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Sample records for cancer institute study

  1. Demographic pattern of male breast cancer: an institutional based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanseem, S.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Male breast cancer incidence rises with age with peak in the sixth and seventh decade. It is one of the rare diseases and accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in the late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to know the demographic pattern and tumour characteristic of breast cancer in men reported at Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar. Methods: Retrospective data was collected from the (IRNUM), Peshawar for a period of three years (2006-2008). The evaluation was done from the histopathological reports of mastectomy and biopsy specimens. All male patients in the age group 26 -86 year with breast cancer were included in the study. The age of the patients and tumour characteristics recorded were size, grade, type, skin involvement and stage. Results: Total number of male patients with breast cancer were 31 (2.1%) out of the total patients with breast malignancy during the study period with the mean age of 58.3 years. Tumour size ranged from 2 to 12 Cm. with average of 3.6 Cm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was found in 87% , papillary carcinoma in 6.5%, each of malignant fibrous histocytoma and sarcoma in 3.2% cases. Maximum number of patients was of grade II (41%). Patients in whom stage of the disease was know n were 22 cases with 45.5% had stage III disease and 32% had stage IV disease. Skin involvement was found positive in 8 (25.8%). Conclusion: Due to poor health care system breast cancer is diagnosed in a late stage of the disease and prognosis is poor. (author)

  2. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A pooling project of studies participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium

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    Nichols, Hazel B.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Wright, Lauren B.; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N.; McClain, Kathleen M.; Jones, Michael E.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Blot, William J.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M.; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A. Heather; Giles, Graham G.; Gram, Inger T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C.; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A.; Milne, Roger L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R.; Peeters, Petra H.; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E.; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This paper describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. PMID:28600297

  3. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

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    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  4. Sexual outcomes after partial penectomy for penile cancer: results from a multi-institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Surgical treatment is inevitably mutilating. Considering the strong impact on patients′ sexual life we want to evaluate sexual function and satisfaction after partial penectomy. The patients in this study (n = 25 represented all those who attended our institutions and were diagnosed and treated for penile cancer from October 2011 to November 2013. All patients underwent partial penectomy and followed-up (mean: 14 months; range: 12-25. Sexual presurgical baseline was estimated using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction 15 (IIEF-15. Sexual outcomes of each patient were estimated considering four standardized and validated questionnaires. We analyzed the means and ranges of IIEF-15 including erectile function (IIEF-1-5 and -15, orgasmic function (IIEF-9 and -10, sexual desire (IIEF-11 and -12, intercourse satisfaction (IIEF-6-8, and overall satisfaction (IIEF-13 and -14. Then, we also used Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS and Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR to evaluate the sexual function and satisfaction of our patients. The final results showed that penile cancer leads to several sexual and psychosexual dysfunctions. Nevertheless, patients who undergo partial penectomy for penile cancer can maintain the sexual outcomes at levels slightly lower to those that existed in the period before surgery.

  5. Breast cancer mammographic diagnosis performance in a public health institution: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana M R B; Bittelbrunn, Fernando P; Rockenbach, Marcio A B C; May, Guilherme G; Vedolin, Leonardo M; Kruger, Marilia S; Soldatelli, Matheus D; Zwetsch, Guilherme; de Miranda, Gabriel T F; Teixeira, Saone I P; Arruda, Bruna S

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the quality assurance of mammography results at a reference institution for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southern Brazil, based on the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) 5th edition recommendations for auditing purposes. Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study with 4502 patients (9668 mammographies)) who underwent at least one or both breast mammographies throughout 2013 at a regional public hospital, linked to a federal public university. The results were followed until 31 December 2014, including true positives (TPs), true negatives (TNs), false positives (FPs), false negatives (FNs), positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity, with a confidence interval of 95%. The study showed high quality assurance, particularly regarding sensitivity (90.22%) and specificity (92.31%). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 65.35%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 98.32%. The abnormal interpretation rate (recall rate) was 12.26%. The results are appropriate when compared to the values proposed by the BIRADS 5th edition. Additionally, the study provided self-reflection considering our radiological practice, which is essential for improvements and collaboration regarding breast cancer detection. It may stimulate better radiological practice performance and continuing education, despite possible infrastructure and facility limitations. • Accurate quality performance rates are possible despite financial and governmental limitations. • Low-income institutions should develop standardised teamwork to improve radiological practice. • Regular mammography audits may help to increase the quality of public health systems.

  6. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  7. Case Study in International Cooperation: Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reid, Mary; Segal, Brahm; Abrams, Scott I; Lee, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries. Significant research from Cuba led to this groundbreaking collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this cooperation, from the Molecular Immunology Center's initial investigations, through the opening of a phase I clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute with therapies developed at the Center. This cooperation was responsible for the first clinical trial for CIMAvax-EGF involving advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in the USA. A license was also approved by the US Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control authorizing a commercial partnership for development of biotechnology products, combining the cancer research efforts of both institutions. This unusual collaboration between Cuba and the USA-the US economic embargo and travel restrictions not withstanding-opens good prospects for expanded medical research between the two countries. While political and logistical challenges remain, the shared mission and dedication of these Cuban and US scientists points the way towards relationships that can lead to development, testing, approval and use of promising new therapies for cancer patients. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, clinical trials, cancer vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC, Cuba, USA.

  8. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Tsuguo; Takahashi, Naohiko; Ueda, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  9. National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs, and connect with NCI researchers via Twitter chats. Facebook Connect with NCI on its Facebook page to get updates on cancer information, including the latest research, and engage with us on topics of interest to you. View this video on YouTube. On October 18 at 12:00 ...

  10. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of prostate health index to identify aggressive prostate cancer. An Institutional validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Celma, A; Planas, J; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I; Pacciuci, R; Olivan, M

    2016-01-01

    New generations of tumor markers used to detect prostate cancer (PCa) should be able to discriminate men with aggressive PCa of those without PCa or nonaggressive tumors. The objective of this study has been to validate Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a marker of aggressive PCa in one academic institution. PHI was assessed in 357 men scheduled to prostatic biopsy between June of 2013 and July 2014 in one academic institution. Thereafter a subset of 183 men younger than 75 years and total PSA (tPSA) between 3.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, scheduled to it first prostatic biopsy, was retrospectively selected for this study. Twelve cores TRUS guided biopsy, under local anaesthesia, was performed in all cases. Total PSA, free PSA (fPSA), and [-2] proPSA (p2PSA) and prostate volume were determined before the procedure and %fPSA, PSA density (PSAd) and PHI were calculated. Aggressive tumors were considered if any Gleason 4 pattern was found. PHI was compared to %fPSA and PSAd through their ROC curves. Thresholds to detect 90%, 95% of all tumors and 95% and 100% of aggressive tumors were estimated and rates of unnecessary avoided biopsies were calculated and compared. The rate of PCa detection was 37.2% (68) and the rate of aggressive tumors was 24.6% (45). The PHI area under the curve was higher than those of %fPSA and PSAd to detect any PCa (0.749 vs 0.606 and 0.668 respectively) or to detect only aggressive tumors (0.786 vs 0.677 and 0.708 respectively), however, significant differences were not found. The avoided biopsy rates to detect 95% of aggressive tumors were 20.2% for PHI, 14.8% for %fPSA, and 23.5% for PSAd. Even more, to detect all aggressive tumors these rates dropped to 4.9% for PHI, 9.3% for %fPSA, and 7.9% for PSAd. PHI seems a good marker to PCa diagnosis. However, PHI was not superior to %fPSA and PSAd to identify at least 95% of aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiogenomics of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Multireader Multi-Institutional Study from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group.

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    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Huang, Erich P; Lakhman, Yulia; Ippolito, Joseph E; Bhosale, Priya; Mellnick, Vincent; Shinagare, Atul B; Anello, Maria; Kirby, Justin; Fevrier-Sullivan, Brenda; Freymann, John; Jaffe, C Carl; Sala, Evis

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate interradiologist agreement on assessments of computed tomography (CT) imaging features of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), to assess their associations with time-to-disease progression (TTP) and HGSOC transcriptomic profiles (Classification of Ovarian Cancer [CLOVAR]), and to develop an imaging-based risk score system to predict TTP and CLOVAR profiles. Materials and Methods This study was a multireader, multi-institutional, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 92 patients with HGSOC (median age, 61 years) with abdominopelvic CT before primary cytoreductive surgery available through the Cancer Imaging Archive. Eight radiologists from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group developed and independently recorded the following CT features: characteristics of primary ovarian mass(es), presence of definable mesenteric implants and infiltration, presence of other implants, presence and distribution of peritoneal spread, presence and size of pleural effusions and ascites, lymphadenopathy, and distant metastases. Interobserver agreement for CT features was assessed, as were univariate and multivariate associations with TTP and CLOVAR mesenchymal profile (worst prognosis). Results Interobserver agreement for some features was strong (eg, α = .78 for pleural effusion and ascites) but was lower for others (eg, α = .08 for intraparenchymal splenic metastases). Presence of peritoneal disease in the right upper quadrant (P = .0003), supradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy (P = .0004), more peritoneal disease sites (P = .0006), and nonvisualization of a discrete ovarian mass (P = .0037) were associated with shorter TTP. More peritoneal disease sites (P = .0025) and presence of pouch of Douglas implants (P = .0045) were associated with CLOVAR mesenchymal profile. Combinations of imaging features contained predictive signal for TTP (concordance index = 0.658; P = .0006) and CLOVAR profile (mean

  13. Institutional (mis)trust in colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study with Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Javanparast, Sara; Wilson, Carlene; Meyer, Samantha B

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer mortality rate in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT), although uptake is low for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. To present data on trust and mistrust in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake and thus to highlight areas in need of policy change. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia, involving interviews with 94 people from four CALD groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian, and Indigenous peoples. Our study highlights the complexities of institutional trust, which involves considerations of trust at interpersonal, local and national levels. In addition, trust and mistrust was found in more abstract systems such as the medical knowledge of doctors to diagnose or treat cancer or the scientific procedures in laboratories to test the FOBTs. The object of institutional (mis)trust differed between cultural groups - Anglo-Australian and Iranian groups indicated a high level of trust in the government, whereas Indigenous participants were much less trusting. The level and nature of trust in the screening process varied between the CALD groups. Addressing program misconceptions, clarifying the FOBT capabilities and involving medical services in collecting and transporting the samples may increase trust in the NBCSP. However, broader and more enduring mistrust in services and institutions may need to be dealt with in order to increase trust and participation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Awareness on cytology procedure in oral cancer detection among undergraduates: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Pathak, Rajeev; Pathak, Sunita; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Anuradha

    2017-11-01

    The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur. A pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study consisting of twenty four questions was conducted among hundred randomly selected students from third year, final year and intern's batch. According to 73% of students biopsy was the special test done in oral cancer detection and only 59% had heard regarding oral cytology technique. Formalin was the fixative known for cytology smears among 61%. Significance of toluidine blue staining was not known by 62%. Seventy seven percent of students were not aware about classes of cytology reporting. Eighty six percent of students felt that the adequacy of training in cytology was lagging. This survey identified an existing gap in the knowledge among the dental students regarding cytology as a diagnostic aid in oral cancer detection. This emphasizes the need to provide training for undergraduates at clinical level on regular basis and also through CDE and oral can-cer detection workshops.

  15. Family history record and hereditary cancer risk perception according to National Cancer Institute criteria in a Spanish medical oncology service: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Rodas, Iván; López-Trabada, Daniel; Rupérez Blanco, Ana Belén; Custodio Cabello, Sara; Peligros Gómez, María Isabel; Orera Clemente, María; Calvo, Felipe A; Martín, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Identification of patients at risk of hereditary cancer is an essential component of oncology practice, since it enables clinicians to offer early detection and prevention programs. However, the large number of hereditary syndromes makes it difficult to take them all into account in daily practice. Consequently, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has suggested a series of criteria to guide initial suspicion. It was the aim of this study to assess the perception of the risk of hereditary cancer according to the NCI criteria in our medical oncology service. We retrospectively analyzed the recordings of the family history in new cancer patients seen in our medical oncology service from January to November 2009, only 1 year before the implementation of our multidisciplinary hereditary cancer program. The family history was recorded in only 175/621 (28%) patients. A total of 119 (19%) patients met 1 or more NCI criteria (1 criterion, n = 91; 2 criteria, n = 23; 3 criteria, n = 4; and 4 criteria, n = 1), and only 14 (11.4%) patients were referred to genetic counseling. This study shows that few clinicians record the family history. The perception of the risk of hereditary cancer is low according to the NCI criteria in our medical oncology service. These findings can be explained by the lack of a multidisciplinary hereditary cancer program when the study was performed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Breast cancer: surgery at the South egypt cancer institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed A S; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-09-30

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute's (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females); 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  17. Screening mammography. A missed clinical opportunity? Results of the NCI [National Cancer Institute] Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and national health interview survey studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Data from seven studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were used to determine current rates of breast cancer screening and to identify the characteristics of and reasons for women not being screened. All seven studies were population-based surveys of women aged 50 to 74 years without breast cancer. While over 90% of non-Hispanic white respondents had regular sources of medical care, 46% to 76% had a clinical breast examination within the previous year, and only 25% to 41% had a mammogram. Less educated and poorer women had fewer mammograms. The two most common reasons women gave for never having had a mammogram were that they did not known they needed it and that their physician had not recommended it. Many physicians may have overlooked the opportunity to recommend mammography for older women when performing a clinical breast examination and to educate their patients about the benefit of screening mammography

  18. A pilot study to assess the level of depression and the coping strategies adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitumoni Konwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer, the second most common cause of death, has become a major health problem. Depression is the most common psychological problem encountered in patients with cancer. The coping skills adopted may affect the mental health of patients. Therefore, this research is undertaken to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by the patients diagnosed with cancer. Materials and methods: A descriptive study to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl was carried out from April to May 2014 with 30 convenient samples. Depression was assessed by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith in 1983. Coping strategy adopted by patients were assessed by revised version of the Ways of Coping Checklist developed by Folkman and Lazarus in 1985. Results: Findings of the study showed that depression was universal to all the cancer patients. Majority of cancer patients (66.5% had moderate depression while 13.26% of the cancer patients had severe depression, and only 6.7% of them reported to have low depression. The most effective coping strategy adopted was reappraisal, followed by distancing. There is significant correlation between depression and reappraisal (r=-0.538, p<0.002, and also with depression and acceptance (r=-0.415, p<0.022 strategies. Conclusion: As depression is universal to all cancer patients, use of appropriate coping strategy is very essential to improve their quality of life. The recognition of coping strategies by health team may enable appropriate information and interventions to be provided at optimal times for each individual.

  19. 75 FR 3242 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Developing Research Capacity in Africa for the Studies on HIV-Associated... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated...

  20. Connecting the Dots: A Comparative Global Multi-Institutional Study of Prohibitive Factors Affecting Cancer Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoatey Odonkor, Charles; Addison, William; Smith, Sean; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Tang, Teresa; Erdek, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the attitudes, beliefs, and barriers interfering with cancer pain management, the degree of barrier interference with trainees’ care of patients, and the relationships among prohibitive factors to pain management for physicians in a low–middle-income countries (LMICs) vs high-income countries (HICs). A multi-institutional cross-sectional survey of physicians in specialties with a focus in pain management training was performed. All surveys were completed anonymously from July 1, 2015, to November 30, 2015. One hundred and twenty physicians participated in the survey. Surveys were based on prior questionnaires published in the literature. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and chi-square (ℵ2) analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed. Compared with their peers in HICs, physicians in LMICs reported less experience with cancer pain management despite seeing more cancer patients with advanced disease (41% vs 15.2%, p pain (84% vs 76%) and lack of training and expertise (87% vs 78%) were significantly more prohibitive for physicians in LMICs than those in HICs; p pain management among trainee physicians in low- vs high-resource environments. Understanding these differences may spur further collaboration in the design of contextually relevant solutions, which could potentially help improve the adequacy of cancer pain management

  1. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.S. Salem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females; 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  2. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  3. Evaluation of intratumoral HER-2 heterogeneity by fluorescence in situ hybridization in invasive breast cancer: a single institution study.

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    Lee, Sarah; Jung, Woohee; Hong, Soon-Won; Koo, Ja Seung

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence and characteristics of HER-2 gene heterogeneity in invasive breast cancer in a single institution. Included were 971 cases of primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2010. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) image files were retrospectively reviewed and HER-2 gene heterogeneity was defined as more than 5% but less than 50% of analyzed invasive tumor cells with a HER-2/Chr17 ratio higher than 2.2, according to the College of American Pathologists guidelines. HER-2 gene heterogeneity was identified in 24 (2.5%) cases. The mean proportion of invasive tumor cells with a HER-2/chromosome 17 ratio higher than 2.2 was 11.6% (range: 5%-25%). Of 24 cases, HER-2 gene status was not amplified in 8, showed borderline amplification in 2, and amplification in 14. All HER-2 amplification cases were low-grade. In conclusion, HER-2 gene heterogeneity of invasive breast cancer is identified in routine FISH examination. This may affect the results of HER-2 gene amplification status in FISH studies.

  4. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  5. Present state of studies on FFAG accelerator for radiotherapy of cancer in National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misu, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    From 2001, developmental contract studies with Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for a compact accelerator for heavy ion radiotherapy of cancer started in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) with use of fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator, which had been developed in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). This paper describes the present state of those studies. Described are FFAG accelerator design for repeated acceleration for 200 Hz or more toward the carbon ion at 400 MeV/u with the range of 25 cm in water, FFAG optical systems for these purposes by linear analyses, and the present situation of the design. Technological problems yielded and future study plan are also commented. (N.I.)

  6. Chemo-radiotherapy plus hyperthermia in locally advanced cervical cancer: preliminary results of an institutional phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbani, M.; Marciai, N.; Maluta, S.; Griso, C.; Merlin, F.; Cassandrini, P.; Giudici, S.; Franchi, M.; Zanini, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy given concurrently with a cisplatin-based regimen has shown a benefit in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer so becoming the new standard treatment according to EBM criteria. Addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy has also been proved to yield an advantage in survival and local control in pts affected by recurrent and local advanced cervical cancer in the Dutch Phase III trial so that the Consensus Forum of Kadota (Osaha June 2004) included cervical cancer among tumors treatable with hyperthermia. In our institutional multidisciplinary team a pilot study has been designed in order to evaluate feasibility, outcome and toxicity of tri-modality treatment in pts with locally advanced cervical cancer in our daily practice. Since January 2003 to now eight patients affected by cervical cancer with stage IB2 through IVA N0-N+ pelvic or paraaortic were entered the study. Six patients were treated at initial diagnosis and two patients after chemotherapy which had achieved stable disease. Treatment regimen consisted in 5 courses of weekly chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/mq) with concurrent external radiotherapy to a total dose of 64-66 Gy on CTV1 and 45 Gy on para-aortic nodes plus boost in pts with enlarged nodes identified by imaging. Five weekly sessions of hyperthermia were performed by using BSD 2000 system and sigma 60 applicator. No significant toxicity occurred and all of the patients completed tri-modality treatment in accordance with the study protocol. Seven pts experienced a complete clinical remission and one patient a partial remission as defined by clinical and imaging examinations. After four months from the end of the treatment a patient with Stage IIB bulky tumor plus one pelvic positive node who was in complete remission (Clinical examination, MRI and TAC-PET three months from the end of the treatment were negative for evidence of disease) developed a bleeding recto-vaginal fistula plus central pelvic necrosis for which an

  7. Evolution of accesses to information on breast cancer and screening on the Brazilian National Cancer Institute website: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Sormunen, Taina; Craftman, Åsa Gransjön

    2018-04-01

    Delays in diagnosis due to low Breast Cancer awareness are widespread in Brazil maybe owing to ineffective strategies to raise attention on early diagnosis. As a proxy of collective interest in BC screanning (BCS) we studied the monthly accesses to BC and BCS webpages in INCA's website along 48 months. A log analyzer built a time serie (2006-2009) of BC and BCS monthly means, which oscilations were studied by analysis of variance (ANOVA). We found significant increasing accesses to BC and transient "attention peaks". Enlargement in BC/BCS differences along all period were caused by increasing accesses to BC and decreasing/minor/stable oscillations to SBC pages. These results are consistent with previous reports on increasing interest to BC contrasting with indifference on BCS. In the context of an exploratory study, we discussed some aspects: weakness of a "prevention culture"; lack of confidence in health system and screening programs; "celebrity effect" in the context of media framing; collective perception of risks heightened by perception of social vulnerability. Findings suggest that culture-tailored communication strategies would be necessary to inform Brazilian people about BCS. Future research is needed to study social perceptions and constructions on BC topics.

  8. Evolution of accesses to information on breast cancer and screening on the Brazilian National Cancer Institute website: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Vasconcellos-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Delays in diagnosis due to low Breast Cancer awareness are widespread in Brazil maybe owing to ineffective strategies to raise attention on early diagnosis. As a proxy of collective interest in BC screanning (BCS we studied the monthly accesses to BC and BCS webpages in INCA's website along 48 months. A log analyzer built a time serie (2006-2009 of BC and BCS monthly means, which oscilations were studied by analysis of variance (ANOVA. We found significant increasing accesses to BC and transient “attention peaks”. Enlargement in BC/BCS differences along all period were caused by increasing accesses to BC and decreasing/minor/stable oscillations to SBC pages. These results are consistent with previous reports on increasing interest to BC contrasting with indifference on BCS. In the context of an exploratory study, we discussed some aspects: weakness of a “prevention culture”; lack of confidence in health system and screening programs; “celebrity effect” in the context of media framing; collective perception of risks heightened by perception of social vulnerability. Findings suggest that culture-tailored communication strategies would be necessary to inform Brazilian people about BCS. Future research is needed to study social perceptions and constructions on BC topics.

  9. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of breast cancer patients of eastern India: A multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Bhaumik, Gautam; Chattopadhyay, Bhargab

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of any significant data on the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer patients from the eastern part of India. This study aims to document the ER and PR status of breast cancer patients in the eastern Indian population, as catered by two premier tertiary care hospitals in Kolkata. All breast cancer patients registered between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, in the Departments of Oncology, of IPGMER and SSKM Hospitals and R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, who had at least undergone a core biopsy or surgery, were analyzed retrospectively for documentation of their ER and PR status, using the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) interpretation guidelines. Over a period of 3 years, a total of 927 patients were included for the study. A total of 825 (89%) patients had their ER and PR data available for evaluation. ER and PR positive was seen in 312 (37.82%) patients, ER and PR negative in 399 (48.36%) patients, ER positive and PR negative in 71 (8.6%) patients, and ER negative and PR positive results was found in 43 (5.21%) patients. This is the first multi-institutional documentation of ER and PR status from eastern India, having a modest number of patients and one of the earliest documentations using the latest ASCO/CAP interpretation guidelines. These findings resemble the data from the south and also reiterate the fact that majority of the Indian breast cancer patients are still ER and PR negative in spite of the changes in the interpretation guidelines.

  10. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanidi, Anouar; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Ortega, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population. Population-based case-control study. Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited. In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations. No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4-Q1=0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.92, P trend=0.03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4-Q1=0.60 (95% CI 0.39, 0.94, P trend=0.03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.42, 0.76, P trend <0.01) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.31, 0.73, P trend<0.01), respectively. Physical activity level was inversely associated with BC risk. The WCRF/AICR index was not related with BC risk in the CAMA study. A combination of six components excluding BMI showed strong protective associations, particularly in postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.

  11. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.

  12. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Frank J; Robbins, Robert J; Weems, William A; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2009-06-15

    Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems--such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG)--seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios--difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Thirty-one (31) individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31) individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and security officers, directors of offices of research, information

  13. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weems William A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems – such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG – seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. Methods An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios – difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Results Thirty-one (31 individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31 individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and

  14. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems – such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) – seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. Methods An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios – difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Results Thirty-one (31) individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31) individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and security officers, directors of

  15. Evaluation of the quality of the mammography study in the radio-diagnostic service of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Laverde, Alba Lucia; Pineros Petersen, Marion; Betancourt Gil, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    The development of mammography quality control programs at radiology services has had an important progress in the last decades, mainly in developed countries. Although breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and incidence in Colombia, quality control programs for mammography screening are just beginning to be considered. This article describes the results of a baseline evaluation aimed at establishing a quality control program at the Radiology Unit of the National Cancer Institute, in Colombia. The mammography equipment, the film processing, and all main physical parameters were checked and compared to international standards. Quality of the image in 301 mammographic X-ray plates was evaluated. In order to implement a good quality control program, the need for acquiring essential instruments, improving physical facilities and starting a continuous training program is imperative

  16. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility and validity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  17. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  18. 75 FR 14172 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Nucleic Acid Analysis for the Molecular Characterization of... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  19. 76 FR 14675 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-7565, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Molecular... Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  20. 77 FR 19674 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Innovative Molecular Analysis Technologies for Cancer (R21). Date: June 26... Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  1. 75 FR 5092 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Quantitative Cell-Based Imaging....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  2. The current status of treatment for oropharyngeal cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of the treatment for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Japan to assist the planning of clinical trials in the future. The data for 523 patients with previously untreated OPC were obtained from 12 institutions from April 2005 to N/larch 2007. Of the 523 patients, 471 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 471 patients with OPC treated with curative intent, 186 patients (39.5%) were treated with surgery, 118 (25.1%) with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 167 (355%) with CRT. Surgery was indicated for 60.4% of the patients with stage I, 47.8% in stage II, 29.4% in stage III, and 36.44% in stage IV. CRT was indicated for 8.3% in stage II, but the percentage increased with higher stage. The percentage of RT was around 30% among stage I-III, but in stage IV, 21.3% of the patients were indicated for RT. The median follow-up period was 4 years and 5 months. The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates for the 471 patients were 85% and 69.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients treated initially with surgery, RT and CRT were 73%, 69.1% and 65.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, and IVB were 78.9%. 87.3%, 69.7%, 66.6%, and 47.7%, respectively. Although this study was retrospective, we could understand the tendency of treatment choice according to various factors and treatment results. The information will be useful for planning clinical trials in the future. (author)

  3. 76 FR 9353 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ....gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Molecular Pharmacodynamic... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  4. 77 FR 33476 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Biopsy Instruments and Devices That Preserve Molecular Profiles... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  5. GH replacement therapy and second neoplasms in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a retrospective study from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, E; Felicetti, F; Castiglione, A; Fortunati, N; Matarazzo, P; Biasin, E; Sacerdote, C; Ricardi, U; Fagioli, F; Corrias, A; Arvat, E

    2015-02-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the most common endocrine late effect observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS) previously submitted to cranial irradiation. Radiation therapy can also increase the risk of second neoplasms (SNs). Since in previous studies GH replacement therapy was associated with increased incidence of neoplasia, we explored the association between SNs and GH replacement therapy in a cohort of CCS with GHD. Within the clinical cohort of CCS referred to the Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors of Turin between November 2001 and December 2012, we considered all patients who developed GHD as a consequence of cancer therapies. GHD was always diagnosed in childhood. To evaluate the quality of data, our cohort was linked to the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont. GHD was diagnosed in 49 out of 310 CCS included in our clinical cohort. At least one SN was diagnosed in 14 patients, meningioma and basal cell carcinoma being the most common SNs. The cumulative incidence of SNs was similar in GH-treated and -untreated patients (8 SNs out of 26 GH-treated and 6 out of 23 GH-untreated patients; p = 0.331). Age, sex and paediatric cancer type had no impact on SNs development. In our CCS, GH replacement therapy does not seem to increase the risk of SNs. Anyway, independently from replacement therapy, in these patients we observed an elevated risk of SNs, possibly related to previous radiation therapy, which suggests the need of a close long-term follow-up.

  6. 78 FR 30933 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Emphasis Panel; Validation and Advanced Development of Emerging Molecular Analysis Technologies for Cancer..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  7. 76 FR 52960 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Emphasis Panel, Mechanisms of Cell Signaling in Cancer. Date: October 13-14, 2011. Time: 3 to 5 p.m. Agenda..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  8. MUC1 Expression by Immunohistochemistry Is Associated with Adverse Pathologic Features in Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okyaz Eminaga

    Full Text Available The uncertainties inherent in clinical measures of prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness endorse the investigation of clinically validated tissue biomarkers. MUC1 expression has been previously reported to independently predict aggressive localized prostate cancer. We used a large cohort to validate whether MUC1 protein levels measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC predict aggressive cancer, recurrence and survival outcomes after radical prostatectomy independent of clinical and pathological parameters.MUC1 IHC was performed on a multi-institutional tissue microarray (TMA resource including 1,326 men with a median follow-up of 5 years. Associations with clinical and pathological parameters were tested by the Chi-square test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Relationships with outcome were assessed with univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and the Log-rank test.The presence of MUC1 expression was significantly associated with extracapsular extension and higher Gleason score, but not with seminal vesicle invasion, age, positive surgical margins or pre-operative serum PSA levels. In univariable analyses, positive MUC1 staining was significantly associated with a worse recurrence free survival (RFS (HR: 1.24, CI 1.03-1.49, P = 0.02, although not with disease specific survival (DSS, P>0.5. On multivariable analyses, the presence of positive surgical margins, extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, as well as higher pre-operative PSA and increasing Gleason score were independently associated with RFS, while MUC1 expression was not. Positive MUC1 expression was not independently associated with disease specific survival (DSS, but was weakly associated with overall survival (OS.In our large, rigorously designed validation cohort, MUC1 protein expression was associated with adverse pathological features, although it was not an independent predictor of outcome after radical prostatectomy.

  9. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  10. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  11. Radiomic features for prostate cancer detection on MRI differ between the transition and peripheral zones: Preliminary findings from a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B; Algohary, Ahmad; Pahwa, Shivani; Gulani, Vikas; Ponsky, Lee; Aronen, Hannu J; Boström, Peter J; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Brenner, Phillip; Delprado, Warick; Thompson, James; Pulbrock, Marley; Taimen, Pekka; Villani, Robert; Stricker, Phillip; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Jambor, Ivan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate in a multi-institutional study whether radiomic features useful for prostate cancer (PCa) detection from 3 Tesla (T) multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in the transition zone (TZ) differ from those in the peripheral zone (PZ). 3T mpMRI, including T2-weighted (T2w), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), were retrospectively obtained from 80 patients at three institutions. This study was approved by the institutional review board of each participating institution. First-order statistical, co-occurrence, and wavelet features were extracted from T2w MRI and ADC maps, and contrast kinetic features were extracted from DCE-MRI. Feature selection was performed to identify 10 features for PCa detection in the TZ and PZ, respectively. Two logistic regression classifiers used these features to detect PCa and were evaluated by area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Classifier performance was compared with a zone-ignorant classifier. Radiomic features that were identified as useful for PCa detection differed between TZ and PZ. When classification was performed on a per-voxel basis, a PZ-specific classifier detected PZ tumors on an independent test set with significantly higher accuracy (AUC = 0.61-0.71) than a zone-ignorant classifier trained to detect cancer throughout the entire prostate (P  0.14) were obtained for all institutions. A zone-aware classifier significantly improves the accuracy of cancer detection in the PZ. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:184-193. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. 76 FR 31619 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Phase IIB...: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive...

  13. 78 FR 50068 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Strategic Plan; Proposed Organizational Change: Division..., Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis... Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  14. Outcome of Breast Cancer in Moroccan Young Women Correlated to Clinic-Pathological Features, Risk Factors and Treatment: A Comparative Study of 716 Cases in a Single Institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Slaoui

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available.We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1 and women aged >40 years (Group 2. Data were recorded from patients' medical files and analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software (IBM.Young patients represent 24.9% of all patients with breast cancer. The comparison between the two groups displayed significant differences regarding nulliparity (p = 0.001 and progesterone receptor negativity (p = 0.01. Moreover, more progression (Metastases/Relapse was registered in young women as compared to older women with breast cancer (p = 0.03. The estimated median follow-up period was 31 months. The 5-years Event-Free Survival (EFS of patients with local disease was 64.6% in young women and 71.5% in older women with breast cancer (p = 0.04. Multivariate analysis in young women showed that nulliparity (HR: 7.2; 95%CI: 1.16-44.54; p = 0.03, T3 tumors (HR: 17.39; 95%CI: 1.74-173.34; p = 0.01 and negative PgR status (HR: 19.85; 95%CI: 1.07-366.54; p = 0.04 can be considered as risk factors for poorer event free survival while hormone therapy was associated with better EFS (HR: 0.11; 95%CI: 0.00-0.75; p = 0.03. In Group 2, multivariate analysis showed that patients with inflammatory breast cancer, N+ status, absence of radiotherapy, absence of chemotherapy, and absence of hormone therapy are at increased risk of recurrence.In Morocco, breast cancer is more frequent in young women as compared to western countries. Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive and is diagnosed late, leading to an intensive treatment. Moreover, the main factors

  15. 77 FR 19024 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI SPORE in Lymphoma, Leukemia, Brain, Esophageal and Gastrointestinal..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer...

  16. 78 FR 28235 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: June 13, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  17. Studying institutional work in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – In order to provide new and other directions to institutional studies in organization theory, Lawrence and Suddaby forward the notion of institutional work of actors aimed at maintaining, changing and disrupting institutions. The purpose of this paper is to further theory and method...... in studying the institutional work of people in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – Methodological insights from the ways in which theories of human agency in institutional contexts have co-evolved with field study methodologies are analyzed in related fields of research, particularly in sociology...... and anthropology. Findings – The ways have been analyzed in which social theories of human agency in institutional contexts and field methodology have co-evolved in an inter-disciplinary perspective. The analysis shows how field methodologies may provide inspirations to theory and method in studying institutional...

  18. Value of a gene signature assay in patients with early breast cancer and intermediate risk: a single institution retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneterre, Jacques; Prat, Aleix; Galván, Patricia; Morel, Pascale; Giard, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    Purpose In daily clinical practice, the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is relatively easy to make in patients with early hormone-receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer with either very poor or very good clinicopathological prognostic variables. However, this decision is much more difficult in patients with intermediate clinicopathological prognostic variables. Here, we evaluate the value of a gene-expression profile identified by the Prosigna gene signature assay in guiding treatment decision-making in patients with these intermediate features. Methods A consecutive cohort of 577 HR + breast cancer patients surgically treated in a single institution between January 2012 and December 2012 was evaluated. From this population, pre- and post-menopausal patients with intermediate prognosis clinicopathological variables were identified and indication of adjuvant CT in these patients was recorded. The gene signature assay was performed retrospectively in this intermediate risk group. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results Among 96 intermediate-risk patients, 64 postmenopausal patients underwent gene signature testing. Subtype distribution was as follows: Luminal A (N = 33; 51.6%), Luminal B (N = 31; 48.4%). Risk of recurrence (ROR) distribution was as follows: ROR-low (n = 16; 25%); ROR-intermediate (N = 26; 40.6%); and ROR-high (N = 22; 34.4%). CT was subsequently administered in 18.7%, 53.8% and 59.0% of the ROR-low, ROR-intermediate and ROR-high groups, respectively. With the use of the gene signature assay, 59.4% of the intermediate cases were re-classified to either ROR-low or ROR-high risk categories. In the ROR-intermediate group, 11/26 patients (42.3%) had Luminal A and 15/26 (57.7%) had Luminal B. Due to follow-up time constraints, no patient outcome results were evaluated. Conclusion The gene signature assay provides clinically useful information and improved treatment decision-making in patients with intermediate risk based on

  19. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Badellino, Serena [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ceccarelli, Manuela [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Guarneri, Alessia [Radiation Oncology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Franco, Pierfrancesco [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monagheddu, Chiara [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Spadi, Rosella [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Racca, Patrizia [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials.

  20. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Badellino, Serena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Guarneri, Alessia; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Monagheddu, Chiara; Spadi, Rosella; Ragona, Riccardo; Racca, Patrizia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials

  1. 77 FR 4052 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NCI SPORE in Breast, Endometrial, and... Special Emphasis Panel, The Role of Microbial Metabolites in Cancer Prevention and Etiology. Date: March..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer...

