a paramount problem in clinical care. Cancer cells actively transform bone, however, the molecular requirements and mechanisms of this process remain unclear. This study shows that functional modulation of the αvβ3 integrin receptor in prostate cancer cells is required for progression within bone and determines tumor-induced bone tissue transformation. Using histology and quantitative mi...

  2. Molecular Markers for Prostate Cancer in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Sequeiros; Marta García; Melania Montes; Mireia Oliván; Marina Rigau; Eva Colás; Inés de Torres; Juan Morote; Jaume Reventós; Andreas Doll

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in developed countries. The decisive method of diagnosis is based on the results of biopsies, morphologically evaluated to determine the presence or absence of cancer. Although this approach leads to a confident diagnosis in most cases, it can be improved by using the molecular markers present in the tissue. Both miRNAs and proteins are considered excellent candidates for biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE...

  3. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  4. EXTRACORPOREAL PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY WITH AUTOTRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH HORSESHOE KIDNEY CANCER (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Sukonko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of surgical treatment for disseminated horseshoe kidney tumor, by applying extracorporeal resection with further autotransplantation into the iliac region. It also describes surgical techniques and gives a brief review of literature on this matter.

  5. MicroRNA Expression in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Cancer Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Mogens Karsbøl; Dehlendorff, Christian; Linnemann, Dorte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer tissue samples are a readily available resource for microRNA (miRNA) biomarker identification. No established standard for reference miRNAs in FFPE tissue exists. We sought to identify stable reference miRNAs for normalization...

  6. Diffusion optical spectroscopy of cancerous and normal prostate tissues in time-resolved and frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Pu, Yang; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    It is well-known that light transport can be well described using Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In biological tissue, the scattering particles cause the interaction of scattered waves from neighboring particles. Since such interaction cannot be ignored, multiple scattering occurs. The theoretical solution of multiple scattering is complicated. A suitable description is that the wavelike behavior of light is ignored and the transport of an individual photon is considered to be absorbed or scattered. This is known as the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) theory. Analytical solutions to the RTE that explicitly describes photon migration can be obtained by introducing some proper approximations. One of the most popular models used in the field of tissue optics is the Diffusion Approximation (DA). In this study, we report on the results of our initial study of optical properties of ex vivo normal and cancerous prostate tissues and how tissue parameters affect the near infrared light transporting in the two types of tissues. The time-resolved transport of light is simulated as an impulse isotropic point source of energy within a homogeneous unbounded medium with different absorption and scattering properties of cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Light source is also modulated sinusoidally to yield a varied fluence rate in frequency domain at a distant observation point within the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Due to difference of the absorption and scattering coefficients between cancerous and normal tissues, the expansion of light pulse, intensity, phase are found to be different.

  7. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) as a biomarker in gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Mau-Sørensen, Morten; Brünner, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The value of Tissue Inhibitor of MetalloProteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as a biomarker in patients with gastric cancer (GC) is widely debated. The aim of this review is to evaluate available literature describing the association between levels of TIMP-1 in tumor tissue and/or blood and the prognosis...

  8. The nanomechanical signature of liver cancer tissues and its molecular origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengxin; Li, Yiran; Liu, Weiren; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Xifei; Wang, Xinyan; Ding, Zhenbin; Peng, Yuanfei; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yinghong

    2015-08-14

    Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the "gold standard" in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus distribution of surgically removed liver cancer tissues can serve as a mechanical fingerprint to evaluate the malignancy of liver cancer. Cirrhotic tissues shared the same LEP as normal tissues. However, a noticeable downward shift in the LEP was detected when the cirrhotic tissues progressed to a malignant state, making the tumor tissues more prone to microvascular invasion. Cell-level mechanistic studies revealed that the expression level of a Rho-family effector (mDia1) was consistent with the mechanical trend exhibited by the tissue. Our findings indicate that the mechanical profiles of liver cancer tissues directly varied with tumor progression, providing an additional platform for the future diagnosis of HCC.

  9. Increased technetium-99 m hydroxy diphosphonate soft tissue uptake on bone scintigraphy in chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Heaf, James Goya; Højgaard, Liselotte;

    2015-01-01

    In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and...... only differed from patients without in terms of plasma phosphate levels (1·95 ± 0·15 (n = 37) versus 1·27 ± 0·08 (n = 26), P = 0·0012). All patients with myocardial uptake (n = 27) had a coronary arteriography-verified history of coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas CAD was only present in six...

  10. Effects of benazepril on renal function and kidney expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-zhen; WANG Yi; LI Qian; TIAN Yong-jie; LIU Ming-hua; YU Yong-hui

    2006-01-01

    Background Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney is the hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. Increased matrix synthesis has been well documented but the effects of diabetes on degradative pathways, particularly in the in vivo setting. The renal protective effect of these pathways on matrix accumulation has not been fully elucidated. The present study was understaken to investigate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), the expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in kidney tissues of diabetic rats, and to explore the degradative pathway of type Ⅳ collagen (Ⅳ-C) and the renal protective effects of ACE inhibition-benazepril.Methods Twenty-four healthy male Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control group (NC group),untreated diabetes mellitus group (DM group), and diabetes mellitus group treated with benazepril (DL group).The rat model of diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60 mg/kg). After the volume of water was given to the other two groups. At the end of 12 weeks, renal function was evaluated with 24-hour urinary protein (Upro), clearance of creatinine (Ccr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). MMP-2 activity was determined by gelatin zymography. The levels of MMP-2,TIMP-2 and collagen Ⅳ (Ⅳ-C) protein in the kidney tissue were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The gene expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results The levels of BUN, Upro and Ccr in the DM group were higher than those in the NC group. In the DM group, the mRNA, enzymatic activity and proteins of MMP-2 decreased, but the expressions of Ⅳ-C and TIMP-2 increased. All diabetes-associated changes in renal function and MMP/TIMP were attenuated after benazepril treatment with reduced Ⅳ-C accumulation.Conclusions The changes of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expressions in kidney tissues of diabetes rats may contribute to the

  11. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel in cancerous and healthy tissues from patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlifi, Rim, E-mail: rimkhlifi@yahoo.fr [Marine Ecotoxicology, UR 09-03, Sfax University, IPEIS, BP 805, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Bioinformatics Unit, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada (Spain); Hammami, Bouthaina; Chakroun, Amine [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, HUC Habib Borguiba Hospital, Sfax (Tunisia); Rebai, Ahmed [Bioinformatics Unit, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Hamza-Chaffai, Amel [Marine Ecotoxicology, UR 09-03, Sfax University, IPEIS, BP 805, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2013-05-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer incidence among exposed human populations. Head and neck cancer is a significant public health issue in Tunisia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Ni in healthy and tumor tissues of head and neck cancer patients. Metal concentrations were determined in tumor and healthy tissues of 101 head and neck cancer patients, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The As, Cd, Cr, and Ni levels in tumor tissues were 3.4, 2.5, 1.3 and 1.5 times higher than those of healthy tissues (p < 0.05), respectively. Tumor tissue metal levels were higher in men than in women. As and Cd levels in tumor and healthy tissue samples of patients smokers are significantly higher than those of non-smokers (p < 0.05). A strong effect of cumulative smoking as expressed in the number of pack per year, and tumor tissue Cd levels were positively associated with three groups of age (< 40, 51–60 and > 60 years) in both never-smokers and ever-smokers (< 20 and ≥ 20 pack per year). Healthy tissue Cd levels were negatively associated with age in those three groups of smokers. The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among both workers and non-workers were observed in tumor tissues. The Cd and Cr in tissues of farmers, bricklayers and painters were all significantly higher among the workers as compared with the non-workers group. Tissue metal levels have increased due to smoking and occupational exposure. Heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and occupational exposures may increase the risk of head and neck in the Tunisian population. - Highlights: ► Heavy metal levels in tumor tissues were higher than those in healthy tissues. ► Tumor tissue Cd levels were positively associated with age in smokers. ► Tumor tissue metal levels were higher in men than in women. ► The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among workers were observed in tumor tissues

  12. Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease amplify accumulation of tissue advanced glycation end products in patients with peripheral artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, J.D.; De Vos, L.C.; Mulder, D.J.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Lutgers, H.L.; Lambers Heerspink, H.J.; Smit, A.J.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Zeebregts, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are important risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with a severely increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients. DM increases production of AGEs and CKD decreases their clearance, while c

  13. Biomimetic tissue-engineered systems for advancing cancer research: NCI Strategic Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Teresa K; Chan, Xin Yi; Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Ji, Kyungmin; Park, Kyung Min; Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Sethi, Pallavi; Thakur, Archana; Tian, Xi; Villasante, Aranzazu; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Moore, Nicole M; Nagahara, Larry A; Kuhn, Nastaran Z

    2014-10-01

    Advanced technologies and biomaterials developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine present tractable biomimetic systems with potential applications for cancer research. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a Strategic Workshop to explore the use of tissue biomanufacturing for development of dynamic, physiologically relevant in vitro and ex vivo biomimetic systems to study cancer biology and drug efficacy. The workshop provided a forum to identify current progress, research gaps, and necessary steps to advance the field. Opportunities discussed included development of tumor biomimetic systems with an emphasis on reproducibility and validation of new biomimetic tumor models, as described in this report.

  14. Intraoperative near-infrared imaging can distinguish cancer from normal tissue but not inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Holt

    Full Text Available Defining tumor from non-tumor tissue is one of the major challenges of cancer surgery. Surgeons depend on visual and tactile clues to select which tissues should be removed from a patient. Recently, we and others have hypothesized near-infrared (NIR imaging can be used during surgery to differentiate tumors from normal tissue.We enrolled 8 canines and 5 humans undergoing cancer surgery for NIR imaging. The patients were injected with indocyanine green (ICG, an FDA approved non-receptor specific NIR dye that accumulates in hyperpermeable tissues, 16-24 hours prior to surgery. During surgery, NIR imaging was used to discriminate the tumor from non-tumor tissue.NIR imaging identified all tumors with a mean signal-to-background ratio of 6.7. Optical images were useful during surgery in discriminating normal tissue from cancer. In 3 canine cases and 1 human case, the tissue surrounding the tumor was inflamed due to obstruction of the vascular supply due to mass effect. In these instances, NIR imaging could not distinguish tumor tissue from tissue that was congested, edematous and did not contain cancer.This study shows that NIR imaging can identify tumors from normal tissues, provides excellent tissue contrast, and it facilitates the resection of tumors. However, in situations where there is significant peritumoral inflammation, NIR imaging with ICG is not helpful. This suggests that non-targeted NIR dyes that accumulate in hyperpermeable tissues will have significant limitations in the future, and receptor-specific NIR dyes may be necessary to overcome this problem.

  15. Application of RT-PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Zhuo-min; Liu, Hong-Yu; Bai, Yun; Sen WEI; Ying LI; Wang, Min; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Qing-hua

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To analyze gene expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues using modified method. Methods: Total RNA from frozen tissues was extracted using TRIZOL reagent. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by digestion with proteinase K before the acid-phenol:chloroform extraction and carrier precipitation. We modified this method by using a higher concentration of proteinase K and a longer digestion time, optimized to 16 hours. RT-PCR and real-ti...

  16. New Mechanism of Bone Cancer Pain: Tumor Tissue-Derived Endogenous Formaldehyde Induced Bone Cancer Pain via TRPV1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, You

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, our serial investigations focused on the role of cancer cells-derived endogenous formaldehyde in bone cancer pain. We found that cancer cells produced formaldehyde through demethylation process by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1 and SHMT2) and lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1). When the cancer cells metastasized into bone marrow, the elevated endogenous formaldehyde induced bone cancer pain through activation on the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) in the peripheral nerve fibers. More interestingly, TRPV1 expressions in the peripheral fibers were upregulated by the local insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the activated osteoblasts. In conclusion, tumor tissue-derived endogenous formaldehyde induced bone cancer pain via TRPV1 activation. PMID:26900062

  17. Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin Is an Early and Accurate Biomarker of Graft Function and Tissue Regeneration in Kidney Transplantation from Extended Criteria Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Cantaluppi

    Full Text Available Delayed graft function (DGF is an early complication of kidney transplantation (KT associated with increased risk of early loss of graft function. DGF increases using kidneys from extended criteria donors (ECD. NGAL is a 25KDa protein proposed as biomarker of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NGAL as an early and accurate indicator of DGF and Tacrolimus (Tac toxicity and as a mediator of tissue regeneration in KT from ECD.We evaluated plasma levels of NGAL in 50 KT patients from ECD in the first 4 days after surgery or after Tac introduction.Plasma levels of NGAL at day 1 were significantly higher in DGF group. In the non DGF group, NGAL discriminated between slow or immediate graft function and decreased more rapidly than serum creatinine. NGAL increased after Tac introduction, suggesting a role as marker of drug toxicity. In vitro, hypoxia and Tac induced NGAL release from tubular epithelial cells (TEC favoring an autocrine loop that sustains proliferation and inhibits apoptosis (decrease of caspases and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.NGAL is an early and accurate biomarker of graft function in KT from ECD favoring TEC regeneration after ischemic and nephrotoxic injury.

  18. Contribution to the study of radiation induced bone tissue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work four original observations of more or less long-delayed cancers induced by ionizing radiations are compared with 34 other cases in the literature, after which an attempt is made to establish a general and prognostic synthesis of the results; the indications to emerge are as follows: - Ionizing radiation-induced cancers are very rare, especially when compared with the extensive therapeutic use made of X-rays; - The probability of radio-cancer formation, though no figures are given in the many papers consulted, seems nevertheless to be higher in cases of benign lesion irradiation; - Induced cancers have been observed after treatments with all types of radiation, whether or not the lesion is tumoral or cancerous, whatever the patient's age at the time of irradiations; - As a general rule these neoplasms appear after a variable latency period but usually from the 6th post-radiotherapy year onwards, with a greater frequency range between 6 and 12 years; - These induced cancers are generally epitheliomas or sarcomas, the latter being noticeably more predominant than in the case of spontaneous cancers. Leukoses may also be observed

  19. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer. Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively. Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  20. Tissue Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Calcium, Copper and Iron Levels in Cancerous Lung Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasar Yousuf ALWAHAIBI; Jokha Sultan ALGHARIBI; Amna Salim ALSHUKAILI; Ahmed Khalifa ALSHUKAILI

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective The expression of various trace elements and markers in lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in cancerous untreated lung tissues and to determine a possible association between these markers and lung cancer.Methods Fourty-eight cancerous lung tissue blocks, from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman, were studied. Fe, Ca, Cu, and CEA were demonstrated in the tissue blocks using Perl's Prussian blue, Von Kossa's, modified rhodanine and immunohistochemical staining methods, respectively.Results Twenty-three of 48 specimens showed positive Fe staining, 2 showed positive Ca staining and Cu was absent in all specimens. 93.7% expressed CEA in varying degree of positivity. 81.25% of these sections showed high expression of CEA. Conclusion Tissue concentrations of trace elements were not elevated in lung cancer and therefore cannot be considered as a potential marker. Despite the low sensitivity and specificity of CEA as previously reported, tissue CEA should be considered as a potential marker in the evaluation of lung cancer.

  1. Laser Direct-Write Onto Live Tissues: A Novel Model for Studying Cancer Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Hope E; Phamduy, Theresa B; Azimi, Mohammad S; Saksena, Jayant; Burow, Matthew E; Collins-Burow, Bridgette M; Chrisey, Douglas B; Murfee, Walter L

    2016-11-01

    Investigation into the mechanisms driving cancer cell behavior and the subsequent development of novel targeted therapeutics requires comprehensive experimental models that mimic the complexity of the tumor microenvironment. Recently, our laboratories have combined a novel tissue culture model and laser direct-write, a form of bioprinting, to spatially position single or clustered cancer cells onto ex vivo microvascular networks containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and interstitial cell populations. Herein, we highlight this new model as a tool for quantifying cancer cell motility and effects on angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in an intact network that matches the complexity of a real tissue. Application of our proposed methodology offers an innovative ex vivo tissue perspective for evaluating the effects of gene expression and targeted molecular therapies on cancer cell migration and invasion. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2333-2338, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26923437

  2. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 1014 n cm-2 s-1. To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  3. Early detection of colorectal cancer relapse by infrared spectroscopy in ``normal'' anastomosis tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ahmad; Sebbag, Gilbert; Argov, Shmuel; Mordechai, Shaul; Sahu, Ranjit K.

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers usually occurring in people above the age of 50 years. In the United States, colorectal cancer is the third most diagnosed cancer. The American Cancer Society has estimated 96,830 new cases of colon cancer and 40,000 new cases of rectal cancer in 2014 in the United States. According to the literature, up to 55% of colorectal cancer patients experience a recurrence within five years from the time of surgery. Relapse of colorectal cancer has a deep influence on the quality of patient life. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been widely used in medicine. It is a noninvasive, nondestructive technique that can detect changes in cells and tissues that are caused by different disorders, such as cancer. Abnormalities in the colonic crypts, which are not detectable using standard histopathological methods, could be determined using IR spectroscopic methods. The IR measurements were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colorectal tissues from eight patients (one control, four local recurrences, three distant recurrences). A total of 128 crypts were measured. Our results showed the possibility of differentiating among control, local, and distant recurrence crypts with more than a 92% success rate using spectra measured from the crypts' middle sites.

  4. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF A PATIENT WITH ASCENDING COLON CANCER OCCURRING DURING THE LONG-TERM USE OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS AFTER CADAVERIC KIDNEY ALLOTRANSPLANTATION FOR DECOMPENSATED RENAL FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Vlasov; Yu. M. Timofeyev

    2013-01-01

    A case report of a patient with advanced colorectal cancer complicated by 18-year immunosuppressive drug therapy after kidney transplantation is presented. Long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs may complicate postoperative period, but must not be a contradiction to extensive abdominal and pelvic surgery.

  5. A Cancer-Indicative microRNA Pattern in Normal Prostate Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schlomm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the levels of selected micro-RNAs in normal prostate tissue to assess their potential to indicate tumor foci elsewhere in the prostate. Histologically normal prostate tissue samples from 31 prostate cancer patients and two cancer negative control groups with either unsuspicious or elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA levels (14 and 17 individuals, respectively were analyzed. Based on the expression analysis of 157 microRNAs in a pool of prostate tissue samples and information from data bases/literature, we selected eight microRNAs for quantification by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Selected miRNAs were analyzed in histologically tumor-free biopsy samples from patients and healthy controls. We identified seven microRNAs (miR-124a, miR-146a & b, miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a & b, which displayed significant differential expression in normal prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer compared to both cancer negative control groups. Four microRNAs (miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a and let-7b remained to significantly discriminate normal tissues from prostate cancer patients from those of the cancer negative control group with elevated PSA levels. The transcript levels of these microRNAs were highly indicative for the presence of cancer in the prostates, independently of the PSA level. Our results suggest a microRNA-pattern in histologically normal prostate tissue, indicating prostate cancer elsewhere in the organ.

  6. PAQR3 gene expression and its methylation level in colorectal cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri-Heng; Zhang, Ai-Min; Li, Shuang; Li, Tian-Yang; Wang, Lian-Jing; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Shi, Jian-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Ya-Chao; Wei, Teng-Yao; Gao, Ying; Li, Wei; Tang, Hong-Ying; Tang, Mei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the PAQR3 gene expression and its methylation level in colorectal cancer tissues, as well as the association with colorectal cancer clinical data. In total, 54 cases of colorectal cancer tissue samples and normal adjacent tissue samples were collected between June, 2013 and July, 2014. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of PAQR3 in colorectal samples, respectively. MSP was used to detect the methylation level of PAQR3 gene in colorectal samples, which was compared with colorectal data. The results showed that a decreased expression level of PAQR3 mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues and the expression reduction rate was 57.4% (31/54). Similarly, the expression level of PAQR3 protein was reduced in cancer tissues, and the reduction rate was 46.3% (25/54), while the protein expression reduction rate in cancer adjacent tissue was 5.6% (3/54), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Furthermore, the methylation rates of PAQR3 in cancer tissues and cancer adjacent tissues were 33.3% (18/54) and 5.6% (3/54), respectively. In addition, PAQR3 mRNA and protein levels in colorectal cancer tissues were associated with the differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. The methylation level of PAQR3 was associated with age, differentiated degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. In conclusion, the expression of PAQR3 mRNA and protein in colorectal cancer was reduced and methylation of PAQR3 occurred. Although the PAQR3 mRNA and protein levels were not associated with gender, age or the location of tumor, there was an association with differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. In addition, the methylation level of PAQR3 was not correlated with gender or tumor location, but was correlated with age, differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth.