  2. 75 FR 20370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer Biology. Date: May 20, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control...

  3. 78 FR 55750 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Innovative Molecular Analysis Technology Development for Cancer Research (R21). Date: October 24, 2013. Time...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Integrative Cancer Biology. Date: October 29, 2013. Time... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  4. Re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence from esophageal cancer with radiotherapy history: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingu, Keiichi; Niibe, Yuzuru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Katsui, Kuniaki; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Nishina, Tomohiro; Terahara, Atsuro

    2017-09-05

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following surgery has recently become a standard therapy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and toxicity of re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy or by surgery with additional radiotherapy. We reviewed retrospectively 248 patients treated with (chemo)radiotherapy for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer in five Japanese high-volume centers between 2000 and 2015. Thirty-three patients in whom re-irradiation was performed were enrolled in this study, and the results for patients in whom re-irradiation was performed were compared with the results for other patients. Median maximum lymph node diameter was 22 mm. Median total radiation dose was 60 Gy. The median calculated biological effective dose using the LQ model with α/β = 10 Gy (BED10) in patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was significantly lower than the median BED10 in others. There was no different factor except for BED10, histology and irradiation field between patients with a past irradiation history and patients without a past irradiation history. The median observation period in surviving patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was 21.7 months. The 3-year overall survival rate in the 33 patients with a past irradiation history was 17.9%, with a median survival period of 16.0 months. Overall survival rate and local control rate in patients with a past irradiation history were significantly worse than those in patients without a past irradiation history (log-rank test, p = 0.016 and p = 0.0007, respectively). One patient in whom re-irradiation was performed died from treatment-related gastric hemorrhage. Results in the present study suggested that re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence in lymph nodes from esophageal cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy or by surgery with additional radiotherapy might be acceptable but

  5. Breast Cancer Patients' Preferences for Adjuvant Radiotherapy Post Lumpectomy: Whole Breast Irradiation vs. Partial Breast Irradiation-Single Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Katija; McGuffin, Merrylee; Presutti, Roseanna; Harth, Tamara; Mesci, Aruz; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Chow, Edward; Di Prospero, Lisa; Vesprini, Danny; Rakovitch, Eileen; Lee, Justin; Paszat, Lawrence; Doherty, Mary; Soliman, Hany; Ackerman, Ida; Cao, Xingshan; Kiss, Alex; Szumacher, Ewa

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate patients with early breast cancer preference for standard whole breast irradiation (WBI) or partial breast irradiation (PBI) following lumpectomy, as well as identify important factors for patients when making their treatment decisions. Based on relevant literature and ASTRO consensus statement guidelines, an educational tool and questionnaire were developed. Consenting, eligible women reviewed the educational tool and completed the trade-off questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated, as well as chi-squares and a logistic regression model. Of the 90 patients who completed the study, 62 % preferred WBI, 30 % preferred PBI, 4 % required more information, and 3 % had no preferences. Of the patients who chose WBI, 58 % preferred hypofractionated RT, whereas 25 % preferred the conventional RT regimen. The majority of patients rated recurrence rate [WBI = 55/55 (100 %), PBI = 26/26 (100 %)] and survival [WBI = 54/55 (98 %), PBI = 26/26 (100 %)] as important factors contributing to their choice of treatment preference. Financial factors [WBI = 21/55 (38 %), PBI = 14/26 (53 %)] and convenience [WBI = 36/54 (67 %), PBI = 18/26 (69 %)] were rated as important less frequently. Significantly, more patients who preferred WBI also rated standard method of treatment as important when compared to patients who preferred PBI [WBI = 52/54 (96 %), PBI = 16/26 (61 %), χ 2  = 16.63, p = 0.001]. The majority of patients with early breast cancer who were surveyed for this study preferred WBI as an adjuvant treatment post lumpectomy, yet there was a sizeable minority who preferred PBI. This was associated with the importance patients place on standard treatment. These results will help medical professionals treat patients according to patient values.

  6. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway.

  7. 76 FR 5597 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Vaccine for Prevention of HIV Infection. Date: February 24, 2011... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... concerning individuals associated with the grant applications and/or contract proposals, the disclosure of...

  8. Institute for fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical discussions were presented for each of the following topics: (1) review of linear microinstabilities; (2) nonlinear drift wave in a sheared magnetic field; (3) electrostatic fluctuation measurements in tokamaks and other toroidal experiments; (4) microinstability, entropy production, and plasma confinement; (5) measurements of tokamak edge fluctuations and transport; (6) nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria; (7) nonlinear electron response to drift wave fluctuations in toroidal geometry; (8) universal mode with diffusive electrons; (9) low-frequency magnetic instabilities and diffusion; (10) nonlinear study of drift wave turbulence; (11) turbulent spectra from the interaction of three drift waves; (12) lower hybrid drift instability; (13) lower-hybrid-drift turbulence and anomalous transport; (14) simulation of drift-cone turbulence in a neutral-beam driven mirror machine; (15) drift wave solitons and turbulence; (16) nonlinear behavior of unstable toroidally induced drift modes in tokamak geometry; (17) microturbulence in PLT; (18) collisional drift instability; (19) two-point correlation for trapped electrons and the frequency spectrum of drift wave turbulence in tokamaks; (20) density fluctuations in PDX and Oleator C; (21) kinetic theory of ballooning mode; (22) electromagnetic kinetic toroidal eigenmodes for general MHD equilibria; (23) particle simulation of the drift wave including the electromagnetic effect; and (24) anomalous ion thermal conductivity

  9. [The survival prediction model of advanced gallbladder cancer based on Bayesian network: a multi-institutional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z H; Geng, Z M; Chen, C; Si, S B; Cai, Z Q; Song, T Q; Gong, P; Jiang, L; Qiu, Y H; He, Y; Zhai, W L; Li, S P; Zhang, Y C; Yang, Y

    2018-05-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of Bayesian network in predicting survival of patients with advanced gallbladder cancer(GBC)who underwent curative intent surgery. Methods: The clinical data of patients with advanced GBC who underwent curative intent surgery in 9 institutions from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively.A median survival time model based on a tree augmented naïve Bayes algorithm was established by Bayesia Lab software.The survival time, number of metastatic lymph nodes(NMLN), T stage, pathological grade, margin, jaundice, liver invasion, age, sex and tumor morphology were included in this model.Confusion matrix, the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve were used to evaluate the accuracy of the model.A priori statistical analysis of these 10 variables and a posterior analysis(survival time as the target variable, the remaining factors as the attribute variables)was performed.The importance rankings of each variable was calculated with the polymorphic Birnbaum importance calculation based on the posterior analysis results.The survival probability forecast table was constructed based on the top 4 prognosis factors. The survival curve was drawn by the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences in survival curves were compared using the Log-rank test. Results: A total of 316 patients were enrolled, including 109 males and 207 females.The ratio of male to female was 1.0∶1.9, the age was (62.0±10.8)years.There was 298 cases(94.3%) R0 resection and 18 cases(5.7%) R1 resection.T staging: 287 cases(90.8%) T3 and 29 cases(9.2%) T4.The median survival time(MST) was 23.77 months, and the 1, 3, 5-year survival rates were 67.4%, 40.8%, 32.0%, respectively.For the Bayesian model, the number of correctly predicted cases was 121(≤23.77 months) and 115(>23.77 months) respectively, leading to a 74.86% accuracy of this model.The prior probability of survival time was 0.503 2(≤23.77 months) and 0.496 8

  10. Better compliance with hypofractionation vs. conventional fractionation in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy. Results of a single, institutional, retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, Volker; Nour, Alaa; Hammoud, Mohamed; Abou Ghaida, Salam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors significantly associated with the occurrence of unintended treatment interruptions in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy. Patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy of the breast or chest wall between March 2014 and August 2016 were evaluated. The radiotherapy regimens and techniques applied were either conventional fractionation (CF; 28 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy or 25 fractions of 2.0 Gy) or hypofractionation (HF; 15 daily fractions of 2.67 Gy) with inverse planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional planned conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with noncompliance. Noncompliance was defined as the missing of at least one scheduled radiotherapy fraction. In all, 19 of 140 (13.6%) patients treated with HF and 39 of 146 (26.7%) treated with CF experienced treatment interruptions. Of 23 factors tested, the fractionation regimen emerged as the only independent significant prognostic factor for noncompliance on multivariate analysis (CF; p = 0.007; odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.2). No statistically significant differences concerning the reasons for treatment interruptions could be detected between patients treated with CF or HF. HF is significantly associated with a better patient compliance with the prescribed radiotherapy schedule compared with CF. The data suggest that this finding is basically related to the shorter overall treatment time of HF. (orig.) [de

  11. 76 FR 576 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...; Development of Molecular Diagnostics Assay to Detect Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: February 15, 2011. Time... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Collaborative Research in Integrative Cancer Biology and the Tumor... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  12. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  13. Multi institutional phase II study of concomitant stereotactic reirradiation and cetuximab for recurrent head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Eric F.; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Thariat, Juliette; Graff, Pierre; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Benezery, Karen; Schiappacasse, Luis; Degardin, Marian; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Peiffert, Didier; Lefebvre, Jean-Louis; Lacornerie, Thomas; Kramar, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Recurrent head and neck cancer is associated to a poor survival prognosis. A high toxicity rate is demonstrated when surgery and/or radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are combined. Furthermore, the duration of treatment is often not ethically compatible with the expected survival (median survival < 1 year). Normal tissues tolerance limits the use of reirradiation and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) could offer precise irradiation while sparing healthy tissues. After completion of a feasibility study, results of a multicentric study (Lille, Nancy and Nice) using SBRT with cetuximab are reported. The aim of the study was to deliver non toxic short course SBRT (2 weeks) in order to get the same local control as the one demonstrated with longer protocols. Methods and materials: Patients with inoperable recurrent, or new primary tumor in a previously irradiated area, were included (WHO < 3). Reirradiation (RT) dose was 36 Gy in six fractions of 6 Gy to the 85% isodose line covering 95% of the PTV with 5 injections of concomitant cetuximab (CT). All patients had previous radiotherapy, 85% had previous surgery and 48% previous chemotherapy. Results: Between 11/2007 and 08/2010, 60 were included (46 men and 14 women), 56 received CT + RT, 3 were not treated and 1 received only CT. Median age was 60 (42–87)) and all 56 patients had squamous carcinoma and received concomitant cetuximab. Mean time between previous radiotherapy and the start of SBRT was 38 months. Cutaneous toxicity was observed for 41 patients. There was one toxic death from hemorrhage and denutrition. Median follow-up was 11.4 months. At 3 months, response rate was 58.4% (95% CI: 43.2–72.4%) and disease control rate was 91.7% (95% CI: 80.0–97.7%). The one-year OS rate was 47.5% (95% CI: 30.8–62.4). Conclusion: These results suggest that short SBRT with cetuximab is an effective salvage treatment with good response rate in this poor prognosis population with previously irradiated HNC

  14. 77 FR 76057 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...--Institutional Training and Education Institutional Training and Education Grant. Date: February 25-26, 2013...

  15. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  16. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  17. Better compliance with hypofractionation vs. conventional fractionation in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy. Results of a single, institutional, retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudat, Volker; Nour, Alaa; Hammoud, Mohamed; Abou Ghaida, Salam [Saad Specialist Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-05-15

    The aim of the study was to identify factors significantly associated with the occurrence of unintended treatment interruptions in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy. Patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy of the breast or chest wall between March 2014 and August 2016 were evaluated. The radiotherapy regimens and techniques applied were either conventional fractionation (CF; 28 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy or 25 fractions of 2.0 Gy) or hypofractionation (HF; 15 daily fractions of 2.67 Gy) with inverse planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional planned conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with noncompliance. Noncompliance was defined as the missing of at least one scheduled radiotherapy fraction. In all, 19 of 140 (13.6%) patients treated with HF and 39 of 146 (26.7%) treated with CF experienced treatment interruptions. Of 23 factors tested, the fractionation regimen emerged as the only independent significant prognostic factor for noncompliance on multivariate analysis (CF; p = 0.007; odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.2). No statistically significant differences concerning the reasons for treatment interruptions could be detected between patients treated with CF or HF. HF is significantly associated with a better patient compliance with the prescribed radiotherapy schedule compared with CF. The data suggest that this finding is basically related to the shorter overall treatment time of HF. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Untersuchung war es, Faktoren zu identifizieren, die mit ungeplanten Behandlungsunterbrechungen bei der adjuvanten Strahlentherapie des Mammakarzinoms assoziiert sind. Es wurden Patienten untersucht, die eine adjuvante Strahlentherapie der Mamma oder Brustwand zwischen Maerz 2014 und August 2016 erhielten. Zur Anwendung kamen als Fraktionierungsprotokoll und strahlentherapeutische Technik eine konventionell fraktionierte (CF; 28 Fraktionen mit

  18. Postoperative chemoradiation for resected gastric cancer - is the Macdonald Regimen Tolerable? a retrospective multi-institutional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundel, Yulia; Fenig, Eyal; Sulkes, Aaron; Brenner, Baruch; Purim, Ofer; Idelevich, Efraim; Lavrenkov, Konstantin; Man, Sofia; Kovel, Svetlana; Karminsky, Natalia; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Nisenbaum, Bella

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative chemoradiation as per Intergroup-0116 trial ('Macdonald regimen') is considered standard for completely resected high risk gastric cancer. However, many concerns remain with regards to the toxicity of this regimen. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of this regimen in a routine clinical practice setting, we analyzed our experience with its use. As we did not expect a different toxic profile in patients (pts) with positive margins (R1 resection), these were studied together with pts after complete resection (R0). Postoperative chemoradiation therapy was given according to the original Intergroup-0116 regimen. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison of OS and DFS between R0 and R1 pts was done using the log-rank test. Between 6/2000 and 12/2007, 166 pts after R0 (129 pts) or R1 (37 pts) resection of locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma received postoperative chemoradiation; 61% were male and the median age was 63 years (range, 23-86); 78% had T ≥ 3 tumors and 81% had N+ disease; 87% of the pts completed radiotherapy and 54% completed the entire chemoradiation plan; 46.4% had grade ≥ 3 toxicity and 32% were hospitalized at least once for toxicity. Three pts (1.8%) died of toxicity: diarrhea (1), neutropenic sepsis (1) and neutropenic sepsis complicated by small bowel gangrene (1). The most common hematological toxicity was neutropenia, grade ≥ 3 in 30% of pts and complicated by fever in 15%. The most common non-hematological toxicities were nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. With a median follow-up of 51 months (range, 2-100), 62% of the R0 patients remain alive and 61% are free of disease. Median DFS and OS for R0 were not reached. R0 pts had a significantly higher 3-year DFS (60% vs. 29%, p = 0.001) and OS (61% vs. 33%, p = 0.01) compared with R1 pts. In our experience, postoperative chemoradiation as per Intergroup-0116 seems to be substantially toxic

  19. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies' (IIDS) role as a credible public policy institution in India by strengthening its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies IIDS is a social sciences research centre with a focus on development ...

  20. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  1. Long term mortality from cardiac disease and lung cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective cohort study of 7 711 women treated and followed-up at Institute Gustave Roussy (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, H.; Rubino, C.; Le, M.; Giardini, M.; Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Paoletti, C.; Labbe, M.; Haouari, Z.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, Unite 605 INSERM, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Women who are treated for early breast cancer with adjuvant radiation have a decreased risk of local recurrence but an increased risk of mortality from heart disease and lung cancer. Patients with left -sided breast tumors receive a higher dose of radiation to the heart than patients with right-sided tumors. In a previous study of about 300000 women treated for breast cancer during 1973-2001 and followed-up prospectively for cause-specific mortality until January 1, 2002, Sarah Darby showed that for women diagnosed during 1973-1982 and irradiated, the cardiac mortality ratio (left versus right tumor laterality) was 1.20 [1.04-1.38] less then 10 years afterwards, and 1.58 [1.29 - 1.95] after 15 years or more. Because radiation techniques have improved over time, such risks are expected to be reduced. A cohort was performed at Institute Gustave Roussy to investigate long term effects of breast cancer treatments. This cohort comprise 7711 women treated for beast cancer between 1954 and 1984. Mean age at the first treatment was 55 years [21 - 91], 61% were diagnosed before 1977 vs 39% after, 50.4% were left -sided breast cancer, 4832 (73.2 %) were recorded as having received external-beam radiotherapy as part of the initial treatment and 516 (8%) radiotherapy in association with chemotherapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate long term mortality and effects of radiotherapy on mortality from cardiac disease and second cancers. The originality of our study comparing to similar others is the homogeneity of the population studied and the longer follow-up. Vital status and causes of death of women of the cohort were obtained as well as mortality rates in the general French population. The cut off date was January 1, 2001. External and internal analysis were performed. Persons years at risk have been calculated for the entire follow-up period, less then 10 years, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, and 30 or more years afterwards. To

  2. Long term mortality from cardiac disease and lung cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective cohort study of 7 711 women treated and followed-up at Institute Gustave Roussy (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, H.; Rubino, C.; Le, M.; Giardini, M.; Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Paoletti, C.; Labbe, M.; Haouari, Z.; Vathaire, F. de

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Women who are treated for early breast cancer with adjuvant radiation have a decreased risk of local recurrence but an increased risk of mortality from heart disease and lung cancer. Patients with left -sided breast tumors receive a higher dose of radiation to the heart than patients with right-sided tumors. In a previous study of about 300000 women treated for breast cancer during 1973-2001 and followed-up prospectively for cause-specific mortality until January 1, 2002, Sarah Darby showed that for women diagnosed during 1973-1982 and irradiated, the cardiac mortality ratio (left versus right tumor laterality) was 1.20 [1.04-1.38] less then 10 years afterwards, and 1.58 [1.29 - 1.95] after 15 years or more. Because radiation techniques have improved over time, such risks are expected to be reduced. A cohort was performed at Institute Gustave Roussy to investigate long term effects of breast cancer treatments. This cohort comprise 7711 women treated for beast cancer between 1954 and 1984. Mean age at the first treatment was 55 years [21 - 91], 61% were diagnosed before 1977 vs 39% after, 50.4% were left -sided breast cancer, 4832 (73.2 %) were recorded as having received external-beam radiotherapy as part of the initial treatment and 516 (8%) radiotherapy in association with chemotherapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate long term mortality and effects of radiotherapy on mortality from cardiac disease and second cancers. The originality of our study comparing to similar others is the homogeneity of the population studied and the longer follow-up. Vital status and causes of death of women of the cohort were obtained as well as mortality rates in the general French population. The cut off date was January 1, 2001. External and internal analysis were performed. Persons years at risk have been calculated for the entire follow-up period, less then 10 years, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, and 30 or more years afterwards. To

  3. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prostate Cancer Scholars Program is designed to encourage students from under-represented minority groups to enter graduate training and ultimately

  4. Standard of Care Versus Metastases-directed Therapy for PET-detected Nodal Oligorecurrent Prostate Cancer Following Multimodality Treatment: A Multi-institutional Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuber, T; Jilg, C; Tennstedt, P; De Bruycker, A; Tilki, D; Decaestecker, K; Zilli, T; Jereczek-Fossa, B A; Wetterauer, U; Grosu, A L; Schultze-Seemann, W; Heinzer, H; Graefen, M; Morlacco, A; Karnes, R J; Ost, P

    2018-03-10

    Most prostate cancer (PCa) patients with a biochemical failure following primary multimodality treatment (surgery and postoperative radiotherapy) relapse in the nodes. To perform a matched-case analysis in men with lymph node recurrent PCa comparing standard of care (SOC) with metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). PCa patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression following multimodality treatment were included in this retrospective multi-institutional analysis. The SOC cohort (n=1816) received immediate or delayed androgen deprivation therapy administered at PSA progression. The MDT cohort (n=263) received either salvage lymph node dissection (n=166) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (n=97) at PSA progression to a positron emission tomography-detected nodal recurrence. The primary endpoint, cancer-specific survival (CSS), was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards models, and propensity score-matched analyses. At a median follow-up of 70 (interquartile range: 48-98) mo, MDT was associated with an improved CSS on univariate (p=0.029) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.64) adjusted for the year of radical prostatectomy (RP), age at RP, PSA at RP, time from RP to PSA progression, Gleason score, surgical margin status, pT- and pN-stage. In total, 659 men were matched (3:1 ratio). The 5-yr CSS was 98.6% (95% CI: 94.3-99.6) and 95.7% (95% CI: 93.2-97.3) for MDT and SOC, respectively (p=0.005, log-rank). The main limitations of our study are its retrospective design and lack of standardization of systemic treatment in the SOC cohort. MDT for nodal oligorecurrent PCa improves CSS as compared with SOC. These retrospective data from a multi-institutional pooled analysis should be considered as hypothesis-generating and inform future randomized trials in this setting. Prostate cancer patients experiencing a lymph node recurrence might benefit from local treatments directed at

  5. 78 FR 8156 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... proposals. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, Montgomery County Conference Center... Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Suite 703, Room 7072, Bethesda, md 20892-8329, 301-594-1408, Stoicaa2...

  6. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisansky, Thomas M., E-mail: pisansky.thomas@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Agrawal, Shree [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, Bridget F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Moghanaki, Drew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  7. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisansky, Thomas M.; Agrawal, Shree; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Koontz, Bridget F.; Liauw, Stanley L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Moghanaki, Drew; Den, Robert B.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Lee, W. Robert; Kattan, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  8. Transperineal gold marker implantation for image-guided external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. A single institution, prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgo, Kliton; Agoston, Peter; Major, Tibor; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    To present the feasibility and complications of transperineal fiducial marker implantation in prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Between November 2011 and April 2016, three radiopaque, gold-plated markers were transperineally implanted into the prostate of 300 patients under transrectal ultrasound guidance and with local anaesthesia. A week after the procedure patients filled in a questionnaire regarding pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, rectal bleeding, hematuria, hematospermia or fever symptoms caused by the implantation. Pain was scored on a 1-10 scale, where score 1 meant very weak and score 10 meant unbearable pain. The implanted gold markers were used for daily verification and online correction of patients' setup during IGRT. Based on the questionnaires no patient experienced fever, infection, dysuria or rectal bleeding after implantation. Among the 300 patients, 12 (4%) had hematospermia, 43 (14%) hematuria, which lasted for an average of 3.4 and 1.8 days, respectively. The average pain score was 4.6 (range 0-9). Of 300 patients 87 (29%) felt any pain after the intervention, which took an average of 1.5 days. None of the patients needed analgesics after implantation. Overall, 105 patients (35%) reported less, 80 patients (27%) more, and 94 patients (31%) equal amount of pain during marker implantation compared to biopsy. The 21 patients who had a biopsy performed under general anesthesia did not answer this question. Transperineal gold marker implantation under local anesthesia was well tolerated. Complications were limited; rate and frequency of perioperative pain was comparable to the pain caused by biopsy. The method can be performed safely in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Machbarkeit und Komplikationen der transperinealen Implantation von Goldmarkern bei mit perkutaner Strahlentherapie (IGRT) behandelten Prostatakarzinompatienten. Zwischen November 2011 und April 2016 bekamen 300

  9. Comorbidity and Karnofksy performance score are independent prognostic factors in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: an institutional analysis of patients treated on four RTOG studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firat, Selim; Byhardt, Roger W.; Gore, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic role of comorbidity in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated definitively with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 112 patients with clinical Stage III NSCLC (American Joint Commission on Cancer 1997) enrolled in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies (83-11, 84-03, 84-07, and 88-08 nonchemotherapy arms) at a single institution were analyzed retrospectively for overall survival (OS) and comorbidity. Of the 112 patients, 105 (94%) completed their assigned radiotherapy. The median assigned dose was 50.4 Gy to the lymphatics (range 45-50.4 Gy) and 70.2 Gy to the primary tumor (range 60-79.2 Gy). Comorbidity was rated retrospectively using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and Charlson scales. Karnofsky performance scores (KPSs) and weight loss were prospectively recorded. Because only 8 patients had a KPS of 70). Results: The median survival was 10.39 months (range 7.87-12.91). The 2-, 3-, and 5-year OS rate was 20.5%, 12.5%, and 7.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, clinical stage (IIIA vs. IIIB) was found to be a statistically significant factor influencing OS (p=0.026), and the histologic features, grade, tumor size as measured on CT scans, age, tobacco use, weight loss ≥5%, and total dose delivered to the primary tumor were not. A KPS of ≤70 (p=0.001), the presence of a CIRS-G score of 4 (extremely severe; p=0.0002), and a severity index of >2 (p 2 were independently associated with inferior OS; clinical tumor stage was not found to be an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: KPS and comorbidity are important independent prognostic factors in Stage III NSCLC. Comorbidity should be included in protocols studying advanced stage NSCLC and used for stratification

  10. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  11. [Factors affecting the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics in biopharmaceutical organizations: a case study in the Brazilian Cancer Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitassi, Claudio; Gonçalves, Antonio Augusto; Moreno Júnior, Valter de Assis

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to identify and analyze the factors that influence the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics at the Brazilian Cancer Institute (INCA). It involves a descriptive and exploratory qualitative field study. Evidence was collected mainly based on in-depth interviews with the management team at the Research Center and the IT Division. The answers were analyzed using the categorical content method. The categories were selected from the scientific literature and consolidated in the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework created for this study. The model proposed made it possible to demonstrate how the factors selected impacted INCA´s adoption of bioinformatics systems and tools, contributing to the investigation of two critical areas for the development of the health industry in Brazil, namely technological innovation and bioinformatics. Based on the evidence collected, a research question was posed: to what extent can the alignment of the factors related to the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics increase the innovation capacity of a Brazilian biopharmaceutical organization?

  12. 76 FR 57748 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard... Crystal City, 2799 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. Contact Person: Sergei Radaev, PhD..., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

  13. 77 FR 5029 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Community; Cancer Drug Shortages: Economic, Regulatory, and Manufacturing Issues; The Role of the Cancer... security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before being allowed on campus. Visitors...

  14. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Nanotechnology Imaging and Sensing Platforms for Improved Diagnosis of Cancer. Date: August 31, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 1:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate... 20852 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Kenneth L. Bielat, PhD, Scientific Review Officer...

  15. 78 FR 64222 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Conference Call). Contact Person: Robert Bird, Ph.D., Chief, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division....D., Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  16. 77 FR 68136 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Regency Bethesda Hotel, Old Georgetown Room, One Metro Center, Bethesda, MD 20814. The NCAB ad hoc... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute..., Building 31C, Wing C, Conference Room 10, 31 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 which was published in the...

  17. MRI and Diffusion-weighted MRI Volumetry for Identification of Complete Tumor Responders After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Rectal Cancer: A Bi-institutional Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambregts, Doenja M J; Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Sassen, Sander; Martens, Milou H; Heijnen, Luc A; Buijsen, Jeroen; Sosef, Meindert; Beets, Geerard L; Vliegen, Roy A; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2015-12-01

    Retrospective single-center studies have shown that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is promising for identification of patients with rectal cancer with a complete tumor response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), using certain volumetric thresholds. This study aims to validate the diagnostic value of these volume thresholds in a larger, independent, and bi-institutional patient cohort. A total of 112 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (2 centers) treated with a long course of CRT were enrolled. Patients underwent standard T2W-magnetic resonance imaging and DWI, both pre- and post-CRT. Two experienced readers independently determined pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes (cm) on T2W-magnetic resonance image and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance image by means of freehand tumor delineation. Tumor volume reduction rates (Δvolume) were calculated. Previously determined T2W and DWI threshold values for prevolume, postvolume, and Δvolume were tested to "prospectively" assess their respective diagnostic value in discriminating patients with a complete tumor response from patients with residual tumor. Twenty patients had a complete response. Using the average measurements between the 2 readers, areas under the curve for the pre-/post-/Δvolumes was 0.73/0.82/0.78 for T2W-magnetic resonance imaging and 0.77/0.92/0.86 for DWI, respectively. For T2W-volumetry, sensitivity and specificity using the predefined volume thresholds were 55% and 74% for pre-, 60% and 89% for post-, and 60% and 86% for Δvolume. For DWI volumetry, sensitivity and specificity were 65% and 76% for pre-, 70% and 98% for post-, and 70% and 93% for Δvolume. Previously established DWI volume thresholds can be reproduced with good results. Post-CRT DWI volumetry offers the best results for the detection of patients with a complete response after CRT with an area under the curve of 0.92, sensitivity of 70%, and specificity of 98%.

  18. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  19. Continuing professional development for volunteers working in palliative care in a tertiary care cancer institute in India: A cross-sectional observational study of educational needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Kedar Deodhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Training programs for volunteers prior to their working in palliative care are well-established in India. However, few studies report on continuing professional development programs for this group. Aims: To conduct a preliminary assessment of educational needs of volunteers working in palliative care for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program for this group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Palliative Medicine of a tertiary care cancer institute in India. Materials and Methods: Participant volunteers completed a questionnaire, noting previous training, years of experience, and a comprehensive list of topics for inclusion in this program, rated in order of importance according to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics for overall data and Chi-square tests for categorical variables for group comparisons were applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18. Results: Fourteen out of 17 volunteers completed the questionnaire, seven having 5-10-years experience in working in palliative care. A need for continuing professional development program was felt by all participants. Communication skills, more for children and elderly specific issues were given highest priority. Spiritual-existential aspects and self-care were rated lower in importance than psychological, physical, and social aspects in palliative care. More experienced volunteers (>5 years of experience felt the need for self-care as a topic in the program than those with less (<5-years experience ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: Understanding palliative care volunteers′ educational needs is essential for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program and should include self-care as a significant component.

  20. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E

    1999-07-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility andvalidity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  1. A multi-institutional phase II study of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: initial report of ECOG 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannehill, Scott P.; Froseth, Carrie; Wagner, Henry; Petereit, Dan P.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, acute toxicity, response and survival in a trial of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a t.i.d. regimen 5 days a week in an 8 hour schedule. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (pts) from 6 institutions were enrolled in this pilot trial. Pt characteristics: 24 male, 6 female; median age 67 yrs (range 47-84); ECOG PS 0 in 22 pts, 1 in 8 pts; weight loss >5% in 7 pts. Stage was II (inoperable) in 1 pt, IIIA in 12 pts, and IIIB in 17 pts. Radiation therapy (total 57.6 Gy/36 fx) encompassing gross disease and draining lymphatics to 36 Gy (1.5 Gy b.i.d., 8 hours apart) with daily off-cord concomitant boost to 21.6 Gy (1.8 Gy 4 hours after first fraction) was given over 12 treatment days (15 elapsed days). Results: (28(30)) (93%) pts completed radiation therapy on schedule without toxicity-related treatment interruptions. Two pts did not complete radiation therapy; 1 due to in-field progression and 1 due to fatal acute gastric bleed unrelated to therapy. Two additional pts died in the first 6 weeks: 1 due to a presumed acute cardiovascular event and another due to complications of pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The major treatment-related toxicities were esophagitis in 6 pts (18%: 5 Grade 3 and 1 Grade 4) scored using a study specific esophagitis grading tool and 2 grade 3 dermatitis, in a total of 6 pts. Only 1 pt (3%) required hospitalization for IV hydration (Grade 4 esophagitis). Median weight loss at 6 weeks was 3 kg. Response data are pending in 2 pts and unavailable in 2 due to early death. Of the remaining 26 pts, local response analysis showed CR in 4, PR in 14, stable in 7 and progressive disease in 1 for an overall response rate of (18(26)) (69%). With a median potential follow-up of 13 months, the median survival has not yet been reached. The 1-yr actuarial survival is 63%. Exclusion of the 3 pts experiencing early death (in

  2. Imitation Modeling and Institutional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Y. Barbashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of imitation modeling in the conduct of institutional research. The institutional approach is based on the observation of social behavior. To understand a social process means to determine the key rules that individuals use, undertaking social actions associated with this process or phenomenon. This does not mean that institutions determine behavioral reactions, although there are a number of social situations where the majority of individuals follow the dominant rules. If the main laws of development of the institutional patterns are known, one can describe most of the social processes accurately. The author believes that the main difficulty with the analysis of institutional processes is their recursive nature: from the standards of behavior one may find the proposed actions of social agents who follow, obey or violate institutions, but the possibility of reconstructive analysis is not obvious. The author demonstrates how the institutional approach is applied to the analysis of social behavior. The article describes the basic principles and methodology of imitation modeling. Imitation modeling reveals the importance of institutions in structuring social transactions. The article concludes that in the long term institutional processes are not determined by initial conditions.

  3. HER2-positive male breast cancer with thyroid cancer: an institutional report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Pooja; Bui, Marilyn M; Minton, Susan; Loftus, Loretta; Carter, W Bradford; Laronga, Christine; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare finding of two male breast cancer patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who also developed thyroid cancer. We reviewed 45 male breast cancer patients treated in our institution from 2003 to 2008. Only five male breast cancer patients were HER2-positive. In reviewing the published data, we found no cases of thyroid cancer and concurrent breast cancer in men. However, breast cancer and thyroid cancer have shown close association in women. This finding therefore provokes speculation as to whether we should investigate whether women with HER2-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for thyroid cancer. Although this observation seems to be clinically prevalent, publications are sparse in clinical research areas linking thyroid cancer to breast cancer.

  4. Meeting the Challenge: The National Cancer Institute's Central Institutional Review Board for Multi-Site Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Hampp, Sharon L; Goldberg, Jacquelyn L; Mooney, Margaret; Parreco, Linda K; Minasian, Lori; Montello, Mike; Mishkin, Grace E; Davis, Catasha; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-10

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a new policy that requires a single institutional review board (IRB) of record be used for all protocols funded by the NIH that are carried out at more than one site in the United States, effective January 2018. This policy affects several hundred clinical trials opened annually across the NIH. Limited data exist to compare the use of a single IRB to that of multiple local IRBs, so some institutions are resistant to or distrustful of single IRBs. Since 2001, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has funded a central IRB (CIRB) that provides human patient reviews for its extensive national cancer clinical trials program. This paper presents data to show the adoption, efficiencies gained, and satisfaction of the CIRB among NCI trial networks and reviews key lessons gleaned from 16 years of experience that may be informative for others charged with implementation of the new NIH single-IRB policy.

  5. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  6. Introduction of laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer early during residency: a single institutional study on short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiso, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Hata, Hiroaki; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is unpopular because it is technically challenging. Suitable training systems have not been widely studied or established despite the steep learning curve for this procedure. We developed a systematic training program that enables resident surgeons to perform laparoscopic low anterior resection (LLAR) for rectal cancer and evaluated the safety and feasibility of this training program. We analyzed prospectively gathered data on all LLARs for rectal cancer performed at a single center over a 7-year period. Patients were assessed for demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, operative procedure, operative time, blood loss, conversion to open surgery, complications, time to bowel recovery, distal margin, and number of lymph nodes harvested. We compared the early surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of LLARs performed by expert surgeons with those of LLARs performed by resident surgeons for both intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rectal cancer. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. A total of 137 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Of the 75 LLARs for intraperitoneal rectal cancer, 40 were performed by expert surgeons (I-E group) and 35 by resident surgeons (I-R group). Of the 62 LLARs for extraperitoneal rectal cancer, 51 were performed by expert surgeons (E-E group) and 11 by resident surgeons (E-R group). The operative time was longer in the E-R group than in the E-E group. The time to resumption of diet was longer in the I-E group than in the I-R group. The other early outcomes, including blood loss, anastomotic leakage, conversion to open surgery, and number of lymph nodes harvested, were similar in the I-E and I-R groups and in the E-E and E-R groups. Our systematic training program on LLAR for rectal cancer enables resident surgeons to perform this procedure safely early during residency, with acceptable short-term outcomes.