  7. Relationship between expression of EGFR in gastric cancer tissue and clinicopathological features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Gao; Xiu-Ju Liang; Zi-Sen Zhang; Wang Ma; Zhi-Wei Chang; Ming-Zhi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in gastric cancer and the clinicopathological features and prognosis. Methods: A total of 78 paraffin specimens of gastric cancer operation were collected. The immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of EGFR in 78 cases of gastric cancer and 20 cases of adjacent normal tissue. The relationship between the high expression of EGFR and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Results: EGFR positive expression rate in the 78 cases of gastric cancer tissue was 57.7 %( 45/78), while EGFR was not expressed in 20 cases of adjacent normal tissue. The high EGFR expression was positively correlated with the position of gastric cancer, tumor size, cell differentiation, invasive depth, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging, yet having no obvious relation with gender or age. Conclusions: EGFR expression level in gastric cancer is closely related to the incidence and development of gastric cancer, which can provide a theoretical basis for the targeted therapy for gastric cancer with EGFR as the target.

  8. Selection of a breast cancer subpopulation-specific antibody using phage display on tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Fridriksdottir, Agla J;

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell populations. These populations display a high variance in morphology, growth and metastatic propensity. They respond differently to therapeutic interventions, and some may be more prone to cause recurrence. Studying individual subpopulations...... of breast cancer may provide crucial knowledge for the development of individualized therapy. However, this process is challenged by the availability of biomarkers able to identify subpopulations specifically. Here, we demonstrate an approach for phage display selection of recombinant antibody fragments...... on cryostat sections of human breast cancer tissue. This method allows for selection of recombinant antibodies binding to antigens specifically expressed in a small part of the tissue section. In this case, a CD271(+) subpopulation of breast cancer cells was targeted, and these may be potential breast cancer...

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in adult Syrian hamster tissues and during kidney development.

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L. W.; Slattery, A. F.; Elwell, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Tissues from adult Syrian hamsters were studied with immunoperoxidase techniques using polyclonal antibodies to glutathione-S-transferase (rat liver and human placental enzymes) and human erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Most tissues immunostained similarly with these antibodies. Most notable was the cytoplasmic staining of mesenchyme tissues, especially smooth muscle, by all three antibodies. Epithelial cells stained distinctively, but usually less intensely than mesenchyme. Epithelial ce...

  10. Independent Pre-Transplant Recipient Cancer Risk Factors after Kidney Transplantation and the Utility of G-Chart Analysis for Clinical Process Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schrem

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify independent pre-transplant cancer risk factors after kidney transplantation and to assess the utility of G-chart analysis for clinical process control. This may contribute to the improvement of cancer surveillance processes in individual transplant centers.1655 patients after kidney transplantation at our institution with a total of 9,425 person-years of follow-up were compared retrospectively to the general German population using site-specific standardized-incidence-ratios (SIRs of observed malignancies. Risk-adjusted multivariable Cox regression was used to identify independent pre-transplant cancer risk factors. G-chart analysis was applied to determine relevant differences in the frequency of cancer occurrences.Cancer incidence rates were almost three times higher as compared to the matched general population (SIR = 2.75; 95%-CI: 2.33-3.21. Significantly increased SIRs were observed for renal cell carcinoma (SIR = 22.46, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (SIR = 8.36, prostate cancer (SIR = 2.22, bladder cancer (SIR = 3.24, thyroid cancer (SIR = 10.13 and melanoma (SIR = 3.08. Independent pre-transplant risk factors for cancer-free survival were age 62.6 years (p = 0.001, HR: 1.29, polycystic kidney disease other than autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD (p = 0.001, HR: 0.68, high body mass index in kg/m2 (p<0.001, HR: 1.04, ADPKD (p = 0.008, HR: 1.26 and diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.004, HR = 1.51. G-chart analysis identified relevant changes in the detection rates of cancer during aftercare with no significant relation to identified risk factors for cancer-free survival (p<0.05.Risk-adapted cancer surveillance combined with prospective G-chart analysis likely improves cancer surveillance schemes by adapting processes to identified risk factors and by using G-chart alarm signals to trigger Kaizen events and audits for root-cause analysis of relevant detection rate changes

  11. Peri-Implant Tissue Findings in Bone Grafted Oral Cancer Patients Compared to non Bone Grafted Patients without Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Wolff; Hideki Agata; George K. Sándor; Suvi Haimi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to compare microbiological, histological, and mechanical findings from tissues around osseointergrated dental implants in patients who had undergone tumour resection and subsequent bone grafting with non bone grafted patients without a history of oral cancer and to develop an effective tool for the monitoring of the peri-implant tissues. A third aim was to assess and compare the masticatory function of the two patient groups after reconstruction w...

  12. A Rare Cause of Acute Kidney Injury in a Female Patient with Breast Cancer Presenting as Renal Colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurubita, Roxana; Obrisca, Bogdan; Ismail, Gener

    2016-01-01

    Renal infarction is a rare cause of acute kidney injury which could lead to permanent loss of renal function. A prompt diagnosis is necessary in order to achieve a successful revascularization of the occluded artery. Given the rarity of the disease and the paucity of the reported cases in the previous literature a high index of suspicion must be maintained not only in the classical cardiac sources of systemic emboli (atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, or endocarditis), but also in the situations when a hypercoagulable state is presumed. The unspecific presenting symptoms often mask the true etiology of the patient's complaints. We present here a rare case of renal infarction that occurred in the setting of a hypercoagulable state, in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and documented hepatic metastases. PMID:27293927

  13. A Rare Cause of Acute Kidney Injury in a Female Patient with Breast Cancer Presenting as Renal Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Jurubita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal infarction is a rare cause of acute kidney injury which could lead to permanent loss of renal function. A prompt diagnosis is necessary in order to achieve a successful revascularization of the occluded artery. Given the rarity of the disease and the paucity of the reported cases in the previous literature a high index of suspicion must be maintained not only in the classical cardiac sources of systemic emboli (atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, or endocarditis, but also in the situations when a hypercoagulable state is presumed. The unspecific presenting symptoms often mask the true etiology of the patient’s complaints. We present here a rare case of renal infarction that occurred in the setting of a hypercoagulable state, in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and documented hepatic metastases.

  14. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  15. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Ruth M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cole, Bryan E [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wallace, Vincent P [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pye, Richard J [Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arnone, Donald D [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Linfield, Edmund H [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Hyaluronidase activity in gynaecological cancer tissues with different metastatic forms.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamakoshi, K.; Kikkawa, F; Maeda, O; Suganuma, N; Yamagata, S.; T. Yamagata; Tomoda, Y

    1997-01-01

    We investigated hyaluronidase activity in gynaecological normal and malignant tissues. Hyaluronidase activity in culture medium of tissue specimens was detected by hyaluronic acid zymography and quantified by densitometry. Hyaluronidase activity was shown as one dominant band (molecular weight 65 kDa) at pH 3.5. Hyaluronidase activity was significantly higher in normal ovary (P < 0.05) and normal endometrium (P< 0.05) than in normal cervix. One dominant 65-kDa hyaluronidase was expressed in 1...

  17. Level of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate in cancerous tissue in patients with gastric cancer under preoperative administration of TS-1. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Kubota, K

    2005-09-01

    Metabolizing enzymes such as thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) have long been known to be useful for predicting response and outcome in patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, few studies have examined the cancerous tissue levels of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (FdUMP), a metabolite of 5-FU that has an important role in inhibiting DNA synthesis. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, we measured concentrations of FdUMP in tumor specimens and surrounding non-cancerous tissue obtained at operation in 10 patients with gastric cancer who received TS-1 before surgery (80 mg/m2, 3 days). The FdUMP level in the cancerous tissue was significantly higher than that in the non-cancerous tissue (153.0 +/- 85.7 pmol/g tissue vs. 53.0 +/- 47.0 pmol/g tissue)(p = 0.0046). Furthermore, the TS level in tumor was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous tissue (6.362 +/- 5.106 pmol/g tissue vs. 2.092 +/- 2.050 pmol/g tissue) (p = 0.0310). The mean ratios of TS-bound FdUMP to TS and FdUMP concentrations in the cancerous tissues were 45.9% and 2.00%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that in cancerous tissue, TS-1 may produce high FdUMP concentration and suppress about half FdUMP concentration by forming ternary complexes. PMID:16270533

  18. Loss of antigenicity with tissue age in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Susan E; Han, Gang; Mani, Nikita; Beruti, Susan; Nerenberg, Michael; Rimm, David L

    2016-03-01

    Archived tumor specimens, particularly those collected by large cooperative groups and trials, provide a wealth of material for post hoc clinical investigation. As these tissues are rigorously collected and preserved for many decades, subsequent use of the specimens to answer clinical questions must rely on the assumption that expression and detection of target biomarkers are not degraded with time. To test this assumption, we measured the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 in human breast carcinoma using quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in a series of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from 1295 individual patients preserved for 7 to 53 years in four cohorts on tissue microarrays. Protein expression was measured using the automated quantitative analysis method for QIF. Change in quantitative protein expression over time was estimated in positive cases using both Pearson's correlation and a polynomial regression analysis with a random effects model. The average signal decreased with preservation time for all biomarkers measured. For ER and HER2, there was an average of 10% signal loss after 9.9 years and 8.5 years, respectively, compared with the most recent tissue. Detection of Ki67 expression was lost more rapidly, with 10% signal loss in just 4.5 years. Overall, these results demonstrate the need for adjustment of tissue age when studying FFPE biospecimens. The rate of antigenicity loss is biomarker specific and should be considered as an important variable for studies using archived tissues. PMID:26568292

  19. Exome Enrichment and SOLiD Sequencing of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE Prostate Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Biskup

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies have revolutionized cancer research allowing the comprehensive study of cancer using high throughput deep sequencing methodologies. These methods detect genomic alterations, nucleotide substitutions, insertions, deletions and copy number alterations. SOLiD (Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection, Life Technologies is a promising technology generating billions of 50 bp sequencing reads. This robust technique, successfully applied in gene identification, might be helpful in detecting novel genes associated with cancer initiation and progression using formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue. This study’s aim was to compare the validity of whole exome sequencing of fresh-frozen vs. FFPE tumor tissue by normalization to normal prostatic FFPE tissue, obtained from the same patient. One primary fresh-frozen sample, corresponding FFPE prostate cancer sample and matched adjacent normal prostatic tissue was subjected to exome sequencing. The sequenced reads were mapped and compared. Our study was the first to show comparable exome sequencing results between FFPE and corresponding fresh-frozen cancer tissues using SOLiD sequencing. A prior study has been conducted comparing the validity of sequencing of FFPE vs. fresh frozen samples using other NGS platforms. Our validation further proves that FFPE material is a reliable source of material for whole exome sequencing.

  20. Exploration of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecule expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chong Yuan; QiongYang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecules in cervical cancer tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected to detect the expression of FoxM1, proliferation-related genes (CDK6 and CDK8) and angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC); Hela cells were cultured and transfected with FoxM1 siRNA, and then expression of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC were detected.Results:mRNA contents of FoxM1, CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue; mRNA content of FoxM1 was positively correlated with mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC; mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC of FoxM1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of negative control-siRNA group.Conclusion:FoxM1 expression abnormally increases in cervical cancer tissue, and its downstream target genes include CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC.

  1. THE SAFETY AND EXPEDIENCY OF USING A TRANSPERITONEAL LAPAROSCOPIC ACCESS TO RADICAL NEPHRECTOMY FOR CLINICALLY LOCALIZED KIDNEY CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare immediate, oncological, and functional results, as well as quality of life in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic transperitoneal radical nephrectomy (RNE for clinically localized kidney cancer (KC.Subjects and methods. Data from 426 cT1-2N0M0 KC patients after radical nephrectomy in 1991 to 2011 were retrospectively selected. Their median age was 57 years. The male/female ratio was 1.1:1. The median highest tumor diameter was 5.0±2.2 cm. RNE was carried out in all 426 patients: in 211 (49.5 % patients through open access and in 215 (50.5 % through transperitoneal laparoscopic one. The patient groups operated on via different accesses were matched for major signs; however, the laparoscopy group displayed a preponderance of cT1a tumors. The median follow-up was 50.0±12.3 months.Results. There were no significant differences in the frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic and open nephrectomies. The five-year overall, specific, and relapse-free survival rates in the patients who had undergone open nephrectomy were 95.4, 98.4, and 92.2 %, respectively; those in the patients who had laparoscopic nephrectomy were 94.5, 100.0, and 93.6 %, respectively (p > 0.05 for all. The incidence of acute renal dysfunction and its distribution according to the RIFLE classes, the rate of acute dialysis and that of a decrease and a continued reduction in glomerular filtration rate, as well as the distribution of patients according to the stages of chronic kidney disease after RNE did not depend on the surgical access (p > 0.05 for all. The QLQ-30 survey data show that the laparoscopic access versus the laparotomic one improves quality of life within 1 month after RNE.Conclusion. Laparoscopic transperitoneal RNE is a safe alternative to open surgery that can improve quality of life in the patients with clinically localized kidney cancer within one month after surgical intervention.

  2. Expression of CD40 and CD40L in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study expression of CD40 and CD40L in gastric cancer tissue we assessed gastric cancer patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and control subjects. Gastric cancer and normal (from around tumours tissue samples were obtained from patients. Venous blood samples (gastric cancer and ulcer groups were drawn on the morning of the day before surgery for the measurement of peripheral sCD40L. The expression of CD40 in gastric carcinoma specimens was examined immuno-histochemically. The clinicopathological factors, including age, sex, tumor size, gross appearance, degree of cellular differentiation, histological classification, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and TNM stage were analyzed according to the different expression of CD40. The results indicated a high CD40 expression in gastric cancer tissues. This positive expression of CD40 revealed a significant (P < 0.05 correlation with lymphatic metastasis and tumor TNM stage in gastric cancer patients. It is concluded that higher CD40 expression existed in expanding type tumors and could play an important role in clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer patients.

  3. Prognostic microRNAs in cancer tissue from patients operated for pancreatic cancer--five microRNAs in a prognostic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Andersen, Klaus; Roslind, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can predict overall survival (OS) in non micro-dissected cancer tissues from patients operated for pancreatic cancer (PC).......The aim of the present study was to identify a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can predict overall survival (OS) in non micro-dissected cancer tissues from patients operated for pancreatic cancer (PC)....

  4. Critical roles of specimen type and temperature before and during fixation in the detection of phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gündisch, Sibylle; Annaratone, Laura; Beese, Christian; Drecol, Enken; Marchiò, Caterina; Quaglino, Elena; Sapino, Anna; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Bussolati, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The most efficient approach for therapy selection to inhibit the deregulated kinases in cancer tissues is to measure their phosphorylation status prior to the treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of pre-analytical parameters (cold ischemia time, temperature before and during tissue fixation, and sample type) on the levels of proteins and phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues, focusing on the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. The BALB-neuT mouse breast cancer model expressing...

  5. Tensin3 is a negative regulator of cell migration and all four Tensin family members are downregulated in human kidney cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Martuszewska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Tensin family of intracellular proteins (Tensin1, -2, -3 and -4 are thought to act as links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, and thereby mediate signaling for cell shape and motility. Dysregulation of Tensin expression has previously been implicated in human cancer. Here, we have for the first time evaluated the significance of all four Tensins in a study of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC, as well as probed the biological function of Tensin3. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of Tensin2 and Tensin3 at mRNA and protein levels was largely absent in a panel of diverse human cancer cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression of all four Tensin genes to be significantly downregulated in human kidney tumors (50-100% reduction versus normal kidney cortex; P<0.001. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of Tensins mostly correlated positively with each other and negatively with tumor grade, but not tumor size. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed Tensin3 to be present in the cytoplasm of tubular epithelium in normal human kidney sections, whilst expression was weaker or absent in 41% of kidney tumors. A subset of tumor sections showed a preferential plasma membrane expression of Tensin3, which in clear cell RCC patients was correlated with longer survival. Stable expression of Tensin3 in HEK 293 cells markedly inhibited both cell migration and matrix invasion, a function independent of putative phosphatase activity in Tensin3. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of endogenous Tensin3 in human cancer cells significantly increased their migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the Tensins may represent a novel group of metastasis suppressors in the kidney, the loss of which leads to greater tumor cell motility and consequent metastasis. Moreover, tumorigenesis in the human kidney may be facilitated by a general downregulation of Tensins. Therefore, anti-metastatic therapies may benefit from restoring

  6. Raising an Antibody Specific to Breast Cancer Subpopulations Using Phage Display on Tissue Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael Rubner;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Primary tumors display a great level of intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer. The current lack of prognostic and predictive biomarkers limits accurate stratification and the ability to predict response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to select recombinant antibody...... fragments specific against breast cancer subpopulations, aiding the discovery of novel biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant antibody fragments were selected by phage display. A novel shadowstick technology enabled the direct selection using tissue sections of antibody fragments specific against...... small subpopulations of breast cancer cells. Selections were performed against a subpopulation of breast cancer cells expressing CD271(+), as these previously have been indicated to be potential breast cancer stem cells. The selected antibody fragments were screened by phage ELISA on both breast cancer...

  7. BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue and their correlation with tumor malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Sheng; Bin Wang; Zong-Ping Diao; Kun-Kun Cao; Sai Zhang; Zheng-Guo Pu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue and their correlation with tumor malignancy.Methods:Patients undergoing thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy in our hospital from April 2012 to October 2015 were selected for study, 60 patients with thyroid cancer and 60 patients with benign thyroid tumor were screened after pathological diagnosis, biopsy tissue was collected to determine the expression of BRMS1 and Cx43, and serum specimens were collected to determin Gal-3, CEACAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 content.Results: mRNA levels and positive expression rate of BRMS1 andCx43in thyroid cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in benign thyroid tumor tissue; mRNA levels ofBRMS1andCx43in thyroid cancer tissue with different pathological types and tumor diameters were not different, mRNA level ofCx43in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM III-IV stage was significantly lower than that in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM I-II stage, mRNA levels ofBRMS1 in thyroid cancer tissue with different TNM stages were not different, and mRNA levels ofBRMS1andCx43in thyroid carcinoma tissue with lymph node metastasis were significantly lower than those in thyroid carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis; serum Gal-3, CEACAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 levels in patients with positive BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in thyroid cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in patients with negative BRMS1 and Cx43 expression in thyroid cancer tissue.Conclusions:Lower expression of BRMS1 and Cx43 in fine needle aspiration thyroid cancer tissue is associated with the distant metastasis and malignant degree of tumor, and lower expression of Cx43 is also associated with the growth of tumor and cancer cell proliferation.

  8. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material cont

  9. Epithelial cell cultures from normal and cancerous human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R B; Smith, H S; Nelson-Rees, W A; Springer, E L

    1976-04-01

    Thirty epithelial cell strains were isolated from human carcinomas and normal epithelial tissues by collagenase digestion and selective removal of fibroblasts with trypsin-Versene. Most strains were obtained from metastatic carcinomas or epithelia of the urinary and intestinal tracts. The success rate for growth of both neoplastic and normal tissues (excluding skin) was 38%. Six of these strains showed gross morphologic and chromosome changes typical of malignant cells. Nine resembled normal epithelium. The other 15 exhibited some degree of morphologic change from normal. PMID:176412

  10. The potential of spectral imaging in the noninvasive diagnostics of tissue cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Costas J.

    2003-08-01

    A novel approach to the problem of non-invasive diagnostics is presented, which relay son a combiend optical and chemical excitation of the tissue, by employing white light and topical application of acetic acid solution, respecitvley. Acetic acid-tissue interaction results in a transient alteration in the light scattering properties of the abnormal tissue selectivity. A specially developed Spectral Imaging system was used for the in vivo spectral imaging and analysis of the tissue and for the measurement, as a function of both time and location, of the acetic acid-induced alterations in the tissue scattering properties. Modeling and fitting of the experimental data result in the calculation of the kinetic constants of the marker-tissue interaction process, and spatil distribution of whcih is visualized with the aid of a pseudocolor scale. Clinical evaluation of both methodology and technology in normal, precancerous and cancerous lesions of cervix show that the measured kinetic data contain specific information, which enables the differentiation between cancerous and non-cancerous lesions, as well as between dysplasias of different grade. The calculated map of the kinetic constants provides information for the spatial distribution of the lesion's grades, thus enabling the detection of incipient lesions and the precise localization and classification of pathologic tissue areas.

  11. A targeting ligand enhances infectivity and cytotoxicity of an oncolytic adenovirus in human pancreatic cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Goto, Naoko; Rin, Yosei; Miura, Kazuki; Narumi, Kenta; Uchida, Hiroaki; Tagawa, Masatoshi; Aoki, Kazunori

    2014-10-28

    The addition of a targeting strategy is necessary to enhance oncolysis and secure safety of a conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd). We have constructed an adenovirus library displaying random peptides on the fiber, and have successfully identified a pancreatic cancer-targeting ligand (SYENFSA). Here, the usefulness of cancer-targeted CRAd for pancreatic cancer was examined as a preclinical study. First, we constructed a survivin promoter-regulated CRAd expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP), which displayed the identified targeting ligand (AdSur-SYE). The AdSur-SYE resulted in higher gene transduction efficiency and oncolytic potency than the untargeted CRAd (AdSur) in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. An intratumoral injection of AdSur-SYE significantly suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors, in which AdSur-SYE effectively proliferated and spread. An ectopic infection in adjacent tissues and organs of intratumorally injected AdSur-SYE was decreased compared with AdSur. Then, to examine whether the targeting ligand actually enhanced the infectivity of CRAd in human pancreatic cancer tissues, tumor cells prepared from surgical specimens were infected with viruses. The AdSur-SYE increased gene transduction efficiency 6.4-fold higher than did AdSur in single cells derived from human pancreatic cancer, whereas the infectivity of both vectors was almost the same in the pancreas and other cancers. Immunostaining showed that most EGFP(+) cells were cytokeratin-positive in the sliced tissues, indicating that pancreatic cancer cells but not stromal cells were injected with AdSur-SYE. AdSur-SYE resulted in a stronger oncolysis in the primary pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblasts than AdSur did. CRAd in combination with a tumor-targeting ligand is promising as a next-generation of oncolytic virotherapy for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  13. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  14. N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, Annalisa; Gaspari, Marco; Sacco, Rosario; Elia, Laura; Gabriele, Caterina; Romano, Roberto; Rizzuto, Antonia; Cuda, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described. PMID:25247386

  15. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  16. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: A New Player in Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emma V.; Edwards, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow is a favored site for a number of cancers, including the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma, and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer. This specialized microenvironment is highly supportive, not only for tumor growth and survival but also for the development of an associated destructive cancer-induced bone disease. The interactions between tumor cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts are well documented. By contrast, despite occupying a significant proportion of the bone marrow, the importance of bone marrow adipose tissue is only just emerging. The ability of bone marrow adipocytes to regulate skeletal biology and hematopoiesis, combined with their metabolic activity, endocrine functions, and proximity to tumor cells means that they are ideally placed to impact both tumor growth and bone disease. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of how marrow adipose tissue contributes to bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease.

  17. Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with a 5-year survival rate of only 1-5%. The acceleration of intraoperative histological examination would be beneficial for better management of pancreatic cancer, suggesting an improved survival. Nonlinear optical methods based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and second harmonic generation (SHG of intrinsic optical biomarkers show the ability to visualize the morphology of fresh tissues associated with histology, which is promising for real-time intraoperative evaluation of pancreatic cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate whether the nonlinear optical imaging methods have the ability to characterize pancreatic histology at cellular resolution, we studied different types of pancreatic tissues by using label-free TPEF and SHG. Compared with other routine methods for the preparation of specimens, fresh tissues without processing were found to be most suitable for nonlinear optical imaging of pancreatic tissues. The detailed morphology of the normal rat pancreas was observed and related with the standard histological images. Comparatively speaking, the preliminary images of a small number of chemical-induced pancreatic cancer tissues showed visible neoplastic differences in the morphology of cells and extracellular matrix. The subcutaneous pancreatic tumor xenografts were further observed using the nonlinear optical microscopy, showing that most cells are leucocytes at 5 days after implantation, the tumor cells begin to proliferate at 10 days after implantation, and the extracellular collagen fibers become disordered as the xenografts grow. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, nonlinear optical imaging was used to characterize the morphological details of fresh pancreatic tissues for the first time. We demonstrate that it is possible to provide real-time histological evaluation of pancreatic cancer by the nonlinear optical methods, which present an

  18. A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Thibaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton is a preferred homing site for breast cancer metastasis. To date, treatment options for patients with bone metastases are mostly palliative and the disease is still incurable. Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. In the presented study, we investigate the use of a human tissue-engineered bone construct to develop a humanized xenograft model of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis in a murine host. Primary human osteoblastic cell-seeded melt electrospun scaffolds in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The tissue-engineered constructs led to the formation of a morphologically intact ‘organ’ bone incorporating a high amount of mineralized tissue, live osteocytes and bone marrow spaces. The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. Histological analysis revealed the presence of metastases with clear osteolysis in the newly formed bone. Thus, human tissue-engineered bone constructs can be applied efficiently as a target tissue for human breast cancer cells injected into the blood circulation and replicate the osteolytic phenotype associated with breast cancer-induced bone lesions. In conclusion, we have developed an appropriate model for investigation of species-specific mechanisms of human breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo.

  19. Mathematical modeling of cancer cell invasion of tissue: biological insight from mathematical analysis and computational simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andasari, Vivi; Gerisch, Alf; Lolas, Georgios; South, Andrew P; Chaplain, Mark A J

    2011-07-01

    The ability of cancer cells to break out of tissue compartments and invade locally gives solid tumours a defining deadly characteristic. One of the first steps of invasion is the remodelling of the surrounding tissue or extracellular matrix (ECM) and a major part of this process is the over-expression of proteolytic enzymes, such as the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), by the cancer cells to break down ECM proteins. Degradation of the matrix enables the cancer cells to migrate through the tissue and subsequently to spread to secondary sites in the body, a process known as metastasis. In this paper we undertake an analysis of a mathematical model of cancer cell invasion of tissue, or ECM, which focuses on the role of the urokinase plasminogen activation system. The model consists of a system of five reaction-diffusion-taxis partial differential equations describing the interactions between cancer cells, uPA, uPA inhibitors, plasmin and the host tissue. Cancer cells react chemotactically and haptotactically to the spatio-temporal effects of the uPA system. The results obtained from computational simulations carried out on the model equations produce dynamic heterogeneous spatio-temporal solutions and using linear stability analysis we show that this is caused by a taxis-driven instability of a spatially homogeneous steady-state. Finally we consider the biological implications of the model results, draw parallels with clinical samples and laboratory based models of cancer cell invasion using three-dimensional invasion assay, and go on to discuss future development of the model.

  20. Progress in Tissue Specimens Alternative for the Driver Genes Testing of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target treatment based on driver genes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer is very important currently. Tumor tissues is the gold standard for driver genes testing. However, most of patients could not get the gene information for lack of enough tissues. To explore the tissue specimens alternatives is a hot spot in clinical work. This report reviews the tissue specimen alternatives of driver gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

  1. Statistical interpretations and new findings on Variation in Cancer Risk Among Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Robert; Kaltz, Oliver; Hochberg, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Tomasetti and Vogelstein (2015a) find that the incidence of a set of cancer types is correlated with the total number of normal stem cell divisions. Here, we separate the effects of standing stem cell number (i.e., organ or tissue size) and per stem cell lifetime replication rate. We show that each has a statistically significant and independent effect on explaining variation in cancer incidence over the 31 cases considered by Tomasetti and Vogelstein. When considering the total number of ste...

  2. Erythropoietin administration partially prevents adipose tissue loss in experimental cancer cachexia models

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Fabio; Busquets, Silvia; Toledo, Miriam; Pin, Fabrizio; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated cachexia is characterized, among other symptoms, by a dramatic loss of both muscle and fat. In addition, the cachectic syndrome is often associated with anemia. The object of the present investigation was to assess the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on experimental cancer cachexia models. The results clearly show that, in addition to the improvement of the hematocrit, EPO treatment promoted a partial preservation of adipose tissue while exerting negligible effects...

  3. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma....... No correlation between plasma and urine TIMP-1 was found. Measurement of TIMP-1 in plasma and/or urine is apparently not useful for the identification of bladder cancer....

  4. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ;

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma....... No correlation between plasma and urine TIMP-1 was found. Measurement of TIMP-1 in plasma and/or urine is apparently not useful for the identification of bladder cancer....

  5. Increased expression of cysteine cathepsins in ovarian tissue from chickens with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Suzie E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine cathepsins (CTSs are involved in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and are associated with cell transformation, differentiation, motility, and adhesion. These functions are also related to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Chickens spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian cancer and are therefore a good animal model for human ovarian cancer. However, no studies have investigated the expression of CTSs in chickens with ovarian cancer. Methods Cancerous (n = 5 and normal (n = 3 ovaries were collected from 2-to 3-year-old hens, and ovarian tissue samples were collected for study. Ovarian cancers were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse transcriptase and quantitative PCR analyses, in situ hybridization analysis were performed to examine the mRNA expression pattern of three CTSs in detail, and protein expression of CTSB was evaluated. Results The CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS genes were highly expressed in cancerous chicken ovaries. Messenger RNAs for the three CTSs were localized to a nodule area, a major characteristic of cancerous ovaries, but the three CTSs showed no specific localization in normal ovaries. Immunoreactive CTSB protein was present in the nodule area of cancerous ovaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS have important functions in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  6. Expression of HSP90 and HIF-1α in human colorectal cancer tissue and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-Ran; Xu; Xin; Liu; Ying-Min; Yao; Qing-Guang; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of HSP90 and HIF-1αin human colorectal cancer tissue,the influence of HSP90 and HIF-1αon human colorectal cancer biological behavior and their related factors.Methods:The expression of HSP90 and HIF-1 a protein in human colorectal cancer as well as normal tissue were detected by imnmnohistochemical method.Results:The positive expression rates of HSP90 and HIF-1αprotein in normal human colorectal tissue as well as colorectal cancer tissue were 30%vs.63.0%,15.0%vs.71.7%,respectively.There were significant difference(P=0.035 and P=0.005 respectively).The expression of HSP90 was significantly correlated with the differentiation,Dukes stages and lymph node metastasis(P<0.05),while the expression of HIF-1 a was significantly correlated with the Dukes stages and lymph node metastasis(P<0.05).Association analysis showed that the expression of HSF90 protein was significantly correlated with that of HIF-1αprotein(P<0.01).Conclusions:The expression of HSP90 and HIF—1αprotein may be related to the development,metastasis and invasion of human colorectal cancer,and their synergistic effects may participate in the development of the colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  8. Regression of metastatic clear cell kidney cancer with interleukin-2 treatment following nivolumab (anti-PD-1) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayer, Jason; Fishman, Mayer

    2014-04-01

    Aldesleukin [interleukin-2 (IL-2)] induces durable complete responses in some kidney cancer and melanoma patients. Nivolumab is an investigational antibody drug targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) as a treatment, demonstrating activity in multiple cancer types. An expanding complement of immunotherapeutics raises important issues regarding the best way to use them. There are issues beyond identifying an agent that provides the superior front-line response: when does one therapy potentiate another immune therapy? When is the capacity of immune response exhausted and an approach without immune mechanism the better therapy? In this case report, we present a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma with no tumor regression evident on a PD-1 blockade (given on an investigational trial), who then achieved near-complete response to bolus high-dose IL-2 therapy, maintaining a persistent response off therapy. This case emphasizes on the need to develop improved predictors of response to immune therapies, especially as they can be applied to optimize sequential immunotherapeutic modalities versus predict when to turn to alternative targeted agents in renal cell carcinoma, and is an example of efficacious IL-2 application as a second-line treatment. PMID:24598453

  9. Evaluation of frozen tissue-derived prognostic gene expression signatures in FFPE colorectal cancer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Deane, Natasha G; Lewis, Keeli B; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekhar; Washington, M Kay; Ciombor, Kristen K; Timmers, Cynthia; Goldberg, Richard M; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Defining molecular features that can predict the recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) for stage II-III patients remains challenging in cancer research. Most available clinical samples are Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE). NanoString nCounter® and Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA) are the two platforms marketed for high-throughput gene expression profiling for FFPE samples. In this study, to evaluate the gene expression of frozen tissue-derived prognostic signatures in FFPE CRC samples, we evaluated the expression of 516 genes from published frozen tissue-derived prognostic signatures in 42 FFPE CRC samples measured by both platforms. Based on HTA platform-derived data, we identified both gene (99 individual genes, FDR FFPE tumor tissues to detect frozen tissue-derived prognostic gene expression signatures for CRC patients. PMID:27623752

  10. Comparative Trace Elemental Analysis in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissues Using PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Juma Mulware

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high or low levels of trace metals in human tissues has been studied widely. There have been detectable significant variations in the concentrations of trace metals in normal and cancerous tissues suggesting that these variations could be a causative factor to various cancers. Even though essential trace metals play an important role such as stabilizers, enzyme cofactors, elements of structure, and essential elements for normal hormonal functions, their imbalanced toxic effects contribute to the rate of the reactive oxygen species (ROS and formation of complexities in the body cells which may lead to DNA damage. The induction of oxidative-induced DNA damage by ROS may lead to isolated base lesions or single-strand breaks, complex lesions like double-strand breaks, and some oxidative generated clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs which are linked to cell apoptosis and mutagenesis. The difference in published works on the level of variations of trace metals in different cancer tissues can be attributed to the accuracy of the analytical techniques, sample preparation methods, and inability of taking uniform samples from the affected tissues. This paper reviews comparative trace elemental concentrations of cancerous and noncancerous tissues using PIXE that has been reported in the published literature.

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins in normal mammary and breast cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of normal cellular metabolism, oxygen is consumed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. If not effectively dissipated, ROS can accumulate and damage resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. Enzymes involved in redox regulation and DNA repair dissipate ROS and repair the resulting damage in order to preserve a functional cellular environment. Because increased ROS accumulation and/or unrepaired DNA damage can lead to initiation and progression of cancer and we had identified a number of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins that influence estrogen responsiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it seemed possible that these proteins might be differentially expressed in normal mammary tissue, benign hyperplasia (BH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of a number of oxidative stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and damage markers in 60 human mammary tissues which were classified as BH, DCIS or IBC. The relative mean intensity was determined for each tissue section and ANOVA was used to detect statistical differences in the relative expression of BH, DCIS and IBC compared to normal mammary tissue. We found that a number of these proteins were overexpressed and that the cellular localization was altered in human breast cancer tissue. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins not only protect normal cells from the damaging effects of ROS, but may also promote survival of mammary tumor cells

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins in normal mammary and breast cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardulli Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the course of normal cellular metabolism, oxygen is consumed and reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced. If not effectively dissipated, ROS can accumulate and damage resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. Enzymes involved in redox regulation and DNA repair dissipate ROS and repair the resulting damage in order to preserve a functional cellular environment. Because increased ROS accumulation and/or unrepaired DNA damage can lead to initiation and progression of cancer and we had identified a number of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins that influence estrogen responsiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it seemed possible that these proteins might be differentially expressed in normal mammary tissue, benign hyperplasia (BH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and invasive breast cancer (IBC. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of a number of oxidative stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and damage markers in 60 human mammary tissues which were classified as BH, DCIS or IBC. The relative mean intensity was determined for each tissue section and ANOVA was used to detect statistical differences in the relative expression of BH, DCIS and IBC compared to normal mammary tissue. Results We found that a number of these proteins were overexpressed and that the cellular localization was altered in human breast cancer tissue. Conclusions Our studies suggest that oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins not only protect normal cells from the damaging effects of ROS, but may also promote survival of mammary tumor cells.

  13. Differentiation of cancerous and normal brain tissue using label free fluorescence and Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Leana; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Yu, Xinguang; Cheng, Gangge; Wang, Peng; Shu, Cheng; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    In this report, optical biopsy was applied to diagnose human brain cancer in vitro for the identification of brain cancer from normal tissues by native fluorescence and Stokes shift spectra (SSS). 77 brain specimens including three types of human brain tissues (normal, glioma and brain metastasis of lung cancers) were studied. In order to observe spectral changes of fluorophores via fluorescence, the selected excitation wavelength of UV at 300 and 340 nm for emission spectra and a different Stokes Shift spectra with intervals Δλ = 40 nm were measured. The fluorescence spectra and SSS from multiple key native molecular markers, such as tryptophan, collagen, NADH, alanine, ceroid and lipofuscin were observed in normal and diseased brain tissues. Two diagnostic criteria were established based on the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both fluorescence and SSS spectra. It was observed that the ratio of the spectral peak intensity of tryptophan (340 nm) to NADH (440 nm) increased in glioma, meningioma (benign), malignant meninges tumor, and brain metastasis of lung cancer tissues in comparison with normal tissues. The ratio of the SS spectral peak (Δλ = 40 nm) intensities from 292 nm to 366 nm had risen similarly in all grades of tumors.

  14. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment. (paper)

  15. Visualization of risk of radiogenic second cancer in the organs and tissues of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogenic second cancer is a common late effect in long term cancer survivors. Currently there are few methods or tools available to visually evaluate the spatial distribution of risks of radiogenic late effects in the human body. We developed a risk visualization method and demonstrated it for radiogenic second cancers in tissues and organs of one patient treated with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy and one patient treated with proton craniospinal irradiation. Treatment plans were generated using radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) and dose information was obtained from TPS. Linear non-threshold risk coefficients for organs at risk of second cancer incidence were taken from the Biological Effects of Ionization Radiation VII report. Alternative risk models including linear exponential model and linear plateau model were also examined. The predicted absolute lifetime risk distributions were visualized together with images of the patient anatomy. The risk distributions of second cancer for the two patients were visually presented. The risk distributions varied with tissue, dose, dose-risk model used, and the risk distribution could be similar to or very different from the dose distribution. Our method provides a convenient way to directly visualize and evaluate the risks of radiogenic second cancer in organs and tissues of the human body. In the future, visual assessment of risk distribution could be an influential determinant for treatment plan scoring

  16. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  17. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  18. Non-Coding CK19 RNA in Peripheral Blood and Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Moazzezy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast carcinoma is the major cause of cancer-related death in women. The incidence of this carcinoma is rising and there are many attempts to decrease this problem. The aim of this study was detection of full-length cytokeratin 19 (CK19 mRNA, in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer patients in early stage of cancer. In this study, RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique was used for detection of CK19 mRNA in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer patients. Primers were established to amplify the CK19 as a tumor marker. Moreover, CYFRA 21-1 subunit of CK19 protein was measured in the serum of patients. CK19 mRNA was detected and sequenced. It is shown that the most released CK19 mRNAs in blood and tissue of cancer patients are non-coding RNA. The mutated forms of mRNA are the incomplete transcripts of protein-coding gene as a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA that could regulate gene expression. Moreover, small non-coding RNA (ncRNA as fragments of CK19 is mostly observed in this experiment. They may play a role in tumorogenesis and their biologic exact function in breast cancer should be further elucidated.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Stage-II Breast Cancer from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring disease among women worldwide. The early stage of breast cancer identification is the key challenge in cancer control and prevention procedures. Although gene expression profiling helps to understand the molecular mechanism of diseases or disorder in the living system, gene expression pattern alone is not sufficient to predict the exact mechanisms. Current proteomics tools hold great application for analysis of cancerous conditions. Hence, the generation of differential protein expression profiles has been optimized for breast cancer and normal tissue samples in our organization. Normal and tumor tissues were collected from 20 people from a local hospital. Proteins from the diseased and normal tissues have been investigated by 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. The peptide mass fingerprint data were fed into various public domains like Mascot, MS-Fit, and Pept-ident against Swiss-Prot protein database and the proteins of interest were identified. Some of the differentially expressed proteins identified were human annexin, glutathione S-transferase, vimentin, enolase-1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, Cyclin A1, hormone sensitive lipase, beta catenin, and so forth. Many types of proteins were identified as fundamental steps for developing molecular markers for diagnosis of human breast cancer as well as making a new proteomic database for future research.