  7. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/ Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of Expression of Androgen Receptor in ABCG2+ CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cells” 4.) Morenike Olu, K Miller, I Gelman, Dept. Cancer Genetics ... rubric for the Directed Readings course sequence. Training in the use of the web conferencing software will be provided by the Project Director at

  8. YKL-40/c-Met expression in rectal cancer biopsies predicts tumor regression following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senetta, Rebecca; Duregon, Eleonora; Sonetto, Cristina; Spadi, Rossella; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Racca, Patrizia; Chiusa, Luigi; Munoz, Fernando H; Ricardi, Umberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Cassenti, Adele; Castellano, Isabella; Papotti, Mauro; Morino, Mario; Risio, Mauro; Cassoni, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgical resection is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer, although complete tumor pathological regression is achieved in only up to 30% of cases. A clinicopathological and molecular predictive stratification of patients with advanced rectal cancer is still lacking. Here, c-Met and YKL-40 have been studied as putative predictors of CRT response in rectal cancer, due to their reported involvement in chemoradioresistance in various solid tumors. A multicentric study was designed to assess the role of c-Met and YKL-40 expression in predicting chemoradioresistance and to correlate clinical and pathological features with CRT response. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization for c-Met were performed on 81 rectal cancer biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients underwent standard (50.4 gy in 28 fractions + concurrent capecitabine 825 mg/m2) neoadjuvant CRT or the XELOXART protocol. CRT response was documented on surgical resection specimens and recorded as tumor regression grade (TRG) according to the Mandard criteria. A significant correlation between c-Met and YKL-40 expression was observed (R = 0.43). The expressions of c-Met and YKL-40 were both significantly associated with a lack of complete response (86% and 87% of c-Met and YKL-40 positive cases, prectal cancer. Targeted therapy protocols could take advantage of prior evaluations of c-MET and YKL-40 expression levels to increase therapeutic efficacy.

  9. The relationship between CNS prophylactic treatment and smoking behavior in adult survivors of childhood leukemia: a National Cancer Institute and Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, M.L.; Weiss, R.E.; Guo, M.D.; Byrne, J.; Mills, J.L.; Robison, L.L.; Zeltzer, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the relationship of both cranial radiation dose (CRD) and intra-thecal methotrexate (IT-MTX) dose with smoking behavior in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by NCI/CCG with 593 young adult survivors (median age, 21.6 years), treated prior to age 20 years on CCG ALL protocols from 1970 to 1986, and 409 sibling controls (median age, 24.5 years). Subjects were telephone surveyed regarding risk-taking behaviors, including cigarette smoking. A previous report has compared the smoking behavior of survivors to controls; this report will focus on the association between CNS treatment variables and smoking behavior for survivors only. Contingency table analysis was used to determine the prevalence of having ever smoked regularly (i.e. ≥ 100 cigarettes total and daily use for ≥ 6 months) for each treatment group: combinations of CRD (0-18 Gy vs. 24 Gy) and IT-MTX (0 to ≤ 83 mg vs. >83 mg). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine CRD, IT-MTX dose, age at diagnosis and age at follow-up as predictors for smoking. Too few subjects received intravenous methotrexate to evaluate this as an explanatory variable. The analysis was done separately for survivors from treatment periods 1 and 2 (1970-77 and 1978-86, respectively) to control for the time period cohort effect (which we have previously demonstrated to be significant). These treatment period definitions also correlated with a shift in protocol treatment trends from 24 Gy to 0-18 Gy and lower dose IT-MTX to higher dose IT-MTX. Results: Among the survivors from treatment period 1 who received 24 Gy CRD, those treated with higher dose IT-MTX (>83 mg) were significantly more likely to have ever been regular smokers than those treated with no or lower dose IT-MTX (31% vs. 16%, p=0.016). Among survivors from treatment period 1 who received 0-18 Gy CRD, the smoking prevalence was also greater in

  10. Disparities in Geographic Accessibility of National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Fu, Cong; Onega, Tracy; Shi, Xun; Wang, Fahui

    2017-11-11

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Centers form the backbone of the cancer care system in the United States since their inception in the early 1970s. Most studies on their geographic accessibility used primitive measures, and did not examine the disparities across urbanicity or demographic groups. This research uses an advanced accessibility method, termed "2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA)" and implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to capture the degree of geographic access to NCI Cancer Centers by accounting for competition intensity for the services and travel time between residents and the facilities. The results indicate that urban advantage is pronounced as the average accessibility is highest in large central metro areas, declines to large fringe metro, medium metro, small metro, micropolitan and noncore rural areas. Population under the poverty line are disproportionally concentrated in lower accessibility areas. However, on average Non-Hispanic White have the lowest geographic accessibility, followed by Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black and Asian, and the differences are statistically significant. The "reversed racial disadvantage" in NCI Cancer Center accessibility seems counterintuitive but is consistent with an influential prior study; and it is in contrast to the common observation of co-location of concentration of minority groups and people under the poverty line.

  11. 75 FR 48699 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development, NCI-I Career Development. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and.... Contact Person: Sergei Radaev, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch...

  12. 76 FR 1625 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Career Development, Career Development. Date: February 22-23, 2011. Time: February 22, 2011, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate to review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Alexandria Old Town...

  13. 78 FR 27408 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...., as amended. The contract proposals and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or... with the contract proposals, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 304...

  14. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...., as amended. The grant applications and/or contract proposals and the discussions could disclose... concerning individuals associated with the grant applications and/or contract proposals, the disclosure [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, SBIR Topic 258...

  15. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Lalita D. Palekar, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Cancer Nanotechnology Training (R25) and Career Development Award (K99...

  16. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Multidisciplinary Management at the Colombian National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavito, Gloria; Llamas O, Augusto; Cadena, Enrique; De Los Reyes, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system. Two hundred and twenty-one new cases were diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCI) in 2006, roughly 4% of all new cancer cases. Weekly multidisciplinary decision-making meetings on thyroid cancer management have been held at the NCI since 1994. This article covers the body of knowledge gathered through 14 years of interdisciplinary collaboration where experience has been combined with the best available evidence.

  17. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Andrea; Miolo, GianMaria; Magri, Maria D; Crivellari, Diana; Scalone, Simona; Bidoli, Ettore; Lombardi, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

  18. Leveraging National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration for Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient Accrual in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Kunos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women in the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (PR have a higher age-adjusted incidence rate for uterine cervix cancer than the U.S. mainland as well as substantial access and economic barriers to cancer care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI funds a Minority/Underserved NCI Community Oncology Research Program in PR (PRNCORP as part of a national network of community-based health-care systems to conduct multisite cancer clinical trials in diverse populations. Participation by the PRNCORP in NCI’s uterine cervix cancer clinical trials, however, has remained limited. This study reports on the findings of an NCI site visit in PR to assess barriers impeding site activation and accrual to its sponsored gynecologic cancer clinical trials. Qualitative, semi-structured individual, and group interviews were conducted at six PRNCORP-affiliated locations to ascertain: long-term trial accrual objectives; key stakeholders in PR that address uterine cervix cancer care; key challenges or barriers to activating and to enrolling patients in NCI uterine cervix cancer treatment trials; and resources, policies, or procedures in place or needed on the island to support NCI-sponsored clinical trials. An NCI-sponsored uterine cervix cancer radiation–chemotherapy intervention clinical trial (NCT02466971, already activated on the island, served as a test case to identify relevant patient accrual and site barriers. The site visit identified five key barriers to accrual: (1 lack of central personnel to coordinate referrals for treatment plans, medical tests, and medical imaging across the island’s clinical trial access points; (2 patient insurance coverage; (3 lack of a coordinated brachytherapy schedule at San Juan-centric service providers; (4 limited credentialed radiotherapy machines island-wide; and (5 too few radiology medical physicists tasked to credential trial-specified positron emission tomography scanners island-wide. PR offers a unique opportunity to

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine use: Influence of Patients’ Satisfaction with Medical Treatment among Breast Cancer Patients at Uganda Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kiwanuka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is high among cancer patients especially breast cancer patients. This study sought to evaluate Complementary and alternative medicine use in breast cancer patients and how its use is influencedby patient’s satisfaction with conventional medical treatment among breast cancer patients attending Uganda Cancer Institute. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in this study. Participants who were diagnosed histologically with breast cancer at Uganda Cancer Institute took part in the study. A questionnaire was developed and used to interview the participants and medical records of the respondents were also reviewed. Results: A total of 235 participants completed the study. The prevalence of CAM use was 77%. CAM therapies used included herbal medicines, prayer for health, vitamins/minerals, native healers, Chinese medicines, massage, yoga, Ayurvedic medicine, Acupuncture, reflexolog, Support group attendance, meditation, Magnetic and Bio-fieldmanipulation. Satisfaction with medical treatment was significantlyassociated with CAM use. Patients who are not satisfiedwith medical treatment were more likely to use CAM. Conclusion: There is a high number of breast cancer patients using CAM, various categories of therapies are being used and patients’ satisfaction with medical treatment triggers off a patients decision to use CAM therapies.

  20. The flat‐funding years and the National Cancer Institute: Consequences for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Hitt, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), the principal federal agency for cancer research and training in the US, has contended with a flat budget since 2004, which according to the institute's director is preventing the organisation from keeping pace with the increasing costs of biomedical research. Although the impact of these budget shortfalls are still being debated, Niederhuber believes these so‐called “flat‐funding years” may pave the way for worrying future trends, resulting in a paucity o...

  1. Prevalence of bone marrow necrosis in Egyptian cancer patients referring to the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgamal, B.M.; Rashed, R.A.; Raslan, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow necrosis; Egyptian cancer patients Abstract Background: Bone marrow necrosis is a relatively rare entity which has been associated with a poor prognosis. It is most commonly found in patients with neoplastic disorders and severe infections. Methods: study comprised examination of 5043 bone marrow biopsy specimens performed at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, over 7 years period (March 2004-March 2011). It included 5 years retrospective (2867 archived samples) and 2 years prospective (2176 samples). Results: Bone marrow necrosis was diagnosed in fifteen out of 5043 examined specimens with a percentage of 0.3% and ranged from mild to massive according to semiquantitative estimation. Prognosis of all patients was poor with survival not exceeding 6 months from the date of marrow necrosis diagnosis. Conclusion: In Egyptian patients, bone marrow necrosis in association with malignancy is a rare disorder which is accompanied by a poor outcome

  2. Latina Social Studies Teachers Negotiating Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Elizabeth D.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores the institutionalized master narrative of public institutions and how the mandated policies enacted by public institutions impact Latina social studies teachers when delivering instruction to their students. A socio-transformative constructivist framework guides this study to affirm that knowledge is socially…

  3. A nationwide multi-institutional retrospective study to identify prognostic factors and develop a graded prognostic assessment system for patients with brain metastases from uterine corpus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Takahashi, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Yuzo; Higuchi, Fumi; Takahashi, Masamichi; Makino, Keishi; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Jiro; Okuda, Takeshi; Okita, Yoshiko; Mitsuya, Koichi; Hirashima, Yasuyuki; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nakasu, Yoko

    2017-06-02

    The prevalence of brain metastases (BM) from uterine cancer has recently increased because of the improvement of overall survival (OS) of patients with uterine cancer due to its early detection and improved local control as a result of new effective treatments. However, little information is available regarding their clinical characteristics and prognosis, because oncologists have encountered BM from uterine cancer on rare occasions. Records from 81 patients with uterine BM were collected from 10 institutes in Japan. These were used in a multi-institutional study to identify prognostic factors and develop a graded prognostic assessment (GPA) for patients with BM from uterine cancer. Median OS after the development of BM was 7 months (95% confidence interval, 4 to 10 months). Multivariate analysis revealed that there were survival differences according to the existence of extracranial metastases and number of BM. In the present uterine-GPA, a score of 0 was assigned to those patients with ≥5 BM and extracranial metastasis, a score of 2 was assigned to those patients with one to four BM or without extracranial metastasis, and a score of 4 was assigned to those patients with one to four BM and without extracranial metastasis. The median OS for patients with a uterine-GPA scores of 0, 2, and 4 was 3, 7, and 22 months, respectively. A survival analysis confirmed the presence of statistically significant differences between these groups (p Brain Tumor Registry of Japan. Uterine GPA incorporates two simple clinical parameters of high prognostic significance and can be used to predict the expected survival times in patients with BM from uterine cancer. Its use may help in determining an appropriate treatment for individual patients with BM.

  4. Spatial analyses identify the geographic source of patients at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Chih; Kanarek, Norma; Fox, Michael G; Guseynova, Alla; Crow, Shirley; Piantadosi, Steven

    2010-02-01

    We examined the geographic distribution of patients to better understand the service area of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a designated National Cancer Institute (NCI) comprehensive cancer center located in an urban center. Like most NCI cancer centers, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center serves a population beyond city limits. Urban cancer centers are expected to serve their immediate neighborhoods and to address disparities in access to specialty care. Our purpose was to learn the extent and nature of the cancer center service area. Statistical clustering of patient residence in the continental United States was assessed for all patients and by gender, cancer site, and race using SaTScan. Primary clusters detected for all cases and demographically and tumor-defined subpopulations were centered at Baltimore City and consisted of adjacent counties in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York, and the District of Columbia. Primary clusters varied in size by race, gender, and cancer site. Spatial analysis can provide insights into the populations served by urban cancer centers, assess centers' performance relative to their communities, and aid in developing a cancer center business plan that recognizes strengths, regional utility, and referral patterns. Today, 62 NCI cancer centers serve a quarter of the U.S. population in their immediate communities. From the Baltimore experience, we might project that the population served by these centers is actually more extensive and varies by patient characteristics, cancer site, and probably cancer center services offered.

  5. Survival of T4aN0 and T3N+ laryngeal cancer patients: a retrospective institutional study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoueir, Nadim; Matar, Nayla; Farah, Chadi; Francis, Evana; Tabchy, Bassam; Haddad, Amine

    2015-01-01

    We aim to assess the correlation of tumor and nodal staging to survival in pT3N+ and T4aN0 laryngeal cancer with subgroup analysis within stage IVa (pT4N0 and pT3N2). Retrospective cohort study with systematic review of the literature. Hotel Dieu de France University Hospital (tertiary referral center). Laryngeal cancer patients' registries were reviewed from 1998 to 2012 selecting pT3N+ and pT4aN0 patients treated by primary total layngectomy. Overall survivals were compared using Log rank and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A systematic review was performed by 2 reviewers including all the articles reporting the outcome of these categories of patients. Online databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were used. Reference sections of identified studies were examined for additional articles. Thirteen T3N+ patients and 19 T4aN0 patients treated by primary total laryngectomy were included. Five-year overall survival for T3N+, T3N2 and T4aN0 was respectively 33%, 32.1% and 73.7%. Due to the small sample, the difference was not significant. The systematic review revealed three articles reporting overall survival outcome for the T4N0 group and 6 articles for the T3N+. At 5years, the survival ranged from 62.5% to 73% in T4N0 and from 32.2% to 77% in T3N+. In advanced stage laryngeal cancer, T4aN0 tends toward a better survival than T3N+ especially when compared to T3N2 although they are grouped in the same TNM stage IVa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  7. Comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography and multislice spiral computed tomography for the preoperative staging of gastric cancer - results of a single institution study of 610 Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Yu Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compared the performance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS and multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 610 patients participated in this study, all of whom had undergone surgical resection, had confirmed gastric cancer and were evaluated with EUS and MSCT. Tumor staging was evaluated using the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM staging and Japanese classification. The results from the imaging modalities were compared with the postoperative histopathological outcomes. The overall accuracies of EUS and MSCT for the T staging category were 76.7% and 78.2% (P=0.537, respectively. Stratified analysis revealed that the accuracy of EUS for T1 and T2 staging was significantly higher than that of MSCT (P<0.001 for both and that the accuracy of MSCT in T3 and T4 staging was significantly higher than that of EUS (P<0.001 and 0.037, respectively. The overall accuracy of MSCT was 67.2% when using the 13th edition Japanese classification, and this percentage was significantly higher than the accuracy of EUS (49.3% and MSCT (44.6% when using the 6th edition UICC classification (P<0.001 for both values. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that the overall accuracies of EUS and MSCT for preoperative staging were not significantly different. We suggest that a combination of EUS and MSCT is required for preoperative evaluation of TNM staging.

  8. Frequency, outcome and prognostic factors of carotid blowout syndrome after hypofractionated re-irradiation of head and neck cancer using CyberKnife: A multi-institutional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Ogita, Mikio; Kodani, Naohiro; Nakamura, Satoakai; Inoue, Hiroshi; Himei, Kengo; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Koichi; Udono, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Re-irradiation has attracted attention as a potential therapy for recurrent head and neck tumors. However, carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) has become a serious complication of re-irradiation because of the associated life-threatening toxicity. Determining of the characteristics of CBS is important. We conducted a multi-institutional study. Methods and patients: Head and neck carcinoma patients (n = 381) were treated with 484 re-irradiation sessions at 7 Japanese CyberKnife institutions between 2000 and 2010. Results: Of these, 32 (8.4%) developed CBS, which proved fatal that median survival time after CBS onset was 0.1 month, and the 1-year survival rate was 37.5%. The median duration between re-irradiation and CBS onset was 5 months (range, 0–69 months). Elder age, skin invasion, and necrosis/infection were identified as statistically significant risk factors after CBS by univariate analysis. The presence of skin invasion at the time of treatment found only in postoperative case, is identified as only statistically significant prognostic factor after CBS in multivariate analysis. The 1-year survival rate for the group without skin invasion was 42%, whereas no patient with skin invasion survived more than 4 months (0% at 1 year, p = 0.0049). Conclusions: Careful attention should be paid to the occurrence of CBS if the tumor is located adjacent to the carotid artery. The presence of skin invasion at CBS onset is ominous sign of lethal consequences

  9. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  10. Role of the National Cancer Institute in the National Cancer Program on environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the need for the National Cancer Institute to coordinate all cancer-related activities at the federal level and the desirability of programming so as to exploit the best opportunities for alleviating the mortality, morbidity, and incidence of cancer in the United States; need for assessing opportunities for prevention of environmental carcinogenesis; creation of the Smoking and Health Program in the NCI; development of cancer atlases from a nationwide survey; and role of the NCI with respect to waterborne carcinogens. (HLW)

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian, Federico; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Dossus, Laure; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Isaacs, Claudine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lenner, Per; Lund, Eiliv; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Quiros, Jose R; Riboli, Elio; Stram, Daniel O; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J; Cox, David G; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Gils, Carla H van; Ziegler, Regina G; Henderson, Katherine D; Henderson, Brian E; Berg, Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians

  13. Long-term Follow-up Results of a Multi-institutional Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo, E-mail: s_kato@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Soochow (China); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Devi, C. R. Beena; Swee, Tang Tieng [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Umum Sarawak, Kuching (Malaysia); Calaguas, Miriam J.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s Medical Center, Quezon City, the Philippines (Philippines); Reyes, Rey H. de los [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Manila, the Philippines (Philippines); Cho, Chul-Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dung, To Anh [Department of Breast and Gynecology Radiotherapy, National Cancer Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Supriana, Nana [Department of Radiation Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta (Indonesia); Erawati, Dyah [Division of Radiotherapy, Dr Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya (Indonesia); Mizuno, Hideyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term survival and toxicity of a multi-institutional phase 2 study of concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. Methods and Materials: Ten institutions from 8 Asian countries participated in the study. Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky stage IIB and 60 with stage IIIB) were treated with CCRT. Radiation therapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiation therapy and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the course of radiation therapy. Treatment results were evaluated by the rates of local control, overall survival, and late toxicities. Results: Median follow-up was 63.7 months, and the follow-up rate at 5 years was 98%. The 5-year local control and overall survival rates for all patients were 76.8% and 55.1%, respectively. The 5-year rates of major late toxicities of the rectum and bladder were 7.9% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: The long-term results have suggested that CCRT is safe and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. However, further efforts are needed to improve overall survival.

  14. Evaluating the financial impact of clinical trials in oncology: results from a pilot study from the Association of American Cancer Institutes/Northwestern University clinical trials costs and charges project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Stinson, T J; Vogel, V; Robertson, L; Leedy, D; O'Brien, P; Hobbs, J; Sutton, T; Ruckdeschel, J C; Chirikos, T N; Weiner, R S; Ramsey, M M; Wicha, M S

    2000-08-01

    Medical care for clinical trials is often not reimbursed by insurers, primarily because of concern that medical care as part of clinical trials is expensive and not part of standard medical practice. In June 2000, President Clinton ordered Medicare to reimburse for medical care expenses incurred as part of cancer clinical trials, although many private insurers are concerned about the expense of this effort. To inform this policy debate, the costs and charges of care for patients on clinical trials are being evaluated. In this Association of American Cancer Institutes (AACI) Clinical Trials Costs and Charges pilot study, we describe the results and operational considerations of one of the first completed multisite economic analyses of clinical trials. Our pilot effort included assessment of total direct medical charges for 6 months of care for 35 case patients who received care on phase II clinical trials and for 35 matched controls (based on age, sex, disease, stage, and treatment period) at five AACI member cancer centers. Charge data were obtained for hospital and ancillary services from automated claims files at individual study institutions. The analyses were based on the perspective of a third-party payer. The mean age of the phase II clinical trial patients was 58.3 years versus 57.3 years for control patients. The study population included persons with cancer of the breast (n = 24), lung (n = 18), colon (n = 16), prostate (n = 4), and lymphoma (n = 8). The ratio of male-to-female patients was 3:4, with greater than 75% of patients having stage III to IV disease. Total mean charges for treatment from the time of study enrollment through 6 months were similar: $57,542 for clinical trial patients and $63,721 for control patients (1998 US$; P =.4) Multisite economic analyses of oncology clinical trials are in progress. Strategies that are not likely to overburden data managers and clinicians are possible to devise. However, these studies require careful planning

  15. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for 239 esophageal cancers: a single institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Omori, Mami; Imae, Toshikazu; Okuma, Kae; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study on early and locally advanced esophageal cancer was conducted to evaluate locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. We assessed all patients with esophageal cancer of stages I-IV treated with definitive radiotherapy from June 2000 to March 2014. Between 2000 and 2011, ENI was used for all cases excluding high age cases. After Feb 2011, a prospective study about IFRT was started, and therefore IFRT was used since then for all cases. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was nedaplatin (80 mg/m 2 at D1 and D29) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m 2 at D1-4 and D29-32). Of the 239 consecutive patients assessed (120 ENI vs. 119 IFRT), 59 patients (24.7 %) had stage IV disease and all patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 34.0 months. There were differences in 3-year local control (44.8 % vs. 55.5 %, p = 0.039), distant control (53.8 % vs. 69.9 %, p = 0.021) and overall survival (34.8 % vs. 51.6 %, p = 0.087) rates between ENI vs. IFRT, respectively. Patients treated with IFRT (8 %) demonstrated a significantly lower risk (p = 0.047) of high grade late toxicities than with ENI (16 %). IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures (27.5 % in ENI and 13.4 % in IFRT). Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Both tendencies of improved loco-regional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate favored the IFRT arm over the ENI arm in this study

  16. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for 239 esophageal cancers: a single institutional retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Omori, Mami; Imae, Toshikazu; Okuma, Kae; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2015-08-14

    This retrospective study on early and locally advanced esophageal cancer was conducted to evaluate locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. We assessed all patients with esophageal cancer of stages I-IV treated with definitive radiotherapy from June 2000 to March 2014. Between 2000 and 2011, ENI was used for all cases excluding high age cases. After Feb 2011, a prospective study about IFRT was started, and therefore IFRT was used since then for all cases. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2) at D1 and D29) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m(2) at D1-4 and D29-32). Of the 239 consecutive patients assessed (120 ENI vs. 119 IFRT), 59 patients (24.7%) had stage IV disease and all patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 34.0 months. There were differences in 3-year local control (44.8% vs. 55.5%, p = 0.039), distant control (53.8% vs. 69.9%, p = 0.021) and overall survival (34.8% vs. 51.6%, p = 0.087) rates between ENI vs. IFRT, respectively. Patients treated with IFRT (8 %) demonstrated a significantly lower risk (p = 0.047) of high grade late toxicities than with ENI (16%). IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures (27.5% in ENI and 13.4% in IFRT). Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Both tendencies of improved loco-regional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate favored the IFRT arm over the ENI arm in this study.

  17. Efficacy of brachytherapy with californium-252 neutrons versus cesium-137 photons for eradication of bulky localized cervical cancer: single-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; van Nagell, J.R.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.; Gallion, H.; Higgins, R.; Powell, D.; Turner, C.; Kryscio, R.

    1988-01-01

    A fast-neutron-emitting radioisotope, 252 Cf, is being tested in clinical trials of neutron brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The efficacy for histological eradication of bulky stage IB cervical tumors (mean diameter, approximately 6 cm) using combined radiation and surgery was studied in 65 patients treated with 137 Cs or 252 Cf before surgery during 1983-1986. Forty-four patients were treated with 137 Cs and 21 were treated with 252 Cf at equivalent doses of radiation. Fifteen of the 44 specimens (34%) were positive after 137Cs therapy. Only one of the 21 specimens was positive after 252 Cf therapy (P = .025), and that patient was treated in a delayed schedule 21 days after the start of external-beam irradiation rather than early in the course. 252 Cf therapy required a much lower radiation dose and shorter treatment time. The study compared tumor destruction of an identically staged human cervical tumor in situ by direct histological means, using 252 Cf neutron therapy or conventional photon therapy at an identical and equivalent dose adjusted by a relative biological effectiveness of 6.0 for 252 Cf

  18. Simultaneous adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer--toxicity and dose modification: a trans-tasman radiation oncology group multi-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, James W.; Hamilton, Christopher S.; Christie, David; O'Brien, Maree; Bonaventura, Antonino; Stewart, John F.; Ackland, Stephen P.; Lamb, David S.; Spry, Nigel A.; Dady, Peter; Atkinson, Christopher H.; Wynne, Christopher; Joseph, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the toxicity profile of simultaneously administered postoperative radiation therapy and CMF chemotherapy as a prelude to a randomized controlled study addressing the sequencing of the two modalities. Methods and Materials: One hundred and thirty eight breast cancer patients at high risk of locoregional, as well as systemic relapse, who were referred to three centers in Australia and New Zealand were treated with postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy simultaneously. Acute toxicity and dose modifications in these patients were compared with 83 patients treated over the same time frame with chemotherapy alone. In a separate study the long-term radiation and surgical effects in 24 patients treated simultaneously with radiation therapy and chemotherapy at Newcastle (Australia) following conservative surgery were compared with 23 matched patients treated at Newcastle with radiation therapy alone. Results: Myelotoxicity was increased in patients treated simultaneously with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The effect was not great, but may have contributed to chemotherapy dose reductions. Lymphopenia was observed to be the largest factor in total white cell depressions caused by the simultaneous administration of radiation therapy. Postsurgical appearances were found to so dominate long-term treatment effects on the treated breast that the effect of radiation therapy dose and additional chemotherapy was difficult to detect. Conclusion: Studies addressing the sequencing of radiation therapy and chemotherapy will necessarily be large because adverse effects from administering the two modalities simultaneously are not great. The present study has endorsed the importance in future studies of stratification according to the extent and type of surgery and adherence to a single strict policy of chemotherapy dose modification

  19. Outcome and treatment strategy in female lung cancer: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Smailyte, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival rate of female lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology of the Vilnius University, Lithuania during the period between 1996-2005. Materials and Methods: During the period between 1996-2005, 471 women diagnosed with lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology of the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. Data on morphology, stage and treatment was collected from the medical records. All lung cancer cases by histology were classified in two groups: non-small cell lung cancer (includes squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other less common types) and small cell lung cancer. The vital status of the study group was assessed as of December 31, 2007, by passive follow-up, using data from the population registry. It was found that 411 (87.3%) of the patients had died. Survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median survival of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show to be 8.7 months (8.4 (95% CI 7.2-10.8) months with non-small cell lung cancer and 9.3 (95% CI 6.3-13.0) months with small-cell lung cancer). Survival was more than 20 months in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (stages I, II, IIIA). Non-small cell lung cancer survival in advanced stages was less than 7 months. Small-cell lung cancer patients median survival at limited and extended stages of the disease were 9.5 (95% CI 2.9-18.4) compared to 9.2 (95% CI 6.2-13.7) months. Non-small cell lung cancer patients most frequently were treated by surgery (27.0%), surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (19.6%). Small cell lung cancer patient treatment included chemo and radiotherapy (27.0%), chemotherapy (19.0%), radiotherapy (17.5%), surgery (27.9%). Conclusions: The single center study of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show a significantly better chance of survival in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Advanced stages of

  20. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000–2013: a systematic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000–2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Design Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Setting and participants Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000–2013. Main outcome measures Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Results We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded—the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Conclusions Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies

  1. The current status of the treatment for T4 maxillary sinus cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Matsuura, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status in Japan of the treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the T4 maxillary sinus (MS-SCC) and its use to plan clinical trials in the future. The data for 128 patients with previously untreated MS-SCC were obtained from 28 institutions from 2006 to 2007. Of the 128 patients, 118 patients with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 118 patients, 73 patients had T4a disease, and 45 with T4b. Thirty-nine patients (33.1%) were treated with total maxillectomy, 25 (21.2%) with partial maxillectomy, 22 patients (18.6%) with RADPLAT, 19 patients (16.1%) with IV-CRT, and 13 patients (11.0%) with others. The 5-year overall survival rate and local control rate for 118 patients were 49.8% and 48.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with T4aN0M0 and T4bN0M0 were 67.5% and 29.8%, respectively. This study was retrospective, but we could understand the tendency of treatment choice and treatment results. It will be useful information to plan clinical trials in the future. (author)

  2. Relationship between interval from surgery to radiotherapy and local recurrence rate in patients with endometrioid-type endometrial cancer: a retrospective mono-institutional Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrini, Maria Grazia; Gadducci, Angiolo; Perrone, Franco; La Liscia, Concetta; Cosio, Stefania; Moda, Stefano; Guerrieri, Maria Elena; Grandinetti, Antonella; Greco, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the timing of radiotherapy and the risk of local failure in patients with endometrioid-type endometrial cancer who had undergone surgery and adjuvant external pelvic radiotherapy (with or without brachytherapy), but not chemotherapy. One hundred and seventy seven patients were analyzed in this study. The median follow-up of the survivors was 72 months. Radiotherapy was delivered after a median time of 14.6 weeks from surgery and the median overall treatment time was 6.4 weeks. The tumor relapsed in 32 (18.1%) patients after a median time of 21 months. The local recurrence (vaginal or central pelvic) occurred in 11 patients. The local recurrence rate was associated with tumor grade (p=0.02), myometrial invasion (p=0.046), FIGO stage (p=0.003), pathological node status (p=0.037) and time interval from surgery to radiotherapy using 9 weeks as the cut-off value (p=0.046), but not with the overall treatment time. All the local relapses occurred in patients who received adjuvant irradiation after an interval from surgery >9 weeks. The time interval from surgery to radiotherapy might affect the local recurrence rate in patients not receiving chemotherapy. Every possible effort should be made to start radiotherapy within 9 weeks, when radiotherapy only is deemed necessary as adjuvant treatment.

  3. Cetuximab plus platinum-based chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study in a single comprehensive European cancer institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade de Mello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cetuximab in combination with platinum (P plus 5-fluorouracil (F has previously been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of metastatic squamous cell cancer of head and neck (SCCHN. We investigated the efficacy and outcome of this protocol as a first-line treatment for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. We evaluated overall-survival (OS, progression-free-survival (PFS, overall response rate (ORR and the treatment toxicity profile in a retrospective cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 121 patients with untreated recurrent or metastatic SCCHN. The patients received PF+ cetuximab every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles. Patients with stable disease who received PF+ cetuximab continued to receive cetuximab until disease progressed or unacceptable toxic effects were experienced, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 (37-78 years. The patient cohort was 86.8% male. The addition of cetuximab to PF in the recurrent or metastatic setting provided an OS of 11 months (Confidential Interval, CI, 95%, 8.684-13.316 and PFS of 8 months (CI 95%, 6.051-9.949. The disease control rate was 48.9%, and the ORR was 23.91%. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the PF+ cetuximab regimen were febrile neutropenia (5.7%, skin rash (3.8% and mucosistis (3.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that cetuximab plus platinum-fluorouracil chemotherapy is a good option for systemic treatment in advanced SSCHN patients. This regimen has a well-tolerated toxicity profile.

  4. Reproducibility and predictive value of scoring stromal tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Mark; Andreu, Xavier; Bianchi, Simonetta; Chemielik, Ewa; Cordoba, Alicia; Cserni, Gábor; Figueiredo, Paulo; Floris, Giuseppe; Foschini, Maria P; Heikkilä, Päivi; Kulka, Janina; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Regitnig, Peter; Reiner, Angelika; Ryska, Ales; Sapino, Anna; Shalaby, Aliaa; Stovgaard, Elisabeth Specht; Quinn, Cecily; Walsh, Elaine M; Zolota, Vicky; Glynn, Sharon A; Callagy, Grace

    2018-05-17

    Several studies have demonstrated a prognostic role for stromal tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The reproducibility of scoring sTILs is variable with potentially excellent concordance being achievable using a software tool. We examined agreement between breast pathologists across Europe scoring sTILs on H&E-stained sections without software, an approach that is easily applied in clinical practice. The association between sTILs and response to anthracycline-taxane NACT was also examined. Pathologists from the European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology scored sTILs in 84 slides from 75 TNBCs using the immune-oncology biomarker working group guidance in two circulations. There were 16 participants in the first and 19 in the second circulation. Moderate agreement was achieved for absolute sTILs scores (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.683, 95% CI 0.601-0.767, p-value value value values (Spearman ρ = 0.727); fair for sTILs ≥ 25% (κ = 0.53) and for LPBC (κ = 0.49), but poor for sTILs as 10% increments (κ = 0.24). Increasing sTILs was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of a pathological complete response (pCR) on multivariable analysis. Increasing sTILs in TNBCs improves the likelihood of a pCR. However, inter-observer agreement is such that H&E-based assessment is not sufficiently reproducible for clinical application. Other methodologies should be explored, but may be at the cost of ease of application.

  5. Rectal Toxicity After Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of Outcomes of Prospective Studies Conducted at the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Rovel J.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella [The University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McKibben, Brian T. [Baptist Health Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal H.; Bryant, Curtis; Nichols, Romaine C.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng; Su, Zhong [The University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Baptist Health Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@floridaproton.org [The University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Study goals were to characterize gastrointestinal effects of proton therapy (PT) in a large cohort of patients treated for prostate cancer, identify factors associated with rectal bleeding (RB), and compare RB between patients receiving investigational protocols versus those in outcome-tracking protocols. Methods and Materials: A total of 1285 consecutive patients were treated with PT between August 2006 and May 2010. Potential pre-existing clinical and treatment-related risk factors for rectal toxicity were recorded. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to score toxicity. Results: Transient RB was the predominant grade 2 or higher (GR2+) toxicity after PT, accounting for 95% of gastrointestinal events. GR1 RB occurred in 217 patients (16.9%), GR2 RB in 187 patients (14.5%), and GR3 in 11 (0.9%) patients. There were no GR4 or GR5 events. Univariate analyses showed correlations between GR2+ RB and anticoagulation therapy (P=.008) and rectal and rectal wall dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, anticoagulation therapy (P=.0034), relative volume of rectum receiving 75 Gy (V75; P=.0102), and relative rectal wall V75 (P=.0017) were significant predictors for G2+ RB. Patients treated with investigational protocols had toxicity rates similar to those receiving outcome-tracking protocols. Conclusions: PT was associated with a low rate of GR2+ gastrointestinal toxicity, predominantly transient RB, which was highly correlated with anticoagulation and rectal DVH parameters. Techniques that limit rectal exposure should be used when possible.