  20. TGF β1 expression and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Xiong; Ling-Ling Gong; Feng Zhang; Ming-Bo Hu; Hong-Yin Yuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Transforming growth factor(TGF)β1 is involved in avariety of important cellular functions, including cell growthand differentiation, angiogenesis, immune function andextracellular matrix formation. However, the role of TGF β1as an angiogenic factor in colorectal cancer is still unclear.We investigate the relationship between transforming growthfactor β1 and angiogenesis by analyzing the expression oftransforming growth factor(TGF) β1 in colorectal cancer, aswell as its association with VEGF and MVDMETHODS: The expression of TGF β1 、VEGF, as well as MVDwere detected in 98 colorectal cancer by immunohistochemicalstaining. The relationship between the TGF β1 expression andVEGF expression、MVD was evaluated. To evaluate the effect ofTGF β1 on the angiogenesis of colorectal cancers.RESULTS: Among 98 cases of colorectal cancer, 37 werepositive for TGF β1 (37. 8 %),36 for VEGF(36. 7 %),respectively. The microvessel counts ranged from 19 to 139.8, with a mean of 48.7 (standard deviation, 21. 8). Theexpression of TGF β1 was correlated significantly with thedepth of invasion, stage of disease, lymph nodemetastasis, VEGF expression and MVD. Patients in T3-T4,stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ and with lymph node metastasis had muchhigher expression of TGF β1 than patients in T1-T2, stage Ⅰ -Ⅱ and without lymph node metastasis ( P < 0.05).Thepositive expression rate of VEGF (58.3 %) in the TGF-β1positive group is higher than that in the TGF-β1 negativegroup(41.7 %, P< 0.05). Also, the microvessel count (54+ 18) in TGF-β1 positive group is significantly highar thanthat in TGF-β1 negative group (46 + 15, P < 0.05 ). Themicrovessel count in tumors with both TGF-β1 and VEGFpositive were the highest (58 + 20, 36-140, P < 0. 05 ).Whereas that in tumors with both TGF-β1 and VEGF negativewere the lowest (38+ 16, 19-60, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: TGF β1 might be associated with tumorprogression by madulating the angiogenesis in colorectalcancer and TGF β1 may be used as a

  1. Optimum 3D Matrix Stiffness for Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells Is Dependent on Tissue Origin of Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaiel Jabbari

    Full Text Available The growth and expression of cancer stem cells (CSCs depend on many factors in the tumor microenvironment. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of cancer cells' tissue origin on the optimum matrix stiffness for CSC growth and marker expression in a model polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA hydrogel without the interference of other factors in the microenvironment.Human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma, HCT116 colorectal and AGS gastric carcinoma, and U2OS osteosarcoma cells were used. The cells were encapsulated in PEGDA gels with compressive moduli in the 2-70 kPa range and optimized cell seeding density of 0.6x106 cells/mL. Micropatterning was used to optimize the growth of encapsulated cells with respect to average tumorsphere size. The CSC sub-population of the encapsulated cells was characterized by cell number, tumorsphere size and number density, and mRNA expression of CSC markers.The optimum matrix stiffness for growth and marker expression of CSC sub-population of cancer cells was 5 kPa for breast MCF7 and MDA231, 25 kPa for colorectal HCT116 and gastric AGS, and 50 kPa for bone U2OS cells. Conjugation of a CD44 binding peptide to the gel stopped tumorsphere formation by cancer cells from different tissue origin. The expression of YAP/TAZ transcription factors by the encapsulated cancer cells was highest at the optimum stiffness indicating a link between the Hippo transducers and CSC growth. The optimum average tumorsphere size for CSC growth and marker expression was 50 μm.The marker expression results suggest that the CSC sub-population of cancer cells resides within a niche with optimum stiffness which depends on the cancer cells' tissue origin.

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities in non-neoplastic renal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBerg, E; Dijkhuizen, T; Storkel, S; Molenaar, WM; deJong, B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in short-term cultures of non-neoplastic renal tissue and tumor tissue in 60 patients, 41 male and 19 female, with renal cell cancer (RCC), and in normal renal parenchyma from two cases, one male and one female, at autopsy with non-kidney related disease. Cytogene

  3. GREAT PROMISE OF TISSUE-RESIDENT ADULT STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS IN TRANSPLANTATION AND CANCER THERAPIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cell research has inspired great interest because these immature cells from your own body can act as potential, easily accessible cell sources for cell transplantation in regenerative medicine and cancer therapies. The use of adult stem/progenitor cells endowed with a high self-renewal ability and multilineage differentiation potential, which are able to regenerate all the mature cells in the tissues from their origin, offers great prom...

  4. Gene expression profiles from formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast cancer tissue are largely comparable to fresh frozen matched tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mittempergher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE samples represent a valuable resource for cancer research. However, the discovery and development of new cancer biomarkers often requires fresh frozen (FF samples. Recently, the Whole Genome (WG DASL (cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation assay was specifically developed to profile FFPE tissue. However, a thorough comparison of data generated from FFPE RNA and Fresh Frozen (FF RNA using this platform is lacking. To this end we profiled, in duplicate, 20 FFPE tissues and 20 matched FF tissues and evaluated the concordance of the DASL results from FFPE and matched FF material. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that after proper normalization, all FFPE and FF pairs exhibit a high level of similarity (Pearson correlation >0.7, significantly larger than the similarity between non-paired samples. Interestingly, the probes showing the highest correlation had a higher percentage G/C content and were enriched for cell cycle genes. Predictions of gene expression signatures developed on frozen material (Intrinsic subtype, Genomic Grade Index, 70 gene signature showed a high level of concordance between FFPE and FF matched pairs. Interestingly, predictions based on a 60 gene DASL list (best match with the 70 gene signature showed very high concordance with the MammaPrint® results. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that data generated from FFPE material with the DASL assay, if properly processed, are comparable to data extracted from the FF counterpart. Specifically, gene expression profiles for a known set of prognostic genes for a specific disease are highly comparable between two conditions. This opens up the possibility of using both FFPE and FF material in gene expressions analyses, leading to a vast increase in the potential resources available for cancer research.

  5. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF SURVIVIN mRNA IN LUNG CANCER TISSUE MICROARRAY DETECTED BY FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yun Wang; Xing-ye Wu; Zhi Yao; Yan Li; Ting Liu; Hai-yan Zheng; Cong-zhong Zhu; Cui-yun Sun; Ai-xiang Wang; Min Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Survivin mRNA in lung cancer tissue microarray (TMA) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method, and determine the role and significance of it in lung cancer genesis and progress. Methods The expression of Survivin mRNA was detected by FISH method and TMA technology. Fifty-four cases of lung cancer and 10 cases of normal lung tissue were examined. Results Survivin mRNA was expressed in 66.7% (36/54) of lung cancer; the positive ratio of lung cancer was significantly higher than that of normal lung tissue (0/10; x2= 15.238, P < 0.05). The positive ratio of Survivin mRNA was significantly higher in poor differentiated cancer (20/24, 83.3%) than moderate and well differentiated cancer (16/30, 53.3%; x2= 5.40, P <0.05). The positive ratio of Survivin mRNA was significantly higher in group with lymph node metastasis (27/32, 84.4%) than without lymph node metastasis (9/22, 40.9%; x2= 11.084, P < 0.05). The positive ratio of Survivin mRNA was significantly higher in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ(12/13, 92.3%) than stage Ⅰ - Ⅱ (24/41, 58.5%; x2= 5.066, P < 0.05). Conclusion Survivin mRNA highly expresses in lung cancer, which is related to the progress and malignant behavior. Survivin may play a promoting role in lung cancer genesis and progress and provide a basis for estimating prognosis and treatment.

  6. Bioluminescence-activated deep-tissue photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi Rang; Kim, Seonghoon; Choi, Jin Woo; Choi, Sung Yong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Homin; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Koh, Gou Young; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Optical energy can trigger a variety of photochemical processes useful for therapies. Owing to the shallow penetration of light in tissues, however, the clinical applications of light-activated therapies have been limited. Bioluminescence resonant energy transfer (BRET) may provide a new way of inducing photochemical activation. Here, we show that efficient bioluminescence energy-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) of macroscopic tumors and metastases in deep tissue. For monolayer cell culture in vitro incubated with Chlorin e6, BRET energy of about 1 nJ per cell generated as strong cytotoxicity as red laser light irradiation at 2.2 mW/cm(2) for 180 s. Regional delivery of bioluminescence agents via draining lymphatic vessels killed tumor cells spread to the sentinel and secondary lymph nodes, reduced distant metastases in the lung and improved animal survival. Our results show the promising potential of novel bioluminescence-activated PDT.

  7. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  8. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  9. PUTATIVE ROLE OF ADIPOSE TISSUE IN GROWTH AND METABOLISM OF COLON CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty eSchwartz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging data highlight obesity as an important risk factor for developing certain types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Although evidence supports a link between the two, the mechanisms responsible for this relationship have not yet been fully elucidated. Hypertrophied and dysfunctional adipose tissue of the obese state is characterized by low-grade inflammation. Adipokines and cytokines secreted from adipocytes, together with the abundant availability of lipids from adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment, promote adhesion, migration, and invasion of tumor cells and support tumor progression and uncontrolled growth. One of the predisposed targets of the deleterious effects exerted by secretions from adipose tissue in obesity are the activities associated with the cellular mitochondria. Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism plays a key role in meeting cells' energetic demands by oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos. Here we discuss: (a the dynamic relationship between glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and OxPhos; (b the evidence for impaired OxPhos (i.e. mitochondrial dysfunction in colon cancer; (c the mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction can predispose to cancer. We propose that impaired OxPhos increases susceptibility to colon cancer since OxPhos is sensitive to a large number of factors that are intrinsic to the host (e.g. inflammation.Given that adipocytes are a major source of adipokines and energy for the cancer cell, understanding the mechanisms of metabolic symbiosis between cancer cells and adipocytes should reveal new therapeutic possibilities.

  10. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF C-erbB-2 IN THE TISSUES OF LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the expression and clinical significance of C-erbB-2 in the tissue of lung cancer. Methods Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the protein expression of C-erbB-2 in lung cancer tissue. Results The positive expression rate of C-erbB-2 protein in 38 cases of lung cancer was 53.3% (21/38),which was higher than those in lung benign control group (P<0. 001). The significant correlation were found between the protein level and tumor stage(r= +0. 64,P<0.02). The order was stage Ⅳ>stage Ⅲ >stage Ⅱ >stage Ⅰ . There was no correlation among protein expression of C-erbB-2 in various histological types of lung cancer (P>0.05 for all). Conclusion The positive expression rates of C-erbB-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer group than those in benign control group. There is significant correlation between C-erbB-2 expression and lung cancer stage. There is no correlation among protein expression of C-erbB-2 and histological types of lung cancer.

  11. Concentration of Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se in Different Parts of Human Breast Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality between women in the world. Metals involved in environmental toxicology are closely related to tumor growth and cancer. On the other hand, some metals such as selenium have anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in separated parts of tegmen, tumor, tumor adiposity, and tegmen adiposity of 14 breast cancer tissues which have been analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA-670 and ICP-OES (ULTIMA 2CE. Our results show that Se and Hg have maximum and minimum concentration, respectively. Statistical analysis reveals no significant differences between metal accumulations in different parts of cancer tissues (P>0.05 and this observation might be due to the close relation of separated parts of fatty breast organ. Thus, we could conclude that a high level of these heavy metals is accumulated in Iranian cancerous breasts and their presence can be one of the reasons of cancer appearance.

  12. Expression and significance of multidrug resistance gene in the colorectal cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Lu; Min-Hong Pang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of expressions of MDR1/P-gp and CerbB-2 in the colorectal cancer tissues and their clinical significance.Methods:A total of 86 colorectal cancer tissues specimens were included in the study. The immunohistochemical S-P method was used to detect the expressions of P-gp and CerbB-2, and their correlations were analyzed.Results:The positive rates of the expressions of MDR1/P-gp and CerbB-2 were 36% (31/86) and 28% (24/86), respectively. The positive expression rate of CerbB-2 in the colorectal cancer tissues at a clinical stage of III was significantly higher than that at stage I and II. The positive expression rates of MDR1/P-gp and CerbB-2 in the colorectal cancer tissues with axillary lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those in the tissues without axillary lymph node metastasis. In the P-gp positive expression group, the positive rate of CerbB-2 was 75.5% (37/49), while the negative rate of CerbB-2 was 24.48% (12/49), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). P-gp had a certain positive correlation with the positive expression rate of CerbB-2. Conclusions:P-gp and CerbB-2 play a certain role in the occurrence of multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer, and their expressions are correlated; therefore, the combination detection can provide an evidence for the chemotherapy choice of colorectal cancer.

  13. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  14. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  15. Expression and Clinical Significance of SHP2 in the Tumor Tissues of Smokers with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei ZHAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proved that protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were important mechanisms in lung cancer development, and tobacco smoking is an important risk factor of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and clinical significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC; the relationship between tobacco smoking and the expression of SHP2 is also studied. Methods Immunohistochemistry (Invision and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH were used to detect the expression of SHP2 and the augment of SHP2 mRNA in the 53 lung cancer specimens. Results The weak positive rate of SHP2 was 80% (which was also the total positive rate in normal bronchial epithelium. The weak, moderate and strong positive rates were 35.4%, 43.8% and 6.2% (total positive rate was 85.4% in 48 NSCLC patients, 0%, 80% and 20% (total positve rate was 100% in 5 SCLC patients, 40.7%, 37.4% and 3.7% (total positive rate was 81.5% in the tumor tissues of 27 NSCLC patients who didn’t smoke and 23.8%, 71.4% and 4.7% (total positive rate was 100% in the tumor tissues of 21 NSCLC patients whose smoking indexes were ≥400. Significant differences of SHP2 expression were observed between tumor tissues and normal bronchial epithelium, NSCLC and SCLC, and between different smoking indexes (P < 0.05. Conclusion The enhancement of SHP2 expression in the tumor tissues of NSCLC patients who smoke may be correlated with tobacco smoking; SHP2 may play certain role in the development of lung cancer; SHP2 prospectively provides new ideas for the drug research and development of lung cancer treatment.

  16. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

  17. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  18. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  19. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  20. Hypothermia activates adipose tissue to promote malignant lung cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangjun Du

    Full Text Available Microenvironment has been increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we identified early changes in the microenvironment that contribute to malignant progression. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to methylnitrosourea (MNU caused a reduction in cell toxicity and an increase in clonogenic capacity when the temperature was lowered from 37°C to 28°C. Hypothermia-incubated adipocyte media promoted proliferation in A549 cells. Although a hypothermic environment could increase urethane-induced tumor counts and Lewis lung cancer (LLC metastasis in lungs of three breeds of mice, an increase in tumor size could be discerned only in obese mice housed in hypothermia. Similarly, coinjections using differentiated adipocytes and A549 cells promoted tumor development in athymic nude mice when adipocytes were cultured at 28°C. Conversely, fat removal suppressed tumor growth in obese C57BL/6 mice inoculated with LLC cells. Further studies show hypothermia promotes a MNU-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and protects the tumor cell against immune control by TGF-β1 upregulation. We also found that activated adipocytes trigger tumor cell proliferation by increasing either TNF-α or VEGF levels. These results suggest that hypothermia activates adipocytes to stimulate tumor boost and play critical determinant roles in malignant progression.

  1. It takes a tissue to make a tumor: Epigenetics, cancer and the microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2001-01-19

    How do normal tissues limit the development of cancer? This review discusses the evidence that normal cells effectively restrict malignant behavior, and that such tissue forces must be subjugated to establish a tumor. The action of ionizing radiation will be specifically discussed regarding the disruption of the microenvironment that promotes the transition from preneoplastic to neoplastic growth. Unlike the highly unpredictable nature of genetic mutations, the response of normal cells to radiation damage follows an epigenetic program similar to wound healing and other damage responses. Our hypothesis is that the persistent disruption of the microenvironment in irradiated tissue compromises its ability to suppress carcinogenesis.

  2. It takes a tissue to make a tumor: epigenetics, cancer and the microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    How do normal tissues limit the development of cancer? This review discusses the evidence that normal cells effectively restrict malignant behavior, and that such tissue forces must be subjugated to establish a tumor. The action of ionizing radiation will be specifically discussed regarding the disruption of the microenvironment that promotes the transition from preneoplastic to neoplastic growth. Unlike the highly unpredictable nature of genetic mutations, the response of normal cells to radiation damage follows an epigenetic program similar to wound healing and other damage responses. Our hypothesis is that the persistent disruption of the microenvironment in irradiated tissue compromises its ability to suppress carcinogenesis.

  3. Tissue temperature distribution measurement by MRI and laser immunology for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichao; Gnyawali, Surya C.; Wu, Feng; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2007-02-01

    In cancer treatment and immune response enhancement research, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an ideal method for non-invasive, three-dimensional temperature measurement. We used a 7.1-Tesla magnetic resonance imager for ex vivo tissues and small animal to determine temperature distribution of target tissue during laser irradiation. The feasibility of imaging is approved with high spatial resolution and high signal-noise- ratio. Tissue-simulating gel phantom gel, biological tissues, and tumor-bearing animals were used in the experiments for laser treatment and MR imaging. Thermal couple measurement of temperature in target samples was used for system calibration. An 805-nm laser was used to irradiate the samples with a laser power in the range of 1 to 2.5 watts. Using the MRI system and a specially developed processing algorithm, a clear temperature distribution matrix in the target tissue and surrounding tissue was obtained. The temperature profiles show that the selective laser photothermal effect could result in tissue temperature elevation in a range of 10 to 45 °C. The temperature resolution of the measurement was about 0.37°C including the total system error. The spatial resolution was 0.4 mm (128x128 pixels with field of view of 5.5x5.5 cm). The temperature distribution provided in vivo thermal information and future reference for optimizing dye concentration and irradiation parameters to achieve optimal thermal effects in cancer treatment.

  4. Effect of implant vs. tissue reconstruction on cancer specific survival varies by axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ouyang

    Full Text Available To compare the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS between patients who underwent tissue or implant reconstruction after mastectomy.We used the database from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER registries and compared the BCSS between patients who underwent tissue and implant reconstruction after mastectomy. Cox-regression models were fitted, adjusting for known clinicopathological features. The interaction between the reconstruction types (tissue/implant and nodal status (N-stage was investigated.A total of 6,426 patients with a median age of 50 years were included. With a median follow up of 100 months, the 10-year cumulative BCSS and non-BCSS were 85.1% and 95.4%, respectively. Patients who underwent tissue reconstruction had tumors with a higher T-stage, N-stage, and tumor grade and tended to be ER/PR-negative compared to those who received implant reconstruction. In univariate analysis, implant-reconstruction was associated with a 2.4% increase (P = 0.003 in the BCSS compared with tissue-reconstruction. After adjusting for significant risk factors of the BCSS (suggested by univariate analysis and stratifying based on the N-stage, there was only an association between the reconstruction type and the BCSS for the N2-3 patients (10-year BCSS of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction: 68.7% and 59.0%, P = 0.004. The 10-year BCSS rates of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction were 91.7% and 91.8% in N0 patients (P>0.05 and 84.5% and 84.4% in N1 patients (P>0.05, respectively.The implant (vs. tissue reconstruction after mastectomy was associated with an improved BCSS in N2-3 breast cancer patients but not in N0-1 patients. A well-designed, prospective study is needed to further confirm these findings.

  5. Cellular origin and procoagulant activity of tissue factor-exposing microparticles in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Berckmans, R.J.; Böing, A.N.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H.R.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Nieuwland, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In patients with cancer, tissue factor-exposing microparticles (TF-exposing MP) have been associated with disease progression and thrombosis. The cellular origin and coagulant activity of TF-exposing MP, however, remain disputed. Therefore, we investigated the cellular origin of the TF-e

  6. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in the postoperative monitoring of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Sørensen, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pre- and postoperative plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) were associated with outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre- and postoperative plasma TIMP-1 from 280 curatively resected CRC patients and carcinoembryon...

  7. Association of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and Ki67 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Christina Annette; Knoop, Ann; Bjerre, Karsten;

    2013-01-01

    The role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer remains to be fully elucidated. We evaluated TIMP-1 as a prognostic marker in patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen and investigated TIMP-1s association with Ki67 and ER/progesterone ...

  8. N-glycan MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Enables the Delineation of Ovarian Cancer Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Briggs, Matthew T; Kaur, Gurjeet; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is a fatal gynaecological malignancy in adult women with a five-year overall survival rate of only 30%. Glycomic and glycoproteomic profiling studies have reported extensive protein glycosylation pattern alterations in ovarian cancer. Therefore, spatio-temporal investigation of these glycosylation changes may unearth tissue-specific changes that occur in the development and progression of ovarian cancer. A novel method for investigating tissue-specific N-linked glycans is using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections that can spatially profile N-glycan compositions released from proteins in tissue-specific regions. In this study, tissue regions of interest (e.g. tumor, stroma, adipose tissue and necrotic areas) were isolated from FFPE tissue sections of advanced serous ovarian cancers (n = 3). PGC-LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MSI were used as complementary techniques to firstly generate structural information on the tissue-specific glycans in order to then obtain high resolution images of the glycan structure distribution in ovarian cancer tissue. The N-linked glycan repertoires carried by the proteins in these tissue regions were structurally characterized for the first time in FFPE ovarian cancer tissue regions, using enzymatic peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) release of N-glycans. The released glycans were analyzed by porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatography (PGC-LC) and collision induced electrospray negative mode MS fragmentation analysis. The N-glycan profiles identified by this analysis were then used to determine the location and distribution of each N-glycan on FFPE ovarian cancer sections that were treated with PNGase F using high resolution MALDI-MSI. A tissue-specific distribution of N-glycan structures identified particular regions of the ovarian cancer sections. For example, high mannose glycans were predominantly expressed in the

  9. Androgen receptor isoforms in human prostatic cancer tissue and LNCaP cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Jie XIA; Xiao-Da TANG; Qing-Zheng MA

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the androgen receptor (AR) isoform expressions in human prostatic cancer tissue and LNCaP cell line. Methods: With high resolution isoelectric focusing (IEF) method we demonstrated the different expressions of AR isoforms in human prostatic cancer tissues and LNCaP cell line. Results: Data were obtained from three prostatic cancer specimens and the LNCaP cell line. Three types of AR isoforms were detected with pI values at 6.5,6.0, and 5.3. For the 3 prostatic cancer specimens, 1 sample showed all the three types of AR isoforms, the second specimen expressed at 6.5 and 6.0, and the third failed to show any type of isoforms. The LNCaP cell line expressed all the three AR isoforms. Binding of 3H-dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT) to these three isoforms was inhibited by the addition ofl00-fold excess of DHT or testosterone, while not by progesterone, oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol. Conclusion: The expression of AR isofonns is different in different prostate cancer tissues, which may be related to the difference in the effect of anti-androgen therapy in different patients.