  6. Rectal Toxicity After Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of Outcomes of Prospective Studies Conducted at the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, Rovel J.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella; McKibben, Brian T.; Henderson, Randal H.; Bryant, Curtis; Nichols, Romaine C.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng; Su, Zhong; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Study goals were to characterize gastrointestinal effects of proton therapy (PT) in a large cohort of patients treated for prostate cancer, identify factors associated with rectal bleeding (RB), and compare RB between patients receiving investigational protocols versus those in outcome-tracking protocols. Methods and Materials: A total of 1285 consecutive patients were treated with PT between August 2006 and May 2010. Potential pre-existing clinical and treatment-related risk factors for rectal toxicity were recorded. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to score toxicity. Results: Transient RB was the predominant grade 2 or higher (GR2+) toxicity after PT, accounting for 95% of gastrointestinal events. GR1 RB occurred in 217 patients (16.9%), GR2 RB in 187 patients (14.5%), and GR3 in 11 (0.9%) patients. There were no GR4 or GR5 events. Univariate analyses showed correlations between GR2+ RB and anticoagulation therapy (P=.008) and rectal and rectal wall dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, anticoagulation therapy (P=.0034), relative volume of rectum receiving 75 Gy (V75; P=.0102), and relative rectal wall V75 (P=.0017) were significant predictors for G2+ RB. Patients treated with investigational protocols had toxicity rates similar to those receiving outcome-tracking protocols. Conclusions: PT was associated with a low rate of GR2+ gastrointestinal toxicity, predominantly transient RB, which was highly correlated with anticoagulation and rectal DVH parameters. Techniques that limit rectal exposure should be used when possible

  7. Dosimetric assessment of an Atlas based automated segmentation for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer in the Skagen Trial 1: A multi-institutional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ramadan Mohammed E; Francolini, Giulio; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Atlas-based automated segmentation (ABAS) on dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters compared to manual segmentation (MS) in loco-regional radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer was investigated in patients included in the Skagen Trial 1. This analysis supports implementation of ABAS...

  8. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  9. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  10. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  11. MO-G-201-01: A Multi-Institutional Study Investigating the Performance of a Knowledge-Based Planning System Against Pinnacle Auto-Planning Engine in SIB-IMRT for the Head-And-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, B; Pang, D [Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Kusters, M; Kunze-busch, M; Dijkema, T [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sanguineti, G [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Knowledge-based Planning (KBP) founded on prior planning experience and Auto-Planning Engine (APE; commercialized in Pinnacle v9.10 TPS) based on progressive optimization algorithm both aim to eliminate the trial-and-error process in radiotherapy inverse planning. This study investigates the performance of the approaches in a multi-institutional setting to evaluate their functionalities in oropharyngeal cancer and offers suggestions how they can be implemented in the clinic. Methods: Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC) provided 35 oropharyngeal cancer patients (SIB-IMRT with two-dose-level prescription: 68 Gy to PTV68 and 50.3 Gy to PTV50.3) with corresponding comparative APE plans. Johns Hopkins University (JHU) contributed to a three-dose-level (70 Gy 63 Gy and 58.1 Gy) plan library for RUMC’s patient KBP generation. MedStar Georgetown University Hospital (MGUH) contributed to a KBP approach employing overlap-volume histogram (OVH-KBP) for generating RUMC’s patient KBP plans using JHU’s plan library. Since both approaches need their own user-defined parameters as initial inputs the first 10 patients were set aside as training set to finalize them. Meanwhile cross-institutional comparisons and adjustments were implemented for investigating institutions’ protocol discrepancies and the approaches’ user-defined parameters were updated accordingly. The finalized parameters were then applied to the remaining 25 patients for OVH-KBP and APE generation. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical comparison with significance level of p<0.05. Results: On average PTV68’s V95 was 96.5% in APE plans vs. 97% in OVH-KBP plans (p=0.36); PTV50.3’s V95 in APE plans was 97.8% vs.97.6% in OVH-KBP plans (p=0.6); cord’s D0.1 cc was 38.6 Gy in OVH-KBP plans vs. 43.7 Gy in APE plans (p=0.0001); mean doses to larynxes oral cavities parotids and submandibular glands were similar with p>0.2. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that KBP and APE can

  12. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  13. Intervention with the hypoxic tumor cell sensitizer etanidazole in the combined modality treatment of limited stage small-cell lung cancer. A one-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtasun, Raul C.; Palmer, Martin; Kinney, Brenda; Belch, Andrew; Hewitt, Joanne; Hanson, John

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We report the toxicity, patterns of failure and survival of a cohort of patients with limited disease (LD) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) treated with combined radiation and chemotherapy. During the course of thoracic irradiation, we added intravenous (i.v.) etanidazole (SR-2508, a third-generation 2-nitroimidazole) as a hypoxic cell sensitizer in an attempt to reduce the primary local failure rate and improve survival. Methods and Materials: Between July 1988 and August 1990, 30 consecutive patients with limited disease SCLC were enrolled and treated on a Phase II protocol receiving a standard combination chemotherapy regimen utilizing i.v. cisplatin 25 mg/m 2 /day x 3 days, i.v. etoposide 100 mg/m 2 /day x 3 days alternating with intravenous cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m 2 /day, intravenous doxorubicin 15 mg/m 2 , and intravenous vincristine 2 mg (CAV) to a total of six cycles every 3 weeks. Radiotherapy and etanidazole were started after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Etanidazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 2 g/m 2 three times per week for a total of 30 g/m 2 during the course of thoracic radiation that delivered 50.00 Gy tumor dose in 25 fractions in an overall time of 6 weeks. Results: The overall response rate of the primary lesion in the thorax was 96% (CR + PR), with 64% complete responses. The median time to treatment failure was 18 months. Of the patients that have relapsed, only 18% failed in the thorax (alone or concomitant with other sites). This is a marked improvement compared to the 40-50% rate reported in the literature. The 2-year crude survival was 46%. The 3- and 5-year crude survival rate with no evidence of disease was 33 and 30%, respectively. We have observed a 10% increase in the incidence of transient etanidazole related peripheral neuropathies compared to previous etanidazole studies not utilizing systemic chemotherapy. There was no increased incidence of radiation esophagitis, pulmonary toxicity, or nephro- or

  14. A Phase 2 Trial of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results and Reflections Following Early Closure of a Single-Institution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Pham, Dat; Cury, James D.; Bajwa, Abubakr [Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); D' Agostino, Harry [Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McCook, Barry [Department of Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Nichols, Romaine C. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy has been shown to reduce radiation dose to organs at risk (OAR) and could be used to safely escalate the radiation dose. We analyzed outcomes in a group of phase 2 study patients treated with dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From 2009 through 2013, LU02, a phase 2 trial of proton therapy delivering 74 to 80 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 NSCLC, was opened to accrual at our institution. Due to slow accrual and competing trials, the study was closed after just 14 patients (stage IIIA, 9 patients; stage IIIB, 5 patients) were accrued over 4 years. During that same time period, 55 additional stage III patients were treated with high-dose proton therapy, including 7 in multi-institutional proton clinical trials, 4 not enrolled due to physician preference, and 44 who were ineligible based on strict entry criteria. An unknown number of patients were ineligible for enrollment due to insurance coverage issues and thus were treated with photon radiation. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 52 months. Results: Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 57% and 25%, respectively. Median lengths of overall survival and progression-free survival were 33 months and 14 months, respectively. There were no acute grade 3 toxicities related to proton therapy. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and pulmonary toxicity each occurred in 1 patient. Conclusions: Dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy was well tolerated with encouraging results among a small cohort of patients. Unfortunately, single-institution proton studies may be difficult to accrue and consideration for pragmatic and/or multicenter trial design should be considered when developing future proton clinical trials.

  15. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Paul G.; Song, Danny Y.; Heath, Elisabeth; Maier, Jordan; Meyn, Raymond; Kuban, Deborah; DePetrillo, Thomas A.; Mathew, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles). A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily

  16. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corn, Paul G., E-mail: pcorn@mdanderson.org [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Song, Danny Y. [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heath, Elisabeth; Maier, Jordan [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Meyn, Raymond [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); DePetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mathew, Paul, E-mail: pmathew@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles). A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily.

  17. 78 FR 57400 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Organizational Engagement; and Proposed Organizational Change: Division of Extramural Activities. Place: National....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  18. 77 FR 70170 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398...

  19. 78 FR 41072 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398...

  20. Nutritional status of cancer patients admitted for chemotherapy at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J E; Domingo, F; Luna, C A; Berroya, R M; Catli, C A; Ginete, J K; Sanchez, O S; Juat, N J; Tiangco, B J; Jamias, J D

    2010-11-01

    Malnutrition is common among cancer patients. This study aimed to determine the overall prevalence of malnutrition among patients undergoing chemotherapy and to determine the predictors of malnutrition among cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 cancer patients admitted for chemotherapy at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Philippines, from October to November 2009. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometric data and demographic variables were obtained. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and logistic regression analysis were performed between the outcome and variables. A total of 88 cancer patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.7 +/- 14.8 years. The mean duration of illness was 9.7 +/- 8.7 months and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.9 kg/m2. The mean Karnofsky performance status was 79.3. 29.55 percent of the patients had breast cancer as the aetiology of their illness. 38 patients (43.2 percent) had SGA B and four (4.5 percent) had SGA C, giving a total malnutrition prevalence of 47.7 percent. The patients were statistically different with regard to their cancer stage (p is less than 0.001), weight (p is 0.01), BMI (p is 0.004), haemoglobin level (p is 0.001) and performance status by Karnofsky score (p is less than 0.001), as evaluated by ANOVA. Logistic regression analysis showed that cancer stage and Karnofsky performance score were predictors of malnutrition. About 47.7 percent of cancer patients suffer from malnutrition, as classified by SGA. Only cancer stage and Karnofsky performance status scoring were predictive of malnutrition in this select group of patients.

  1. Environmental dose in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres U, C. L.; Avila A, O. L.; Medina V, L. A.; Buenfil B, A. E.; Brandan S, M. E.; Trujillo Z, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dosimeters TLD-100 and TLD-900 were used to know the levels of environmental dose in areas of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The dosimeters calibration was carried out in the Metrology Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The radioisotopes used in the studied areas are 131 I, 18 F, 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 111 In, 201 Tl and 137 Cs with gamma energies between 93 and 662 KeV. Dosimeters were placed during five months in the diagnostic, injection, waiting and PET rooms as well as hot room, waste room, enclosed corridors to patient rooms treated with 131 I and 137 Cs and witness dosimeters to know the bottom. The values found vary between 0.3 and 70 major times that those of bottom. The maximum doses were measured in the waste room and in the enclosed corridor to the patient rooms with cervical uterine cancer treated with 137 Cs. (Author)

  2. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rafael Corrêa; Reinert, Tomás; Campos, Franz; Peixoto, Fábio Affonso; de Andrade, Carlos Augusto; Castro, Thalita; Herchenhorn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) at a single reference institution. Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%), with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71%) patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2%) patients. In 50 patients (86%), sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%), hypothyroidism (43%), mucositis (33%) and diarrhea (29%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%), hypertension (12%), thrombocytopenia (7%), neutropenia (5%) and hand-foot syndrome (5%). Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corrêa Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS at a single reference institution. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Results: Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%, with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71% patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2% patients. In 50 patients (86%, sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%, hypothyroidism (43%, mucositis (33% and diarrhea (29%. Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%, hypertension (12%, thrombocytopenia (7%, neutropenia (5% and hand-foot syndrome (5%. Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Conclusion: Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS.

  4. The national cancer institute (NCI) and cancer biology in a 'post genome world'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausner, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) exists to reduce the burden of all cancers through research and discovery. Extensive restructuring of the NCI over the past year has been aimed at assuring that the institution functions in all ways to promote opportunities for discovery in the laboratory, in the clinic, and in the community. To do this well requires the difficult and almost paradoxical problem of planning for scientific discovery which, in turn is based on the freedom to pursue the unanticipated. The intellectual and structural landscape of science is changing and it places new challenges, new demands and new opportunities for facilitating discovery. The nature of cancer as a disease of genomic instability and of accumulated genetic change, coupled with a possibility of the development of new technologies for reading, utilizing, interpreting and manipulating the genome of single cells, provides unprecedented opportunities for a new type of high through-put biology that will change the nature of discovery, cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic decision-making and therapeutic discovery. To capture these new opportunities will require attention to be paid to integrate the development of technology and new scientific discoveries with the ability to apply advances rapidly and efficiently through clinical trials

  5. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  6. Pre- and postdiagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-01-10

    Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  8. Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1992-07-01

    The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a center for information exchange, nationally and internationally, by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results that are obtained by the Institute contribute mainly to the progress of national and international efforts in nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power.as a basic energy source. In addition to its primary focus on fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in related fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, plasma astrophysics, and accelerator physics. The work of EFS scientists continued to receive national and international recognition. Numerous invited papers were given during the past year at workshops, conferences, and scientific meetings. Last year IFS scientists published 95 scientific articles in technical journals and monographs

  9. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. 76 FR 42719 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  11. 76 FR 10381 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  12. Patterns of use of medical cannabis among Israeli cancer patients: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waissengrin, Barliz; Urban, Damien; Leshem, Yasmin; Garty, Meital; Wolf, Ido

    2015-02-01

    The use of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) for the palliative treatment of cancer patients has been legalized in multiple jurisdictions including Israel. Yet, not much is currently known regarding the efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis in this setting. To analyze the indications for the administration of cannabis among adult Israeli cancer patients and evaluate its efficacy. Efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis were evaluated using physician-completed application forms, medical files, and a detailed questionnaire in adult cancer patients treated at a single institution. Of approximately 17,000 cancer patients seen, 279 (cannabis from an authorized institutional oncologist. The median age of cannabis users was 60 years (range 19-93 years), 160 (57%) were female, and 234 (84%) had metastatic disease. Of 151 (54%) patients alive at six months, 70 (46%) renewed their cannabis permit. Renewal was more common among younger patients and those with metastatic disease. Of 113 patients alive and using cannabis at one month, 69 (61%) responded to the detailed questionnaire. Improvement in pain, general well-being, appetite, and nausea were reported by 70%, 70%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Side effects were mild and consisted mostly of fatigue and dizziness. Cannabis use is perceived as highly effective by some patients with advanced cancer and its administration can be regulated, even by local authorities. Additional studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis as part of the palliative treatment of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    standard, linguaggio comune , necessario a stabilire protocolli di collaborazione) Start Up Progetto Certificazione ISO 9001, IFO, Rome, Italy 3rd December...28 June 2008 CONCLUSIONS In summary, in the context of a still limited scientific panorama, our study and meta- analysis provide evidence...Department of Urology, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy 7 Scientific Direction, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy

  14. Prospective Multi-Institutional Study of Definitive Radiotherapy With High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Nonbulky (<4-cm) Stage I and II Uterine Cervical Cancer (JAROG0401/JROSG04-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toita, Takafumi, E-mail: b983255@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Radiology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tsukuba (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a definitive radiotherapy protocol using high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a low cumulative dose schedule in nonbulky early-stage cervical cancer patients, we conducted a prospective multi-institutional study. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix, Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages Ib1, IIa, and IIb, tumor size <40 mm in diameter (assessed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging), and no pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The treatment protocol consisted of whole-pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 20 Gy/10 fractions, pelvic EBRT with midline block of 30 Gy/15 fractions, and HDR-ICBT of 24 Gy/4 fractions (at point A). The cumulative biologically effective dose (BED) was 62 Gy{sub 10} ({alpha}/{beta} = 10) at point A. The primary endpoint was the 2-year pelvic disease progression-free (PDPF) rate. All patients received a radiotherapy quality assurance review. Results: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 60 eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-six patients were assessed with FIGO stage Ib1; 12 patients with stage IIa; and 12 patients with stage IIb. Median tumor diameter was 28 mm (range, 6-39 mm). Median overall treatment time was 43 days. Median follow-up was 49 months (range, 7-72 months). Seven patients developed recurrences: 3 patients had pelvic recurrences (2 central, 1 nodal), and 4 patients had distant metastases. The 2-year PDPF was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-100%). The 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 90% (95% CI, 82%-98%) and 95% (95% CI, 89%-100%), respectively. The 2-year late complication rates (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer of Grade {>=}1) were 18% (95% CI, 8%-28%) for large intestine/rectum, 4% (95% CI, 0%-8%) for small intestine, and 0% for bladder. No Grade {>=}3 cases were

  15. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Superconducting Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics

    1989-01-01

    The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...

  17. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  18. 75 FR 79010 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Leukemia, and Myeloma. Date: February 2-3, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395...

  19. 77 FR 36564 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Prevention Method: State of the, Science and Evidence. Place: Hilton San Francisco Financial District, 750... applicable, the business or professional affiliation of the interested person. Information is also available... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396...

  20. 77 FR 64526 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of... Cancer Advisory Board, Ad hoc Subcommittee on Communications. Open: November 28, 2012, 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on Cancer Information and Communications. Place: Hyatt Regency Bethesda, One...

  1. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  2. Brachytherapy or Conformal External Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Single-Institution Matched-Pair Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the absence of randomized study data, institutional case series have shown brachytherapy (BT) to produce excellent biochemical control (bNED) in patients with localized prostate cancer compared with alternative curative treatments. This study was designed to overcome some of the limitations of case series studies by using a matched-pair design in patients treated contemporaneously with BT and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Six hundred one eligible patients treated between 1998 and 2001 were prospectively followed up in our institutional databases and matched on a 1:1 basis for the following known prognostic variables: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, T stage, the use and duration of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, and the percentage of positive tissue core samples. Two hundred seventy-eight perfect matches of patients (139 in each group) with low- and intermediate-risk cancer were further analyzed. bNED (Phoenix definition) was the primary endpoint. Other endpoints were toxicity, PSA kinetics, and the secondary use of androgen deprivation therapy. Results: The 5-year bNED rates were 95% (BT) and 85% (EBRT) (p < 0.001). After 7 years, the BT bNED result was unchanged, but the rate in EBRT patients had fallen to 75%. The median posttreatment PSA nadirs were 0.04 ng/mL (BT) and 0.62 ng/mL (EBRT, p < 0.001), which predicted a higher ongoing treatment failure rate in association with EBRT use than with BT use. Late urinary toxicity and rectal/bowel toxicity were worse in patients treated with BT and EBRT, respectively. Conclusions: BT for both low-risk and selected intermediate-risk cancers achieves exceptional cure rates. Even with dose escalation, it will be difficult for EBRT to match the proven track record of BT seen over the past decade.

  3. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-04-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists.

  4. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Koji; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-01-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)

  5. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Luca F. [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie [National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pisters, Katherine M. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dexter, Elisabeth U. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Niland, Joyce C. [Department of Information Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S., E-mail: Nirav.S.Kapadia@hitchcock.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  6. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Luca F.; Jagsi, Reshma; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Pisters, Katherine M.; Dexter, Elisabeth U.; Niland, Joyce C.; Hayman, James A.; Kapadia, Nirav S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  7. 77 FR 5032 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Initiatives; RFA and RFP Concept Reviews; and Scientific Presentations. Place: National Institutes of Health... Group(s); and Budget Presentations; Reports of Special Initiatives; RFA and RFP Concept Reviews; and Scientific Presentations. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, 6th Floor, Conf...

  8. American Cancer Society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S S

    1999-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is fixated on damage control--diagnosis and treatment--and basic molecular biology, with indifference or even hostility to cancer prevention. This myopic mindset is compounded by interlocking conflicts of interest with the cancer drug, mammography, and other industries. The "nonprofit" status of the Society is in sharp conflict with its high overhead and expenses, excessive reserves of assets and contributions to political parties. All attempts to reform the Society over the past two decades have failed; a national economic boycott of the Society is long overdue.

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Metal Hydrides

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    In the last five years, the study of metal hydrides has ex­ panded enormously due to the potential technological importance of this class of materials in hydrogen based energy conversion schemes. The scope of this activity has been worldwide among the industrially advanced nations. There has been a consensus among researchers in both fundamental and applied areas that a more basic understanding of the properties of metal/hydrogen syster;,s is required in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of materials for specific applications. The current worldwide need for and interest in research in metal hydrides indicated the timeliness of an Advanced Study Insti­ tute to provide an in-depth view of the field for those active in its various aspects. The inclusion of speakers from non-NATO coun­ tries provided the opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas for future research. While the emphasis of the Institute was on basic properties, there was a conscious effort to stimulate interest in the applic...

  10. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  11. 78 FR 2678 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The National Cancer Institute (NCI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Request (60-Day FRN): The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SmokefreeTXT (Text Message) Program Evaluation..., Behavioral Scientist/ Health Science Administrator, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, 6130... text message smoking cessation intervention designed for young adult smokers ages 18-29. The Smokefree...

  12. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  13. The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis staging system for gastric cancer is superior to the 7th edition: results from a Chinese mono-institutional study of 1663 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Yan, Yan; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-11-22

    We investigated the superiority of the 8th edition of the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system for patients in China with gastric cancer. The survival outcomes of 1663 patients with gastric cancer undergoing radical resection were analyzed. In the 8th edition system, homogeneous 5-year survival rates among different pathological TNM (pTNM) categories belonging to the same stage were observed. However, in the 7th edition system, the differences of 5-year survival rate among pTNM categories belonging to the same stage were observed in stages IIB (P = 0.010), IIIB (P = 0.004), and IIIC (P < 0.001). For patients in the pT1-3 (P < 0.001) and pT4a (P < 0.001) categories, there were significant differences in survival between patients in the pN3a and pN3b categories. Furthermore, partial cases (pT4bN0M0/T4aN2M0) of stage IIIB were downstaged to stage IIIA in the 8th edition system, and the 5-year survival rate of these patients was significantly better than that of patients in stage IIIB in the 8th edition system. Similarly, the 5-year survival rate of patients in p4bN2M0/T4aN3aM0 downstaged from stage IIIC to IIIB was significantly better than that of patients in stage IIIC. Compared with the 7th edition system, the 8th edition system had a higher likelihood ratio and linear trend chi-squared score and a smaller Akaike information criteria value. The 8th edition system is superior to the 7th edition system in terms of homogeneity, discriminatory ability, and monotonicity of gradients for Chinese patients with gastric cancer.

  14. A multi-institutional Stellarator Configuration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, David

    2017-10-01

    A multi-institutional study aimed at mapping the space of quasi-axisymmetric stellarators has begun. The goal is to gain improved understanding of the dependence of important physics and engineering parameters (e.g. bootstrap current, stability, coil complexity, etc.) on plasma shape (average elongation, aspect ratio, number of periods). In addition, the stellarator optimization code STELLOPT will be upgraded with new capabilities such as improved coil design algorithms such as COILOPT + + and REGCOIL, divertor optimization options, equilibria with islands using the SPEC code, and improved bootstrap current calculations with the SFINCS code. An effort is underway to develop metrics for divertor optimization. STELLOPT has also had numerous improvements to numerical algorithms and parallelization capabilities. Simultaneously, we also are pursuing the optimization of turbulent transport according to the method of proxy functions. Progress made to date includes an elongation scan on quasi-axisymmetric equilibria and an initial comparison between the SFINCS code and the BOOTSJ calculation of bootstrap current currently available in STELLOPT. Further progress on shape scans and subsequent physics analysis will be reported. The status of the STELLOPT upgrades will be described. The eventual goal of this exercise is to identify attractive configurations for future US experimental facilities.. This work is supported by US DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. 77 FR 31627 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... 20892, (301) 496-7628, [email protected] . In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport...

  16. 77 FR 31628 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before being allowed on campus...

  17. 78 FR 53463 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before...

  18. 78 FR 313 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  19. 77 FR 64817 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  20. 77 FR 31030 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before...

  1. 78 FR 10622 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-7628, [email protected] . In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport...

  2. 77 FR 1703 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... professional affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport...

  3. 76 FR 62079 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    [email protected] . In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected...

  4. 77 FR 58851 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  5. 76 FR 26310 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Group(s); and Budget Presentations. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive... entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  6. Preliminary results of robotic colorectal surgery at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, A.S.; Mahmoud, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The available literature on minimally invasive colorectal cancer demonstrates that laparoscopic approach is feasible and associated with better short term outcomes than open surgery while maintaining equivalent oncologic safety. Reports have shown that robotic surgery may overcome some of the pitfalls of laparoscopic intervention. Objective of the work: To evaluate early results of robotic colorectal surgery, in a cohort of Egyptian patients, regarding operative time, operative and early post-operative complications, hospital stay and pathological results. Patients and methods: A case series study which was carried out in surgical department at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Ten Egyptian cases of colorectal cancer (age ranged from 30 to 67, 5 males and 5 females) were recruited from the period of April 2013 to April 2014. Robotic surgery was performed to all cases. Results: Three patients had low anterior resection, three anterior resection, one total proctectomy, one abdominoperineal resection, one left hemicolectomy and one colostomy. The study reported no mortalities and two morbidities. The mean operative time was 333 min. The conversion to open was done in only one patient. A total mesorectal excision with negative circumferential margin was accomplished in all patients, distal margin was positive in one patient. Mean lymph nodes removed was 10.7. Mean hospital stay was 7.4 days. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the outcomes of robotic colorectal cancer intervention in Egyptian patients. Our preliminary results suggest that robotic- assisted surgery for colorectal cancer can be carried out safely and according to oncological principles

  7. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Sharma, Chanderdeep; Thakur, Sita; Raina, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. A cross sectional, descriptive, interview- based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurses held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

  8. 78 FR 66034 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance and the competence of individual investigators... Cancer Advisory Board; Ad hoc Subcommittee on Communications. Open: December 9, 2013, 7:45 p.m. to 9:15 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on Communications. Place: Hyatt Regency Bethesda, One Bethesda Metro Center...

  9. 76 FR 69744 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... and Therapeutic Agents Enabled by Nanotechnology. Date: November 29, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference... Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer...

  10. A case study of a Cuban government institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, A.L.; Vazquez, A.; Cruz Cabrera, L.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present a case study on the partial implementation of a knowledge management system in an institution. In this case the knowledge management has been directed toward the best performance of the organization. The tool used in case study can be implemented at any institution, including institutions of nuclear or radiological profiles. (author)

  11. 77 FR 24969 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 255 Development of Anticancer Agents Meeting I. Date: May 14, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health... Panel; SBIR Topic 255 Development of Anticancer Agents Meeting II. Date: May 15, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to...

  12. 78 FR 58322 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 06, 2013, 06:30 p.m. to November 07, 2013, 04:00 p.m., Hilton... August 16, 2013, 78 FR 50065. The meeting notice is amended to change the location from the Hilton...

  13. 77 FR 28613 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Nanotechnology. Date: July 11-12, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant.... to 3:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health... Call). Contact Person: Adriana Stoica, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics...

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: david_sher@rush.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liptay, Michael J. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Liptay, Michael J.; Fidler, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  16. Cost comparison of curative therapies for localized prostate cancer in Japan. A single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    In addition to open surgery, curative therapies for prostate cancer now include endoscopic surgery and radiation therapies. Because of the expansion and subdivision of treatment methods for prostate cancer, the medical fee point schedule in Japan was revised in fiscal year 2006. We examined changes in medical income and expenditure after this revision of the medical fee system. We studied income and expenditure, after institution of the new medical fee schedule, for the five types of therapies for prostate cancer performed at our hospital: two surgical therapies (radical retropubic prostatectomy and laparoscopic prostatectomy) and three radiation therapies (three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 192 Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and 125 I low-dose-rate brachytherapy). Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was found to be associated with a profit of 199 yen per patient. Laparoscopic prostatectomy, a highly advanced medical treatment that the fee revision changed from a partially insured to an insured procedure, yielded a profit of 75672 yen per patient. However, high-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with a loss of 654016 yen per patient. Given the loss in hospital income per patient undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, the medical fee point system for this procedure should be reassessed. (author)

  17. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barbara, Bernard; Sawatzky, G; Stamp, P. C. E

    2008-01-01

    This book is based on some of the lectures during the Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics (PITP) summer school on "Quantum Magnetism", held during June 2006 in Les Houches, in the French Alps. The school was funded jointly by NATO, the CNRS, and PITP, and entirely organized by PITP. Magnetism is a somewhat peculiar research field. It clearly has a quantum-mechanical basis – the microsopic exchange interactions arise entirely from the exclusion principle, in conjunction with respulsive interactions between electrons. And yet until recently the vast majority of magnetism researchers and users of magnetic phenomena around the world paid no attention to these quantum-mechanical roots. Thus, eg., the huge ($400 billion per annum) industry which manufactures hard discs, and other components in the information technology sector, depends entirely on room-temperature properties of magnets - yet at the macroscopic or mesoscopic scales of interest to this industry, room-temperature magnets behave entirely classic...

  19. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Haruhiko Nakamura, Hiroki Sakai, Hiroyuki Kimura, Tomoyuki Miyazawa, Hideki Marushima, Hisashi Saji Department of Chest Surgery, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution.Patients and methods: A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage, surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS, were evaluated.Results: A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001. Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001. When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014, the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001. The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%, followed by lobectomy (60%, combined resection (22%, and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Keywords: lung cancer, surgery, sublobar

  20. Racial Differences in Information Needs During and After Cancer Treatment: a Nationwide, Longitudinal Survey by the University of Rochester Cancer Center National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Matthew; Peppone, Luke J; Roscoe, Joseph A; Kleckner, Ian R; Mustian, Karen M; Heckler, Charles E; Guido, Joseph J; Sborov, Mark; Bushunow, Peter; Onitilo, Adedayo; Kamen, Charles

    2018-02-01

    Before treatment, cancer patients need information about side effects and prognosis, while after treatment they need information to transition to survivorship. Research documenting these needs is limited, especially among racial and ethnic minorities. This study evaluated cancer patients' needs according to race both before and after treatment. We compared white (n = 904) to black (n = 52) patients receiving treatment at 17 National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites on their cancer-related concerns and need for information before and after cancer treatment. Two-sample t test and chi-squared analyses were used to assess group differences. Compared to white patients, black patients reported significantly higher concerns about diet (44.3 vs. 25.4 %,) and exercise (40.4 vs. 19.7 %,) during the course of treatment. Compared to whites, blacks also had significantly higher concern about treatment-related issues (white vs. black mean, 25.52 vs. 31.78), self-image issues (7.03 vs. 8.60), family-related issues (10.44 vs. 12.84), and financial concerns (6.42 vs. 8.90, all p < 0.05). Blacks, compared to whites, also had significantly greater post-treatment information needs regarding follow-up tests (8.17 vs. 9.44), stress management (4.12 vs. 4.89), and handling stigma after cancer treatment (4.21 vs. 4.89) [all p < 0.05]. Pre-treatment concerns and post-treatment information needs differed by race, with black patients reporting greater information needs and concerns. In clinical practice, tailored approaches may work particularly well in addressing the needs and concerns of black patients.

  1. Research Review of the Institute of African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index. The Research Review of the Institute of African Studies at the University of ...

  2. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Why providers participate in clinical trials: considering the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L

    2012-11-01

    The translation of research evidence into practice is facilitated by clinical trials such as those sponsored by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) that help disseminate cancer care innovations to community-based physicians and provider organizations. However, CCOP participation involves unsubsidized costs and organizational challenges that raise concerns about sustained provider participation in clinical trials. This study was designed to improve our understanding of why providers participate in the CCOP in order to inform the decision-making process of administrators, clinicians, organizations, and policy-makers considering CCOP participation. We conducted a multi-site qualitative study of five provider organizations engaged with the CCOP. We interviewed 41 administrative and clinician key informants, asking about what motivated CCOP participation, and what benefits they associated with involvement. We deductively and inductively analyzed verbatim interview transcripts, and explored themes that emerged. Interviewees expressed both "altruistic" and "self-interested" motives for CCOP participation. Altruistic reasons included a desire to increase access to clinical trials and feeling an obligation to patients. Self-interested reasons included the desire to enhance reputation, and a need to integrate disparate cancer care activities. Perceived benefits largely matched expressed motives for CCOP participation, and included internal and external benefits to the organization, and quality of care benefits for both patients and participating physicians. The motives and benefits providers attributed to CCOP participation are consistent with translational research goals, offering evidence that participation can contribute value to providers by expanding access to innovative medical care for patients in need. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NIH mouse study finds gut microorganisms may determine cancer treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intact gut commensal microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms living in the intestine, is required for optimal response to cancer therapy, according to a mouse study by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)

  5. Literacy Skills Development for Tertiary Institutions: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literacy Skills Development for Tertiary Institutions: A Case Study of the University of Calabar. ... These were drawn from five faculties, namely Education, Social Sciences, Law, Arts and Agriculture. The study observed that there is a ... more literacy skills. Key Words: Literacy skills, university, Nigeria, tertiary institution ...

  6. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Multi-institutional phase I study of low-dose ultra-fractionated radiotherapy as a chemosensitizer for gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or limited metastatic pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Meyer, Joshua E.; Joiner, Michael; Hall, Michael J.; Philip, Philip; Shields, Anthony; McSpadden, Erin; Choi, Minsig; Adaire, Beth; Duncan, Gail; Meropol, Neal J.; Cescon, Terrence P.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gemcitabine (G) has been shown to sensitize pancreatic cancer to radiotherapy but requires lower doses of G and thus delays aggressive systemic treatment, potentially leading to distant failure. We initiated a phase I trial combining ultra-fractionated low-dose radiotherapy with full dose G and erlotinib in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer confined to the abdomen and an ECOG performance status (PS) of 0–1 who had received 0–1 prior regimens (without G or E) and no prior radiotherapy were eligible. Patients were treated in 21 day cycles with G IV days 1 and 8, E once PO QD, and twice daily RT fractions separated by at least 4 h on days 1, 2, 8, and 9. Whole abdominal RT fields were used. Primary endpoint was to define dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Results: 27 patients (median age 64 years and 15 male) were enrolled between 11/24/08 and 4/12/12. 1 patient withdrew consent prior to receiving any protocol therapy. 17 patients had a PS of 1. The majority of patients were stage IV. One DLT was noted out of 7 patients at dose level (DL) 1. Subsequently no DLTs were noted in 3 patients each enrolled at DL2-4 or 11 patients in the expansion cohort. The majority of grade 3 toxicities were hematologic with 1 grade 5 bowel perforation in dose level 1 in cycle 4. Best response in 24 evaluable patients: PR (8), stable (15), PD 1. Median survival for the entire group was 9.1 months. Conclusion: This phase I study combining low-dose ultra-fractionated RT as a sensitizer to full dose G plus E was well tolerated with encouraging efficacy. This represents a novel strategy worthy of further investigation in advanced pancreatic cancer patients

  8. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  9. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution. Patients and methods A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage), surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Results A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001). Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001). The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001). When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014), the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001). The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%), followed by lobectomy (60%), combined resection (22%), and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001). Conclusion Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:28331339

  10. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  11. Neo-Institutional Approach to the Study of Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan I. Vaslavskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the neo-institutional approach as a methodological basis in the study of electronic government. In this article substantiates the choice of neo-institutional approach to the study of the processes of implementation of information and communication technologies in the activity of state institutions, analyzes the differences of neoinstitutionalism from traditional institutional approach, considers the features of the different directions of neo-institutionalism, namely sociological, historical and rational choice theory. Attention is paid to the reasons for the renewed interest in political institutions in political science. The article emphasizes the importance of considering the electronic government as an institution, and the conditions for its implementation in the Russian political system as the institutional environment. The authors pay special attention to the variety of sociological neo-institutionalism, used, in addition to political science in sociology of organizations. The article substantiates the value of using sociological institutionalism to explore the electronic government based on a comparative analysis of e-government projects in Russia and abroad and explores its heuristic capabilities. It examines the impact of the system of norms and values of the institutional environment on the processes of formation and development of electronic government in Russia. The research capacity of this theory is due to the fact that it allows us to trace the reasons for copying and replication of inefficient practices and organizational and management schemes, to identify the factors impeding innovation use by the state of electronic interaction technologies. It is emphasized that the use of the theory of institutional isomorphism is useful in the sphere of implementation of electronic technologies, in which a key role play pluralism, horizontal managerial communication, inter-agency coordination.

  12. IMMUNOPHENOTYPING IN ACUTE LEUKAEMIA- AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Das

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Leukaemias are biologically a diverse group of disorders with differences in their morphology, antigen expression, chromosomal and molecular abnormalities, response to treatment, and prognosis. The main objective of the study was to compare morphological and flowcytometric diagnosis in patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective study was carried out at S.C.B. Medical College and hospital, Cuttack, in department of Pathology and Clinical haematology, for the period of November 2015- November 2017. The findings were based on 100 patients who underwent both flow cytometry and peripheral smear/bone marrow morphology tests for diagnosis of acute leukaemia. RESULTS Using the peripheral smear/bone marrow morphology, 27% patients had ALL-L1, 38% had ALL-L2, 05% had AML-M1, 21% had AML-M2, 06% had AML-M3, 02% had AML-M4, and 01% had AML-M5. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry confirms 50% patients to be B-ALL, 07% to be T-ALL, 32% AML, 08% APML/AML-M3, and 03% to be MPAL. There was a concordance between the morphological and flowcytometry of 88% in ALL, 91% in AML, 75% in APML, but, no concordance at all for MPAL. CONCLUSION Hence, flowcytometry is mandatory in all cases of acute leukemia, to confirm a definite diagnosis, as treatment nowadays is target oriented.

  13. 76 FR 7869 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Project, Case Studies of Alternative Models to Consent for Research. Place: Hyatt Regency Bethesda, One... Liaison Group. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available... Carollo, MPA, Advocacy Relations Manager, Office Of Advocacy Relations, Building 31, Room 10A30, 31 Center...

  14. Predicting prostate cancer-specific outcome after radical prostatectomy among men with very high-risk cT3b/4 PCa: a multi-institutional outcome study of 266 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltzahn, F; Karnes, J; Gontero, P; Kneitz, B; Tombal, B; Bader, P; Briganti, A; Montorsi, F; Van Poppel, H; Joniau, S; Spahn, M

    2015-03-01

    The value of radical prostatectomy (RP) as an approach for very high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients is controversial. To examine the risk of 10-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) according to clinical and pathological characteristics of very high-risk cT3b/4 PCa patients treated with RP as the primary treatment option. In a multi-institutional cohort, 266 patients with very high-risk cT3b/4 PCa treated with RP were identified. All patients underwent RP and pelvic lymph-node dissection. Competing-risk analyses assessed 10-year CSM and OCM before and after stratification for age and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall, 34 (13%) patients died from PCa and 73 (28%) from OCM. Ten-year CSM and OCM rates ranged from 5.6% to 12.9% and from 10% to 38%, respectively. OCM was the leading cause of death in all subgroups. Age and comorbidities were the main determinants of OCM. In healthy men, CSM rate did not differ among age groups (10-year CSM rate for ⩽64, 65-69 and ⩾70 years: 16.2%, 11.5% and 17.1%, respectively). Men with a CCI ⩾1 showed a very low risk of CSM irrespective of age (10-year CSM: 5.6-6.1%), whereas the 10-year OCM rates increased with age up to 38% in men ⩾70 years. Very high-risk cT3b/4 PCa represents a heterogeneous group. We revealed overall low CSM rates despite the highly unfavorable clinical disease. For healthy men, CSM was independent of age, supporting RP even for older men. Conversely, less healthy patients had the highest risk of dying from OCM while sharing very low risk of CSM, indicating that this group might not benefit from an aggressive surgical treatment. Outcome after RP as the primary treatment option in cT3b/4 PCa patients is related to age and comorbidity status.

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of Preoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy and Concomitant Boost Irradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Multi-Institutional Phase II Study (KROG 04-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Go-Yang (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Taek-Keun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwa-Sun (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sei-Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doo Seok [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Daehang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Chang, Hee Jin [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Go-Yang (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Mee Sun; Jeong, Jae-Uk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwa-Sun (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok, E-mail: hsjang11@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a prospective phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant small-field boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, mid-to-lower rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. They had received preoperative chemoradiation therapy and total mesorectal excision. Pelvic radiation therapy of 43.2 Gy in 24 fractions plus concomitant boost radiation therapy of 7.2 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the pelvis and tumor bed for 5 weeks. Two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered for 3 days in the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The pathologic response, survival outcome, and treatment toxicity were evaluated for the study endpoints. Results: Of 69 patients, 8 (11.6%) had a pathologically complete response. Downstaging rates were 40.5% for T classification and 68.1% for N classification. At the median follow-up of 69 months, 36 patients have been followed up for more than 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 66.0% and 75.3%, respectively. Higher pathologic T (P = .045) and N (P = .032) classification were significant adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and high-grade histology was an adverse prognostic factor for both DFS (P = .025) and overall survival (P = .031) on the multivariate analysis. Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity, and 7 patients (10.1%) had long-term toxicity. Conclusion: Preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks showed acceptable acute and long-term toxicities. However, the benefit of concomitant small-field boost irradiation for 5 weeks in rectal cancer patients was not demonstrated beyond conventional irradiation for 6 weeks in terms of tumor response and

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Electron Crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Weirich, Thomas E; Zou, Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade we have been witness to several exciting achievements in electron crystallography. This includes structural and charge density studies on organic molecules complicated inorganic and metallic materials in the amorphous, nano-, meso- and quasi-crystalline state and also development of new software, tailor-made for the special needs of electron crystallography. Moreover, these developments have been accompanied by a now available new generation of computer controlled electron microscopes equipped with high-coherent field-emission sources, cryo-specimen holders, ultra-fast CCD cameras, imaging plates, energy filters and even correctors for electron optical distortions. Thus, a fast and semi-automatic data acquisition from small sample areas, similar to what we today know from imaging plates diffraction systems in X-ray crystallography, can be envisioned for the very near future. This progress clearly shows that the contribution of electron crystallography is quite unique, as it enables to r...

  17. Pharmacogenetics in cancer therapy - 8 years of experience at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavic, Milena; Krivokuca, Ana; Boljevic, Ivana; Brotto, Ksenija; Jovanovic, Katarina; Tanic, Miljana; Filipovic, Lana; Zec, Manja; Malisic, Emina; Jankovic, Radmila; Radulovic, Sinisa

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a study of possible mechanism by which an individual's response to drugs is genetically determined by variations in their DNA sequence. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to identify the optimal drug and dose for each individual based on their genetic constitution, i.e. to individualize drug treatment. This leads to achieving the maximal therapeutic response for each patient, while reducing adverse side effects of therapy and the cost of treatment. A centralized pharmacogenetics service was formed at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia (IORS) with the aim to provide a personalized approach to cancer treatment of Serbian patients. Analyses of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer, EGFR mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, CYP2D6 polymorphism in breast cancer, DPD polymorphism in colorectal cancer and MTHFR polymorphism in osteosarcoma have been performed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Mutation testing analyses were successful for 1694 KRAS samples and 1821 EGFR samples, while polymorphism testing was successful for 9 CYP2D6 samples, 65 DPD samples and 35 MTHFR samples. Pharmacogenetic methods presented in this paper provide cancer patients in Serbia the best possible choice of treatment at the moment.

  18. TrueNTH sexual recovery study protocol: a multi-institutional collaborative approach to developing and testing a web-based intervention for couples coping with the side-effects of prostate cancer treatment in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Mehta, A; Northouse, L; Dunn, R; Braun, T; Duby, A; An, L; Arab, L; Bangs, R; Bober, S; Brandon, J; Coward, M; Dunn, M; Galbraith, M; Garcia, M; Giblin, J; Glode, M; Koontz, B; Lowe, A; Mitchell, S; Mulhall, J; Nelson, C; Paich, K; Saigal, C; Skolarus, T; Stanford, J; Walsh, T; Pollack, C E

    2017-10-02

    Over half of men who receive treatment for prostate suffer from a range of sexual problems that affect negatively their sexual health, sexual intimacy with their partners and their quality of life. In clinical practice, however, care for the sexual side effects of treatment is often suboptimal or unavailable. The goal of the current study is to test a web-based intervention to support the recovery of sexual intimacy of prostate cancer survivors and their partners after treatment. The study team developed an interactive, web-based intervention, tailored to type of treatment received, relationship status (partnered/non-partnered) and sexual orientation. It consists of 10 modules, six follow the trajectory of the illness and four are theme based. They address sexual side effects, rehabilitation, psychological impacts and coaching for self-efficacy. Each includes a video to engage participants, psychoeducation and activities completed by participants on the web. Tailored strategies for identified concerns are sent by email after each module. Six of these modules will be tested in a randomized controlled trial and compared to usual care. Men with localized prostate cancer with partners will be recruited from five academic medical centers. These couples (N = 140) will be assessed prior to treatment, then 3 months and 6 months after treatment. The primary outcome will be the survivors' and partners' Global Satisfaction with Sex Life, assessed by a Patient Reported Outcome Measure Information Systems (PROMIS) measure. Secondary outcomes will include interest in sex, sexual activity, use of sexual aids, dyadic coping, knowledge about sexual recovery, grief about the loss of sexual function, and quality of life. The impact of the intervention on the couple will be assessed using the Actor-Partner Interaction Model, a mixed-effects linear regression model able to estimate both the association of partner characteristics with partner and patient outcomes and the association

  19. Arguments for the Study of Institutionalism and Institutional Reform in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pohoata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The study and comprehension of institutions – viewed as written and unwritten constraints (rules initiated by people to create and improve human interaction – represents the key to understand the success (and failure of contemporary economies and societies. The framework inspired by institutions to which people dedicated maximum energy and talent also explains the different levels of efficiency in modern times. The founders of institutionalism – in its old and new versions – explain, for example, that human endeavour for social improvement led to the appearance of Law, private ownership, contract and market. For Romania, such explanations are inspirational and of utmost necessity in presenting the real context and in finding the necessary measures and directions towards desired progress.

  20. Arguments for the Study of Institutionalism and Institutional Reform in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pohoata

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The study and comprehension of institutions – viewed as written and unwritten constraints (rules initiated by people to create and improve human interaction – represents the key to understand the success (and failure of contemporary economies and societies. The framework inspired by institutions to which people dedicated maximum energy and talent also explains the different levels of efficiency in modern times. The founders of institutionalism – in its old and new versions – explain, for example, that human endeavour for social improvement led to the appearance of Law, private ownership, contract and market. For Romania, such explanations are inspirational and of utmost necessity in presenting the real context and in finding the necessary measures and directions towards desired progress.

  1. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Isabel; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Ayuso, Carmen; Egido, Jesus; Rojo, Federico; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81 diabetic patients diagnosed of colon cancer matched with 79 non-diabetic colon cancer patients. The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the growth of colon cancer xenografts was studied in mice. The incidence of DM in 1,137 patients with colorectal cancer was 16%. The diabetic colon cancer cases and non-diabetic colon cancer controls were well matched for demographic and clinical variables. The ECOG Scale Performance Status was higher (worse) in diabetics (ECOG ≥1, 29.1% of controls vs 46.9% of diabetics, p = 0.02), but no significant differences were observed in tumor grade, adjuvant therapy, tumor site, lymphovascular invasion, stage, recurrence, death or cancer-related death. Moreover, no differences in tumor variables were observed between patients treated or not with metformin. In the xenograft model, tumor growth and histopathological characteristics did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Our findings point towards a mild or negligible effect of the diabetes environment on colon cancer behavior, once cancer has already developed.

  2. Paclitaxel/carboplatin with or without sorafenib in the first-line treatment of patients with stage III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer: a randomized phase II study of the Sarah Cannon Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainsworth, John D; Thompson, Dana S; Bismayer, John A; Gian, Victor G; Merritt, William M; Whorf, Robert C; Finney, Lindsey H; Dudley, B Stephens

    2015-01-01

    This trial compared the efficacy and toxicity of standard first-line treatment with paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/carboplatin plus sorafenib in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Patients with stage 3 or 4 epithelial ovarian cancer with residual measurable disease or elevated CA-125 levels after maximal surgical cytoreduction were randomized (1:1) to receive treatment with paclitaxel (175 mg/m 2 , 3 h infusion, day 1) and carboplatin (AUC 6.0, IV, day 1) with or without sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily (PO BID). Patients were reevaluated for response after completing 6 weeks of treatment (two cycles); responding or stable patients received six cycles of paclitaxel/carboplatin. Patients receiving the sorafenib-containing regimen continued sorafenib (400 PO BID) for a total of 52 weeks. Eighty-five patients were randomized and received treatment.Efficacy was similar for patients receiving paclitaxel/carboplatin/sorafenib versus paclitaxel/carboplatin: overall response rates 69% versus 74%; median progression-free survival 15.4 versus 16.3 months; 2 year survival 76% versus 81%. The addition of sorafenib added substantially to the toxicity of the regimen; rash, hand–foot syndrome, mucositis, and hypertension were significantly more common in patients treated with sorafenib. The addition of sorafenib to standard paclitaxel/carboplatin did not improve efficacy and substantially increased toxicity in the first-line treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Based on evidence from this study and other completed trials, sorafenib is unlikely to have a role in the treatment of ovarian cancer

  3. Breast cancer amongst Filipino migrants: a review of the literature and ten-year institutional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jory S; Briggs, Kaleigh; George, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    As one migrates from an area of low to high incidence of breast cancer their personal risk of developing breast cancer increases. This is however not equally distributed across all races and ethnicities. This paper specifically examines Filipino migrants. A literature review was conducted to summarize breast cancer incidence, screening practices and trends in treatment amongst Filipino migrants. In addition, a retrospective cohort study was conducted specifically examining the age in which Filipino women were diagnosed with breast cancer compared to Asian and Caucasian counterparts. Filipino women are diagnosed with breast cancer at a statistically significant younger age (53.2) compared to their Asian (55.1) and Caucasian (58.4) counterparts. In addition, they are at an increased risk of developing more aggressive breast cancer with noteworthy disparities in the care they are receiving. The evidence suggest this group is worthy of special focus when diagnosing and treating breast cancer.

  4. Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Enzo; Tomao, Federica; Aletti, Giovanni; Bazzurini, Luca; Bocciolone, Luca; Boveri, Sara; Landoni, Fabio; Lapresa, Maria Teresa; Maruccio, Matteo; Parma, Gabriella; Peccatori, Fedro; Petrella, Maria Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna; Colombo, Nicoletta; Maggioni, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center. A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Inclusion criteria were: asymptomatic women who had a negative gynecologic screening within 3 months prior to RRSO. Exclusion criteria were: women with ovarian/tubal cancer prior to RRSO. A total of 411 women underwent RRSO. Median age at RRSO was 47.0 years (range=32-70 years); 75.2% had a history of breast cancer. Fifteen women were diagnosed with an occult cancer (7 STIC, 4 invasive cancers, 2 breast cancers metastatic to the adnexa, 2 endometrial cancer) (3.6%). Sixteen showed a STIL (3.9%). When excluding cases with preoperative positive markers, the occult invasive cancer rate drops to 1.5%. Our study, covering an 18-year period, shows a substantial low risk of occult cancer among a high-risk population of women undergoing RRSO. Our data still support the indication for RRSO in higher-risk patients. An endometrial biopsy should also be routinely obtained as it raises the chances of detecting occult endometrial cancers that may be otherwise missed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. USAF Institute for National Security Studies 1998 Research Results Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The USAF Institute for National Security Studies (INSS), in cooperation with HQ USAF Nuclear and Counterproliferation Directorate, sponsored its 6th annual Research Results Conference on 19 - 20 November 1998...

  7. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, N.G.; Anderson, W.; Davis, R.P.; Carden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  8. Experimental studies on cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The further development of the chemotherapy of cancer in the experimental and clinical fields necessitates a profound knowledge of its chemical, biochemical and pharmacological fundamentals and the mechanism of physiological and pathological growth processes. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zytostatika' includes chemists, biochemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, physicians and immunologists of various scientific institutes and clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in West Berlin. It is their aim to carry out basic research as well as clinical-orientated research in the field of the chemotherapy of cancer. In the 15 years of cooperation, fundamental knowledge was gained, especially in the field of the cytotoxic specificity and cancerotoxic selectivity of alkylating cytostatics. New cytostatics with a greater oncostatic selectivity and an altered spectrum of activity were tested and greater knowledge was won on the molecular-biological prerequisites of a rational drug design. (orig.) [de

  9. Tumor induction following intraoperative radiotherapy: Late results of the National Cancer Institute canine trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.; Duray, P.; DeLuca, A.; Anderson, W.; Sindelar, W.; Kinsella, T.

    1990-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy has been employed in human cancer research for over a decade. Since 1979, trials to assess the acute and late toxicity of IORT have been carried out at the National Cancer Institute in an adult dog model in an attempt to establish dose tolerance guidelines for a variety of organs. Of the 170 animals entered on 12 studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 148 dogs received IORT; 22 control animals received only surgery. Animals were sacrificed at designated intervals following IORT, usually at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 month intervals. 102 of 148 irradiated dogs were sacrificed less than 24 months; 46 dogs were followed greater than or equal to 24 months after IORT. To date, 34 of the 46 animals have been sacrificed; the 12 remaining animals are to be followed to 5 years. These 12 animals have minimum follow-up of 30 months. In the irradiated group followed for greater than or equal to 24 months, 10 tumors have arisen in 9 animals. One animal developed an incidental spontaneous breast carcinoma outside the IORT port, discovered only at scheduled post-mortem exam. The remaining nine tumors arose within IORT ports. Two tumors were benign neural tumors--a neuroma and a neurofibroma. One animal had a collision tumor comprised of grade I chondrosarcoma adjacent to grade III osteosarcoma arising in lumbar vertebrae. Two other grade III osteosarcomas, one grade III fibrosarcoma, and one grade III malignant fibrous histiocytoma arose in retroperitoneal/paravertebral sites. An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) arose within the irradiated urinary bladder of one animal. No sham irradiated controls nor IORT animals sacrificed less than 24 months have developed any spontaneous or radiation-induced tumors. The time range of diagnoses of tumors was 24-58 months. The IORT dose range associated with tumor development was 20-35 Gy

  10. Evaluation of the cost of cervical cancer at the National Institute of Oncology, Rabat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Amine; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Ismaili, Nabil; Cheikh, Zakia; Bouajaj, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; El Hassani, Amine; Cherrah, Yahya; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Cervical Cancer (CC) is one of the heavy and costly diseases for the population and the health system. We want to know through this study, the first in Morocco, the annual cost of the treatment of this disease at the National Institute of Oncology (NIO) in Rabat, we also want to explore the possibility of flat-rate management of this disease in order to standardize medical practices and improve reimbursement by health insurance funds. Methods 550 patients were treated for their cervical cancer in the Rabat's NIO. Data of all of medical and surgical services offered to patients were collected from the NIO registry. The cost of care was assessed using the method of micro-costing. We will focus to the total direct cost of all the services lavished to patients in NIO. Results The global cost was about US$ 1,429,673 with an average estimated at US$ 2,599 ± US$ 839. Radiotherapy accounts for 55% of total costs, followed by brachytherapy (27%) and surgery (7%). This three services plus chemotherapy influence the overall cost of care (p <0.001). Other services (radiology, laboratory tests and consultations) represent only 10%. The overall cost is influenced by the stage of the disease, this cost decreased significantly evolving in the stage of CC (p <0.001). Conclusion The standardization of medical practices is essential to the equity and efficiency in access to care. The flat-rate or lump sum by stage of disease is possible and interesting for standardizing medical practices and improving the services of the health insurance plan. PMID:27347298

  11. Tumor induction following intraoperative radiotherapy: Late results of the National Cancer Institute canine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.; Duray, P.; DeLuca, A.; Anderson, W.; Sindelar, W.; Kinsella, T. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy has been employed in human cancer research for over a decade. Since 1979, trials to assess the acute and late toxicity of IORT have been carried out at the National Cancer Institute in an adult dog model in an attempt to establish dose tolerance guidelines for a variety of organs. Of the 170 animals entered on 12 studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 148 dogs received IORT; 22 control animals received only surgery. Animals were sacrificed at designated intervals following IORT, usually at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 month intervals. 102 of 148 irradiated dogs were sacrificed less than 24 months; 46 dogs were followed greater than or equal to 24 months after IORT. To date, 34 of the 46 animals have been sacrificed; the 12 remaining animals are to be followed to 5 years. These 12 animals have minimum follow-up of 30 months. In the irradiated group followed for greater than or equal to 24 months, 10 tumors have arisen in 9 animals. One animal developed an incidental spontaneous breast carcinoma outside the IORT port, discovered only at scheduled post-mortem exam. The remaining nine tumors arose within IORT ports. Two tumors were benign neural tumors--a neuroma and a neurofibroma. One animal had a collision tumor comprised of grade I chondrosarcoma adjacent to grade III osteosarcoma arising in lumbar vertebrae. Two other grade III osteosarcomas, one grade III fibrosarcoma, and one grade III malignant fibrous histiocytoma arose in retroperitoneal/paravertebral sites. An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) arose within the irradiated urinary bladder of one animal. No sham irradiated controls nor IORT animals sacrificed less than 24 months have developed any spontaneous or radiation-induced tumors. The time range of diagnoses of tumors was 24-58 months. The IORT dose range associated with tumor development was 20-35 Gy.

  12. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  14. Demographics of Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanova, Martina; Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Ghenev, Peter; Sapundzhiev, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Head and neck cancer (HNC) comprises a diverse group of oncological entities, originating from various tissue types and organ localizations, situated in the topographical regions of the head and neck (H&N). This single institution retrospective study was aimed at establishing the HNC patient demographics and categorizing the individual incidence of H&N malignancies, regarding their organ of origin and main histopathological type. Materials and methods All histologically verified cases of HNC from a single tertiary referral center were reviewed in a descriptive retrospective manner. Data sampling period was 47 months. Results Male to female ratio of the registered HNC cases was 3.24:1. The mean age of diagnosis was 63.84 ± 12.65 years, median 65 years. The most common HNC locations include the larynx 30.37% (n = 188), lips and oral cavity 29.08% (n = 180), pharynx 20.03% (n = 124) and salivary glands 10.94% (n = 68), with other locations such as the external nose, nasal cavity and sinuses and auricle and external ear canal harboring a minority of the cases. The main histopathological groups include squamous cell carcinoma 76.74% (n = 475) and adenocarcinoma 6.14% (n = 38), with other malignant entries such as other epithelial malignancies, primary tonsillar, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or parenchymal lymphomas, connective tissue neoplasias, neuroendocrine and vascular malignancies diagnosed in a minority of cases. Conclusion Considered to be relatively rare, HNC represents a diverse group of oncological entities with individual and specific demographic characteristics. The reported single institution results appear representative of the national incidence and characteristics of HNC. PMID:28875091

  15. Chemotherapy Regimen in Nonagenarian Cancer Patients: A Bi-Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Chargari, Cyrus; Kullab, Sharif; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Moriceau, Guillaume; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Annede, Pierre; Méry, Benoîte; Moncharmont, Coralie; Falk, Alexander Tuan; Vedrine, Lionel; Merrouche, Yacine; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population in Western countries is growing and constitutes a public health issue. Concomitantly, age-related diseases such as cancer increase. There are few data on the efficacy, tolerability and toxicity of specific anticancer therapy in the very elderly patients; therefore, their management is not standardized. In this bi-institutional study, we reviewed medical records of patients who received or continued specific anticancer therapy beyond the age of 90 years. Geriatric assessment was not reported for our patients. Twelve patients were enrolled. Their general health condition was good, and half of them were living in elderly institutions. Ten patients had a solid tumor and 2 were treated for hematological malignancies. Most were diagnosed with a locally advanced or metastatic disease, and the goal of treatment was curative for only 1 patient. Six patients received chemotherapy as first-line treatment, 4 patients received targeted therapy and 2 received concomitant chemoradiation. Four patients received a second-line treatment. Despite a significant reduction in treatment posology in half of the patients, 8 acute grade 3/4 toxicities were reported and 2 patients died of treatment-related septic shock. Median duration of first-line treatment was 3.2 months, and progression-free survival ranged from 18 to 311 days. Overall survival ranged from 18 days to 11 years. Aging is a heterogeneous process, and management of elderly patients is a multidisciplinary approach. Geriatric assessment helps to identify older patients with a higher risk of morbidity/mortality and allows to assess the risks and benefits of specific anticancer therapy. The choice of treatment should be based primarily on the expected symptomatic benefit, and treatment should not compromise the quality of life. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Survey of Policies and Guidelines on Antioxidant Use for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Survivorship in North American Cancer Centers: What Do Institutions Perceive as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gyeongyeon; White, Jennifer; Zhong, Lihong; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-07-01

    Health care policies and guidelines that are clear and consistent with research evidence are important for maximizing clinical outcomes. To determine whether cancer centers in Canada and the United States had policies and/or guidelines about antioxidant use, and whether policies were aligned with the evidence base, we reviewed current research evidence in the field, and we undertook a survey of the policies and guidelines on antioxidant use at cancer institutions across North America. A survey of policies and guidelines on antioxidant use and the development and communication of the policies and guidelines was conducted by contacting cancer institutions in North America. We also conducted a Website search for each institution to explore any online resources. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant use were collected from 78 cancer institutions. Few cancer institutions had policies (5%) but most provided guidelines (69%). Antioxidants from diet were generally encouraged at cancer institutions, consistent with the current research evidence. In contrast, specific antioxidant supplements were generally not recommended at cancer institutions. Policies and guidelines were developed using evidence-based methods (53%), by consulting another source (35%), or through discussions/conference (26%), and communicated mainly through online resources (65%) or written handouts (42%). For cancer institutions that had no policy or guideline on antioxidants, lack of information and lack of time were the most frequently cited reasons. Policies and guidelines on antioxidants from diet were largely consistent with the research evidence. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant supplements during treatment were generally more restrictive than the research evidence might suggest, perhaps due to the specificity of results and the inability to generalize findings across antioxidants, adding to the complexity of their optimal and safe use. Improved communication of comprehensive research

  17. The Utility of Expert Diagnosis in Surgical Neuropathology: Analysis of Consultations Reviewed at 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Janet M; Louis, David N; McLendon, Roger; Rosenblum, Marc K; Archambault, W Tad; Most, Susan; Tihan, Tarik

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the type and degree of discrepancies between non-expert and expert diagnoses of CNS tumors to identify the value of consultations in surgical neuropathology. Neuropathology experts from 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions participated in the review of 1281 consultations selected based on inclusion criteria. The consultation cases were re-reviewed at the NCCN headquarters to determine concordance with the original diagnoses. Among all consultations, 249 (19.4%) were submitted for expert diagnoses without final diagnoses from the submitting institution. Within the remaining 1032 patients, the serious/major discrepancy rate was 4.8%, and less serious and minor discrepancies were seen in 19.4% of the cases. The discrepancy rate was higher among patients who were referred to NCCN institutions for consultation compared to those who were referred for treatment only. The discrepancy rates, patient demographics, type of consultations and submitting institutions varied among participating NCCN institutions. Expert consultations identified a subset of cases with significant diagnostic discrepancies, and constituted the initial diagnoses in some cases. These data indicate that expert consultations in glial tumors and all types of pediatric CNS tumors can improve accurate diagnosis and enable appropriate management. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of leakage in cobalt-60 unit in National Cancer Institute (NCI) Wad Medani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlellah, R. A.

    2013-08-01

    This study has been conducted primarily to evaluate the leakages radiation in cobalt-60 unit in National Cancer Institute Wad Medani, which represent the basic risky factor in this unit for the radio therapists who spend much time during patient set up, also they need to stand near the head of the machine to fix some accessories. The measurements which done using survey meter give normal level of occupational exposure compared with IAEA references except one situation that the radio therapist to be close contact to the head of unit for long time which may increase the received dose, in this situation. The radio therapist either not well trained, or there is insufficient accessories to reduce the time inside the room. Radiotherapy department need a special considerations from the beginning of construction till starting of treatment. It is important to contain separate rooms, for planning to determine treatment area, another one for molding to shape lead blocks to protect normal parts and an optimum designed room for treatment to enable workers to apply basic radiation protection principles. (Author)

  19. Treatment outcomes of female germ cell tumors: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.M.; Zeeneldin, A.A.; El Gammal, M.M.; Salem, S.E.; Darweesh, A.D.; Abdelaziz, A.A.; Monir, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female germ cell tumors (GCTS) are rare tumors that carry a good prognosis. Aim: To report the experience of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (ENCI) in managing female GCTs. Methods: This retrospective study included 19 females with ovarian GCTs presenting to the ENCI between 2006 and 2010. Results: The median age was 23 years. Ovaries were the primary site in all patients. Dysgerminoma and teratoma were the predominant pathologies followed by mixed GCT in females. Unilateral ovariectomy or ovarian tumorectomy were the classic surgical procedures with R0 resection being feasible in most cases. Surveillance was adopted in six patients with stage I disease. Chemotherapy was administered in 63% of ovarian GCTs with BEP being the commonest regimen with reasonable tolerability and good response rates. The median OS and EFS were not reached. The projected 5-year OS rate was 93.8%. Both OS and EFS were better in patients responding to chemotherapy than non-responders (p< 0.002). Stage of disease did not significantly affect OS or EFS. Conclusions: Female GCTs rarely affect Egyptian females. They have good prognosis.

  20. Possible misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis among patients attending Uganda Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyego, Paul; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ddungu, Henry; Walimbwa, Stephen; Nalwanga, Damalie; Reynolds, Steven J; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind

    2017-03-14

    Early diagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma is challenging because the definitive diagnostic procedure of biopsy, requires skills and equipment that are not readily available. As a consequence, diagnosis may be delayed increasing the risk of mortality. We set out to determine the frequency and risk factors associated with the misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis (TB) among patients attending the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI). A retrospective cohort study design was used among HIV patients with associated lymphoma patients attending the UCI, Kampala, Uganda between February and March 2015. Eligible patient charts were reviewed for information on TB treatment, socio-demographics, laboratory parameters (Hemoglobin, CD4cells count and lactate dehydrogenase) and clinical presentation using a semi structured data extraction form. A total of 183 charts were reviewed; 106/183 were males (57.9%), the median age was 35 (IQR, 28-45). Fifty six (30.6%) patients had a possible misdiagnosis as TB and their median time on TB treatment was 3.5 (1-5.3) months. In multivariate analysis the presence of chest pain had an odd ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% CI 1.89-10.58, p HIV associated lymphoma attending UCI are misdiagnosed and treated as TB. Chest pain and stage III and IV of lymphoma were associated with an increased risk of a possible misdiagnosis of lymphoma as TB.

  1. Malignant lymphoma. Prognostic factors and response to treatment of 473 patients at the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.; Simon, R.M.; Berard, C.W.; Canellos, G.P.; Garvin, A.J.; Young, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment results were reviewed in 473 consecutively staged and treated patients at the National Cancer Institute over a 22-year period from 1953 to 1975. Responses correlated with histologic pattern and stage of disease. Complete responses to radiotherapy were frequent in nodular lymphoma patients. Similar treatment regimens were less effective in diffuse lymphoma patients. Using chemotherapy or combined modality approaches, complete responses were obtained in a high proportion of advanced nodular disease patients. Patients with nodular lymphoma tend to have higher complete response rates and longer survivals than their counterparts with diffuse histologic types. Patients with nodular lymphocytic lymphoma had a better survival than those with mixed or ''histiocytic'' histologic types. Patients with diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma survived significantly longer than patients with other diffuse histologic types. Percentage and prominence of nodularity were not of prognostic significance in those patients with combined nodular and diffuse patterns of disease. When compared by histologic type, patient sex did not appear to be an important prognostic factor. The presence of B-symptoms was associated with a poorer survival in patients with nodular disease and in patients with diffuse disease. Over the years of this study, survival appears to have improved in each histologic subtype except diffuse poorly differentiated lymphoma

  2. Cancer mortality studied by Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; Smith, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given of a cancer mortality study in Caithness, Sutherland, Orkney and Shetland between 1958 and 1982. For Caithness and Sutherland, the numbers of male deaths from all kinds of cancer was significantly less than the numbers expected from figures for Scotland as a whole; for females no difference was observed; the parish of Latheron showed an excess of leukaemia cases. For Orkney and Shetland, the total number of cancer deaths for both sexes was significantly less than for Scotland as a whole. In Shetland, there was an excess of lymphatic leukaemia in Northmaven based on four deaths observed. In Orkney, one parish showed an excess of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers. (UK)

  3. Cancer incidence and mortality in children in the Mexican Social Security Institute (1996-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Pachuca-Vázquez, Adriana; Allende-López, Aldo; Fajardo-Yamamoto, Liria Mitzuko; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2016-04-01

    To identify the cancer incidence and mortality in Mexican Social Security Institute beneficiary (MSSI-B) children during 1996-2013. Both cancer cases (n=4 728) and deaths (n=2 378) were analyzed in MSSI-B children who were registered in five states of the Mexican Republic. The incidence and mortality trends and the incidences (rate x 1 000 000 children / year) of the type of cancer, age, sex, and place of residence were obtained. For both indicators (incidence and mortality), there was a downward trend for the period of 1996-2001 and a stable trend for 2002-2013. This occurred in the overall mortality and incidence trends of the Estado de México and Chiapas and in the leukemia and the acute lymphoid subgroups. The annual overall incidence was 128 cases per 1 000 000 children. Leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors were the principal cancer groups. Cancer mortality for the period of 2002-2013 did not diminish. Interinstitutional and/or international research should be designed to improve the care of these children.

  4. Adjuvant chemo radiation in completely resected gastric cancer: experience of the National Cancer Institute of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa O, Nicolas; Russo N, Moises; Lopez V, Hernan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal tumors in the Chilean population. Aim: To report the results of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with locoregionally advanced gastric cancer, subjected to a curative resection and treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The treatment was based on he INT 0116/SSWOG protocol, which includes 5-fluorouracil as a single agent. Patients were followed for a median of 58 months. Results: The records of 168 patients (99 men) treated between 2004 nd 2011, were reviewed. Median survival as 41 months. Median lapses between surgery and onset of chemo and radiotherapy were 12 and 17 weeks, respectively. Overall three and five years survival was 53 and 41%, respectively. On multivariate analysis the factors associated with a lower survival were an antral location of the tumor, presence of signet ring cells and more than 5 involved lymph nodes. Conclusions: Three and five years survival of gastric cancer patients subjected to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was 53 and 41% respectively.These results are similar to those reported elsewhere

  5. Comparison of Serum Selenium Levels in Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy People at a Cancer Institute in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast Cancer is one of the most important fatal cancers in women. The mean age of breast cancer in Iran is 48.8 years which is very lower than other countries. Selenium can play an important role in reduction of cancer in several ways, for example selenium increases immunity response and protects cells from oxidation of free radicals and also decreases carcinogenic metabolites. Breast cancer is one of the most important cancers in our country because its incidence is very high and the mean age of patients is very low. Different studies have shown the benefits of selenium in prevention of cancer and since many years selenium has been used as a dietary supplement in advanced countries. Several studies regarding relationship between selenium levels and breast cancer have been done in different countries. We therefore planned a study to evaluate serum selenium levels in breast cancer patients and compare them with a healthy control group. Methods: We selected 45 patients younger than 48 years old and 33 patients older than 48 years old who had not yet received any therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, etc for their cancer as a case group and 46 healthy people who were matched with the patients as a control group and included 23 persons younger and 23 persons older than 48 years old. From each participant, 5cc blood was derived and in several stages, serum selenium levels were evaluated using atomic absorption technology. Data about type of cancer, stage, grade, IHC and cigarette smoking were also collected. Results: The mean Se level was 161.20 μg/l (SD=46.27 μg/l in the patients and 189.13 μg/l (SD=48.75 μg/l in the control group that was statistically significant (P48 years old was 155.39 μg/l (SD=46.68 μg/l that was lower than the control groups. Difference in serum selenium levels between patients and controls in the older group was significant (P=0.007, but in the younger group, it was not statistically significant (P=0

  6. Pioneering the Transdisciplinary Team Science Approach: Lessons Learned from National Cancer Institute Grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on

  7. 78 FR 44136 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... award performance and the effectiveness of the program as a whole. The respondents are the Principal Investigators of the awards, along with their institutional business officials. The awards are administered by... costs to respondents other than their time. The estimated annualized burden hours are 72. Estimated...