  10. Multiobjective Simulated Annealing-Based Clustering of Tissue Samples for Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sudipta; Saha, Sriparna; Thadisina, Yamini

    2016-03-01

    In the field of pattern recognition, the study of the gene expression profiles of different tissue samples over different experimental conditions has become feasible with the arrival of microarray-based technology. In cancer research, classification of tissue samples is necessary for cancer diagnosis, which can be done with the help of microarray technology. In this paper, we have presented a multiobjective optimization (MOO)-based clustering technique utilizing archived multiobjective simulated annealing(AMOSA) as the underlying optimization strategy for classification of tissue samples from cancer datasets. The presented clustering technique is evaluated for three open source benchmark cancer datasets [Brain tumor dataset, Adult Malignancy, and Small Round Blood Cell Tumors (SRBCT)]. In order to evaluate the quality or goodness of produced clusters, two cluster quality measures viz, adjusted rand index and classification accuracy ( % CoA) are calculated. Comparative results of the presented clustering algorithm with ten state-of-the-art existing clustering techniques are shown for three benchmark datasets. Also, we have conducted a statistical significance test called t-test to prove the superiority of our presented MOO-based clustering technique over other clustering techniques. Moreover, significant gene markers have been identified and demonstrated visually from the clustering solutions obtained. In the field of cancer subtype prediction, this study can have important impact. PMID:25706936

  11. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in cancerous and normal colonic tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lay-Harn Gam; Chiuan-Herng Leow; Che Nin Man; Boon-Hui Gooi; Manjit Singh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify and analyze the differentially expressed proteins in normal and cancerous tissues of four patients suffering from colon cancer.METHODS: Colon tissues (normal and cancerous)were homogenized and the proteins were extracted using three protein extraction buffers. The extraction buffers were used in an orderly sequence of increasing extraction strength for proteins with hydrophobic properties. The protein extracts were separated using the SDS-PAGE method and the images were captured and analyzed using Quantity One software. The target protein bands were subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin and finally analyzed using an ESI-ion trap mass spectrometer.RESULTS: A total of 50 differentially expressed proteins in colonic cancerous and normal tissues were identified.CONCLUSION: Many of the identified proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of similar or other types of cancers. However, some of the identified proteins have not been reported before. In addition, a number of hypothetical proteins were also identified.

  12. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  13. Alteration of proliferation and apoptotic markers in normal and premalignant tissue associated with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular markers identifying alterations in proliferation and apoptotic pathways could be particularly important in characterizing high-risk normal or pre-neoplastic tissue. We evaluated the following markers: Ki67, Minichromosome Maintenance Protein-2 (Mcm-2), activated caspase-3 (a-casp3) and Bcl-2 to determine if they showed differential expression across progressive degrees of intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer in the prostate. To identify field effects, we also evaluated whether high-risk expression patterns in normal tissue were more common in prostates containing cancer compared to those without cancer (supernormal), and in histologically normal glands adjacent to a cancer focus as opposed to equivalent glands that were more distant. The aforementioned markers were studied in 13 radical prostatectomy (RP) and 6 cystoprostatectomy (CP) specimens. Tissue compartments representing normal, low grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (LGPIN), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), as well as different grades of cancer were mapped on H&E slides and adjacent sections were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Normal glands within 1 mm distance of a tumor focus and glands beyond 5 mm were considered 'near' and 'far', respectively. Randomly selected nuclei and 40 × fields were scored by a single observer; basal and luminal epithelial layers were scored separately. Both Ki-67 and Mcm-2 showed an upward trend from normal tissue through HGPIN and cancer with a shift in proliferation from basal to luminal compartment. Activated caspase-3 showed a significant decrease in HGPIN and cancer compartments. Supernormal glands had significantly lower proliferation indices and higher a-casp3 expression compared to normal glands. 'Near' normal glands had higher Mcm-2 indices compared to 'far' glands; however, they also had higher a-casp3 expression. Bcl-2, which varied minimally in normal tissue, did not show any trend

  14. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... One example is polycystic kidney disease, in which normal kidney tissue is replaced by fluid-filled sacs. Glomerular ... kidney will be needed. In some cases, donor kidneys come from a close relative ... whose organs are similar in size to the child's. If a living donor can' ...

  15. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall...... survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. METHODS: YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry...... in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. RESULTS: YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor...

  16. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  17. Detection of Slit2 promoter hypermethylation in tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Eon; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Yoo Duk; Lee, Ji Shin; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Nam, Jong Hee; Choi, Chan; Park, Min Ho; Yoon, Jung Han

    2011-10-01

    Promoter hypermethylation has been shown to be a common mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Slit2 promoter hypermethylation in both the tumor and serum samples of breast cancer patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). The methylation status of Slit2 was investigated in 210 tissue samples (15 breast with no pathological findings, 26 DCIS, and 169 IBC samples) and 123 corresponding serum samples (15 breast with no pathological findings, 26 DCIS, and 82 IBC samples) using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining for Slit2 was also performed using tissue microarray blocks to determine whether Slit2 promoter hypermethylation correlated with loss of Slit2 expression. Slit2 promoter hypermethylation was not detected in breast tissue and serum samples from patients with no pathological findings. DCIS or IBC showed a statistically higher frequency of Slit2 promoter hypermethylation compared to breast with no pathological findings in both the tissue and serum samples; however, there were no statistically significant differences between DCIS and IBC samples. Similar Slit2 promoter hypermethylation patterns were seen in the tissue samples and corresponding serum specimens (p Slit2 promoter hypermethylation was associated with loss of Slit2 expression. These results suggest that Slit2 promoter hypermethylation appears to be responsible for functionally silencing Slit2 expression. Slit2 promoter hypermethylation may be considered as a possible serum marker for early detection of breast cancer.

  18. Ex-vivo evaluation of gene therapy vectors in human pancreatic (cancer) tissue slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael A van Geer; Koert FD Kuhlmann; Conny T Bakker; Fibo JW ten Kate; Ronald PJ Oude Elferink; Piter J Bosma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To culture human pancreatic tissue obtained from small resection specimens as a pre-clinical model for examining virus-host interactions.METHODS: Human pancreatic tissue samples (malignant and normal) were obtained from surgical specimens and processed immediately to tissue slices.Tissue slices were cultured ex vivo for 1-6 d in an incubator using 95% O2. Slices were subsequently analyzed for viability and morphology. In addition the slices were incubated with different viral vectors expressing the repor ter genes GFP or DsRed.Expression of these reporter genes was measured at 72 h after infection.RESULTS: With the Krumdieck tissue slicer, uniform slices could be generated from pancreatic tissue but only upon embedding the tissue in 3% low melting agarose. Immunohistological examination showed the presence of all pancreatic cell types. Pancreatic normal and cancer tissue slices could be cultured for up to 6 d, while retaining viability and a moderate to good morphology. Reporter gene expression indicated that the slices could be infected and transduced efficiently by adenoviral vectors and by adeno associated viral vectors, whereas transduction with lentiviral vectors was limited. For the adenoviral vector, the transduction seemed limited to the peripheral layers of the explants.CONCLUSION: The presented sys tem al lows reproducible processing of minimal amounts of pancreatic tissue into slices uniform in size, suitable for pre-clinical evaluation of gene therapy vectors.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Tissue Images for Detection and Classification of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Jagtap, Jaidip; Pandey, Kiran; Agarwa, Asha; Panigrahi, Prasanta K; Pradhan, Asima

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major health threats in women worldwide. The current "gold standard" for detecting cancer of the epithelial tissue is the histopathology analysis of biopsy samples. However it relies on the pathologist's judgment of the disease. We investigate the utility of statistical parameters as a potential tool for detection and discrimination of the stages of dysplasia. Digital images of the tissue slides are captured with the help of a digital camera plugged to a microscope. Statistical data analysis is performed with the help of software to evaluate parameters such as mean, maxima, full width half maxima, skewness, kurtosis etc. for the images. We believe that these parameters can help effectively to improve the diagnosis and further classify normal and abnormal tissue sections. These parameters can be used independently as well as in tandem with other parameters as features in classification algorithms that involve the use of Neural networks or Principal component analysis.

  20. Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Jared R; Torrence, Margaret E; Danai, Laura V; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Davidson, Shawn M; Bauer, Matthew R; Lau, Allison N; Ji, Brian W; Dixit, Purushottam D; Hosios, Aaron M; Muir, Alexander; Chin, Christopher R; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Jacks, Tyler; Wolpin, Brian M; Vitkup, Dennis; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2016-09-01

    Tumor genetics guides patient selection for many new therapies, and cell culture studies have demonstrated that specific mutations can promote metabolic phenotypes. However, whether tissue context defines cancer dependence on specific metabolic pathways is unknown. Kras activation and Trp53 deletion in the pancreas or the lung result in pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma (PDAC) or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively, but despite the same initiating events, these tumors use branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) differently. NSCLC tumors incorporate free BCAAs into tissue protein and use BCAAs as a nitrogen source, whereas PDAC tumors have decreased BCAA uptake. These differences are reflected in expression levels of BCAA catabolic enzymes in both mice and humans. Loss of Bcat1 and Bcat2, the enzymes responsible for BCAA use, impairs NSCLC tumor formation, but these enzymes are not required for PDAC tumor formation, arguing that tissue of origin is an important determinant of how cancers satisfy their metabolic requirements. PMID:27609895

  1. Soft tissue metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed by {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Califano, Ines; Quildrian, Sergio; Otero, Jose; Coduti, Martin; Califano, Leonardo; Rojas Bilbao, Erica, E-mail: ines.m.califano@gmail.com [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    Distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are unusual; lung and bones are the most frequently affected sites. Soft tissue metastases (STM) are extremely rare. We describe two cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer metastasizing to soft tissues. Both patients had widespread metastatic disease; clinically asymptomatic soft tissue metastases were found by 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F FDG PET-CT), and confirmed by cytological and/or histopathological studies. These findings underscore the ability of {sup 18}F FDG PET-CT in accurately assessing the extent of the disease, as well as the utility of the method to evaluate regions of the body that are not routinely explored. (author)

  2. Computerized prediction of breast cancer risk: comparison between the global and local bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xiao Hui; Zheng, Bin

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and preliminarily tested a new breast cancer risk prediction model based on computerized bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry. In this study, we investigated and compared the performance difference of our risk prediction model when the bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetrical features were extracted in two different methods namely (1) the entire breast area and (2) the mirror-matched local strips between the left and right breast. A testing dataset including bilateral craniocaudal (CC) view images of 100 negative and 100 positive cases for developing breast abnormalities or cancer was selected from a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database. To detect bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry, a set of 20 initial "global" features were extracted from the entire breast areas of two bilateral mammograms in CC view and their differences were computed. Meanwhile, a pool of 16 local histogram-based statistic features was computed from eight mirror-matched strips between the left and right breast. Using a genetic algorithm (GA) to select optimal features, two artificial neural networks (ANN) were built to predict the risk of a test case developing cancer. Using the leave-one-case-out training and testing method, two GAoptimized ANNs yielded the areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.754+/-0.024 (using feature differences extracted from the entire breast area) and 0.726+/-0.026 (using the feature differences extracted from 8 pairs of local strips), respectively. The risk prediction model using either ANN is able to detect 58.3% (35/60) of cancer cases 6 to 18 months earlier at 80% specificity level. This study compared two methods to compute bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry and demonstrated that bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry was a useful breast cancer risk indicator with high discriminatory power.

  3. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  4. Quantification of mesna and total mesna in kidney tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschraagen, M.; Bosma, M.; Zwiers, TH; Torun, E; Vijgh, van der W.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive and selective assay for the determination of mesna and total mesna in tissue was developed and validated. After a simple homogenization, extraction and deproteinization step, mesna could be measured immediately by HPLC with an electrochemical detector provided with a sensitive wall-jet g

  5. Using endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy singular tissue plural tissues in organ-preserving surgery of laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study has demonstrated feasibility of performing larynx preservation surgeries in patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer after failure of radiotherapy. The technique of combined laryngeal reconstruction with endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy Singular tissue Plural tissues results in improvement of life quality by preserving laryngeal functions

  6. Using endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy singular tissue plural tissues in organ-preserving surgery of laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulbakin, D. E., E-mail: kulbakin-d@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Mukhamedov, M. R., E-mail: muhamedov@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow Highway, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: choynzonov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow Highway, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gynter, V. E., E-mail: tc77@rec.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Materials, 17, 19 Gv. Divizii, Tomsk, 634034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Our study has demonstrated feasibility of performing larynx preservation surgeries in patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer after failure of radiotherapy. The technique of combined laryngeal reconstruction with endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy Singular tissue Plural tissues results in improvement of life quality by preserving laryngeal functions.

  7. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Matei, D [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  8. Virtual Touch tissue quantification cannot assess breast cancer lesions except for ductal carcinomas in situ and small invasive cancers: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Keiichiro; Nishioka, Kotoe; Kikuchi, Yasuko; Niwa, Takayoshi; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) is a promising new technology that quantitatively determines the stiffness of tissue. However, the clinical impact of this device on the assessment of breast cancer is unclear. Methods This study aimed to review the ultrasound records of patients with breast lesions where VTTQ was used to assess 123 normal breast tissues, 18 benign tumors, and 117 histopathologically confirmed breast cancers in a total of 129 patients. To determine the VTT...

  9. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that fa

  10. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis; Strandgaard, Svend Valdemar;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular...

  11. Effect of simvastatin on expression of IL17, HMGB1 and TLR4 in LN kidney tissues of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Qin; Ya-Ting Sun; Lin-Xia Xia; Ying-Jie Zhang; Xue-Jun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the intervention influence and effect of simvastatin on the expression of interleukin17(LI17), high mobility group protein1(HMGB1) andTLR4 path inLupus nephritis (LN) rats.Methods:A total of28BSXSB male mice withLN(16 weeks) were randomly divided into observation group and the comparison group, observation group was given6 mg•kg-1•d-1 simvastatin in0.1%PBS lavage for4 weeks, the comparison group was not given any treatment. Blood urea nitrogen(BUN) level and urine trace albumin(Scr) level of two groups were determined. The expression ofIL17,HMGB1 andTLR4 protein was detected using immune histochemical method, and the kidney histological damage was observed.Results:BNU,LI17,HMGB1,TLR4 protein andHMGB1 mRNA in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05).Histological observation showed glomerular lesions integral of observation group was obviously lower than that of control group.Conclusions:Simvastatin can reduce the expression ofIL17,HMGB1 and TLR4 protein inLN mice, thereby can inhibit the autoimmune response as a potential treatment function ofLN.

  12. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on mitomycin C-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in rat kidney and heart tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjiba-Touati, K; Ayed-Boussema, I; Guedri, Y; Achour, A; Bacha, H; Abid-Essefi, S

    2016-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is an antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the prolonged use of the drug may result in a serious heart and kidney injuries. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has recently been shown to exert an important cytoprotective effect in experimental brain injury and ischemic acute renal failure. The aim of the present work is to investigate the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of rhEPO against MMC-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that MMC induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. rhEPO administration in any treatment conditions decreased oxidative damage induced by MMC. It reduced malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels. rhEPO ameliorated reduced glutathione plus oxidized glutathione modulation and the increased catalase activity after MMC treatment. Furthermore, rhEPO restored DNA damage caused by MMC. We concluded that rhEPO administration especially in pretreatment condition protected rats against MMC-induced heart and renal oxidative stress and genotoxicity. PMID:25733728

  13. Anti-dsDNA Positivity in a Patient with Prostate Cancer and Acute Kidney Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan TURGUTALP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with malignancies may develop autoimmune and rheumatic manifestations as a result of generation of autoantibodies, paraneoplastic syndromes, direct invasion of joints and muscles by the tumour cells, or combination chemotherapy. We present a case with prostate cancer and acute kidney injury (AKI mimicking rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with a positive test result for anti-double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid antibodies (Anti-dsDNA ab. CASE PRESENTATION: The 78-year-old male patient applied to our center with the complaint of generalized bone pain since approximately two months, and rapid onset of weakness, oliguria and dysuria for three days. He had been diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer (PC for two years and at the time of application had received high dose of naproxen sodium because of severe bone pain for 5 days. Serum creatinine level was elevated on admission (2.4 mg/dl. Urinalysis revealed microscopic hematuria, granular casts and proteinuria of 1.2 gr/day. Immunologic tests including Anti-dsDNA antibody were done regarding acute nephritic syndrome. The subject was positive for Anti-dsDNA ab with a value of 96 IU/ml (normal, <10 IU/ml. Renal biopsy was planned but the patient refused the procedure. After 6 days of oliguric period, his clinical condition and renal functions returned almost to normal with supportive care within 12 days. CONCLUSION: Malignant diseases may be a trigger for either the generation of some autoantibodies. Attention must be paid when interpreting the Anti-dsDNA positivity in malignant patients with AKI mimicking RPGN.

  14. Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia - before severe fat loss - in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34-42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition.

  15. Tissue heterogeneity in IMRT dose calculation for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciuti, Katia; Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Strigari, Lidia; Malatesta, Tiziana; Benassi, Marcello; Di Nallo, Anna Maria; Mirri, Alessandra; Pinzi, Valentina; Landoni, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in accuracy of dose calculation between 3 commonly used algorithms, the Pencil Beam algorithm (PB), the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), and the Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The 2D dose distributions obtained with the 3 algorithms were compared on each CT slice pixel by pixel, using the MATLAB code (The MathWorks, Natick, MA) and the agreement was assessed with the γ function. The effect of the differences on dose-volume histograms (DVHs), tumor control, and normal tissue complication probability (TCP and NTCP) were also evaluated, and its significance was quantified by using a nonparametric test. In general PB generates regions of over-dosage both in the lung and in the tumor area. These differences are not always in DVH of the lung, although the Wilcoxon test indicated significant differences in 2 of 4 patients. Disagreement in the lung region was also found when the Γ analysis was performed. The effect on TCP is less important than for NTCP because of the slope of the curve at the level of the dose of interest. The effect of dose calculation inaccuracy is patient-dependent and strongly related to beam geometry and to the localization of the tumor. When multiple intensity-modulated beams are used, the effect of the presence of the heterogeneity on dose distribution may not always be easily predictable. PMID:20970989

  16. Mining the epigenetic landscape of tissue polarity in search of new targets for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrian, Farzaneh; Lelièvre, Sophie A

    2015-01-01

    The epigenetic nature of cancer encourages the development of inhibitors of epigenetic pathways. Yet, the clinical use for solid tumors of approved epigenetic drugs is meager. We argue that this situation might improve upon understanding the coinfluence between epigenetic pathways and tissue architecture. We present emerging information on the epigenetic control of the polarity axis, a central feature of epithelial architecture created by the orderly distribution of multiprotein complexes at cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts and altered upon cancer onset (with apical polarity loss), invasive progression (with basolateral polarity loss) and metastatic development (with basoapical polarity imbalance). This information combined with the impact of polarity-related proteins on epigenetic mechanisms of cancer enables us to envision how to guide the choice of drugs specific for distinct epigenetic modifiers, in order to halt cancer development and counter the consequences of polarity alterations.

  17. Chronic kidney disease, severe arterial and arteriolar sclerosis and kidney neoplasia: on the spectrum of kidney involvement in MELAS syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli Giorgina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MELAS syndrome (MIM ID#540000, an acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with protean manifestations and occasional kidney involvement. Interest in the latter is rising due to the identification of cases with predominant kidney involvement and to the hypothesis of a link between mitochondrial DNA and kidney neoplasia. Case presentation We report the case of a 41-year-old male with full blown MELAS syndrome, with lactic acidosis and neurological impairment, affected by the "classic" 3243A > G mutation of mitochondrial DNA, with kidney cancer. After unilateral nephrectomy, he rapidly developed severe kidney functional impairment, with nephrotic proteinuria. Analysis of the kidney tissue at a distance from the two tumor lesions, sampled at the time of nephrectomy was performed in the context of normal blood pressure, recent onset of diabetes and before the appearance of proteinuria. The morphological examination revealed a widespread interstitial fibrosis with dense inflammatory infiltrate and tubular atrophy, mostly with thyroidization pattern. Vascular lesions were prominent: large vessels displayed marked intimal fibrosis and arterioles had hyaline deposits typical of hyaline arteriolosclerosis. These severe vascular lesions explained the different glomerular alterations including ischemic and obsolescent glomeruli, as is commonly observed in the so-called "benign" arteriolonephrosclerosis. Some rare glomeruli showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; as the patient subsequently developed nephrotic syndrome, these lesions suggest that silent ischemic changes may result in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis secondary to nephron loss. Conclusions Nephron loss may trigger glomerular sclerosis, at least in some cases of MELAS-related nephropathy. Thus the incidence of kidney disease in the "survivors" of MELAS

  18. The expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jin; Yuxuan Che; Qimin Wang; Fang Liu; Man Li; Lifen Wang; Xiuhua Sun; Yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The article aims to detect the expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues, to analyze the relationship between dif erent pathologic types and clinical features, also to invest the distribution of patients with positive expression of HER-2 gene. Methods:The expression of HER-2 gene in the 223 samples with colon can-cer was detected by immunochemical approach. The expression of HER-2 gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues and dif erent pathologic types was analyzed byχ2 test. The correlation between the expression of HER-2 gene and clinical features was analyzed by Spearman. Results:The number of positive expression of HER-2 gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 74 and 0 respectively, the dif erence has statistical significance. The number of papil ary or tubular adenocarcinoma was 182, among them, 60 cases were positive expression. The number of mucinous adenocarcinoma was 41, among them, 14 cases were positive expression. The expression of HER-2/neu gene has no correlation with sex, age, the maximum diameter, general classification, degree of dif erentiation and depth of invasion, which has no statistical significance. However, the expression of HER-2/neu gene has correlation with metastasis of lymph node and Dukes stage, which has statistical significance. The expression of HER-2/neu gene was positive correlation with metastasis of lymph node and Dukes stage. The correlated coef icient index was 0.320 and 0.320 respectively. In the 74 patients with positive expression of HER-2 gene, 59.4%of them were 60-74 years old. And there was 97.3%of the patients without family history of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:The expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent tissues. The expression of HER-2/neu gene has no correlation with sex, age, the maximum diameter, general classification, degree of dif erentiation and depth of invasion, but has correlation with metastasis of

  19. Human and rat mesangial cell receptors for glucose-modified proteins: potential role in kidney tissue remodelling and diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) are derived from the nonenzymatic addition of glucose to proteins. AGEs have been found to accumulate on tissue proteins in patients with diabetes, and their accumulation is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic complications. The finding that macrophages and endothelial cells contain AGE-specific receptors led us to examine whether mesangial cells (MCs) also possess a mechanism for recognizing and processing AGEs. Membrane extracts is...

  20. Influence of nanoparticles accumulation on optical properties of human normal and cancerous liver tissue in vitro estimated by OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Wei, Huajiang; Ye, Xiangping; Hu, Kun; Wu, Guoyong; Yang, Hongqin; He, Yonghong; Xie, Shusen; Guo, Zhouyi

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the potential use of nanoparticles as contrast agents by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in liver tissue was demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles (average size of 25 and 70 nm), were studied in human normal and cancerous liver tissues in vitro, respectively. Each sample was monitored with SD-OCT functional imaging for 240 min. Continuous OCT monitoring showed that, after application of gold nanoparticles, the OCT signal intensities of normal liver and cancerous liver tissue both increase with time, and the larger nanoparticles tend to produce a greater signal enhancement in the same type of tissue. The results show that the values of attenuation coefficients have significant differences between normal liver tissue and cancerous liver tissue. In addition, 25 nm gold nanoparticles allow higher penetration depth than 70 nm gold nanoparticles in liver tissues.

  1. Which, when and why? Rational use of tissue-based molecular testing in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A E; D'Amico, A V; Freedland, S J

    2016-03-01

    An increased molecular understanding of localized prostate cancer and the improved ability for molecular testing of pathologic tissue has led to the development of multiple clinical assays. Here we review the relevant molecular biology of localized prostate cancer, currently available tissue-based tests and describe which is best supported for use in various clinical scenarios. Literature regarding testing of human prostate cancer tissue with Ki-67, PTEN (by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluroescence in situ hybridization (FISH)), ProMark, Prolaris, OncotypeDX Prostate and Decipher was reviewed to allow for generation of expert opinions. At diagnosis, evaluation of PTEN status, use of ProMark or OncotypeDX Prostate in men with Gleason 6 or 3+4=7 disease may help guide the use of active surveillance. For men with Gleason 7 or above disease considering watchful waiting, Ki-67 and Prolaris add independent prognostic information. For those men who have undergone prostatectomy and have adverse pathology, Decipher testing may aid in the decision to undergo adjuvant radiation. Newly available molecular tests bring opportunities to improve decision making for men with localized prostate cancer. A review of the currently available data suggests clinical scenarios for which each of these tests may have the greatest utility. PMID:26123120

  2. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MicroRNA Detection in Archived Oral Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The noncoding RNA designated as microRNA (miRNA is a large group of small single-stranded regulatory RNA and has generated wide-spread interest in human disease studies. To facilitate delineating the role of microRNAs in cancer pathology, we sought to explore the feasibility of detecting microRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. Using FFPE materials, we have compared fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedures to detect miR-146a with (a different synthetic probes: regular custom DNA oligonucleotides versus locked nucleic acid (LNA incorporated DNA oligonucleotides; (b different reporters for the probes: biotin versus digoxigenin (DIG; (c different visualization: traditional versus tyramide signal amplification (TSA system; (d different blocking reagents for endogenous peroxidase. Finally, we performed miR-146a FISH on a commercially available oral cancer tissue microarray, which contains 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and 10 cases of normal epithelia from the human oral cavity. A sample FISH protocol for detecting miR-146a is provided. In summary, we have established reliable in situ hybridization procedures for detecting the expression of microRNA in FFPE oral cancer tissues. This method is an important tool for studies on the involvement of microRNA in oral cancer pathology and may have potential prognostic or diagnostic value.

  3. Characterization of breast tissue composition and breast cancer risk assessment using non-invasive transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Kristina M.; Weersink, Robert; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Tissue undergoing transformation into a state that is more favourable for tumor growth may present itself with different tissue optical properties and contain different amounts of the major tissue chromophores. Here, we decomposed transillumination spectra obtain in women from various risk levels of developing breast cancer.

  4. Predominant expression of Th1-type cytokines in primary hepatic cancer and adjacent liver tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Bo Qiu; Li-Qun Wu; Yun Lu; Shun Zhang; Bing-Yuan Zhang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has revealed a shift towards Th2 in many types of malignant tumor, but the state of Th1/Th2 is not clear in patients with primary hepatic cancer (PHC). This study was designed to determine the expression of Th1-versus Th2-type cytokines in primary hepatic cancer and the adjacent liver tissue in order to provide evidence for treatment of the Th1/Th2 shift. METHODS:Samples were collected from 11 patients with PHC. The gene expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using IFN-γ and IL-2 as Th1-type cytokine genes, and IL-4 and IL-10 as Th2-type cytokine genes. RESULTS: Th1-type cytokines were expressed in 7/11 PHCs and 9/11 adjacent liver tissues, while Th0 type cytokines occurred in 4/11 PHCs and 2/11 adjacent liver tissues. CONCLUSION: Th1-type cytokines are expressed predominantly in primary hepatic cancer and the adjacent liver tissue.

  5. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  6. The contributions of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 genotypes to triple negative breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Liang-Chih; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Su, Chen-Hsien; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Ji, Hong-Xue; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Maa, Ming-Chei; Bau, Da-Tian

    2016-03-01

    The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a family of multifunctional proteins which have been shown to be upregulated in various types of cancers. However, the contribution of TIMPs in breast cancer is not fully understood, not to mention triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study's aim was to evaluate the contribution of TIMP-1 rs4898, rs6609533, and rs2070584 genotypes to the risk of breast cancer, especially the subtype of TNBC. The contributions of these TIMP-1 genotypes to cancer risk were examined among 1232 breast cancer patients and 1232 healthy controls, and several clinicopathologic factors were also analyzed. The results showed that the percentages of CC, CT, and TT of TIMP-1 rs4898 were differentially distributed at 28.5%, 33.1% and 38.4% in the breast cancer patient group and 34.5%, 41.0% and 24.5% in the control group, respectively (P for trend = 7.99*10(-13)). It was also found that the CC genotype carriers were of increased risk for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-2.33, P = 0.0001) than the TT genotype carriers. In addition, we analyzed the allelic frequency distributions of all three TIMP-1s, and the results showed that the C allele of TIMP-1 rs4898 contributes to an increase in breast cancer susceptibility (P = 2.41*10(-12)). On the other hand, there was no difference found in the distribution of genotypic or allelic frequencies among the patients and the controls for TIMP-1 rs6609533 and rs2070584. Thus, it is our conclusion that the CC genotype of TIMP-1 rs4898 compared to the TT wild-type genotype may increase the risk for breast cancer, especially TNBC in Taiwan, and may serve as an early detective and predictive marker.

  7. Tissue pattern recognition error rates and tumor heterogeneity in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Steven J; Huff, Sarah E; Lange, Holger; Zakharov, Vladislav; Eberhard, David A; Krueger, Joseph S; Hicks, David G; Young, George David; Johnson, Trevor; Whitney-Miller, Christa L

    2013-01-01

    The anatomic pathology discipline is slowly moving toward a digital workflow, where pathologists will evaluate whole-slide images on a computer monitor rather than glass slides through a microscope. One of the driving factors in this workflow is computer-assisted scoring, which depends on appropriate selection of regions of interest. With advances in tissue pattern recognition techniques, a more precise region of the tissue can be evaluated, no longer bound by the pathologist's patience in manually outlining target tissue areas. Pathologists use entire tissues from which to determine a score in a region of interest when making manual immunohistochemistry assessments. Tissue pattern recognition theoretically offers this same advantage; however, error rates exist in any tissue pattern recognition program, and these error rates contribute to errors in the overall score. To provide a real-world example of tissue pattern recognition, 11 HER2-stained upper gastrointestinal malignancies with high heterogeneity were evaluated. HER2 scoring of gastric cancer was chosen due to its increasing importance in gastrointestinal disease. A method is introduced for quantifying the error rates of tissue pattern recognition. The trade-off between fully sampling tumor with a given tissue pattern recognition error rate versus randomly sampling a limited number of fields of view with higher target accuracy was modeled with a Monte-Carlo simulation. Under most scenarios, stereological methods of sampling-limited fields of view outperformed whole-slide tissue pattern recognition approaches for accurate immunohistochemistry analysis. The importance of educating pathologists in the use of statistical sampling is discussed, along with the emerging role of hybrid whole-tissue imaging and stereological approaches.

  8. Development of Pathological Diagnostics of Human Kidney Cancer by Multiple Staining Using New Fluorescent Fluolid Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilibaier Wuxiuer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC, and renal angiomyolipoma (AML, with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics.

  9. A low dimensional entropy-based descriptor of several tissues in skin cancer histopathology samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Pablo; Corredor, Germán.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The use of low-level visual features to assign high level labels in datasets of histopathology images is a possible solution to the problems derived from manual labeling by experts. However, in many cases, the visual cues are not enough. In this article we propose the use of features derived exclusively from the spatial distribution of the cell nuclei. These features are calculated using the weight of k-nn graphs constructed from the distances between cells. Results show that there are k values with enhanced discriminatory power, especially when comparing cancerous and non-cancerous tissue.

  10. Excess risk of breast cancer in the mothers of children with soft tissue sarcomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, J M; Hartley, A L; Marsden, H B; Harris, M; Swindell, R.

    1984-01-01

    Information was obtained on the health status or cause of death in the mothers of a population-based series of 143 children with soft tissue sarcomas. Among these mothers there were 6 cases of breast cancer. All 6 women were pre-menopausal and 2 had bilateral disease. This represents a significant 3-fold excess risk of breast cancer. Malignant disease had occurred in 6 other women whose ages at diagnosis ranged from 33 to 58 years. This was not significantly in excess of expectation. The inci...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  13. Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Deodutta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors. The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental

  14. Expressions of SEL 1L and C-erbB-2 in Gastric Cancer Tissues and Its Clinical Signiifcance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Guanghui; Li Yu; Li Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions and clinical signiifcance of human sel-1-like (SEL 1L) gene and oncogene c-erbB-2 in gastric cancer tissue. Methods:SEL 1L and c-erbB-2 expressions in gastric cancer tissues of 96 patients with gastric cancer were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: The positive expression rate of SEL 1L gene in gastric cancer tissue was 84.4% (81/96), and its expression was significantly associated with the differentiated degree of gastric cancer tissue (P=0.001), but had no association with the age, gender, tumor size, infiltration depth, lymphatic metastasis and TNM staging (P>0.05). The positive expression rate of c-erbB-2 was 70.8% (68/96), and its expression was related to the differentiated degree of gastric cancer tissue, inifltration depth, lymphatic metastasis and TNM staging (P=0.002,P0.05). SEL 1L and c-erbB-2 expressions had a signiifcantly positive correlation (r=0.568,P<0.01). Conclusion: Both SEL 1L and c-erbB-2 are highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues and their joint detection can be considered as a biomarker for identifying the high-risk patients with gastric cancer.

  15. 2003~2007年中国肾及泌尿系统其他癌发病分析%An Analysis of Incidence of Kidney Cancer and Unspecified Urinary Organs Cancer in China, 2003~2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永贞; 杨国庆; 王新正; 郭雪蓉; 陈万青; 张思维; 郑荣寿; 苏芳

    2012-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the incidence of kidney cancer and unspecified urinary organs cancer in China. [Methods] The incidence data from 32 cancer registries in China from 2003 to 2007 were enrolled in this analysis. Specified incidences by region, age and comparison of cancer incidences between China and other 184 countries in the same period were analyzed. [Results] The incidence of kidney cancer and unspecified urinary organs cancer in China was 536/105 (6.58/105 in male, 4.10/105 in female; 6.58/105 in urban, 1.18/105 in rural ),which was ranked the 12th in all cancer sites incidence. The incidence of kidney cancer and unspecified urinary organs cancer had been increasing from 4.35/105 in 2003 to 6.21/105 in 2007. [Conclusion] The incidence of kidney cancer and unspecified urinary organs cancer shows an increasing trend. Comparing to other countries and areas, the incidence in China is lower than that with the average level of the world and the developed countries.%[目的]分析中国肾及泌尿系统其他癌的发病情况.[方法]采用2003~2007年全国32个肿瘤登记地区的数据资料,分析不同地区、不同年龄段肾及泌尿系统其他癌的发病率,同时与世界184个国家和地区的发病情况进行比较.[结果]全国肾及泌尿系统其他癌在全部恶性肿瘤发病构成中排列第12位,发病率为5.36/10万,其中男、女性发病率分别为6.58/10万、4.10/10万,城市、农村地区发病率分别为6.58/10万、1.18/10万.全国肾及泌尿系统其他癌的发病率从2003年的4.35/10万上升到2007年的6.21/10万.[结论]中国肾及泌尿系统其他癌发病率呈上升趋势;与世界其他国家和地区相比低于全球和发达国家平均水平.

  16. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics in Molecular Diagnostics: Discovery of Cancer Biomarkers Using Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis and proper monitoring of cancer patients remain a key obstacle for successful cancer treatment and prevention. Therein comes the need for biomarker discovery, which is crucial to the current oncological and other clinical practices having the potential to impact the diagnosis and prognosis. In fact, most of the biomarkers have been discovered utilizing the proteomics-based approaches. Although high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches like SILAC, 2D-DIGE, and iTRAQ are filling up the pitfalls of the conventional techniques, still serum proteomics importunately poses hurdle in overcoming a wide range of protein concentrations, and also the availability of patient tissue samples is a limitation for the biomarker discovery. Thus, researchers have looked for alternatives, and profiling of candidate biomarkers through tissue culture of tumor cell lines comes up as a promising option. It is a rich source of tumor cell-derived proteins, thereby, representing a wide array of potential biomarkers. Interestingly, most of the clinical biomarkers in use today (CA 125, CA 15.3, CA 19.9, and PSA were discovered through tissue culture-based system and tissue extracts. This paper tries to emphasize the tissue culture-based discovery of candidate biomarkers through various mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches.

  17. Metastatic breast cancer patients: attitudes toward tissue donation for rapid autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Tala; Wilson, John; Simon, Jacqueline; Rosenzweig, Margaret; Puhalla, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Rapid autopsy (RA) offers a unique opportunity to obtain a large amount of metastatic tissue at death in order to deepen existing understanding of cancer evolution and heterogeneity. In breast cancer, understanding metastasis is particularly valuable given that treatment regimens are based on the traditional hormone and HER2 receptor status as well as evolving genomic data of the primary tumor. We aimed to elucidate the attitudes and interests of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) toward RA, and to identify associated demographic or disease characteristics that may influence patient attitudes and interest. Ninety-seven patients with MBC were surveyed over the course of 12 months at a large, urban comprehensive cancer center's breast cancer outpatient clinic. 93/97 patients completed the survey sufficiently to be included in the analysis. Fisher's exact test was employed for categorical variables, and t test and rank-sum tests for continuous variables. p values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 93 patients with MBC analyzed, 87 % were willing to donate tissue at death. Marital status and younger age were associated with willingness to donate (p = 0.000, p = 0.025, respectively). Race, employment status, religion/spirituality, and cancer subtype were not associated with likelihood of donating. Forty-five percent of patients felt that doctors should ask about RA at diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer rather than during late-stage disease. These data provide evidence that an RA program would be welcomed by patients and requires initiative by providers. PMID:26705147

  18. A tissue biopsy-based epigenetic multiplex PCR assay for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Neste Leander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSA-directed prostate cancer screening leads to a high rate of false positive identifications and an unnecessary biopsy burden. Epigenetic biomarkers have proven useful, exhibiting frequent and abundant inactivation of tumor suppressor genes through such mechanisms. An epigenetic, multiplex PCR test for prostate cancer diagnosis could provide physicians with better tools to help their patients. Biomarkers like GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 have demonstrated involvement with prostate cancer, with the latter two genes playing prominent roles in the field effect. The epigenetic states of these genes can be used to assess the likelihood of cancer presence or absence. Results An initial test cohort of 30 prostate cancer-positive samples and 12 cancer-negative samples was used as basis for the development and optimization of an epigenetic multiplex assay based on the GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 genes, using methylation specific PCR (MSP. The effect of prostate needle core biopsy sample volume and age of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples was evaluated on an independent follow-up cohort of 51 cancer-positive patients. Multiplexing affects copy number calculations in a consistent way per assay. Methylation ratios are therefore altered compared to the respective singleplex assays, but the correlation with patient outcome remains equivalent. In addition, tissue-biopsy samples as small as 20 μm can be used to detect methylation in a reliable manner. The age of FFPE-samples does have a negative impact on DNA quality and quantity. Conclusions The developed multiplex assay appears functionally similar to individual singleplex assays, with the benefit of lower tissue requirements, lower cost and decreased signal variation. This assay can be applied to small biopsy specimens, down to 20 microns, widening clinical applicability. Increasing the sample volume can compensate the loss of DNA quality and quantity in older samples.

  19. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  20. Laser-induced tissue hyperthermia mediated by gold nanoparticles: toward cancer phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Suleymanova, Leyla V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Akchurin, Garif G.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2009-03-01

    We describe an application of plasmonic silica/gold nanoshells to produce a controllable laser hyperthermia in tissues with the aim of the enhancement of cancer photothermal therapy. Laser irradiation parameters are optimized on the basis of preliminary experimental studies using a test-tube phantom and laboratory rats. Temperature distributions on the animal skin surface at hypodermic and intramuscular injection of gold nanoparticle suspensions and affectations by the laser radiation are measured in vivo with a thermal imaging system. The results of temperature measurements are compared with tissue histology.

  1. Limited prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of cyclin E in Danish ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K;

    2012-01-01

    tissue arrays (TA), we analysed the cyclin E expression levels in tissues from 168 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) (147 stage I, 4 stage II, 17 stage III) and 493 Ovarian cancer (OC) patients (127 stage I, 45 stage II, 276 stage III, 45 stage IV). Using a 10% cut-off level for cyclin E...... overexpression, 20% of the BOTs were positive with a higher proportion of serous than mucinous tumours. Sixty-two per cent of the OCs were positive for cyclin E expression with the highest percentage found in clear cell carcinomas. Results based on univariate and multivariate survival analyses with a 10% cut...