  8. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as easy ... habits with an easy-to-use calendar Includes motivational reminders that coincide with progress, Sends health milestones ...

  9. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  10. Impact of post-implant dosimetric parameters on the quality of life of patients treated with low-dose rate brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer: results of a single-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veccia, Antonello; Caffo, Orazio; Fellin, Giovanni; Mussari, Salvatore; Ziglio, Francesco; Maines, Francesca; Tomio, Luigi; Galligioni, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dosimetric parameters and the quality of life (QL) outcomes of patients with low-intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer (LPC) treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT). We evaluated the participants in two consecutive prospective studies of the QL of patients treated with LDR-BT for LPC. QL was evaluated by means of a patient-completed questionnaire assessing non functional [physical (PHY) and psychological (PSY) well-being, physical autonomy (POW), social relationships (REL)] and functional scales [urinary (URI), rectal (REC), and sexual (SEX) function]; a scale for erectile function (ERE) was included in the second study. Urethra (D10 ≤ 210 Gy) and rectal wall constraints (V100 ≤ 0.5 cc) were used for pre-planning dosimetry and were assessed with post planning computerized tomography one month later for each patient. QL was assessed in 251 LPC patients. Dosimetry did not influence the non-functional scales. As expected, a progressive impairment in sexual and erectile function was reported one month after LDR-BT, and became statistically significant after the third year. Rectal function significantly worsened after LDR-BT, but the differences progressively decreased after the 1-year assessment. Overall urinary function significantly worsened immediately after LDR-BT and then gradually improved over the next three years. Better outcomes were reported for V100 rectal wall volumes of ≤ 0.5 cc and D10 urethra values of ≤ 210 Gy. The findings of this study show that dosimetric parameters influence only functional QL outcomes while non-functional outcomes are only marginally influenced

  11. Small molecules, big players: the National Cancer Institute's Initiative for Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliday, Nicola; Clemons, Paul A; Ferraiolo, Paul; Koehler, Angela N; Lewis, Timothy A; Li, Xiaohua; Schreiber, Stuart L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Eliasof, Scott

    2006-09-15

    In 2002, the National Cancer Institute created the Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG), to enable public research using small molecules to accelerate the discovery of cancer-relevant small-molecule probes. The ICG is a public-access research facility consisting of a tightly integrated team of synthetic and analytical chemists, assay developers, high-throughput screening and automation engineers, computational scientists, and software developers. The ICG seeks to facilitate the cross-fertilization of synthetic chemistry and cancer biology by creating a research environment in which new scientific collaborations are possible. To date, the ICG has interacted with 76 biology laboratories from 39 institutions and more than a dozen organic synthetic chemistry laboratories around the country and in Canada. All chemistry and screening data are deposited into the ChemBank web site (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) and are available to the entire research community within a year of generation. ChemBank is both a data repository and a data analysis environment, facilitating the exploration of chemical and biological information across many different assays and small molecules. This report outlines how the ICG functions, how researchers can take advantage of its screening, chemistry and informatic capabilities, and provides a brief summary of some of the many important research findings.

  12. Institutional clinical trial accrual volume and survival of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrick, Evan J; Zhang, Qiang; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Fortin, André; Silverman, Craig L; Raben, Adam; Kim, Harold E; Horwitz, Eric M; Read, Nancy E; Harris, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Le, Quynh-Thu; Gillison, Maura L

    2015-01-10

    National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receive treatment at centers with expertise, but whether provider experience affects survival is unknown. The effect of institutional experience on overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III or IV HNC was investigated within a randomized trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 0129), which compared cisplatin concurrent with standard versus accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. As a surrogate for experience, institutions were classified as historically low- (HLACs) or high-accruing centers (HHACs) based on accrual to 21 RTOG HNC trials (1997 to 2002). The effect of accrual volume on OS was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Median RTOG accrual (1997 to 2002) at HLACs was four versus 65 patients at HHACs. Analysis included 471 patients in RTOG 0129 (2002 to 2005) with known human papillomavirus and smoking status. Patients at HLACs versus HHACs had better performance status (0: 62% v 52%; P = .04) and lower T stage (T4: 26.5% v 35.3%; P = .002) but were otherwise similar. Radiotherapy protocol deviations were higher at HLACs versus HHACs (18% v 6%; P accounting for radiotherapy protocol deviations. Institutional experience substantially influences survival in locally advanced HNC. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Lumboaortic radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Experience of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini B, Alejandro; Becerra S, Sergio; Gayan G, Patricio; Carcamo I, Marcela; Bianchi G, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Uterine cancer is still a prevalent disease in Chile. Is common to treat patients with tumors in stages IIB and IIIB where the risk of pelvic and paraortic limph node involvement is very high. Its treatment is radio-chemotherapy. Objective: To present a retrospective analysis of patients that suffered cervix-uterine cancer who were treated with radiotherapy including the aortic-lumbar area. Methods: From the revision of patients who were treated of cervix-uterine cancer between the years 1995 and 2007, 39 were treated including aortic-lumbar chains. Evolution and toxicity were analyzed. Two radiotherapy techniques were used. The first one, during the nineties, included two parallel previous and later and opposed fields, and a second technique, currently used, where pelvis and paraortic are radiated at the same time through four lateral (AP-PA) fields. Results: The dosimeter analysis of both techniques shows that there is a higher volume of radiated normal tissue with the two fields techniques, mainly in the small bowel. On the other hand, the toxicity was significantly different being today's technique less toxic and showing low gastrointestinal

  14. Institutional solid waste management practices in developing countries. A case study of three academic institutions in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbuligwe, Stephen E. [Faculty of Lands and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, University College of Lands and Architectural Studies UCLAS, PO Box 35176, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports on institutional solid waste management in three Tanzanian institutions. It is noted that there are indeed advantages in managing solid waste at institutional level because of the institutions' unique characteristics that also influence their waste management needs. The paper outlines findings from a yearlong study on institutional solid waste management at three institutions: University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), University College of Lands and Architectural Studies (UCLAS) and Water Resources Institute (WRI). Surveys and field investigations, including on-site waste measurements and questionnaire surveys were done at UDSM, UCLAS and WRI. The study has revealed, among other things, that per capita waste generation rates, W{sub G} vary between staff and students within each institution as well as among the three institutions. The composition of the waste was found to be predominantly organic in nature, suggesting a strong resource recovery potential in terms of animal feed or production of biogas through anaerobic digestion. Additionally, the W{sub G} was found to vary in line with changes in institutional activities like normal studies, examinations and holidays. The study has shown that resource recovery could greatly enhance solid waste management at the case study institutions.

  15. Development Strategy of Microtakaful Institutions: Case Study Working Group Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Slamet Rusydiana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is becoming one of potential countries in microtakaful institutions development. One of the expert in microtakaful is Takmin Working Group. TWG is a group of initiators who have commitment to develop micro takaful in Indonesia. Its members consist ofexperts in Islamic insurance, micro finance and accounting. The research objectives of this study are to identify and analyze the problems faced by TWG in developing of microtakaful institutions and identify the solutions to solve those kinds of problems, by using AnalticHierarchy Process (AHP method. The finding of this study shows the most priority solutions that can be undertake by Takmin Working Group to solve these both internal and external problem is information system development, and then followed by innovative product development. Communication & visitation to Islamic micro finance institutions and socialization about micro takaful product to society are being less priority on this matter.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5267

  16. Transformational leadership in merging higher education institutions: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispen Chipunza

    2010-06-01

    Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to establish an understanding of ‘transformational leadership’ and to determine the extent to which it was employed by leaders in an institution of higher education which had incorporated another institution. Motivations for the study: The study provides a starting point, not only for the successful implementation of higher education changes in the future but also the building of leadership commitment and alignment to the proposed changes in the sector as well as the development of institutional leadership teams to take responsibility for any other transformation processes. Research design, approach and method: The population of the study consisted of 350 full-time employees of the institution who had experienced the incorporation process. Two samples – one consisting of six executive management leaders and the other consisting of 153 employees – were used. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed using the case study method. Main findings: Results showed that transformational principles of idealised influence, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation principles were used more than others and that employees were generally not satisfied with how the incorporation process had taken place. Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study affected the attitude and satisfaction of the employees in this study. Contribution/value-add: The study reveals that leaders in the institution played key roles such as shared vision, team work and the creation of an enabling environment. An important point that has emanated from this study is the evidence that during transformation, a lack of strategic direction and empowering of followers and capacitating them leads to dissatisfaction with the whole process, despite the transformation process being declared a success.

  17. Medical care costs incurred by patients with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger Humberto; Ahumada-Curiel, Gabriel; Corona-Cruz, Jose Francisco; Correa-Acevedo, Elma; Zinser-Sierra, Juan; de la Mata-Moya, Dolores; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a public health problem in Mexico and worldwide; its economic impact on developing countries has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs attributable to smoking incurred by lung cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The study was conducted at INCan in 2009. We carried out a cost of illness (COI) methodology, using data derived from an expert panel consensus and from medical chart review. A panel of experts developed a diagnostic-therapeutic guide that combined the hospital patient pathways and the infrastructure, human resources, technology, and services provided by the medical units at INCan. Cost estimates in Mexican pesos were adjusted by inflation and converted into US Dollars using the 2013 FIX exchange rate for foreign transactions (1 USD = 13.06 Mexican pesos). A 297 incident cases diagnosed with any type of lung cancer were analyzed. According to clinical stage, the costs per patient were 13,456; 35,648; 106,186; and 144,555 USD, for lung cancer stages I, II, III, and IV respectively. The weighted average annual cost/patient was and 139,801 USD and the average annual cost/patient that was attributable to smoking was 92,269 USD. This cost was independent of the clinical stage, with stage IV representing 96% of the annual cost. The total annual cost of smoking-related lung cancer at INCan was 19,969,781 USD. The medical care costs of lung cancer attributable to smoking represent a high cost both for INCan and the Mexican health sector. These costs could be reduced if all provisions established in the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control of the World Health Organization were implemented in Mexico.

  18. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  19. Perioperative complications of radical cystectomy after induction chemoradiotherapy in bladder-sparing protocol against muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A single institutional retrospective comparative study with primary radical cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Aki; Koga, Fumitaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Masuda, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazutaka; Numao, Noboru; Sakura, Mizuaki; Kawakami, Satoru; Kihara, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare rates of early morbidity after radical cystectomy in patients treated with or without induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using a standardized reporting methodology. All 193 consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between 1989 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Induction chemoradiotherapy consists of radiation at 40 Gy to the small pelvis and two cycles of concurrent cisplatin at 20 mg/day for 5 days. Deaths within 90 days after radical cystectomy and complications arising within 30 days were recorded and graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Grades 1-2 were considered minor; Grades 3-5 were considered major. Eighty-seven patients underwent radical cystectomy following chemoradiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy group) while the remaining 106 primarily underwent radical cystectomy (no chemoradiotherapy group). No Grade 4-5 complication was observed. Overall, 118 patients (61%) experienced 36 major and 122 minor complications. There was no significant difference in the incidence of overall complications between the chemoradiotherapy and no chemoradiotherapy groups (67 vs. 57%). Overall urinary anastomosis-related complications and major gastrointestinal complications, most of which were Grade 3 ileus, were more frequent in the chemoradiotherapy group than the no chemoradiotherapy group (11 vs. 2%, P=0.007; and 14 vs. 4%, P=0.02; respectively). Multivariate analysis identified induction chemoradiotherapy as an independent risk factor for overall urinary anastomosis-related complications (relative risk 6.0, P=0.01) but not for major gastrointestinal complications. Induction chemoradiotherapy at 40 Gy in bladder-sparing protocols against MIBC is unlikely to increase the rate of severe complications of radical cystectomy. (author)

  20. The Impact of Number of Cycles of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival of Patients Undergoing Interval Debulking Surgery for Stage IIIC-IV Unresectable Ovarian Cancer: Results From a Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Matteucci, Laura; Tamberi, Stefano; Arcangeli, Valentina; Ditto, Antonino; Maltese, Giuseppa; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Perotto, Stefania; Scaffa, Cono; Comerci, Giuseppe; Stefanetti, Marco; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2017-11-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) may be a valuable treatment option in advanced ovarian cancer when primary cytoreduction is not feasible. However, a consensus on the ideal number of NACT cycles is still lacking. In the present investigation, we aimed to evaluate how number of cycles of NACT influenced patients' outcomes. Data of consecutive patients undergoing NACT and IDS were retrospectively reviewed in 4 Italian centers, and survival outcomes were evaluated. Overall, 193 patients were included. Cycles of NACT were 3, 4, and at least 5 in 77 (40%), 74 (38%), and 43 (22%) patients, respectively. Patients undergoing 3 cycles experienced a similar disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.65; P = 0.20) but an improved overall survival (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05-2.4; P = 0.02) in comparison to patients receiving at least 4 cycles. Five-year overall survival was 46% and 31% for patients having 3 and at least 4 cycles. Ten-year overall survival was 26% and 18% for patients having 3 and at least 4 cycles (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13-2.55; P = 0.009). Using multivariate analysis, we observed that only Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status correlated with overall survival (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.2-2.49; P = 0.001). In addition, a trend toward worse overall survival was observed for patients with residual disease at IDS (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.98-1.70; P = 0.06) and patients receiving at least 4 cycles (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 0.95-3.22; P = 0.06). Our data underline the potential implication of number of cycles of NACT before IDS. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess this correlation.

  1. A comparative study of quality of life in patients with localized prostate cancer treated at a single institution: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy or external beam + high dose rate brachytherapy boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Joelle; Morton, Gerard; Zhang, Liying; Deabreu, Andrea; D’Alimonte, Laura; Elias, Evelyn; Musunuru, Hima Bindu; Mamedov, Alexandre; Ravi, Ananth; Chung, Hans; Cheung, Patrick; Loblaw, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of life (QOL) in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) alone or high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy + hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among patients from two sequential phase 2 clinical trials: 1-SABR 35 Gy/5 fractions/5 weeks, 2–15 Gy HDR 1 fraction, followed by EBRT 37.5 Gy/15 fractions/3 weeks. The expanded prostate cancer index composite was assessed at baseline and q6 monthly up to 5 years. Urinary, bowel and sexual domains were analyzed. A minimally clinical important change (MCIC) was defined as 0.5*standard deviation of the baseline for each domain. Fisher exact test and general linear mixed model were used (p < 0.05). Results: 84 and 123 patients were treated on the SABR and HDR boost studies, with a median follow up of 51 and 61 months respectively. There was a significant difference in MCIC between treatments in the urinary function and bother (p < 0.0001), the bowel function (p = 0.0216) and the sexual function (p = 0.0419) and bother (p = 0.0290) domains in favor of the SABR group. Of patients who reported no problem with their sexual function at baseline, 7% and 23% respectively considered it to be a moderate to big problem on follow up (p = 0.0077). Conclusion: Patients treated with HDR-boost reported deterioration of QOL particularly in sexual domains in comparison with SABR

  2. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  3. Which Is More Consequential: Fields of Study or Institutional Selectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyi; Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    The persisting gender pay gap favoring men among college graduates is a puzzle given women's remarkable success in postsecondary education. This article examines income disparities among recent college graduates by intersecting gender and social class and evaluating the relative importance of fields of study and institutional selectivity.…

  4. Leadership, Organizational, and Institutional Studies: Reconciling and Teaching Competing Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership, organizational, and institutional theories provide competing explanations on the nature of leadership and role of leaders. Part of the problem is that each theory is often studied in isolation, leading to incomplete perspectives on the essence of leadership in value driven contexts. A holistic paradigm that blends the three dominant…

  5. Research Review of the Institute of African Studies: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. M.E. Kropp Dakubu Editor-in-Chief University of Ghana. Research Review. Institute of African Studies. P.O.Box LG73 Legon, Ghana. Phone: 211-24-4764006. Fax: 233-21-500512. Email: medakubu@ug.edu.gh. Support Contact. Dr Stephen Acheampong Phone: 211-24-4979233

  6. Indian Institutional Repositories: A Study of User's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sarika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the experience, contribution and opinions of users of respective institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Design/methodology/approach: The survey method was used. The data collection tool was a web questionnaire, which was created with the help of software provided by surveymonkey.com…

  7. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; Smith, Robert A.; Aberle, Denise R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R.; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D.; Wisbuba, Ignacio I.; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L.

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer

  8. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  9. Decreased early mortality associated with the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gwendolyn; Wun, Ted; Muffly, Lori; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Jonas, Brian A; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2018-05-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few population-based studies to date have evaluated the association between location of care, complications with induction therapy, and early mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and Patient Discharge Dataset (1999-2014), the authors identified adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with AML who received inpatient treatment within 30 days of diagnosis. A propensity score was created for treatment at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCI-CC). Inverse probability-weighted, multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine associations between location of care, complications, and early mortality (death ≤60 days from diagnosis). Of the 7007 patients with AML, 1762 (25%) were treated at an NCI-CC. Patients with AML who were treated at NCI-CCs were more likely to be aged ≤65 years, live in higher socioeconomic status neighborhoods, have fewer comorbidities, and have public health insurance. Patients treated at NCI-CCs had higher rates of renal failure (23% vs 20%; P = .010) and lower rates of respiratory failure (11% vs 14%; P = .003) and cardiac arrest (1% vs 2%; P = .014). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, treatment at an NCI-CC was associated with lower early mortality (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.57). The impact of complications on early mortality did not differ by location of care except for higher early mortality noted among patients with respiratory failure treated at non-NCI-CCs. The initial treatment of adult patients with AML at NCI-CCs is associated with a 53% reduction in the odds of early mortality compared with treatment at non-NCI-CCs. Lower early mortality may result from differences in hospital or provider experience and supportive care. Cancer 2018;124:1938-45. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  10. Multi-Institutional Experience of Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Stage I Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gajjar, Sameer R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zhen, Weining [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Matthiesen, Chance L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Braunstein, Steve E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Dilling, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Allen, Bryan G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Nichols, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: For inoperable stage I (T1-T2N0) small cell lung cancer (SCLC), national guidelines recommend chemotherapy with or without conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. The present multi-institutional cohort study investigated the role of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for this population. Methods and Materials: The clinical and treatment characteristics, toxicities, outcomes, and patterns of failure were assessed in patients with histologically confirmed stage T1-T2N0M0 SCLC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the survival outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified predictors of outcomes. Results: From 24 institutions, 76 lesions were treated in 74 patients (median follow-up 18 months). The median age and tumor size was 72 years and 2.5 cm, respectively. Chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation were delivered in 56% and 23% of cases, respectively. The median SABR dose and fractionation was 50 Gy and 5 fractions. The 1- and 3-year local control rate was 97.4% and 96.1%, respectively. The median disease-free survival (DFS) duration was 49.7 months. The DFS rate was 58.3% and 53.2% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. The median, 1-year, and 3-year disease-specific survival was 52.3 months, 84.5%, and 64.4%, respectively. The median, 1-year, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 17.8 months, 69.9%, and 34.0% respectively. Patients receiving chemotherapy experienced an increased median DFS (61.3 vs 9.0 months; P=.02) and OS (31.4 vs 14.3 months; P=.02). The receipt of chemotherapy independently predicted better outcomes for DFS/OS on multivariate analysis (P=.01). Toxicities were uncommon; 5.2% experienced grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Post-treatment failure was most commonly distant (45.8% of recurrence), followed by nodal (25.0%) and “elsewhere lung” (20.8%). The median time to each was 5 to 7 months. Conclusions: From the findings of the largest report of SABR for stage T1-T2N0 SCLC to date, SABR (≥50

  11. Cancer cervix?: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirapara, Pushpendra H.; Patidar, Arvindkumar; Walke, Rahul; Jakhar, Shankar Lal; Sharma, Neeti; Kumar, H.S.; Jain, Sandeep; Kalwar, Ashok; Bardia, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is very commonly seen in most of the malignancies including cancer cervix. Anemia has long been reported to adversely affect the efficacy of radiation treatment in cervical cancer. At our center, carcinoma cervix accounts for approximately 8-10% of all malignancies. The objective of this study is to see the impact of anemia in the treatment of cancer cervix. In the present study, we collected data of treatment results of FIGO stage II and III cancer cervix patients retrospectively treated in years of 2009-10. We have tried to assess the outcome of results in patients whom haemoglobin (Hb) level < 10 gm/dl and e''10 gm/dl. Out of 200 patients of disease with baseline Hb less than 10 gm/dl, 80(40%) patients had residual disease after 4 weeks of completion of treatment. Out of 168 patients with baseline Hb more than 10 gm/dl, 42(25%) had residual disease (p-0.0012 i.e highly significant). Our study shows that there is a good disease control at local site in patients with higher pretreatment Hb level. Effect of pretreatment Hb on treatment outcome in terms of overall survival, disease free survival, and local relapse free survival along with effect on corrective measures should be studied in detail. (author)

  12. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Isabel; del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nu?ez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. Aim To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81...

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Insurance and Risk Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vylder, F; Haezendonck, J

    1986-01-01

    Canadian financial institutions have been in rapid change in the past five years. In response to these changes, the Department of Finance issued a discussion paper: The Regulation of Canadian Financial Institutions, in April 1985, and the government intends to introduce legislation in the fall. This paper studi.es the combinantion of financial institutions from the viewpoint of ruin probability. In risk theory developed to describe insurance companies [1,2,3,4,5J, the ruin probability of a company with initial reserve (capital) u is 6 1 -:;-7;;f3 u 1jJ(u) = H6 e H6 (1) Here,we assume that claims arrive as a Poisson process, and the claim amount is distributed as exponential distribution with expectation liS. 6 is the loading, i.e., premium charged is (1+6) times expected claims. Financial institutions are treated as "insurance companies": the difference between interest charged and interest paid is regarded as premiums, loan defaults are treated as claims.

  14. Comparative inter-institutional study of stress among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Radillo, Blanca E; Galván-Ramírez, Ma Luz; Pando, Manuel; Carrión, Ma De los Angeles; González, Guillermo J

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry is considered to be a stressful profession due to different factors caused by work, representing a threat to dentists'health. The objectives of this work were to identify and compare chronic stress in dentists among the different health institutions and the association of stress with risk factors. The study in question is observational, transversal and comparative; 256 dentists were included, distributed among five public health institutions in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, namely: the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), the Ministry of Health (SS), the Integral Development of the Family (DIF), the Social Security Services Institute for the Workers (ISSSTE) and the University of Guadalajara (U. de G) Data were obtained by means of the census technique. Stress was identified using the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the statistical analysis was performed using the Odds Ratio (O.R.) and the chi-square statistic. From the total population studied, 219 subjects presented high levels of chronic stress and 37, low levels. In the results of comparative analysis, significant differences were found between IMSS and U. de G and likewise between IMSS and SS. However, in the analysis of association, only U. de G was found to be associated with the high level of chronic stress.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diercksen, Geerd

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...

  16. Creating a "culture of research" in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Eileen P; St Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-06-01

    The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important component yet often challenging to

  17. Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ward, Heather; Wark, Petra A.; Vergnaud, Anne Claire; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Ferrari, Pietro; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Buckland, Genevieve; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Siersema, PD; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirström, Karin; Wennberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lena M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, José R.; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer survivors are advised to follow lifestyle recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness proposed by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer prevention. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher concordance

  18. Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Ward, H.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Ferrari, P.; Fedirko, V.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Dossus, L.; Dartois, L.; Hansen, C.P.; Dahm, C.C.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Dorronsoro, M.; Navarro, C; Barricarte, A.; Key, T.J.; Trichopoulou, A.; Tsironis, C.; Lagiou, P.; Masala, G.; Pala, V.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Siersema, P.D.; Ohlsson, B.; Jirstrom, K.; Wennberg, M.; Nilsson, L.M.; Weiderpass, E.; Kuhn, T.; Katzke, V.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Quiros, J.R.; Gunter, M.J.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors are advised to follow lifestyle recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness proposed by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer prevention. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher concordance

  19. Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a multi-institutional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Daher C; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Cronin, Angel M; Savage, Caroline J; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Blute, Michael L; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco; van der Poel, Henk G; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Joniau, Steven; Godoy, Guilherme; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Gleave, Martin E; Dall'Oglio, Marcos; Srougi, Miguel; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-08-01

    Oncologic outcomes in men with radiation-recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) treated with salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) are poorly defined. To identify predictors of biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastasis, and death following SRP to help select patients who may benefit from SRP. This is a retrospective, international, multi-institutional cohort analysis. There was a median follow-up of 4.4 yr following SRP performed on 404 men with radiation-recurrent PCa from 1985 to 2009 in tertiary centers. Open SRP. BCR after SRP was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 0.1 or ≥ 0.2 ng/ml (depending on the institution). Secondary end points included progression to metastasis and cancer-specific death. Median age at SRP was 65 yr of age, and median pre-SRP PSA was 4.5 ng/ml. Following SRP, 195 patients experienced BCR, 64 developed metastases, and 40 died from PCa. At 10 yr after SRP, BCR-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) probabilities were 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-43), 77% (95% CI, 71-82), and 83% (95% CI, 76-88), respectively. On preoperative multivariable analysis, pre-SRP PSA and Gleason score at postradiation prostate biopsy predicted BCR (p = 0.022; global p 75% of patients 10 yr after surgery. Patients with lower pre-SRP PSA levels and lower postradiation prostate biopsy Gleason score have the highest probability of cure from SRP. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing hospital supplies: process reengineering at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K V

    2006-01-01

    Aims to give an overview of the re-engineering of processes and structures at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute (GCRI), Ahmedabad. A general review of the design, development and implementation of reengineered systems in order to address concerns about the existing systems. Findings GCRI is a comprehensive cancer care center with 550 beds and well equipped with modern diagnostic and treatment facilities. It serves about 200,000 outpatients and 16,000 inpatients annually. The approach to a better management of hospital supplies led to the design, development, and implementation of an IT-based reengineered and integrated purchase and inventory management system. The new system has given GCRI a saving of about 8 percent of its annual costs of purchases, and improved the availability of materials to the user departments. Shows that the savings obtained are used not only for buying more hospital supplies, but also to buy better quality of hospital supplies, and thereby satisfactorily address the GCRI responsibility towards meeting its social obligations for cancer care.

  1. Altered plasma apolipoprotein modifications in patients with pancreatic cancer: protein characterization and multi-institutional validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Honda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the more common human malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas has the worst prognosis. The poor outcome seems to be attributable to difficulty in early detection. METHODS: We compared the plasma protein profiles of 112 pancreatic cancer patients with those of 103 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (Cohort 1 using a newly developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (oMALDI QqTOF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS system. RESULTS: We found that hemi-truncated apolipoprotein AII dimer (ApoAII-2; 17252 m/z, unglycosylated apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII-0; 8766 m/z, and their summed value were significantly decreased in the pancreatic cancer patients [P = 1.36×10(-21, P = 4.35×10(-14, and P = 1.83×10(-24 (Mann-Whitney U-test; area-under-curve values of 0.877, 0.798, and 0.903, respectively]. The significance was further validated in a total of 1099 plasma/serum samples, consisting of 2 retrospective cohorts [Cohort 2 (n = 103 and Cohort 3 (n = 163] and a prospective cohort [Cohort 4 (n = 833] collected from 8 medical institutions in Japan and Germany. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed a robust quantitative MS profiling system and used it to validate alterations of modified apolipoproteins in multiple cohorts of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  2. Institutional Clinical Trial Accrual Volume and Survival of Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrick, Evan J.; Zhang, Qiang; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Fortin, André; Silverman, Craig L.; Raben, Adam; Kim, Harold E.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Read, Nancy E.; Harris, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Le, Quynh-Thu; Gillison, Maura L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receive treatment at centers with expertise, but whether provider experience affects survival is unknown. Patients and Methods The effect of institutional experience on overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III or IV HNC was investigated within a randomized trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 0129), which compared cisplatin concurrent with standard versus accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. As a surrogate for experience, institutions were classified as historically low- (HLACs) or high-accruing centers (HHACs) based on accrual to 21 RTOG HNC trials (1997 to 2002). The effect of accrual volume on OS was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results Median RTOG accrual (1997 to 2002) at HLACs was four versus 65 patients at HHACs. Analysis included 471 patients in RTOG 0129 (2002 to 2005) with known human papillomavirus and smoking status. Patients at HLACs versus HHACs had better performance status (0: 62% v 52%; P = .04) and lower T stage (T4: 26.5% v 35.3%; P = .002) but were otherwise similar. Radiotherapy protocol deviations were higher at HLACs versus HHACs (18% v 6%; P < .001). When compared with HHACs, patients at HLACs had worse OS (5 years: 51.0% v 69.1%; P = .002). Treatment at HLACs was associated with increased death risk of 91% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.65) after adjustment for prognostic factors and 72% (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.40) after radiotherapy compliance adjustment. Conclusion OS is worse for patients with HNC treated at HLACs versus HHACs to cooperative group trials after accounting for radiotherapy protocol deviations. Institutional experience substantially influences survival in locally advanced HNC. PMID:25488965

  3. Using the computed tomography in comparison to the orthogonal radiography based treatment planning in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in cervical uteri cancer patients; a single institution feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Yasir A; El-Sayed, Mohamed E; El-Taher, Zeinab H; Zaza, Khaled O; Moftah, Belal A; Hassouna, Ashraf H; Ghassal, Noor M

    2008-03-01

    Brachytherapy is an integral part in the treatment of cervical uteri cancer patients. Orthogonal treatment planning is the standard mode of calculation based on reference points. Introduction of the innovative 3-D computer based treatment planning allows accurate calculation based on volumetric information as regards the target volume and organs at risk (OAR). Also provide dose volume histogram (DVH) for proper estimation of the dose in relation to the volume. To correlate and compare the information obtained from the two approaches for high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical uteri cancer; the orthogonal conventional method and the computerized tomography (CT) three dimensions (3D) based calculation method in relation to the target and organ at risk (OAR). From 6 patients of cervical uteri cancer, 21 applications with orthogonal planning using the Brachy Vision treatment planning system version 7.3.10 were performed. In 10 applications; comparison between orthogonal and CT based planning was done. In orthogonal planning; the dose to point A, rectum and bladder were defined according to the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendation. From the CT based planning the target volume and dose volume histogram lpar;DVH) were calculated for the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum and bladder. From these two sets, information was obtained and compared and mean values were derived. For dose prescription at point A, an average of 63.5% of CTV received the prescribed dose. The mean ICRU dose to the bladder point is 2.9 Gy+/-1.2 SD (Standard Deviation) and 17% of the bladder volume derived from CT was encompassed by 2.9 Gy isodose line. The mean ICRU dose at the rectum point is 3.4 Gy+/-1.2 SD and 21% of the rectum volume from CT was encompassed by 3.4 Gy isodose line. The maximum dose to the rectum and the bladder derived from the CT and compared to the maximal dose at ICRU is 1.7 and 2.8 times higher than the orthogonal reference points; with the corresponding p

  4. Using the Computed Tomography in Comparison to the Orthogonal Radiography Based Treatment Planning in High dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy in Cervical Uteri Cancer Patients; A Single Institution Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAHADUR, Y.A.; EL-SAYED, M.E.; HASSOUNA, A.H.; EL-TAHER, Z.H.; GHASSAL, N.M.; ZAZA, Kh.O.M.D.; OFTAH, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Brachytherapy is an integral part in the treatment of cervical uteri cancer patients. Orthogonal treatment planning is the standard mode of calculation based on reference points. Introduction of the innovative 3-D computer based treatment planning allows accurate calculation based on volumetric information as regards the target volume and organs at risk (OAR). Also provide dose volume histogram (DVH) for proper estimation of the dose in relation to the volume. Aim: To correlate and compare the information obtained from the two approaches for high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical uteri cancer; the orthogonal conventional method and the computerized tomography (CT) three dimensions (3D) based calculation method in relation to the target and organ at risk (OAR). Methods: From 6 patients of cervical uteri cancer, 21 applications with orthogonal planning using the Brachy Vision treatment planning system version 7.3.10 were performed. In 10 applications; comparison between orthogonal and CT based planning was done. In orthogonal planning; the dose to point A, rectum and bladder were defined according to the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendation. From the CT based planning the target volume and dose volume histogram (DVH) were calculated for the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum and bladder. From these two sets, information was obtained and compared and mean values were derived. Results: For dose prescription at point A, an average of 63.5% of CTV received the prescribed dose. The mean ICRU dose to the bladder point is 2.9 Gy±l .2 SD (Standard Deviation) and 17% of the bladder volume derived from CT was encompassed by 2.9 Gy isodose line. The mean ICRU dose at the rectum point is 3.4 Gy±1.2 SD and 21% of the rectum volume from CT was encompassed by 3.4 Gy isodose line. The maximum dose to the rectum and the bladder derived from the CT and compared to the maximal dose at ICRU is 1.7 and 2.8 times higher than the orthogonal reference points; with the

  5. HDR and LDR Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Lip Cancer: the Experience of the Catalan Institute of Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerra, Arrate Querejeta; Mena, Estefanía Palacios; Fabregas, Joan Pera; Miguelez, Cristina Gutiérrez; Guedea, Ferran

    2010-03-01

    Lip cancer can be treated by surgery, external radiotherapy, and/or brachytherapy (BT). In recent years, BT has become increasingly favored for this type of cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze local control and survival of patients treated at our institution between July 1989 and June 2008. We performed a retrospective study of 121 patients (109 males and 12 females) who underwent lip cancer brachytherapy from July 1989 to June 2008. Median age was 67 years and median follow-up was 31.8 months (range 20-188 months). Out of 121 patients, 100 (82.6%) were treated with low dose rate (LDR) BT while the remaining 21 patients (17.4%) received high dose rate (HDR) BT. The most common cell type was squamous cell carcinoma (115 cases; 95%) and most tumors were located on the lower lip (107 patients; 88.4%). Most cases were either stage T1 (62 patients; 51.2%), or T2 (44 cases; 36.4%). After 15 years of follow-up, overall survival was 89.5%, cause-specific survival 97.8%, and disease-free survival 86.6%. Local, regional, and distant control at 15 years were 90%, 92%, and 98.8%, respectively. Grade 3 mucosal toxicity was observed in 23% of patients treated with LDR compared to 33% of HDR patients, and grade 4 mucosal toxicity in 9% versus 0% in the HDR group. Our findings confirm that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for lip cancer. The results from our series are in line with those published elsewhere. Based on our limited data, HDR appears to be equally as good as LDR, although this needs to be confirmed by further studies.

  6. Overview of the National Cancer Institute's activities related to exposure of the public to fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachholz, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) was directed by Congress to assess the risk of thyroid cancer from 131I associated with fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) was requested by DHHS to address Public Law 97-414, Section 7 (a), which directs DHHS to (1) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible assessments of the risks of thyroid cancer that are associated with thyroid doses of Iodine 131; (2)...develop...methods to estimate the thyroid doses of Iodine 131 that are received by individuals from nuclear bomb fallout; (and) (3)...develop...assessments of the exposure to Iodine 131 that the American people received from the Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. In addition, the University of Utah, under contract with the NCI, is carrying out a study to determine if the incidence of thyroid disease and leukemia among identified populations in Utah may be related to exposure from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site

  7. Locally advanced cervix cancer: chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiotherapy. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; O'Donnell, A.; Tattersall, M.H.N.; Dalrymple, C.; Firth, I.

    2001-01-01

    Primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy has potential advantages for locally advanced cervix cancer. It can down stage a cancer and allow definitive local therapy to be technically possible (surgery), or potentially more effective (radiotherapy). It can also eradicate subclinical systemic metastases. This report reviews a single institution's experience of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy for cervix cancer over a 13-year period. One hundred and six patients were treated with this intent. The patients were analysed for their response to chemotherapy, treatment received, survival, relapse and toxicity. The chemotherapy was feasible and the majority of patients had a complete or partial response (58.5%). Eight patients did not proceed to local treatment. Forty-six patients had definitive surgery and 52 had definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival was 27% and the majority of patients died with disease. The first site of relapse was usually in the pelvis (46.2%). Late complications that required ongoing medical therapy (n = 6) or surgical intervention (n = 2) were recorded in eight patients (7.5%). On univariate analysis stage (P= 0.04), tumour size (P = 0.01), lymph node status (P=0.003), response to chemotherapy (P = 0.045) and treatment (P = 0.003) were all significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.0001) and nodal status (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of survival. Despite the impressive responses to chemotherapy of advanced cervix cancer, there is evidence from randomized trials that it does not improve or compromise survival prior to radiotherapy. As its role prior to surgery remains unclear, it should not be used in this setting outside a prospective randomized trial. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Impact Evaluation Study for Institution Strengthening of Social Food Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Notoatmojo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the implementation of activities for strengthening LDPM could achieve the expected goals, to evaluate whether the LDPM strengthening activities had a positive impact. The study analysis used was descriptive, comparison, and financial analysis. The results of this study have shown that LDPM farmers’ income have increased significantly, and the Gapoktan as LPDM farmers’ institution has been significantly developing as a Bulog function in procuring grain paddy from farmers during peak harvest and distributing rice to stabilize the price of rice during the limited rice in the market.

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  10. Predicting introductory programming performance: A multi-institutional multivariate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Susan; Reilly, Ronan

    2006-12-01

    A model for predicting student performance on introductory programming modules is presented. The model uses attributes identified in a study carried out at four third-level institutions in the Republic of Ireland. Four instruments were used to collect the data and over 25 attributes were examined. A data reduction technique was applied and a logistic regression model using 10-fold stratified cross validation was developed. The model used three attributes: Leaving Certificate Mathematics result (final mathematics examination at second level), number of hours playing computer games while taking the module and programming self-esteem. Prediction success was significant with 80% of students correctly classified. The model also works well on a per-institution level. A discussion on the implications of the model is provided and future work is outlined.

  11. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  12. 40 Anniversary of Institute of International Studies: From a Problem Laboratory to The Institute of International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonidovich Chechevishnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied foreign policy analysis is the hallmark of MGIMO-University. 2016 marks 40 anniversary of introduction of this element to the identity of our university in a form of Problem Research Laboratory. MGIMO development as a leading think tank took place in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in close cooperation with other key institutions that shape foreign policy and are responsible for ensuring the national interests of Russia in the world. Today MGIMO's priority is the development of political policy expertise and analytical development-oriented scientific and practical support of the activities of state bodies. Such studies are the main but not the only focus of the Institute of International Studies.

  13. 40th Anniversary of Institute of International Studies: From a Problem Laboratory to The Institute of International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonidovich Chechevishnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied foreign policy analysis is the hallmark of MGIMO-University. 2016 marks 40th anniversary of introduction of this element to the identity of our university in a form of Problem Research Laboratory. MGIMO development as a leading think tank took place in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in close cooperation with other key institutions that shape foreign policy and are responsible for ensuring the national interests of Russia in the world. Today MGIMO's priority is the development of political policy expertise and analytical development-oriented scientific and practical support of the activities of state bodies. Such studies are the main but not the only focus of the Institute of International Studies.

  14. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  15. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Sean; O’Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  16. Science, institutional archives and open access: an overview and a pilot survey on the Italian cancer research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Truccolo, Ivana; Di Benedetto, Corrado; Castelli, Mauro; Mazzocut, Mauro; Cognetti, Gaetana

    2010-12-20

    The Open Archive Initiative (OAI) refers to a movement started around the '90 s to guarantee free access to scientific information by removing the barriers to research results, especially those related to the ever increasing journal subscription prices. This new paradigm has reshaped the scholarly communication system and is closely connected to the build up of institutional repositories (IRs) conceived to the benefit of scientists and research bodies as a means to keep possession of their own literary production. The IRs are high-value tools which permit authors to gain visibility by enabling rapid access to scientific material (not only publications) thus increasing impact (citation rate) and permitting a multidimensional assessment of research findings. A survey was conducted in March 2010 to mainly explore the managing system in use for archiving the research finding adopted by the Italian Scientific Institutes for Research, Hospitalization and Health Care (IRCCS) of the oncology area within the Italian National Health Service (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, SSN). They were asked to respond to a questionnaire intended to collect data about institutional archives, metadata formats and posting of full-text documents. The enquiry concerned also the perceived role of the institutional repository DSpace ISS, built up by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) and based on a XML scheme for encoding metadata. Such a repository aims at acting as a unique reference point for the biomedical information produced by the Italian research institutions. An in-depth analysis has also been performed on the collection of information material addressed to patients produced by the institutions surveyed. The survey respondents were 6 out of 9. The results reveal the use of different practices and standard among the institutions concerning: the type of documentation collected, the software adopted, the use and format of metadata and the conditions of accessibility to the IRs. The

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Microlocal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Castel vecchio-Pas coli NATO Advanced Study Institute is aimed to complete the trilogy with the two former institutes I organized : "Boundary Value Problem for Evolution Partial Differential Operators", Liege, 1976 and "Singularities in Boundary Value Problems", Maratea, 1980. It was indeed necessary to record the considerable progress realized in the field of the propagation of singularities of Schwartz Distri­ butions which led recently to the birth of a new branch of Mathema­ tical Analysis called Microlocal Analysis. Most of this theory was mainly built to be applied to distribution solutions of linear partial differential problems. A large part of this institute still went in this direction. But, on the other hand, it was also time to explore the new trend to use microlocal analysis In non linear differential problems. I hope that the Castelvecchio NATO ASI reached its purposes with the help of the more famous authorities in the field. The meeting was held in Tuscany (Italy) at Castelvecchio-P...

  19. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  20. Chromatin organisation and cancer prognosis: a pan-cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, Andreas; Albregtsen, Fritz; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Pradhan, Manohar; Nielsen, Birgitte; Hveem, Tarjei S; Askautrud, Hanne A; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Nesbakken, Arild; Trovik, Jone; Wæhre, Håkon; Tomlinson, Ian; Shepherd, Neil A; Novelli, Marco; Kerr, David J; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2018-03-01

    Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation. Machine learning algorithms analysed the chromatin organisation in 461 000 images of tumour cell nuclei stained for DNA from 390 patients (discovery cohort) treated for stage I or II colorectal cancer at the Aker University Hospital (Oslo, Norway). The resulting marker of chromatin heterogeneity, termed Nucleotyping, was subsequently independently validated in six patient cohorts: 442 patients with stage I or II colorectal cancer in the Gloucester Colorectal Cancer Study (UK); 391 patients with stage II colorectal cancer in the QUASAR 2 trial; 246 patients with stage I ovarian carcinoma; 354 patients with uterine sarcoma; 307 patients with prostate carcinoma; and 791 patients with endometrial carcinoma. The primary outcome was cancer-specific survival. In all patient cohorts, patients with chromatin heterogeneous tumours had worse cancer-specific survival than patients with chromatin homogeneous tumours (univariable analysis hazard ratio [HR] 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·5, in the discovery cohort; 1·8, 1·0-3·0, in the Gloucester validation cohort; 2·2, 1·1-4·5, in the QUASAR 2 validation cohort; 3·1, 1·9-5·0, in the ovarian carcinoma cohort; 2·5, 1·8-3·4, in the uterine sarcoma cohort; 2·3, 1·2-4·6, in the prostate carcinoma cohort; and 4·3, 2·8-6·8, in the endometrial carcinoma cohort). After adjusting for established prognostic patient characteristics in multivariable analyses, Nucleotyping was prognostic in all cohorts except for the prostate carcinoma

  1. A Pragmatic Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ)®-Based Brief Counseling on Cancer-Related Fatigue among Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Xie, Sharon X; Penn, Courtney; Desai, Krupali; Dong, Kimberly W; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Vapiwala, Neha; Mao, Jun James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) negatively affects quality of life among cancer patients. This study seeks to evaluate the outcome and patient receptiveness of a brief counseling program based on National Cancer Institute (NCI) PDQ® information to manage CRF when integrated into Radiation Therapy (RT). Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients undergoing non-palliative RT. Patients with stage I–III tumors and with Karnofsky score 60 or better were given a ten-minute behavioral counseling session during the first two weeks of RT. The Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) was administered at baseline/end of RT. Results Of 93 patients enrolled, 89% found the counseling useful and practical. By the end of RT, 59% reported increased exercise, 41.6% sought nutrition counseling, 72.7% prioritized daily activities, 74.4% took daytime naps, and 70.5% talked with other cancer patients. Regarding counseling, patients who had received chemotherapy prior to RT had no change in fatigue (−0.2), those who received RT alone had mild increase in fatigue (0.7, p=0.02), and those who received concurrent chemotherapy experienced a substantial increase in fatigue (3.0 to 5.2, p=0.05). Higher baseline fatigue and receipt of chemotherapy were predictive of worsened fatigue in a multivariate model (both p<0.01). Conclusion Our data suggests that brief behavioral counseling based on NCI guidelines is well accepted by patients showing an uptake in many activities to cope with CRF. Those who receive concurrent chemotherapy and with higher baseline fatigue are at risk for worsening fatigue despite of guideline-based therapy. PMID:29479490

  2. The Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the National Cancer Institute - its resources to assist patients with bone marrow failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the bone marrow transplantation center of the brazilian National Cancer Institute, which is responsible for the cancer control in Brazil. The document also describes the resources available in the Institute for assisting patients presenting bone marrow failures. The Center provides for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants, peripheral stem cell transplants, umbilical cord collections and transplants, and a small experience with unrelated bone marrow transplants. The Center receives patient from all over the country and provides very sophisticated medical care at no direct cost to the patients

  3. An exploratory study on awareness towards institutional social responsibility in Indian higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institutional Social responsibility (ISR in context to a Higher Educational Institution has been defined as the ethical practice in transference of knowledge, and the active participation in betterment of quality of life in the society. It is an offshoot of the concept of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR, but unlike CSR, it is neither mandatory nor actively monitored or researched in Indian context. However, awareness towards aspects of ISR has been increasing, especially in Indian Universities. Indian Universities adopt practices related to Adoption of Villages, Awareness Drives, Environmental Care and rural Education initiatives. Critics often see ISR as an unnecessary burden; review of literature from around the world suggests that ISR practices contribute to increased accountability towards exploitation of resources by Educational Institutes as well as better reputation of Educational Institutes in the society. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception towards the concept of ISR in Educational Institutes in India. The paper opted for a questionnaire-based exploratory survey of 50 faculty members, across Private Universities in Rajasthan. The findings suggest lacking awareness but a significant acceptance of need of ISR practices. The paper includes implications for the Universities to include ISR practices in their strategy to address its obligations to the society and simultaneously gain a competitive advantage.

  4. Differences in CT features of peritoneal carcinomatosis, sarcomatosis, and lymphomatosis: Retrospective analysis of 122 cases at a tertiary cancer institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, A.C.; Shinagare, A.B.; Rosenthal, M.H.; Tirumani, S.H.; Jagannathan, J.P.; Ramaiya, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To study the differences in the imaging features of spread from the three cancer cell lines, namely epithelial, sarcomatoid, and lymphoid, resulting in peritoneal carcinomatosis, peritoneal sarcomatosis, and peritoneal lymphomatosis, respectively. Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study, an electronic radiology database was searched to identify patients with peritoneal tumour spread who underwent CT imaging at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, a tertiary cancer institution, between January 2011 and December 2012. Out of 1214 patients with possible peritoneal tumour spread on the radiology reports, 122 patients were included with histopathologically confirmed peritoneal disease (50 randomly selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis each, and all 22 patients with lymphomatosis). Two blinded, fellowship-trained radiologists in consensus reviewed the CT images in random order and recorded the imaging findings of peritoneal tumour spread. The statistical analysis was performed in two steps: the first comparing incidence of various features in each group and the second step was a pairwise analysis between each cohort. Results: Peritoneal carcinomatosis more frequently had ascites, peritoneal thickening, and omental cake (all p ≤ 0.001). Measurable nodules were less common in peritoneal carcinomatosis (p < 0.001), and when present, were ill-defined and had an irregular outline (p ≤ 0.002). Peritoneal sarcomatosis more often had discrete nodules that were well defined and had a smooth outline and less frequently had ascites, peritoneal thickening, omental caking, serosal implants, and lymphadenopathy (all p ≤ 0.005). Peritoneal lymphomatosis frequently involved the omentum and mesentery, and often had associated lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly (all p ≤ 0.002). Conclusion: Peritoneal carcinomatosis, sarcomatosis

  5. [Nutritional status in patients first hospital admissions service hematology National Cancer Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar Luna, E; Omaña Guzmán, L I; Ortiz Hernández, L; Ñamendis-Silva, S A; De Nicola Delfin, L

    2013-01-01

    To determine the nutritional status of patients admitted to hospital for the first time the hematology service and who have not received treatment for cancer, to know if the nutritional status assessed by the EGS-GP and serum albumin related mortality of patients A longitudinal, prospective, analytical. EGS-Through GP assessed the nutritional status of patients, we used SPSS 19.0 for data analysis. Evaluaron 119 patients, 52.1% female and 47.9% male. The most common diagnosis was non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 43.7%. According to the EGS-GP 50.4% of patients had some degree of malnutrition or was at risk of suffering of which: 31.1% had moderate and 19.3% had severe malnutrition. The 49.6% of patients had an adequate nutritional status. 30.3% of the patients who died, 37% had severe malnutrition and 50% severe decrease in albumin concentration. The prevalence of malnutrition in hematological patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico that have not received medical treatment was high. There is an association between nutritional status and mortality in this patient group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. From "fixing women" to "institutional transformation": An ADVANCE case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennello, Sherry; Kaunas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The United States' position in the global economy requires an influx of women into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in order to remain competitive. Despite this, the representation of women in STEM continues to be low. The National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Program addresses this issue by funding projects that aim to increase the representation of women in academic STEM fields through transformation of institutional structures that impede women's progress in academic STEM fields. This paper includes a case study of the Texas A&M University ADVANCE Program.

  7. [Establishing and hosting an Institute for Fusion Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.

    1989-07-01

    Significant progress was made during the past year in carrying out theoretical investigations pursuant to the scientific mission of the Institute. These achievements may be approximately classified in terms of the following categories (often with considerable overlap): sawteeth and MHD studies, turbulence theory and plasma transport, computational plasma physics, stability theory, mathematical physics, advanced ideas, and space plasma physics-related problems. An overview of this work is contained in this report. Detailed summaries of IFS Reports written during FY 89 are given in abstract form

  8. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual function, were measured, applying the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the 7-grade Quality of Life Scale (QoL) and medical status, the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.03). Seed migration and loss, dosimetric parameters and learning effects were also analyzed. Medium follow-up time was 50 months (range, 1–85 months). The five-year biochemical failure rate was 7%. Acute proctitis rates were 19% (grade 1) and 1% (grade 2), respectively. The overall incidence of incontinence was 19% (mild), 16% (moderate) and < 1% (severe). An increase in IPSS ≥ 5 points was detected in 59% of patients, with 38% regaining their baseline. Seed dislocation was found in 24% of patients and correlated with D90 and V100. A learning curve was found for seed migration, D90 and V100. QoL correlated with the general health condition of patient, incontinence symptoms and IPSS. BT for early stage prostate cancer offers excellent five-year biochemical control with low toxicities. QoL aspects are favorable. A learning curve was detected for procedural aspects but its impact on patient relevant endpoints remains inconclusive

  9. Hereditary association between testicular cancer and familial ovarian cancer: A Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Eng, Kevin; Cannioto, Rikki; Kaur, Jasmine; Almohanna, Hani; Alqassim, Emad; Szender, J Brian; Joseph, Janine M; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-04-01

    Although family history of testicular cancer is well-established as a risk factor for testicular cancer, it is unknown whether family history of ovarian cancer is associated with risk of testicular cancer. Using data from the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry on 2636 families with multiple cases of ovarian cancer, we systematically compared relative frequencies of ovarian cancer among relatives of men with testicular and non-testicular cancers. Thirty-one families with cases of both ovarian and testicular cancer were identified. We observed that, among men with cancer, those with testicular cancer were more likely to have a mother with ovarian cancer than those with non-testicular cancers (OR = 3.32, p = 0.004). Zero paternal grandmothers of men with testicular cancer had ovarian cancer. These observations provide compelling preliminary evidence for a familial association between ovarian and testicular cancers Future studies should be designed to further investigate this association and evaluate X-linkage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Local recurrence after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: a recursive partitioning analysis of multi-institutional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Chris R; Higgins, Kristin A; Peterson, Bercedis L; Chino, Junzo P; Marks, Lawrence B; D'Amico, Thomas A; Varlotto, John M

    2013-10-01

    To define subgroups at high risk of local recurrence (LR) after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer using a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). This Institutional Review Board-approved study included patients who underwent upfront surgery for I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer at Duke Cancer Institute (primary set) or at other participating institutions (validation set). The 2 data sets were analyzed separately and identically. Disease recurrence at the surgical margin, ipsilateral hilum, and/or mediastinum was considered an LR. Recursive partitioning was used to build regression trees for the prediction of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) from standard clinical and pathological factors. LRFS distributions were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The 1411 patients in the primary set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.81), and the 889 patients in the validation set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 76% (95% CI, 0.72-0.80). The RPA of the primary data set identified 3 terminal nodes based on stage and histology. These nodes and their 5-year LRFS rates were as follows: (1) stage I/adenocarcinoma, 87% (95% CI, 0.83-0.90); (2) stage I/squamous or large cell, 72% (95% CI, 0.65-0.79); and (3) stage II-IIIA, 62% (95% CI, 0.55-0.69). The validation RPA identified 3 terminal nodes based on lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and stage: (1) no LVI/stage IA, 82% (95% CI, 0.76-0.88); (2) no LVI/stage IB-IIIA, 73% (95% CI, 0.69-0.80); and (3) LVI, 58% (95% CI, 0.47-0.69). The risk of LR was similar in the primary and validation patient data sets. There was discordance between the 2 data sets regarding the clinical factors that best segregate patients into risk groups. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Institute of Policy Studies of Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For IPS, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Enhancing research ... -consolidate the institutional transformations made to achieve improved performance ... -influence policies based on its work to place Sri Lanka on a smarter growth path -have an impact on ...

  12. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  13. Accelerating cancer therapy development: the importance of combination strategies and collaboration. Summary of an Institute of Medicine workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Canetta, Renzo; Wagner, John A; Balogh, Erin P; Nass, Sharyl J; Boerner, Scott A; Hohneker, John

    2012-11-15

    Cancer cells contain multiple genetic changes in cell signaling pathways that drive abnormal cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Unfortunately, patients treated with single agents inhibiting only one of these pathways--even if showing an initial response--often develop resistance with subsequent relapse or progression of their cancer, typically via the activation of an alternative uninhibited pathway. Combination therapies offer the potential for inhibiting multiple targets and pathways simultaneously to more effectively kill cancer cells and prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance. However, there are many unique challenges to developing combination therapies, including devising and applying appropriate preclinical tests and clinical trial designs, prioritizing which combination therapies to test, avoiding overlapping toxicity of multiple agents, and overcoming legal, cultural, and regulatory barriers that impede collaboration among multiple companies, organizations, and/or institutions. More effective strategies to efficiently develop combination cancer therapies are urgently needed. Thus, the Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Forum recently convened a workshop with the goal of identifying barriers that may be impeding the development of combination investigational cancer therapies, as well as potential solutions to overcome those barriers, improve collaboration, and ultimately accelerate the development of promising combinations of investigational cancer therapies. ©2012 AACR.

  14. Meningiomas after cranial radiotherapy for childhood cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Francesco; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Garbossa, Diego; Biasin, Eleonora; Rudà, Roberta; Daniele, Dino; Arvat, Emanuela; Corrias, Andrea; Fagioli, Franca; Brignardello, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) are at risk of developing meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of meningiomas in a cohort of CCS who previously underwent CRT. We considered all CCS who received CRT and were followed up at the "Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors" in Turin. Even though asymptomatic, they had at least one brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed at a minimum interval of 10 years after treatment for pediatric cancer. We identified 90 patients (median follow-up 24.6 years). Fifteen patients developed meningioma (median time from pediatric cancer, 22.5 years). In four patients, it was suspected on the basis of neurological symptoms (i.e., headache or seizures), whereas all other cases, including five giant meningiomas, were discovered in otherwise asymptomatic patients. Multiple meningiomas were discovered in four CCS. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. An atypical meningioma (grade II WHO) was reported in four patients. One patient with multiple meningiomas died for a rapid growth of the intracranial lesions. A second neoplasm (SN) other than meningioma was diagnosed in five out of the 15 patients with meningioma and in ten out of the 75 CCS without meningioma. Cox multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of meningioma was associated with the development of other SNs, whereas age, sex, or CRT dose had no influence. CCS at risk of the development of meningioma deserve close clinical follow-up, especially those affected by other SNs.

  15. Multi-institutional Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Planning Strategies and Planning Results for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ho; Park, Suk Won; Oh, Do Hoon; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Jeung Kee; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Won; Suh, Hyun Sook; Lee, Rena; Bae, Hoonsik

    2009-01-01

    The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategies for nasopharyngeal cancer among Korean radiation oncology facilities were investigated. Five institutions with IMRT planning capacity using the same planning system were invited to participate in this study. The institutions were requested to produce the best plan possible for 2 cases that would deliver 70 Gy to the planning target volume of gross tumor (PTV1), 59.4 Gy to the PTV2, and 51.5 Gy to the PTV3 in which elective irradiation was required. The advised fractionation number was 33. The planning parameters, resultant dose distributions, and biological indices were compared. We found 2-3-fold variations in the volume of treatment targets. Similar degree of variation was found in the delineation of normal tissue. The physician-related factors in IMRT planning had more influence on the plan quality. The inhomogeneity index of PTV dose ranged from 4 to 49% in Case 1, and from 5 to 46% in Case 2. Variation in tumor control probabilities for the primary lesion and involved LNs was less marked. Normal tissue complication probabilities for parotid glands and skin showed marked variation. Results from this study suggest that greater efforts in providing training and continuing education in terms of IMRT planning parameters usually set by physician are necessary for the successful implementation of IMRT. PMID:19399266

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...

  17. A critique of the exposure assessment in the epidemiologic study of benzene-exposed workers in China conducted by the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, O

    1999-12-01

    As reviewed in some detail in the present paper, workers employed in a wide variety of industries were included in the Chinese benzene study, and were exposed to not only benzene but also a wide range of other industrial chemicals. To attribute any or all health effects observed in the exposed cohort to benzene without examining other concomitant exposures is not appropriate. Although it was stated that one of the major objectives of the expanded study was to examine the effects of other risk factors, no such examination was made in any of the analyses in the expanded CAPM-NCI study. The CAPM-NCI study suffered from a number of limitations. One of the most serious limitations of the study involved the exposure estimates developed by the US NCI team. Comparing the assumptions used in the development of estimates and the exposure estimates themselves to actual data reported previously by the Chinese investigators revealed numerous inconsistencies and, in many cases, large discrepancies. It appeared that the exposure estimates were consistently lower than the actual exposure data. The so-called indirect validation conducted by the NCI team served no useful purpose, since by definition it could not validate the absolute values of the estimates. NCI was fully aware of some of the inadequacies of its exposure estimates. Although in a 1994 paper, the NCI team recognized that little confidence could be attached to the estimated (e.g., only 2% of the estimates for the time interval 1949-1959 and only 6% of the estimates prior to 1975 were rated in the high confidence category), the inadequacy of the estimates was never mentioned or discussed in any subsequent analyses or in the latest report (Hayes et al., 1998). Instead, the exposure of the workers was hailed as "well characterized" (Hayes et al., 1998). In conclusion both CAPM and NCI have made substantial efforts in studying the relationship between benzene exposure and various malignancies. Unfortunately, there were

  18. A case study of a Cuban government institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present a case study on the partial implementation of a knowledge management system in an institution. In this case the knowledge management has been directed toward the best performance of the organization. This organization is a non- profit one and its functions are the promotion, support and supervision of issues related to science, technology and environment for the economic development of a region. This case study can be implemented at any institution, including institutions of nuclear or radiological profiles. Many nuclear and radiological facilities have as a purpose the promotion, support and supervision of the nuclear applications for the biggest economic development. And this should be oriented to the implementation of best practices. The main author designed the methodology employed. The attention was centered in the objectives to be achieved for an efficient organization and the competence that should be possessed, were also identified. This study was developed with an expert group. Directive personnel, the total of advisory of institution and some selected workers formed it. 12 members integrated the overall group. They pondered the incidence of each one of the competencies in the functional objectives of the organization. The approach of the beneficiaries to this issue was also considered. In a second place a study was carried out about the competencies possessed by all the workers of the organization, and according to this the convergence-divergence matrix was created. The utility indexes for the necessary competence and for the possessed competence were calculated, as well as the satisfaction ratio between them. This ratio identifies how were the necessary competencies satisfied by the possessed competencies. It was determined in the study that the key competencies of the organization are No. 1, 2, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56 and 58. In general there are no difficulties for a

  19. Efficacy of doxorubicin after progression on carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Emeline; Paulino, Eduardo; Ingles Garces, Álvaro Henrique; Fontes Dias, Mariane S; Saramago, Marcos; de Moraes Lino da Silva, Flora; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Melo, Andréia Cristina

    2018-01-31

    The treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) is challenging. There is no standard of care for patients who progressed after carboplatin and paclitaxel (CT) and all available drugs show a small response and poor long-term survival in this scenario. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of palliative doxorubicin after progression to CT therapy in advanced or recurrent EC. A retrospective review of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute database between 2009 and 2013 was performed, and all patients with recurrent and advanced EC treated with palliative doxorubicin after progression on CT were included. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rates as well as toxicity were evaluated. A total of 33 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 65.7 years. Objective responses were documented in 12.1% (3.0% of complete responses and 9.1% of partial responses). The median PFS was 4.4 months, and the median OS was 8.1 months for patients exposed to doxorubicin. The most common adverse event was anemia observed in 60.6% of patients. This retrospective study suggests that doxorubicin has a modest activity in patients with advanced or recurrent EC after treatment with CT.

  20. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    size, diagnostic Gleason (3+3 or 3+4), BMI ( obese , overweight or normal), race (Caucasian, African American or other), ethnicity (Hispanic versus...results were presented at the 2016 Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) and have been published in European Urology (v72, pp448-454.) A...prostate cancer in men in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS).” Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association; 2016 May 6-10, San

  1. Imaging yield from 133 consecutive patients with prostate cancer and low trigger PSA from a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagare, A.B.; Keraliya, A.; Somarouthu, B.; Tirumani, S.H.; Ramaiya, N.H.; Kantoff, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the yield of imaging in patients with relapsed prostate cancer (PC) with a low trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Materials and methods: This institutional review board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study included all 133 patients (mean age 68 years; range 45–88; median 69 months since original diagnosis; interquartile range [IQR]: 32–139) with hormone-sensitive PC (HSPC, n=28) or castration-resistant PC (CRPC, n=105) and trigger PSA 0.05 for all). Fifty-seven of the 133 (43%) patients had findings seen only at CT, of which 37 had new extra-osseous findings. Only 2/133 (2%) had findings at bone scintigraphy not seen at CT, both in areas not covered on CT. Conclusion: Imaging frequently demonstrated new metastatic and non-metastatic findings in patients with a low trigger PSA. CT is valuable in these patients because extra-osseous findings not visible at bone scintigraphy are frequently seen. - Highlights: • New and existing metastases common in prostate cancer with low trigger PSA. • Previous reports of threshold PSA levels may not apply in follow-up setting. • No difference in metastatic pattern between hormone sensitive and resistant disease. • CT showed extra-osseous findings not seen on bone scan in 44% patients. • Bone scan rarely showed findings not visible on concurrent CT.

  2. Estimation of the excess lifetime cancer risk from radon exposure in some buildings of Kufa Technical Institute, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abid Abojassim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of international health organizations consider the exposure to residential radon as the second main cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. It was found that there is no database on radon concentrations for the Kufa Technical Institute buildings in the literature. This therefore triggers a special need for radon measurement in some Kufa Technical Institute buildings. This study aims to investigate the indoor radon levels inside the Kufa Technical Institute buildings for the first time using different radon measurement methods such as active (RAD-7 and passive (LR-115 Type II methods. Seventy eight of Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs LR-115 Type II were distributed at four buildings within the study area. The LR-115 Type II detectors were exposed in the study area for three months period. In parallel to the latter, seventy two active measurements were conducted using RAD-7 in the same buildings for correlation investigation purposes between the two kinds of measurements (i.e. passive and active.The results demonstrate that the radon concentrations were generally low, ranging from 38.4 to 77.2 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 50 Bq/m3. The mean of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and annual effective dose were assessed to be 19.9 Bq/m3 and 1.2 mS/y, respectively; the excess lifetime lung cancer risk was approximately 11.6 per million personal. A high correlation was found between the methods of measurements (i.e. LR-115 Type II and RAD-7, R2 = 0.99 which is significant at P < 0.001. The results of this work revealed that the Radon concentration was below the action level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency of 148 Bq/m3. This therefore indicates that no radiological health hazard exists. However, the relatively high concentrations in some classrooms can be addressed by the natural ventilation or the classrooms being supplied with suction fans.

  3. Morbidity analysis in minimally invasive esophagectomy for oesophageal cancer versus conventional over the last 10 years, a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been an increasing inclination towards minimally invasive esophagectomies (MIEs at our institute recently for resectable oesophageal cancer. Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to report peri-operative and long-term procedure specific outcomes of the two groups and analyse their changing pattern at our institute. Methods: All adult patients with a diagnosis of oesophageal cancer managed at our institute from 2005 to 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded through our hospital information system. The cohort of esophagectomies was allocated into two groups, conventional open esophagectomy (OE or total laparoscopic MIE; hybrid esophagectomies were taken as a separate group. The short-term outcome measures are an operative time in minutes, length of hospital and Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay in days, post-operative complications and 30 days in-hospital mortality. Complications are graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Long-term outcomes are long-term procedure related complications over a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Trends were analysed by visually inspecting the graphic plots for mean number of events in each group each year. Results: Our results showed no difference in mortality, length of hospital and ICU stays and incidence of major complications between three groups on uni- and multi-variate analysis (P > 0.05. The operative time was significantly longer in MIE group (odds ratio [OR]: 1.66, confidence interval [CI]: 2.4–11.5. The incidence of long-term complication was low for MIE (OR: 1.0, CI: 133–1.017. However, all post-operative surgical outcomes trended to improve in both groups over the course of this study and stayed better for MIE group except for the operative time. Conclusion: MIE has overall comparable surgical outcomes to its conventional counterpart. Furthermore, the peri-operative outcomes tend to

  4. Clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer and symptomatic gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiteru

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer can be classified into two categories based on the absence or presence of symptoms at diagnosis. Differences in clinicopathological features and prognoses between asymptomatic gastric cancer (ACG) and symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC) can be used to inform diagnosis strategies and ultimately improve survival rates. All cases of gastric cancer (239 AGC, 323 SGC) diagnosed in our hospital between 1997 and 1999 were used in this study. ACG patients showed significantly higher frequency of males, cases of early cancer, cases found by a mass screening program, cases treated by endoscopic resection, cases treated by curative operation, cases of type 0 macroscopic finding, cases of histologically-differentiated type, and stage I cases. By contrast, SGC patients showed significantly higher numbers of cases treated by chemotherapy alone or best support care, cases of type 2, 3, and 4 macroscopic findings, cases occupying the whole stomach, and cases of stage II, III, IV. Statistically significant differences were also found for the 5-year survival rate (83.3% in AGC, 41.2% in SGC), the incidence of early cancer (90.1% in AGC, 83.7% in SGC), and for advanced cancer (38.7% in AGC, 22.7% in SGC). The higher incidence of advanced cases in SGC than in AGC (40.0% vs. 13.0%), coupled with the low 5-year survival rate of advanced SGC (22.7%), provides strong evidence of the importance of diagnosing gastric cancer during its asymptomatic period. (author)

  5. What is the radiotherapy quality control program (PQRT) of the National Cancer Institute - Rio de Janeiro/Brazil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Salomon de Souza, R. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Praca Cruz Vermelha No. 23, Centro 20230-130, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. e-mail: amcampos@inca.gov.br; tld@inca.gov.br; salomon@inca.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The National Cancer Institute (INCA) Quality Program in Radiotherapy (PQRT) started in 1999 as a 3 years pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to its positive results, it has been integrated to the permanent INCA programs and its activities extended to all the radiotherapy services where patients from the National Health System (SUS) are treated. They are about 150 services (90% of all the available Brazilian radiotherapy services). The PQRT activities objective is to allow that radiotherapeutic treatments can be carried out just like planned, according to international quality and safety standards. The PQRT main activities are: on-site quality control audits, postal TLD audits in reference and non-reference conditions, training and development of research projects. The on-site quality control audits have already evaluated 75 teletherapy units (37 Co-60 and 38 linear accelerators), performing dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. The Postal TLD audits used, till 2002, for the 33 participants, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system for reference conditions. Five audits have been performed with this simple system. Since 2003, the PQRT postal TLD audit program is using its own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions. This new system has been already applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linacs). In total, in reference conditions, PQRT has performed 400 audits in reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linacs). Eighteen courses attended to the participants, covering their main practical problems. In parallel, some research studies have been carried out.

  6. What is the radiotherapy quality control program (PQRT) of the National Cancer Institute - Rio de Janeiro/Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Salomon de Souza, R.

    2004-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (INCA) Quality Program in Radiotherapy (PQRT) started in 1999 as a 3 years pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to its positive results, it has been integrated to the permanent INCA programs and its activities extended to all the radiotherapy services where patients from the National Health System (SUS) are treated. They are about 150 services (90% of all the available Brazilian radiotherapy services). The PQRT activities objective is to allow that radiotherapeutic treatments can be carried out just like planned, according to international quality and safety standards. The PQRT main activities are: on-site quality control audits, postal TLD audits in reference and non-reference conditions, training and development of research projects. The on-site quality control audits have already evaluated 75 teletherapy units (37 Co-60 and 38 linear accelerators), performing dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. The Postal TLD audits used, till 2002, for the 33 participants, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system for reference conditions. Five audits have been performed with this simple system. Since 2003, the PQRT postal TLD audit program is using its own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions. This new system has been already applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linacs). In total, in reference conditions, PQRT has performed 400 audits in reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linacs). Eighteen courses attended to the participants, covering their main practical problems. In parallel, some research studies have been carried out

  7. Leiomyosarcoma of the head and neck: A 17-year single institution experience and review of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Alan D; Farquhar, Douglas R; Brody, Robert M; Parasher, Arjun K; Carey, Ryan M; Purkey, Michael T; Nagda, Danish A; Brooks, John S; Hartner, Lee P; Brant, Jason A; Newman, Jason G

    2018-04-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to present our single-institution case series of head and neck leiomyosarcoma and a review of cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with head and neck leiomyosarcoma at the University of Pennsylvania and in the NCDB were identified. Demographic characteristics, tumor factors, treatment paradigms, and outcomes were evaluated for prognostic significance. Nine patients with head and neck leiomyosarcoma from the institution were identified; a majority had high-grade disease and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, with a 5-year survival rate of 50%. Two hundred fifty-nine patients with leiomyosarcoma were found in the NCDB; macroscopic positive margins and high-grade disease were associated with poor prognosis (P < .01), and positive surgical margins were related to adjuvant radiation (P < .001). Head and neck leiomyosarcoma presents at a high grade and is preferentially treated with surgery. Several demographic and tumor-specific factors are associated with outcomes and prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellos, Christos

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys­ tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...