  2. Peri-Implant Tissue Findings in Bone Grafted Oral Cancer Patients Compared to non Bone Grafted Patients without Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wolff

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare microbiological, histological, and mechanical findings from tissues around osseointergrated dental implants in patients who had undergone tumour resection and subsequent bone grafting with non bone grafted patients without a history of oral cancer and to develop an effective tool for the monitoring of the peri-implant tissues. A third aim was to assess and compare the masticatory function of the two patient groups after reconstruction with dental implants.Material and Methods: A total of 20 patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group was edentulous and treated with dental implants without the need for bone grafting. The second edentulous group, with a history of oral cancer involving the mandible, received onlay bone grafts with concurrent placement of dental implants. Microbiological, histological, mechanical and biochemical assessment methods, crevicular fluid flow rate, hygiene-index, implant mobility, and the masticatory function were analysed and compared in both patient groups.Results: The microbiological examinations showed no evidence of the three most common pathogenic bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedius, Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans. A causal relationship between specific microbes and peri-implant inflammation could not be found. All biopsies in both patient groups revealed early signs of soft tissue peri-implant inflammation.Conclusions: The crevicular fluid volume and grade of gingival inflammation around the dental implants were related. Peri-implant tissue findings were similar in the two patient groups despite the history of oral cancer and the need for bone grafting at the time of dental implant placement.

  3. Upregulation of MiR-1280 Expression in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Min Xu; Li-Qin Li; Jing Li; Hong-Wei Li; Qi-Bin Shen; Jin-Liang Ping; Zhi-Hong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prolific and high-mortality disease with few effective treatments.Although the detection and surgical techniques for NSCLC continue to advance,the survival rate for the patients with NSCLC remains poor.Enhanced predictive biomarkers such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are needed at the time of diagnosis to better tailor therapies for patients.This study focused on the expression ofmiR-1280 in NSCLC tissues and distal normal tissues in order to explore the association between miR-1280 expression and NSCLC.Methods:A total of 72 newly diagnosed primary NSCLC patients were enrolled in this study.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to identify the expression level ofmiR-1280 in the NSCLC tissues and distal normal tissues of these patients.Results:The miR-1280 expression was significantly higher in the NSCLC tissues (0.084 ± 0.099) than distal normal tissues (0.014 ± 0.015,P =0.009).In 54 patients (75%),the miR-1280 expression in the NSCLC tissues was upregulated (2-△△ct > 2),and no case showed a downregulation of miR-1280 expression.Conclusions:The expression level ofmiR-1280 could be regarded as a biomarker for NSCLC.

  4. Test performance of faecal occult blood testing for the detection of bowel cancer in people with chronic kidney disease (DETECT protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Narelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In patients without kidney disease, screening is a major strategy for reducing the risk of cancer and improving the health outcomes for those who developed cancers by detecting treatable cancers at an early stage. Among those with CKD, the effectiveness, the efficacy and patients' preferences for cancer screening are unknown. Methods/Design This work describes the protocol for the DETECT study examining the effectiveness, efficiency and patient's perspectives of colorectal cancer screening using immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (iFOBT for people with CKD. The aims of the DETECT study are 1 to determine the test performance characteristics of iFOBT screening in individuals with CKD, 2 to estimate the incremental costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD compared to no screening and 3 to elicit patients' perspective for colorectal cancer screening in the CKD population. Three different study designs will be used to explore the uncertainties surrounding colorectal cancer screening in CKD. A diagnostic test accuracy study of iFOBT screening will be conducted across all stages of CKD in patients ages 35-70. Using individually collected direct healthcare costs and outcomes from the diagnostic test accuracy study, cost-utility and cost-effective analyses will be performed to estimate the costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be undertaken in a subset of participants from the diagnostic test accuracy study to investigate the perspectives, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening among individuals with CKD. Discussion The DETECT study will target the three major unknowns about early cancer detection in CKD. Findings from our study will provide accurate and definitive estimates of screening efficacy and efficiency for colorectal cancer, and

  5. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and σΛ, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, γ and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (fΔμ) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between fΔμs in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of

  6. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2004-12-19

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and {sigma}{sub {lambda}}, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, {gamma} and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between f{Delta}{mu}s in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the

  7. Comparison of MicroRNA Deep Sequencing of Matched Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Cancer Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Meng; McElroy, Joseph P.; Stefano Volinia; Jeff Palatini; Sarah Warner; Ayers, Leona W; Kamalakannan Palanichamy; Arnab Chakravarti; Tim Lautenschlaeger

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate several aspects of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Most cancer tissues are archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). While microRNAs are a more stable form of RNA thought to withstand FFPE-processing and degradation there is only limited evidence for the latter assumption. We examined whether microRNA profiling can be successfully conducted on FFPE cancer tissues using SOLiD ligation based sequencing. Tissue storage times (2-9 years) appeared to not affect...

  8. Evaluation of algorithm methods for fluorescence spectra of cancerous and normal human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    The paper focus on the various algorithms on to unravel the fluorescence spectra by unmixing methods to identify cancerous and normal human tissues from the measured fluorescence spectroscopy. The biochemical or morphologic changes that cause fluorescence spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological approach; therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases for in vivo use. The method can further identify tissue biomarkers by decomposing the spectral contributions of different fluorescent molecules of interest. In this work, we investigate the performance of blind source un-mixing methods (backward model) and spectral fitting approaches (forward model) in decomposing the contributions of key fluorescent molecules from the tissue mixture background when certain selected excitation wavelength is applied. Pairs of adenocarcinoma as well as normal tissues confirmed by pathologist were excited by selective wavelength of 340 nm. The emission spectra of resected fresh tissue were used to evaluate the relative changes of collagen, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and Flavin by various spectral un-mixing methods. Two categories of algorithms: forward methods and Blind Source Separation [such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF)] will be introduced and evaluated. The purpose of the spectral analysis is to discard the redundant information which conceals the difference between these two types of tissues, but keep their diagnostically significance. The facts predicted by different methods were compared to the gold standard of histopathology. The results indicate that these key fluorophores within tissue, e.g. tryptophan, collagen, and NADH, and flavin, show differences of relative contents of fluorophores among different types of human cancer and normal tissues. The

  9. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, H [IU School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zhang, H [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients.

  10. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  11. Relationship Between Diseased Lung Tissues on Computed Tomography and Motion of Fiducial Marker Near Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Yuya; Nishoka, Noriko; Yasuda, Koichi; Fujima, Noriyuki; TORRES, MYLIN; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Ooyama, Noriko; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terae, Satoshi; Ooizumi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For lung cancer patients with poor pulmonary function due to emphysema or fibrosis, it is important to predict the amplitude of internal tumor motion to minimize the irradiation of the functioning lung tissue before receiving stereotactic body radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two board-certified diagnostic radiologists independently assessed the degree of pulmonary emphysema and fibrosis on computed tomography (CT) in 71 patients with peripheral lung tumors before real-time tu...

  12. Tissue Biomarkers in Prognostication of Serous Ovarian Cancer following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Binny Khandakar; Sandeep R Mathur; Lalit Kumar; Sunesh Kumar; Siddhartha Datta Gupta; Venkateswaran K Iyer; Kalaivani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in females with poor prognosis because of advanced stage at presentation. Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is being used for management of advanced SOC, but role of tissue biomarkers in prognostication following NACT is not well established. The study was conducted on advanced stage SOC patients (n = 100) that were treated either conventionally (n = 50) or with NACT (n = 50), followed by surgery. In order t...

  13. Impact of different IMRT techniques to improve conformity and normal tissue sparing in upper esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amin E Amin; Mohamed Kelaney; Samah K Elshamndy; Osiris W. Guirguis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical esophageal cancer is challenging. Although IMRT techniques using inverse planning algorithms are facilitating the treatment planning process, the irradiation dose to the normal tissues can be a critical issue. This study was performed to investigate the effect of beam numbers and their directions and local optimization on: (1) dose conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volume (PTV) and (2) dose to the organ at risks (OA...

  14. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola, J P; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Artacho-Cordón, F; Garde, C; Perez-Carrascosa, F; Linares, I; Tovar, I; González-Alzaga, B; Expósito, J; Torne, P; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends=0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends=0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend=0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends=0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend=0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. PMID:27213669

  15. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  16. Lipidomic Profiling of Adipose Tissue Reveals an Inflammatory Signature in Cancer-Related and Primary Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Sedger, Lisa M.; Tull, Dedreia L.; Malcolm J McConville; De Souza, David P.; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W. T.; Williams, Spencer J; Saravanan Dayalan; Daniel Lanzer; Helen Mackie; Lam, Thomas C.; John Boyages

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related and primary lymphedema (LE) are associated with the production of adipose tissue (AT). Nothing is known, however, about the lipid-based molecules that comprise LE AT. We therefore analyzed lipid molecules in lipoaspirates and serum obtained from LE patients, and compared them to lipoaspirates from cosmetic surgery patients and healthy control cohort serum. LE patient serum analysis demonstrated that triglycerides, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and lipid transport molecules remained ...

  17. Anti-tissue factor short hairpin RNA inhibits breast cancer growth in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Bluff, J. E.; Amarzguioui, M.; Slattery, J; Reed, M.W.R.; Brown, N J; Staton, C A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In breast cancer, there is a correlation between tissue factor (TF) expression, angiogenesis and disease progression. TF stimulates tumour angiogenesis, in part, through up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Therefore, this study aimed to establish whether TF stimulates angiogenesis and tumour progression directly and independent of VEGF up-regulation. Initially, the effects of TF and VEGF were assessed on endothelial cell migration (Boyden chamber) a...

  18. Investigating the Role of Sox2 in Stomach Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Abby Joya

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 is essential for the establishment and maintenance of multiple stem cell populations and its coding region is amplified in certain carcinomas. However, Sox2’s role in stomach homeostasis and cancer is poorly understood. In this thesis, I used mouse genetics to investigate the expression pattern and function of Sox2 in the adult stomach during normal tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Using a genetic lineage tracing system, I found that Sox2 expression marks a ...

  19. Gene expression variation between distinct areas of breast cancer measured from paraffin-embedded tissue cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugger Mathias

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and prognosis in breast cancer are mainly based on histology and immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE material. Recently, gene expression analysis was shown to elucidate the biological variance between tumors and molecular markers were identified that led to new classification systems that provided better prognostic and predictive parameters. Archived FFPE samples represent an ideal source of tissue for translational research, as millions of tissue blocks exist from routine diagnostics and from clinical studies. These should be exploited to provide clinicians with more accurate prognostic and predictive information. Unfortunately, RNA derived from FFPE material is partially degraded and chemically modified and reliable gene expression measurement has only become successful after implementing novel and optimized procedures for RNA isolation, demodification and detection. Methods In this study we used tissue cylinders as known from the construction of tissue microarrays. RNA was isolated with a robust protocol recently developed for RNA derived from FFPE material. Gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results Sixteen tissue blocks from 7 patients diagnosed with multiple histological subtypes of breast cancer were available for this study. After verification of appropriate localization, sufficient RNA yield and quality, 30 tissue cores were available for gene expression measurement on TaqMan® Low Density Arrays (16 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and 6 normal tissue, and 14 tissue cores were lost. Gene expression values were used to calculate scores representing the proliferation status (PRO, the estrogen receptor status and the HER2 status. The PRO scores measured from entire sections were similar to PRO scores determined from IDC tissue cores. Scores determined from normal tissue cores consistently revealed lower PRO scores

  20. Molecular Markers for Prostate Cancer in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sequeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in developed countries. The decisive method of diagnosis is based on the results of biopsies, morphologically evaluated to determine the presence or absence of cancer. Although this approach leads to a confident diagnosis in most cases, it can be improved by using the molecular markers present in the tissue. Both miRNAs and proteins are considered excellent candidates for biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, due to their stability over long periods of time. In the last few years, a concerted effort has been made to develop the necessary tools for their reliable measurement in these types of samples. Furthermore, the use of these kinds of markers may also help in establishing tumor grade and aggressiveness, as well as predicting the possible outcomes in each particular case for the different treatments available. This would aid clinicians in the decision-making process. In this review, we attempt to summarize and discuss the potential use of microRNA and protein profiles in FFPE tissue samples as markers to better predict PCa diagnosis, progression, and response to therapy.

  1. Deep learning for tissue microarray image-based outcome prediction in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Dmitrii; Turkki, Riku; Haglund, Caj; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in computer vision enable increasingly accurate automated pattern classification. In the current study we evaluate whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) can be trained to predict disease outcome in patients with colorectal cancer based on images of tumor tissue microarray samples. We compare the prognostic accuracy of CNN features extracted from the whole, unsegmented tissue microarray spot image, with that of CNN features extracted from the epithelial and non-epithelial compartments, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of visually assessed histologic grade is used as a reference. The image data set consists of digitized hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained tissue microarray samples obtained from 180 patients with colorectal cancer. The patient samples represent a variety of histological grades, have data available on a series of clinicopathological variables including long-term outcome and ground truth annotations performed by experts. The CNN features extracted from images of the epithelial tissue compartment significantly predicted outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 2.08; CI95% 1.04-4.16; area under the curve (AUC) 0.66) in a test set of 60 patients, as compared to the CNN features extracted from unsegmented images (HR 1.67; CI95% 0.84-3.31, AUC 0.57) and visually assessed histologic grade (HR 1.96; CI95% 0.99-3.88, AUC 0.61). As a conclusion, a deep-learning classifier can be trained to predict outcome of colorectal cancer based on images of H and E stained tissue microarray samples and the CNN features extracted from the epithelial compartment only resulted in a prognostic discrimination comparable to that of visually determined histologic grade.

  2. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated with specific cell types in ovarian tumor tissues and vary according to

  3. Biology and potential clinical implications of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in colorectal cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Møller; Sørensen, irene Vejgaard; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg;

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the industrialized world. About half of "curatively" resected patients develop recurrent disease within the next 3-5 years despite the lack of clinical, histological and biochemical evidence of remaining overt disease...... after resection of the primary tumour. Availability of validated biological markers for early detection, selection for adjuvant therapy, prediction of treatment efficacy and monitoring of treatment efficacy would most probably increase survival. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may...... patients, suggesting that TIMP-1 could have a tumour-promoting function. Furthermore, measurement of plasma TIMP-1 has been shown to be useful for disease detection, with a high sensitivity and high specificity for early-stage colon cancer. This review describes some basic information on the current...

  4. The Function of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 in Normal Tissues and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Walsh, Li Qin, Jean Ching-Yi Tien, Leonie S. Young, Jianming Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1 was identified as the first authentic steroid receptor coactivator. Since then, the SRC proteins have remained at the epicenter of coregulator biology, molecular endocrinology and endocrine-related cancer. Cumulative works on SRC-1 have shown that it is primarily a nuclear receptor coregulator and functions to construct highly specific enzymatic protein complexes which can execute efficient and successful transcriptional activation of designated target genes. The versatile nature of SRC-1 enables it to respond to steroid dependent and steroid independent stimulation, allowing it to bind across many families of transcription factors to orchestrate and regulate complex physiological reactions. This review highlights the multiple functions of SRC-1 in the development and maintenance of normal tissue functions as well as its major role in mediating hormone receptor responsiveness. Insights from genetically manipulated mouse models and clinical data suggest SRC-1 is significantly overexpressed in many cancers, in particular, cancers of the reproductive tissues. SRC-1 has been associated with cellular proliferation and tumor growth but its major tumorigenic contributions are promotion and execution of breast cancer metastasis and mediation of resistance to endocrine therapies. The ability of SRC-1 to coordinate multiple signaling pathways makes it an important player in tumor cells' escape of targeted therapy.

  5. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.P.; Sá, V.K. de; Martins, V. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, J.R.M. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabolismo, Laboratório de Endocrinologia Molecular e Translacional-LEMT, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parra, E.R. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mendes, A. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, P.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.M. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Longatto-Filho, A. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Laboratório de Investigação Médica (LIM 14), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.Z. [Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Takagaki, T. [Divisão de Pneumologia, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carraro, D.M. [Centro Internacional de Pesquisa/CIPE, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nader, H.B. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Capelozzi, V.L. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology.

  6. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 51-year-old female following breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jinjing; Chen, Ni; Chen, Xueqin; Gong, Jing; Nie, Ling; Xu, Miao; Zhou, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma (pPNET/EWS) is an aggressive type of sarcoma that is rarely observed in the kidney. pPNET of the kidney principally occurs in young patients (friend leukemia integration 1, and negative staining for Wilms' tumor 1 and other markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the EWS breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) demonstrated the characteristic EWSR1 translocation. The patient declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy but accepted traditional Chinese medicine. No evidence of recurrence was observed eight months after diagnosis. Only two cases of renal pPNET with a history of an earlier or synchronous primary cancer were reported in the literature from the USA and Germany, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first FISH-confirmed renal pPNET in an older patient following breast adenocarcinoma. PMID:25435942

  7. Detection of miRNA-21 content in cervical cancer tissue and preliminary analysis of its downstream target molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shen; Jian-Wu Gao; Yan-Yu Li; Peng Teng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the miRNA-21 content in cervical cancer tissue and analyze its downstream target molecules.Methods:Patients with different FIGO stages of cervical cancer and healthy subjects were selected, cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected, and contents of miRNA-21 and apoptotic genes were detected; cervical cancer SiHa cells were cultured, miRNA-21 mimics and inhibitors were transfected, and then apoptotic gene contents were detected.Results:miRNA-21 contents in different stages of cervical cancer tissue were all higher than those in normal cervical tissue, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 were lower than those in normal tissue, and mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 were negatively correlated with miRNA-21 contents; after miRNA-21 mimics were transfected, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 significantly decreased, and after miRNA-21 inhibitors were transfected, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 significantly increased.Conclusion:miRNA-21 contents in cervical cancer tissue significantly increase; downstream target genes of this miRNA may be apoptotic genes p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19.

  8. Determination of acidic isoferritin and ferritin in the serum and cancer tissues of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum AIF (acidic isoferritin) and Ferr (ferritin) levels are determined for 16 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 24 patients with pneumonia, 34 patients with lung cancer and 95 normal donors with RIA method. The results are 142.2 +- 84.5 μg/l and 104.2 +- 59.3 mg/l, 148.8 +- 79.5 μg/l and 107.3 +- 46.8 mg/l, 260.7 +- 126.3 μg/l and 161.5 +- 75.3 mg/l, and 103.8 +- 54.3 μg/l and 72.1 +- 39.5 mg/l, respectively. The lung cancer patients group has a remarkably high level as compared with other groups (P<0.01), which indicates that the serum AIF and Ferr contents can be used as important indices in lung cancer diagnosis

  9. Targeted proteomic approach in prostatic tissue: a panel of potential biomarkers for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Rosa; Damiano, Rocco; Savino, Rocco; Sindona, Giovanni; Napoli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the sixth highest causes of cancer-related deaths in men. The molecular events underlying its behavior and evolution are not completely understood. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the only approved Food and Drug Administration biomarker. A panel of ten stage-specific tumoral and adjacent non tumoral tissues from patients affected by PCa (Gleason score 6, 3+3; PSA 10 ÷19 ng/ml) was investigated by MS-based proteomics approach. The proposed method was based on identifying the base-soluble proteins from tissue, established an efficient study, which lead to a deeper molecular perspective understanding of the PCa. A total of 164 proteins were found and 132 of these were evaluated differentially expressed in tumoral tissues. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that among all dataset obtained, 105 molecules were involved in epithelial neoplasia with a p-value of 3.62E-05, whereas, only 11 molecules detected were ascribed to sentinel tissue and bodily fluids. PMID:27713912

  10. STED super-resolution microscopy of clinical paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ilgen

    Full Text Available Formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissue resected during cancer surgery is indispensable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represents a vast and largely unexploited resource for research. Optical microscopy of such specimen is curtailed by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional optical microscopy. To overcome this limitation, we used STED super-resolution microscopy enabling optical resolution well below the diffraction barrier. We visualized nanoscale protein distributions in sections of well-annotated paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue stored in a clinical repository. Using antisera against several mitochondrial proteins, STED microscopy revealed distinct sub-mitochondrial protein distributions, suggesting a high level of structural preservation. Analysis of human tissues stored for up to 17 years demonstrated that these samples were still amenable for super-resolution microscopy. STED microscopy of sections of HER2 positive rectal adenocarcinoma revealed details in the surface and intracellular HER2 distribution that were blurred in the corresponding conventional images, demonstrating the potential of super-resolution microscopy to explore the thus far largely untapped nanoscale regime in tissues stored in biorepositories.

  11. Initial experiments with flexible conductive electrodes for potential applications in cancer tissue screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daehan; Seyfollahi, Sam; Khosla, Ajit; Gray, Bonnie; Parameswaran, Ash; Ramaseshan, Ramani; Kohli, Kirpal

    2011-02-01

    We present initial results on the fabrication and testing of micropatternable conductive nanocomposite polymer (C-NCP) electrodes for tissue impedance measurements. We present these proof-of-concept results as a first step toward the realization of our goal: an improved Electrical Impedance Scanning (EIS) system, whereby tissue can be scanned for cancerous tissue and other anomalies using large arrays of highly flexible microfabricated electrodes. Previous limitations of existing EIS system are addressed by applying polymer based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. In particular, we attempt to minimize mechanical skin contact issues through the use of highly compliant elastomeric polymers, and increase the spatial resolution of measurements through the development of microelectrodes that can be micropatterned into large, highly dense arrays. We accomplish these improvements through the development of C-NCP electrodes that employ silver nanoparticle fillers in an elastomer polymer base that can be easily patterned using conventional soft lithography techniques. These new electrodes are tested on conventional tissue phantoms that mimic the electrical characteristics of human tissue. We characterize the conductivity of the electrodes (average resistivity of 7x10-5 ohm-m +/- 14.3% at 60 wt-% of silver nanoparticles), and further employ the electrodes for impedance characterization via Cole-Cole plots to show that measurements employing C-NCP electrodes are comparable to those obtained with normal macroscopic metal electrodes. We also demonstrate anomaly detection using our highly flexible Ag/AgCl C-NCP electrodes on a tissue phantom.

  12. The gene encoding the VP16-accessory protein HCF (HCFC1) resides in human Xq28 and is highly expressed in fetal tissues and the adult kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.C.; Herr, W. [Cold Spring Harbor, New York, NY (United States); Parrish, J.E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Massa, H.F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    After herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the viral regulatory protein VP16 activates transcription of the HSV immediate-early promoters by directing complex formation with two cellular proteins, the POU-homeodomain transcription factor Oct-1 and the host cell factor HCF. The function of HCF in uninfected cells is unknown. Here we show by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis that the gene encoding human HCF, HCFC1, maps to the q28 region of the X chromosome. Yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid mapping localizes the HCFC1 gene within 100 kb distal of the renal vasopressin type-2 receptor (V2R) gene and adjacent to the renin-binding protein gene (RENBP). The HCFC1 gene is apparently unique. HCF transcripts and protein are most abundant in fetal and placental tissues and cell lines, suggesting a role in cell proliferation. In adults, HCF protein is abundant in the kidney, but not in the brain, a site of latent HSV infection and where HCF levels may influence progression of HSV infection. 42 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Can texture of tissue surrounding microcalcifications in mammography be used for breast cancer diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahaliou, A.; Boniatis, I.; Sakellaropoulos, P.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Panayiotakis, G.; Costaridou, L.

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates whether texture properties of the tissue surrounding microcalcifications (MCs) can contribute to breast cancer diagnosis. A case sample of 100 MC clusters (46 benign, 54 malignant) from 85 dense mammographic images included in the Digital Database for Screening Mammography, is analyzed. Regions of interest containing clusters are processed using wavelet-based enhancement and individual MCs are segmented by local thresholding. The segmented MCs are removed from original image data and the surrounding tissue area is subjected to texture analysis. The feasibility of four texture feature sets (first-order statistics, gray level co-occurrence matrices, gray level run length matrices and Laws' texture energy measures) in discriminating malignant from benign tissue was investigated using a k-nearest neighbor classifier. Laws' texture energy measures achieved the best classification accuracy 89% (sensitivity 90.74% and specificity 86.96%).

  14. Can texture of tissue surrounding microcalcifications in mammography be used for breast cancer diagnosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahaliou, A.; Boniatis, I.; Sakellaropoulos, P.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Panayiotakis, G. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece); Costaridou, L. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)], E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates whether texture properties of the tissue surrounding microcalcifications (MCs) can contribute to breast cancer diagnosis. A case sample of 100 MC clusters (46 benign, 54 malignant) from 85 dense mammographic images included in the Digital Database for Screening Mammography, is analyzed. Regions of interest containing clusters are processed using wavelet-based enhancement and individual MCs are segmented by local thresholding. The segmented MCs are removed from original image data and the surrounding tissue area is subjected to texture analysis. The feasibility of four texture feature sets (first-order statistics, gray level co-occurrence matrices, gray level run length matrices and Laws' texture energy measures) in discriminating malignant from benign tissue was investigated using a k-nearest neighbor classifier. Laws' texture energy measures achieved the best classification accuracy 89% (sensitivity 90.74% and specificity 86.96%)

  15. Targeting obesity-related adipose tissue dysfunction to prevent cancer development and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucalp, Ayca; Iyengar, Neil M; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of obesity, a leading modifiable risk factor for common solid tumors, is increasing. Effective interventions are needed to minimize the public health implications of obesity. Although the mechanisms linking increased adiposity to malignancy are incompletely understood, growing evidence points to complex interactions among multiple systemic and tissue-specific pathways including inflamed white adipose tissue. The metabolic and inflammatory consequences of white adipose tissue dysfunction collectively provide a plausible explanation for the link between overweight/obesity and carcinogenesis. Gaining a better understanding of these underlying molecular pathways and developing risk assessment tools that identify at-risk populations will be critical in implementing effective and novel cancer prevention and management strategies.

  16. Polymer-based platforms by electric field-assisted techniques for tissue engineering and cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Cirillo, Valentina; Altobelli, Rosaria; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    A large variety of processes and tools has been investigated to acquire better knowledge on the natural evolution of healthy or pathological tissues in 3D scaffolds to discover new solutions for tissue engineering and cancer therapy. Among them, electrodynamic techniques allow revisiting old scaffold manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force to assemble fibers and/or particles from an electrically charged solution. By carefully selecting materials and processing conditions, they allow to fine control of characteristic shapes and sizes from micro to sub-micrometric scale and incorporate biopolymers/molecules (e.g., proteins, growth factors) for time- and space-controlled release for use in drug delivery and passive/active targeting. This review focuses on current advances to design micro or nanostructured polymer platforms by electrodynamic techniques, to be used as innovative scaffolds for tissue engineering or as 3D models for preclinical in vitro studies of in vivo tumor growth. PMID:25487005

  17. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced with aging. As ... more sensitive to certain medicines. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and some antibiotics may harm ...

  18. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  19. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You Can Do For people at any ... Kidney School is a program of the Medical Education Institute, Inc. , a 501(c)(3) organization, © 2002– ...

  20. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other mineral levels. Common Kidney Conditions in Teens Sometimes, the kidneys aren't able to do ... conditions is a renal ultrasound . Like the ultrasound pictures that pregnant women get of their fetuses, a ...

  1. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  2. Ultrasound and Biomarker Tests in Predicting Cancer Aggressiveness in Tissue Samples of Patients With Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    Bladder Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer With Carcinoma In Situ; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

  3. 慢性肾脏病对牙周组织的影响%Effect of chronic kidney disease on periodontal tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华伟; 张士文; 袁泉

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders exhibit periosteal bone of jaw bones resorption, complete of partial disappearance ofperiodontal bony plates, thickening of cortical bone reduction, and the appearance of mental foramen, mandibular canal, and maxillary sinus anatomical structures. Periodontal bony plates also decreased or disappeared in 57.7% of hemodialysis patients with renal failure, maxillary osteoporosis, and local root bone sclerosis happened. Gingival crevicular fluid volume, osmotic pressure, plaque, and gingival index increasedin children with end-stage renal disease. Periodontal pathogens in chronic kidney disease patients were significantly higher than that of a healthy person. Thus, the risk of suffering from periodontal disease was higher. Plaque index, gingival index, and calculus index in hemodialysis patients significantly increased, and the severity of periodontal disease exacerbated with prolonged duration of dialysis. The calcium oxalate crystal deposition of periodontal ligament in patients with chronic kidney lead to bone absorption and destruction, further aggravated periodontal tissue damage, loosened teeth, and caused absorption of root outside, which resulted in tooth loss. Periodontal ligament and cementum injury and damage gradually increasedwith the progression of chronic kidney disease. Patients should undergo dental and kidney disease consultation before treatment of oral diseasesto determine the state of the disease, treatment options, complications, and the best treatment time. During the treatment of oral diseases, drugs for kidney damage, such as aminoglycosides and tetracyclines, should be avoided. For hemodialysis patients, treatment of oral diseases should be selected in non-dialysis sessionto reduce the risk of bleeding. Any optional treatment of oral diseases should be avoided in the first six months of renal transplant recipients.%在慢性肾脏病矿物质和骨代谢异常早期,颌

  4. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Kidney Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & ... The kidneys also help maintain body fluids at normal levels. In addition, the kidneys play important roles in controlling blood pressure and ...

  5. Expression profiles of inhibitor of growth protein 2 in normal and cancer tissues: An immunohistochemical screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xue-Feng; Gou, Wen-Feng; Lu, Hang; Li, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Tu; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitor of growth protein 2 (ING2) has an important role in the regulation of chromatin remodeling, cell proliferation, cell‑cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. The present study performed an immunohistochemical analysis for expression profiling of ING2 protein in an array of tissues comprising normal mouse and human tissues, as well as human hepatocellular (n=62), renal clear cell (n=62), pancreatic (n=62), esophageal squamous cell (n=45), cervical squamous cell (n=31), breast (n=144), gastric (n=196), colorectal (n=96), ovarian (n=208), endometrial (n=96) and lung (n=192) carcinoma tissues. In mouse tissues, ING2 was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the glandular epithelium of breast, hepatocytes, intestine, bronchium and alveoli, as well as the squamous epithelium of skin and glomeruli, and in myocardial cells, while it was located in the cytoplasm of renal tubules and striated muscle cells. ING2 protein was scattered in the brain and spleen. In human tissues, ING2 protein was principally distributed in the cytoplasm, while in it was present in the cytoplasm and nuclei in the stomach, intestine, cervix, endometrium trachea, breast and pancreas. The nuclear location of ING2 in the stomach was more prominent than that in the cytoplasm. High ING2 immunoreactivity was detected in the tongue, stomach, skin, pancreas, cervix and breast, whereas weakly in the brain stem, thymus, thyroid, lung, striated muscle, testis, bladder and ovary. In total, 617 out of 1,194 of the tested cancer tissues (51.7%) were ING2-positive. In most cases, ING2 expression was found to be restricted to the cytoplasm of all cancer tissues, while in certain cancer types, including renal clear cell, ovarian and colorectal carcinoma, it was occasionally present in the nuclei. Among the cancer tissues examined, ING2 was most frequently expressed in breast cancer (67.4%) and gynecological cancer types, including ovarian cancer (61.5%) and endometrial cancer (57.3%). Compared with

  6. Expression of γ-synuclein in colorectal cancer tissues and its role on colorectal cancer cell line HCT116

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ye; Bo Feng; Yuan-Fei Peng; Xue-Hua Chen; Qu Cai; Bei-Qin Yu; Liang-Hui Li; Ming-Yuan Qiu; Bing-Ya Liu; Min-Hua Zheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression pattern of γ-synuclein in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, and to study the effects of γ-synuclein on CRC cell line HCT116 biological features in vitro.METHODS: The expression pattern of γ-synuclein was determined in 54 CRC tissues and 30 tumormatched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (NNAT) 5 cm away from the tumor via real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry.The relationship between γ-synuclein protein expression and clinicopathological factors of CRC tissues was analyzed. Three small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting γ-synuclein mRNA plasmids were constructed and transfected into the CRC cell line HCT116. The stable cell lines were selected with G-418 for 28 d, and the biological features of these cells were examined by cell growth curve, soft agar assay, and cell migration and invasion assays in vitro.RESULTS: The expression of γ-synuclein mRNA and protein was much higher in CRC tissue samples than in NNAT samples ( P = 0.02, P = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between the γ-synuclein protein expression and clinical stage and lymph node involvement of CRC ( P = 0.02, P = 0.033). In functional analysis we found that down-regulation of γ-synuclein expression in HCT116 cells could inhibit the growth, colony formation rate, and migration and invasion ability of HCT116 cells.CONCLUSION: Increased expression of γ-synuclein in CRC tissues and the biological effects of reduced γ-synuclein expression on HCT116 cells suggest that γ-synuclein may play a positive role in the progression of CRC.

  7. Dynamic infrared imaging in identification of breast cancer tissue with combined image processing and frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Soimakallio, S; Järvenpää, R; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Dastidar, P

    2008-01-01

    Five combinations of image-processing algorithms were applied to dynamic infrared (IR) images of six breast cancer patients preoperatively to establish optimal enhancement of cancer tissue before frequency analysis. mid-wave photovoltaic (PV) IR cameras with 320x254 and 640x512 pixels were used. The signal-to-noise ratio and the specificity for breast cancer were evaluated with the image-processing combinations from the image series of each patient. Before image processing and frequency analysis the effect of patient movement was minimized with a stabilization program developed and tested in the study by stabilizing image slices using surface markers set as measurement points on the skin of the imaged breast. A mathematical equation for superiority value was developed for comparison of the key ratios of the image-processing combinations. The ability of each combination to locate the mammography finding of breast cancer in each patient was compared. Our results show that data collected with a 640x512-pixel mid-wave PV camera applying image-processing methods optimizing signal-to-noise ratio, morphological image processing and linear image restoration before frequency analysis possess the greatest superiority value, showing the cancer area most clearly also in the match centre of the mammography estimation. PMID:18666012

  8. Amino acid uptake in arterio-venous serum of normal and cancerous colon tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Bo Wang; Jian-Guo Shen; Su-Zhan Zhang; Ke-Feng Ding; Shu Zheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the difference of amino acid uptake between normal and cancerous colon tissues.METHODS: Sixteen patients with colon cancer were enrolled in our study. Blood samples were taken during operations, serum amino acid concentrations of blood from cancerous or normal colon were analyzed. Amino acid uptake rate was calculated by the A-V difference and evaluated statistically.RESULTS: Except for methionine, the uptake rate of amino acids in cancer was higher than that in normal colon (25.01% vs-2.29%, P<0.01). The amino acid uptake rate did not correlate to the size of tumor mass (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance in the amino acid uptake rate according to the Dukes stage, though it was higher in patients with Dukes stage C or D than that with Dukes stage B (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Abnormal synthetic metabolism of colon cancer may contribute to its higher amino acid uptake rate than that of normal colon.

  9. Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Hinz, Burkhard

    2010-04-01

    Although cannabinoids exhibit a broad variety of anticarcinogenic effects, their potential use in cancer therapy is limited by their psychoactive effects. Here we evaluated the impact of cannabidiol, a plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on cancer cell invasion. Using Matrigel invasion assays we found a cannabidiol-driven impaired invasion of human cervical cancer (HeLa, C33A) and human lung cancer cells (A549) that was reversed by antagonists to both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors as well as to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The decrease of invasion by cannabidiol appeared concomitantly with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Knockdown of cannabidiol-induced TIMP-1 expression by siRNA led to a reversal of the cannabidiol-elicited decrease in tumor cell invasiveness, implying a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of cannabidiol. P38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases were identified as upstream targets conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased invasiveness. Additionally, in vivo studies in thymic-aplastic nude mice revealed a significant inhibition of A549 lung metastasis in cannabidiol-treated animals as compared to vehicle-treated controls. Altogether, these findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol and imply its use as a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly invasive cancers.

  10. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Breast Cancer and Adjacent Normal Breast Tissues in Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Shan Deng; Tian-Yong Xing; Hong-Ying Zhou; Ruo-Hong Xiong; You-Guang Lu; Bin Wen; Shang-Qing Liu; Hui-Jun Yang

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacryiamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), incorporated with online database searching, were performed to investigate differential proteins of breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissues. Considering that serum albumin is abundantly presented in normal control samples, 15 differential spots detected in 11 out of 12 (91.7%) breast cancer samples were identified by online SIENA-2DPAGE database searching and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. The results indicate that pathological changes of breast cancer are concerned with augmentation of substance metabolism, promotion of proteolytic activity, decline of activity of some inhibitors of enzymes, and so on. Some important proteins involved in the pathological process of breast cancer with changed expression may be useful biomarkers, such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, EF1-beta, cathepsin D, TCTP, SMT3A, RPS12, and PSMA1, among which SMT3A,RPS12, and PSMA1 were first reported for breast cancer in this study.

  11. Association of NDRG1 gene promoter methylation with reduced NDRG1 expression in gastric cancer cells and tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Shuanglong; Ma, Jinguo; Li, Zhenhua; Zhi, Yu; Chen, Jing; Lu, Yao; Dai, Dongqiu

    2013-05-01

    NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1) plays a role in cell differentiation and suppression of tumor metastasis. This study aims to determine the expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein in gastric cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and then assess the possible cause of its aberrant expression. Six gastric cancer cell lines and 20 pairs of normal and gastric cancer tissue samples were used to assess NDRG1 expression using Real-time PCR and Western blot. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) were performed to detect gene mutation and methylation, respectively, in cell lines and tissues samples. Expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein was downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. Specifically, expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein was lower in all six gastric cancer cell lines than that of normal gastric cells, while 15 out of 20 cases of gastric cancer tissues had the reduced levels of NDRG1 mRNA and protein. HRM data showed that there was no mutation in NDRG1 gene, but MSP data showed high levels of NDRG1 gene promoter methylation in the CpG islands in both cell lines and tissue samples. Moreover, treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine upregulated NDRG1 expression in gastric cancer HGC27 cells, but not in the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A-treated HGC27 cells. In conclusion, this study has shown that expression of NDRG1 mRNA and protein was reduced in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, which is due to methylation of NDRG1 gene promoter. Further study will unearth the clinical significance of the reduced NDRG1 protein in gastric cancer.

  12. Trace elements of normal, benign hypertrophic and cancerous tissues of the Human prostate gland investigated by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaichick, Sofia, E-mail: s-zaichick@northwestern.edu [Radionuclide Diagnostics Department, Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Koroleva Street- 4, Obninsk 249020, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Zaichick, Vladimir, E-mail: vezai@obninsk.com [Radionuclide Diagnostics Department, Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Koroleva Street- 4, Obninsk 249020, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn contents in normal (n=37), benign hypertrophic (n=43), and cancerous tissues (n=60) of the human prostate gland were investigated by neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M{+-}S{Epsilon}{Mu}) for content (mg/kg, dry weight basis) of trace elements in the normal tissue were: Ag-0.048{+-}0.009, Co-0.045{+-}0.004, Cr-0.53{+-}0.08, Fe-111{+-}9, Hg-0.056{+-}0.011, Rb-12.7{+-}0.9, Sb-0.045{+-}0.007, Sc-0.029{+-}0.005, Se-0.70{+-}0.04, and Zn-1000{+-}110, respectively. It was observed that in benign hypertrophic tissues the contents of Co, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se were higher than in normal tissues, with statistically significant differences. The contents of Co, Rb, Sc, and Zn were significantly lower and those of Ag, Cr, Fe, Hg, and Sb were significantly higher in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INAA is an adequate tool for the determination of trace element contents in the samples of human prostate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In benign hypertrophic tissues the Co, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se contents were higher than in normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In cancerous tissues contents of Co, Rb, Sc, and Zn were significantly lower than in normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In cancerous tissues the Ag, Cr, Fe, Hg, and Sb contents were higher than in normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimation of Zn content in a needle-biopsy core may be used as a tool to diagnose prostate cancer.

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Mission Statement/History Annual and Financial Reports Strategic Plan Results Reporting Staff Directory Board of ... years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. ...

  14. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is very rare, such a lesion must be ... older age (greater than 10 years of age). It appeared in the limited number of individuals followed ...

  15. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  16. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  18. Clinical research on the expression of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissues and its transfer promoting role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Jun Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissue, and to explore its correlation with the clinical and pathological characteristics and its role in promoting the tumor invasion and metastasis.Methods:A total of 102 specimens from the patients with colon cancer who were admitted in the General Surgery Department of our hospital for resection from April, 2013 to October, 2015 were included in the study; meanwhile, 35 colorectal adenoma specimens, and 137 normal colon tissue specimens were collected. The immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Lgr5.Results:The positive rate of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissues (62.75%) was significantly higher than that in the adenoma tissues (28.57%) and normal tissues (16.06%). The positive expression of Lgr5 in the colon cancer tissues was associated with the adenocarcinoma differentiation degree, Dukes staging, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis. Meanwhile, it was found by the Logistic regression that the adenocarcinoma differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis were the independent predictive factors for the positive expression of Lgr5. Conclusions:The increasement of Lgr5 expression is probably involved in the formation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis of colon cancer; therefore, Lgr5 is expected to be a new therapeutic target aiming at colon cancer stem cells.

  19. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  20. The Use of Fibrous, Supramolecular Membranes and Human Tubular Cells for Renal Epithelial Tissue Engineering : Towards a Suitable Membrane for a Bioartificial Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Boomker, Jasper M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, Ali; Smedts, Frank M. M.; Harmsen, Martin C.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We hypoth