  9. Florida State University's Institute for Family Violence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehme, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines the role of the Institute for Family Violence Studies (IFVS) within the Florida State University College of Social Work in navigating issues intersecting social work and the law ( http://familyvio.csw.fsu.edu/ ). By developing comprehensive state and national trainings for unique populations and conducting interdisciplinary research, the IFVS promotes public policy that benefits healthy families and decreases family and intimate partner violence. The crucial role of staff and students, the IFVS's collaborative alliances, and funding sources are highlighted. Projects such as the Clearinghouse on Supervised Visitation, the National Prevention Toolkit on Officer-Involved Domestic Violence, Successful Co-Parenting After Divorce, and the LGBTQ Family Life Project are described. Plans for future projects, as well as other new avenues for research, are summarized.

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Physical laws are for the most part expressed in terms of differential equations, and natural classes of these are in the form of conservation laws or of problems of the calculus of variations for an action functional. These problems can generally be posed as Hamiltonian systems, whether dynamical systems on finite dimensional phase space as in classical mechanics, or partial differential equations (PDE) which are naturally of infinitely many degrees of freedom. This volume is the collected and extended notes from the lectures on Hamiltonian dynamical systems and their applications that were given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute in Montreal in 2007. Many aspects of the modern theory of the subject were covered at this event, including low dimensional problems as well as the theory of Hamiltonian systems in infinite dimensional phase space; these are described in depth in this volume. Applications are also presented to several important areas of research, including problems in classical mechanics, continu...

  12. Place of death of pediatric cancer patients in a single institute during 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Tomoko; Hirase, Satoshi; Matsunoshita, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ninchoji, Takeshi; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2012-06-27

    Place of death is an important issue at the end-of-life. It is poorly understood in pediatric cancer patients in Japan. This study aimed to clarify place of death of children with cancer as well as variables associated with place of death. Study population was pediatric cancer patients who died in the Department of Pediatrics at Kobe University Hospital during the last 7 years. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed regardless of cause of death to derive data relating to patients' characteristics and disease. 18 patients were included. Median age at death was 12.2 years old. 6 patients including 5 children in complete remission had hematological disease and 12 patients suffered from solid tumors. 4 patients (22.2%) died at home, whereas 14 patients (77.8%) died in the hospital including 6 ICU deaths. No one died in hospices. Preference of patients was unavailable due to the lack of inquiry. Factors influencing place of death (home, ICU, non-ICU) were disease (hematological disease vs. solid tumor, p=0.010, brain tumor vs. non-brain tumor, p=0.023), disease status (complete remission vs. non-complete remission, p=0.0014) and preference of families (p=0.029). Among 6 families who expressed preference, no disparity was observed between actual and preferred place of death. This is the first English publication of place of death of pediatric cancer patients in Japan. The low percentage of home death, factors influencing place of death and the lack of disparity between actual and preferred place of death were indicated. Further studies are required to better understand place of death.

  13. Skin Sparing Mastectomy and Immediate Breast Reconstruction (SSMIR for early breast cancer: Eight years single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Jean

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin Sparing Mastectomy (SSM and immediate breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular as an effective treatment for patients with breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of skin sparing mastectomy in early breast cancer at a single population-based institution. Methods Records of ninety-five consecutive patients with operable breast cancer who had skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstructions between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. Patient and tumor characteristic, type of reconstruction, postoperative complications, aesthetic results and incidence of recurrence were analyzed. Results Mean age of the patients was 51.6(range 33–72 years. The AJCC pathologic stages were 0 (n = 51, 53.7%, I (n = 20, 21.1%, and II (n = 2, 2.1%. Twenty of the patients had recurrent disease (21.1%. The immediate breast reconstructions were performed with autologus tissue including latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in 63 (66.3% patients and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap in 4 (4.2% patients. Implants were used in 28 (29.4% patients. The average hospital stay was 7.7 days. Flap complication occurred in seven (10.4% patients resulting in four (6% re-operations and there were no delay in accomplishing postoperative adjuvant therapy. At a median follow-up of 69 months (range 48 to 144, local recurrence was seen in one patient (1.1% and systemic recurrence was seen in two patients (2.1%. Conclusion Skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for early breast cancer is associated with low morbidity and low rate of local recurrence.

  14. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  15. Penile bulb dose and impotence after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406: Findings from a prospective, multi-institutional, phase I/II dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Winter, Kathryn; Michalski, Jeffrey M.; Cox, James D.; Purdy, James A.; Bosch, Walter; Lin Xiao; Shipley, William S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between the dose to the bulb of the penis and the risk of impotence in men treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406. Methods and materials: Men enrolled on a Phase I/II dose-escalation study, RTOG 9406, who were reported to be potent at entry and evaluable (n = 158) were selected for inclusion. Follow-up evaluations were scheduled every 3, 4, and 6 months for the first, second, and the third through fifth years, then annually. At each follow-up visit an assessment of potency status was made. Penile structures were defined by a single observer blinded to the potency status, using Web-based, on-line software. The dosimetry for penile structures was calculated at the Quality Assurance Center at Washington University and provided to RTOG Statistical Headquarters to determine whether there was a relationship between dose and impotence. Results: Patients whose median penile dose was ≥52.5 Gy had a greater risk of impotence compared with those receiving <52.5 Gy (p = 0.039). In a multivariate analysis neither age, the dose to the prostate, nor the use of hormonal therapy correlated with the risk of impotence. Conclusions: Dose to the bulb of the penis seems to be associated with the risk of radiation-induced impotence

  16. Epidemiologic study of uterine cancer, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke

    1965-12-10

    As a cause of death in females, cancer of the uterus is one of the important cancers in Japan. In 1962 it was responsible for 15.5% of all the deaths due to cancer in women and ranked next to the proportion attributed to cancer of the stomach. The JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study of A-bomb survivors also shows that cancer of the stomach and uterus were the major causes of cancer deaths in the female population. The present study, which was carried out in 1963, was begun in the hope of elucidating some of the relationships of the factors other than radiation possibly associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus in the Life Span Study (ST 100) sample in Horoshima. Environmental factors considered to play a role in the development of uterine cancer were studied by interview with a close relative of the subject. The data did not clearly support the findings reported elsewhere that residential history, occupational history, history of marital status, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, and socioeconomic factors were associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus. A brief analysis was also conducted for the accuracy of death certificates. The results suggest that an epidemiologic study should be conducted on morbidity data derived from pathologic findings and a revised plan is desirable to elucidate the factors associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus using the various recent experimental findings as references. 124 references, 15 tables.

  17. Global variations in cancer survival. Study Group on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Black, R J

    1996-12-15

    Population-based cancer registries from Algeria, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand are collaborating with the International Agency for Research on Cancer in a study of cancer survival in developing countries. Comparisons with the SEER program results of the National Cancer Institute in the United States, and the EUROCARE study of survival in European countries revealed considerable differences in the survival of patients with certain tumors associated with intensive chemotherapeutic treatment regimes (Hodgkin's disease and testicular tumors), more modest differences in the survival of patients with tumors for which early diagnosis and treatment confer an improved prognosis (carcinomas of the large bowel, breast, and cervix), and only slight differences for tumors associated with poor prognosis (carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas, and lung). With limited resources to meet the challenge of the increasing incidence of cancer expected in the next few decades, health authorities in developing countries should be aware of the importance of investing in a range of cancer control activities, including primary prevention and early detection programs as well as treatment.

  18. Physical properties of a linear accelerator-based stereotactic installed at national cancer institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attala, E.M.; Deiab, N.A.; Elawady, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first dedicated Siemens PRIMUS M6/6ST linear accelerator-based Stereotactic installed in National Cancer Institute for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT). The data were obtained during the installation, acceptance test procedure, and commissioning of the unit. The Primus M6/6ST has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Siemens. The dosimetric data were taken using pin point ion chamber. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be < 0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of < or = 1.0 mm. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within +/- 0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The basic dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and cone factor needed for patient treatment were evaluated. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir

    1990-01-01

    This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc­ ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater­ gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom­ ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso­ lution laser spectroscop...

  20. ACCISS study rationale and design: activating collaborative cancer information service support for cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullard Emily

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-quality cancer information resources are available but underutilized by the public. Despite greater awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service among low-income African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians, actual Cancer Information Service usage is lower than expected, paralleling excess cancer-related morbidity and mortality for these subgroups. The proposed research examines how to connect the Cancer Information Service to low-income African-American and Hispanic women and their health care providers. The study will examine whether targeted physician mailing to women scheduled for colposcopy to follow up an abnormal Pap test can increase calls to the Cancer Information Service, enhance appropriate medical follow-up, and improve satisfaction with provider-patient communication. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in two clinics in ethnically diverse low-income communities in Chicago. During the formative phase, patients and providers will provide input regarding materials planned for use in the experimental phase of the study. The experimental phase will use a two-group prospective randomized controlled trial design. African American and Hispanic women with an abnormal Pap test will be randomized to Usual Care (routine colposcopy reminder letter or Intervention (reminder plus provider recommendation to call the Cancer Information Service and sample questions to ask. Primary outcomes will be: 1 calls to the Cancer Information Service; 2 timely medical follow-up, operationalized by whether the patient keeps her colposcopy appointment within six months of the abnormal Pap; and 3 patient satisfaction with provider-patient communication at follow-up. Discussion The study examines the effectiveness of a feasible, sustainable, and culturally sensitive strategy to increase awareness and use of the Cancer Information Service among an underserved population. The goal of linking a

  1. ACCISS study rationale and design: activating collaborative cancer information service support for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; McFadden, H Gene; Fought, Angela; Bullard, Emily; Spring, Bonnie

    2009-12-02

    High-quality cancer information resources are available but underutilized by the public. Despite greater awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service among low-income African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians, actual Cancer Information Service usage is lower than expected, paralleling excess cancer-related morbidity and mortality for these subgroups. The proposed research examines how to connect the Cancer Information Service to low-income African-American and Hispanic women and their health care providers. The study will examine whether targeted physician mailing to women scheduled for colposcopy to follow up an abnormal Pap test can increase calls to the Cancer Information Service, enhance appropriate medical follow-up, and improve satisfaction with provider-patient communication. The study will be conducted in two clinics in ethnically diverse low-income communities in Chicago. During the formative phase, patients and providers will provide input regarding materials planned for use in the experimental phase of the study. The experimental phase will use a two-group prospective randomized controlled trial design. African American and Hispanic women with an abnormal Pap test will be randomized to Usual Care (routine colposcopy reminder letter) or Intervention (reminder plus provider recommendation to call the Cancer Information Service and sample questions to ask). Primary outcomes will be: 1) calls to the Cancer Information Service; 2) timely medical follow-up, operationalized by whether the patient keeps her colposcopy appointment within six months of the abnormal Pap; and 3) patient satisfaction with provider-patient communication at follow-up. The study examines the effectiveness of a feasible, sustainable, and culturally sensitive strategy to increase awareness and use of the Cancer Information Service among an underserved population. The goal of linking a public service (the Cancer Information Service) with real

  2. The Hazard of Graduation: Analysis of Three Multivariate Statistics Used to Study Multi-Institutional Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlberg, Jessica Marie

    2013-01-01

    Adelman (2006) observed that a large quantity of research on retention is "institution-specific or use institutional characteristics as independent variables" (p. 81). However, he observed that over 60% of the students he studied attended multiple institutions making the calculation of institutional effects highly problematic. He argued…

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Turbulence, Weak and Strong

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, O

    1994-01-01

    The present volume comprises the contributions of some of the participants of the NATO Advance Studies Institute "Turbulence, Weak and Strong", held in Cargese, in August 1994. More than 70 scientists, from seniors to young students, have joined to­ gether to discuss and review new (and not so new) ideas and developments in the study of turbulence. One of the objectives of the School was to incorporate, in the same meeting, two aspects of turbulence, which are obviously linked, and which are often treated sep­ arately: fully developed turbulence (in two and three dimensions) and weak turbulence (essentially one and two-dimensional systems). The idea of preparing a dictionary rather than ordinary proceedings started from the feeling that the terminology of turbulence includes many long, technical, poorly evocative words, which are usually not understood by people exterior to the field, and which might be worth explaining. Students who start working in the field of turbulence face a sort of curious situation:...

  5. CULTURAL STUDIES: INSTITUTIONAL CRISIS OR THE TIME OF STRATEGIC DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ya. Murzina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to signify of the problems of cultural studies as a science and educational practice in a situation of modernization of education. The publication continues the discussion started at the alignment meeting of Heads of Cultural Studies Departments in Russia – «The science of culture and cultural education: time for strategic decisions». Methods. The author has applied the following methods: analysis of existing points of view; reflection of the essence of the cultural knowledge and perspectives of cultural development of cultural studies science in Russia. Results. The research outcomes show that cultural studies in modern Russia are experiencing institutional crisis: insufficient definiteness and awareness by experts and publicity due to places and roles of culturological disciplines in educational process, but also the methodological bases of activity of culturologists. Aspects of culturological formation are considered and prospects of its development are specified. It was proposed to continue the discussion started at the alignment meeting of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, and it will give an option to discuss the solution ways of current recessionary situation more fundamentally and subjectively on territory-regional level. Scientific novelty. The approaches to understanding the culture as areas of scientific knowledge are methodized; the areas of cultural education in the conditions of modernization are summarized. Practical significance. The research implementations can be used while improving the theoretical-methodological component of cultural education, and extending the horizons for topical current research works in the field of cultural studies

  6. Capacity for Cancer Care Delivery Research in National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Community Practices: Availability of Radiology and Primary Care Research Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ruth C; Sicks, JoRean D; Chang, George J; Lyss, Alan P; Stewart, Teresa L; Sung, Lillian; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2017-12-01

    Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices. The NCORP includes 34 community and 12 minority and underserved community sites. The Landscape Capacity Assessment was conducted in 2015 across these 46 sites, composed of the 401 components and subcomponents designated to conduct CCDR. Each respondent had the opportunity to designate an operational practice group, defined as a group of components and subcomponents with common care practices and resources. The primary outcomes were the proportion of adult oncology practice groups with affiliated radiology and primary care practices. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of those affiliated radiology and primary care groups that participate in research. Eighty-seven percent of components and subcomponents responded to at least some portion of the assessment, representing 230 practice groups. Analyzing the 201 adult oncology practice groups, 85% had affiliated radiologists, 69% of whom participate in research. Seventy-nine percent had affiliated primary care practitioners, 31% of whom participate in research. Institutional size, multidisciplinary group practice, and ownership by large regional or multistate health systems was associated with research participation by affiliated radiology and primary care groups. Research participation by these affiliated specialists was not significantly

  7. Technological capabilities, institutions and firm productivity: a multilevel study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goedhuys, M.; Srholec, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2015), s. 122-139 ISSN 0957-8811 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : productivity * innovation * technological capability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2015

  8. A study of the treatment of oral multiple primary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Kamata, Shin-etsu; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 30 multiple primary cancers (out of 2,169 oral squamous cell carcinoma including lip cancers), which were treated at the Division of Head and Neck, Cancer Institute Hospital. Seven synchronous carcinomas and 23 metachronous cases were seen. The most common site of the primary cancer was the tongue. Surgical treatment was performed for the first treatment in 5 cases of the 7 synchronous cancers. On the other hand, radical treatment was performed in 11 cases of the 23 metachronous cancers. Fourteen of the 18 cases were treated by surgical treatment and controlled. It is suggested that surgical treatment is the most effective for oral multiple primary cancers. (author)

  9. From institutional merger integration to institutional strategic transformation: A case study of the strategic management paradigm at Shanghai Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to apply the strategic management theory to the subsequent shaping up of a readjusted strategic development policy for Shanghai Library after its merger with the Institute of Scientific and Technological Information of Shanghai (ISTIS) in 1995.It also tries to analyze and explicate such an empirical implementation of institutional reintegration process through strategic management at Shanghai Metropolitan Library.By doing so,it aims to present an objective case study of activities based on the strategic management paradigm at a major Chinese metropolitan public library.

  10. From institutional merger integration to institutional strategic transformation:A case study of the strategic management paradigm at Shanghai Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Chao

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to apply the strategic management theory to the subsequent shaping up of a readjusted strategic development policy for Shanghai Library after its merger with the Institute of Scientific and Technological Information of Shanghai(ISTIS)in 1995.It also tries to analyze and explicate such an empirical implementation of institutional reintegration process through strategic management at Shanghai Metropolitan Library.By doing so,it aims to present an objective case study of activities based on the strategic management paradigm at a major Chinese metropolitan public library.

  11. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  12. People don't talk in institutional statements: A methodological case study of the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristy Watkins; Lynne M. Westphal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our application of Ostrom et al.'s ADICO syntax, a grammatical tool based in the Institutional Analysis and Development framework, to a study of ecological restoration decision making in the Chicago Wilderness region. As this method has only been used to look at written policy and/or extractive natural resource management systems, our...

  13. Definitive Radiotherapy for T1–2 Hypopharyngeal Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Aya; Nishiyama, Kinji; Morimoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miyagi, Ken; Fujii, Takashi; Yoshino, Kunitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in T1–2 hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with T1–2 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical RT between March 2000 and June 2008 at our institution were analyzed. Pre-RT neck dissection (ND) was performed in 26 patients with advanced neck disease. Chemotherapy was used concurrently with RT in 14 patients. Sixty patients were associated with synchronous or metachronous malignancies. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. Results: The 3-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 70% and 79%, respectively. The 3-year local control rates were 87% for T1 and 83% for T2 disease. The ultimate local control rate was 89%, including 7 patients in whom salvage was successful. The ultimate local control rate with laryngeal preservation was 82%. Tumors of the medial wall of the pyriform sinus tended to have lower control rates compared with tumors of the lateral or posterior pharyngeal wall. Among patients with N2b–3 disease, the 3-year regional control rates were 74% for patients with pre-RT ND and 40% for patients without ND. The 3-year locoregional control rates were as follows: Stage I, 100%; Stage II, 84%; Stage III, 67%; Stage IVA, 43%; Stage IVB, 67%. Forty-two patients developed disease recurrence, with 29 (70%) patients developing recurrence within the first year. Of the 103 patients, 6 developed late complications higher than or equal to Grade 3. Conclusions: Definitive RT accomplished a satisfactory local control rate and contributed to organ preservation.

  14. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Deodutta

    2008-01-01

    This research proposal has two primary objectives which are to (1) increase FIU investigators' research expertise and competitive ability to succeed as independent breast cancer researchers; and (2...

  15. Large institutional variations in use of androgen deprivation therapy with definitive radiotherapy in a population-based cohort of men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wee Loon; Foroudi, Farshad; Evans, Sue; Millar, Jeremy

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the pattern of use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with definitive radiotherapy (RT) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) in a population-based study in Australia. This is a prospective cohort of men with intermediate- and high-risk PCa, captured in the population-based Prostate Cancer Outcome Registry Victoria, who were treated with definitive prostate RT between January 2010 and December 2015. The primary outcome of interest was ADT utilization. Chi-squared test for trend was used to evaluate the temporal trend in the use of ADT over the study period. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors, and treatment institutions (public/ private and metropolitan/ regional) on the likelihood of ADT utilization. A total of 1806 men were included in the study, 199 of whom (11%) had favourable National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk disease (i.e. only one intermediate-risk feature, primary Gleason grade 3, and variation in the use of ADT between public vs private and metropolitan vs regional institutions. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The costs of breast cancer in a Mexican public health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Alejandro Gómez-Rico

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jacobo Alejandro Gómez-Rico1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde1, Consuelo Rubio-Poo21Universidad Autónoma Metropolitano–Xochimilco (UAM-X, Departments: Biological Systems and Healthcare, Biological and Health Sciences Division (DCBS; 2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, Faculty of Professional Studies-Zaragoza (FES-ZaragozaAbstract: Breast cancer (BC is the second leading cause of death as a result of neoplasia in Mexico. This study aimed to identify the direct and indirect costs of treating female outpatients diagnosed with BC at a Mexican public hospital. A cross-sectional, observational, analytical study was conducted. A total of 506 medical records were analyzed and 102 were included in the cost analysis. The micro-costing process was used to estimate treatment costs. A 17-item questionnaire was used to obtain information on direct and indirect costs. Of the 102 women with BC included in the study, 92.2% (94 were at Stage II, and only 7.8% at Stage I. Total direct costs over six months for the 82 women who had modified radical mastectomy (MRM surgury were US$733,821.15. Total direct costs for the 15 patients with conservative surgery (CS were US$138,190.39. We found that the total economic burden in the study population was much higher for patients with MRM than for patients with CS.Keywords: breast cancer, Mexican women, direct and indirect costs

  17. European inter-institutional impact study of MammaPrint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusumano, P. G.; Generali, D.; Ciruelos, E.; Manso, L.; Ghanem, I.; Lifrange, E.; Jerusalem, G.; Klaase, J.; de Snoo, F.; Stork-Sloots, L.; Dekker-Vroling, L.; Holzik, M. Lutke

    Aim: To measure the impact of MammaPrint on adjuvant treatment decisions and to analyze the agreement in treatment decisions between hospitals from 4 European countries for the same patient cohort. Methods: Breast cancer patients were prospectively enrolled and MammaPrint was assessed. Patients'

  18. Clinical results of stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I small-cell lung cancer. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Asai, Kaori; Terashima, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Keiji; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). From April 2003 to September 2009, a total of eight patients with Stage I SCLC were treated with SBRT in our institution. In all patients, the lung tumors were proven as SCLC pathologically. The patients' ages were 58-84 years (median: 74). The T-stage of the primary tumor was T1a in two, T1b in two and T2a in four patients. Six of the patients were inoperable because of poor cardiac and/or pulmonary function, and two patients refused surgery. SBRT was given using 7-8 non-coplanar beams with 48 Gy in four fractions. Six of the eight patients received 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy using carboplatin (CBDCA) + etoposide (VP-16) or cisplatin (CDDP) + irinotecan (CPT-11). The follow-up period for all patients was 6-60 months (median: 32). Six patients were still alive without any recurrence. One patient died from this disease and one died from another disease. The overall and disease-specific survival rate at three years was 72% and 86%, respectively. There were no patients with local progression of the lesion targeted by SBRT. Only one patient had nodal recurrence in the mediastinum at 12 months after treatment. The progression-free survival rate was 71%. No Grade 2 or higher SBRT-related toxicities were observed. SBRT plus chemotherapy could be an alternative to surgery with chemotherapy for inoperable patients with Stage I small-cell lung cancer. However, further investigation is needed using a large series of patients. (author)

  19. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  20. Chinese TEFL Academics' Perceptions about Research: An Institutional Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China, as across the world. However, Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' research capacity has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This…

  1. Nuclear structure studies at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy, carried out at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in the recent past, using heavy-ion projectiles from the pelletron accelerator centres in the country and multi-detector arrays have yielded significant data on the structure of a large number of nuclei spanning different mass regions.

  2. Technological capabilities, institutions and firm productivity: a multilevel study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goedhuys, M.; Srholec, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2015), s. 122-139 ISSN 0957-8811 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : productivity * innovation * technological capability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2015

  3. Spiritual needs of cancer patients: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Hatamipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients′ spiritual needs is particularly important.

  4. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently ...biomarker platforms in our multi-center, prospectively accrued prostate cancer active surveillance cohort – the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance...prostate cancers currently diagnosed are low risk tumors for which there is substantial evidence that the cancer will not cause harm if left untreated

  5. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  6. Epidemiology and management of breast carcinoma in Egyptian males: Experience of a single Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshafiey, M.M.; Elsebai, H.I.; Attia, A.A.; Zeeneldin, A.A.; Moneer, M.; Mohamed, D.B.; Gouda, I.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the epidemiological and clinico-pathological features, surgical and reconstructive techniques, adjuvant treatments and clinical outcome of breast carcinoma in males (BCM) at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (NCI). Patients and methods: Thirty-two males with breast carcinoma presented to NCI between January 2000 and December 2002. They were evaluated by complete history, physical examination, laboratory and radiological investigations. Results: Median age was 59 years. Left sided and retroareolar breast lumps were the commonest presentations. Grade 11 tumors positive for hormone receptors were very common. Stage I, II, 111 and IV disease were encountered in 6.2%, 34.4%, 34.4% and 25.0% of patients, respectively. Curative surgery was done in 22 patients; they received adjuvant hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 22,16 and 10 patients, respectively. Eight metastatic patients were treated with palliative measures. Surgery was done in 25 patients; the most common procedure was modified radical mastectomy (40.6%). Primary closure was feasible in 17 patients (68%), local flaps were needed in 4 cases (16%), while myocutaneous flap was done in 3 cases (12%). The commonest complication was development of seroma (9 cases). The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 65.4%. The disease free survival (DPS) at 5 years was 53.9%. Stage and curative surgery significantly affected OS, while type of surgery was the only variable significantly affecting DPS. Conclusion: Male breast carcinoma occurs at older ages than females, usually in advanced stage. This necessitates directing attention of males and awareness on the prevalence and risk factors for this disease.needed in 4 cases (16%), while myocutaneous flap was done in 3 cases (12%). The commonest complication was development of seroma (9 cases). The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 65.4%. The disease free survival (DPS) at 5 years was 53.9%. Stage and curative surgery significantly affected OS

  7. Surrogate for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status in cancer database studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Chen, Michelle M; Ma, Yifei; Divi, Vasu

    2017-12-01

    The utility of cancer databases for oropharyngeal cancer studies is limited by lack of information on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a surrogate that can be used to adjust for the effect of HPV status on survival. The study cohort included 6419 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012, identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The HPV surrogate score was developed using a logistic regression model predicting HPV-positive status. The HPV surrogate score was predictive of HPV status (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73; accuracy of 70.4%). Similar to HPV-positive tumors, HPV surrogate positive tumors were associated with improved overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.91; P = .005), after adjusting for important covariates. The HPV surrogate score is useful for adjusting for the effect of HPV status on survival in studies utilizing cancer databases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A STUDY ON INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE BASED BUSINESS INCUBATORS

    OpenAIRE

    RANA BASU; DHRUBES BISWAS

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the various range of business incubation services being provided to the nascent entrepreneurs which is based on comprehensive compilation and subsequent analysis of literature followed by case based approach in context to Indian higher educational institute (HEI) based business incubation centres. The objective behind this research is to critically assess the assistance services and to prioritize the service dimensions provided by the busin...

  9. Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julián

    2004-01-01

    We live in a service economy, but the extent of development of service employment differs across developed countries. This paper assesses the role of structural factors and institutions in explaining the common patterns and main di?erences in the recent expansion of service employment in OECD countries. It finds that GDP per capita, the size of the government sector and the extent of urbanization are positively associated with the service employment share. However, the evidence suggests that ...

  10. Can internationalisation really lead to institutional competitive advantage? : a study of 16 Dutch public higher education institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan

    2014-01-01

    Public higher education institutions (PHEIs) have widely acknowledged a positive relationship between internationalization and their institutional competitive advantage enhancement. Although some concerns have been raised by practitioners and researchers about whether institutional competitive

  11. Institutional initiatives in professional scientific ethics: three case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund; Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    Learned and professional scientific bodies can play a vital role in promoting ethical behaviours, giving practical substance to theoretical consideration of geoethical principles and complementing the efforts of individual scientists and practitioners to behave in a professional and ethical manner. Institutions may do this through mandatory professional codes of conduct, by developing guidelines and initiatives to codify and stimulate the uptake of best practice, and through wider initiatives to engender a culture conducive to such behaviours. This presentation will outline three current institutional initiatives which directly or indirectly address scientific ethics: i. The UK Science Council's Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. ii. Development and promulgation of the American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct. iii. The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics. The focus of the Science Council and its member bodies (including the Geological Society of London) on diversity is of central importance when considering ethical behaviours in science. First, improving equality and diversity in the science workforce is at the heart of ethical practice, as well as being essential to meeting current and future skills needs. Second, in addition to demographic diversity (whether in terms of gender, race, economic status, sexuality or gender identity, etc), an important dimension of diversity in science is to allow space for a plurality of scientific views, and to nurture dissenting voices - essential both to the development of scientific knowledge and to its effective communication to non-technical audiences.

  12. Retrospective assessment of occupational asbestos exposure among 220 patients with respiratory cancer hospitalized at Vilnius University Institute of Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrauskaite Everatt, R.; Jankauskas, R.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicenas, S.; Smolianskiene, G.

    2005-01-01

    No cases of lung cancer or mesothelioma have ever been diagnosed or compensated as asbestos-related in Lithuania. This paper attempts to estimate the proportion of those occupationally exposed to asbestos among respiratory cancer patients. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed retrospectively for 218 lung cancer and 2 mesothelioma patients admitted to Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. The evaluation was based on personal interview data using an internationally established questionnaire. Cumulative exposure to asbestos at work was evaluated in fibre-years. A cumulative asbestos exposure of ≥25 fibre-years was found for 7 patients (3.2%), in further 135 (61.2%) a cumulative exposure from 0.01 to 24.99 fibre-years was assessed. The most common occupations among heavily (≥25 fibre-years) exposed patients were smith, welder or insulator in foundries, construction, shipyard as well as asbestos cement and glass industry. Preliminary findings indicate that a fraction (3.2%) of the respiratory cancer cases could be attributed to occupational exposure to asbestos. Since 1560 or more cases of lung cancer are registered every year in Lithuania, about 50 cases per year could be predicted to be asbestos-related. (author)

  13. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    25 4 1. INTRODUCTION Although prostate - specific antigen (PSA) testing and the resulting treatment of...details of this work are described in the attached paper titled “Refined analysis of prostate specific antigen kinetics to predict prostate cancer...Wagner; Daniel W. Lin,; and Yingye Zheng. “Refined analysis of prostate specific antigen kinetics to predict prostate cancer active surveillance outcomes

  14. Prostatic cancer - A retrospective study of 50 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khattak, A.M.; Shah, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    This Objective of this study was to see histologic typing of prostate cancer and its relation to patient's age, as no curative therapy exists for the advanced stages. This is a retrospective study of 50 patients suffering from prostatic adenocarcinoma and admitted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. A total of fifty patients between ages of 50-80 years diagnosed during the period of 1990-2001 suffering from prostate cancer were included in this study. The result showed that maximum number of tumours were in age group ranging from 61-70 years, (58% of total cases). Sixteen were (32%) well-differentiated tumours, twenty-eight (56%), moderately differentiated tumours and six (12%) were labelled as undifferentiated tumours. It was concluded that the majority of tumors were moderately differentiated tumours. Early diagnosis is useful for patients; because high grade tumours have bad prognostic markers. (author)

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of screening for cervical cancer among female students of a tertiary institution in South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akujobi, C N; Ikechebelu, J I; Onunkwo, I; Onyiaorah, I V

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer of females worldwide and the commonest cancer of the female genital tract in our environment. It can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduates. A pre tested questionnaire was administered to third and fourth year female students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. Out of the 220 students involved in the study, 134 (60.9) had knowledge of cervical cancer and 118 (53.6%) were sexually active with the average age at sexual debut being 21.2 years. The mean age of the students was 23.8 years and the age range was 17 to 39 years with 175 (80%) in the age range of 20-29 years. About 2/3 of the students did not know about Pap smear and worse still, none of them had undergone a Pap screening test before. This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. There is good level of awareness of cervical cancer among the female undergraduates but poor knowledge and participation in cervical cancer screening. The development of a comprehensive cervical cancer screening strategy is being recommended to improve participation with a view to prevent cervical cancer by early detection and treatment of the pre-malignant stages.

  16. Case Study: Pancreas cancer with Whipple's operation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: pancreas cancer, Whipple procedure, SASPEN case study ..... Grade A. Grade B. Grade C. Nasogastric tube required. 4-7 days or reinserted > postoperative day 3 .... malabsorption and vitamin and mineral deficiencies are the most.

  17. Faculty Study: New Mexico Higher Education Institutions Compared with Regional Peers. Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beverlee J.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses concerns regarding compensation disparities between New Mexico institutions and their peers. A recommended adjustment schedule with fiscal requirements is included, but not specific recommendations for faculty at individual institutions. The average salaries for New Mexico institutions were compared with regional peers to…

  18. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  19. A Proposed Architecture for Implementing a Knowledge Management System in the Brazilian National Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira Barbosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Because their services are based decisively on the collection, analysis and exchange of clinical information or knowledge, within and across organizational boundaries, knowledge management has exceptional application and importance to health care organizations. This article proposes a conceptual framework for a knowledge management system, which is expected to support both hospitals and the oncology network in Brazil. Under this holistic single-case study, triangulation of multiple sources of data collection was used by means of archival records, documents and participant observation, as two of the authors were serving as INCA staff members, thus gaining access to the event and its documentation and being able to perceive reality from an insider point of view. The benefits derived from the present status of the ongoing implementation, so far, are: (i speediness of cancer diagnosis and enhanced quality of both diagnosis and data used in epidemiological studies; (ii reduction in treatment costs; (iii relief of INCA’S labor shortage; (iii improved management performance; (iv better use of installed capacity; (v easiness of massive (explicit knowledge transference among the members of the network; and (vi increase in organizational capacity of knowledge retention (institutionalization of procedures.

  20. Impact of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 on prostate cancer aggressiveness: Lessons from a contemporary single institution radical prostatectomy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Koloff

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of TP5 and suggest that criteria for tertiary pattern reporting in prostate cancer should be standardized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of tertiary patterns in prognostic models.

  1. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yoon Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Won, Hyuk; Kim, Kee Hwa

    1991-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included on this study 7,787 cases(10.4%) among 74,928 cases for 2 years. On sex, females with 57.6% were much more than males with 42.4%. The highest proportion of cancer 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 36.2%, followed by liver(12.3%), lung(12.2%), esophagus(15.5%) and larynx(4.9%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 47.3%, followed most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(39.0%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(56.2%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 4.6% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 76.3% for patients with localized involvement, 11.6% for patients with regional involvement and 7.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among,the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 19.0% for surgery, 27.7 for radiotherapy and 24.2% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 11.2% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  2. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  3. Proteomics in studying cancer stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Onno; Emmink, Benjamin L; Knol, Jaco; van Houdt, Winan J; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Jimenez, Connie R

    2012-06-01

    Normal multipotent tissue stem cells (SCs) are the driving force behind tissue turnover and repair. The cancer stem cell theory holds that tumors also contain stem-like cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis formation. However, very little is known about the regulation of SC maintenance pathways in cancer and how these are affected by cancer-specific genetic alterations and by treatment. Proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool to identify the signaling complexes and pathways that control multi- and pluri-potency and SC differentiation. Here, the authors review the novel insights that these studies have provided and present a comprehensive strategy for the use of proteomics in studying cancer SC biology.

  4. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    aim 2: Evaluate a panel of four-kallikrein plasma-based markers to determine the presence of or progression to clinically relevant prostate cancer...and sent to Genomic Health, Inc. for processing. Task 3: Analysis of scientific Aim 2: Evaluate a panel of four-kallikrein plasma-based markers to...site: FHCRC) PCA3 and the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion are prostate cancer-specific biomarkers that hold promise for stratifying risk in the setting of AS

  5. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts mastectomy, reconstructive and symmetry procedures were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. In 100 patients of the sample study cohort, 151 reconstructions were performed. Increasing age was associated with one or more comorbidities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, P = 0.005], whereas younger age was associated with metastatic disease (OR = 0.88, P = 0.006), chemotherapy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.01), and radiation (OR = 0.94, P = 0.006); split cohorts demonstrated similar trends (P Mastectomy and reconstructive characteristics associated with younger age included bilateral mastectomy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.004), tissue expander (versus autologous flap) (OR = 0.94, P = 0.009), extra high implant type (OR = 0.94, P = 0.049), whereas increasing use of autologous flaps and contralateral mastopexy symmetry procedures (OR = 1.09, P = 0.02) were associated with an aging cohort. Increasing age was not associated with an increasing likelihood of complications (P = 0.75). Age-related factors play a role in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more

  6. Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Lin, Yong; Bandera, Elisa V; Jacques, Paul F; Parekh, Niyati

    2015-02-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates associations between healthful behaviors consistent with WCRF/AICR cancer prevention guidelines and obesity-related cancer risk, as a third of cancers are estimated to be preventable. The study sample consisted of adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (n = 2,983). From 1991 to 2008, 480 incident doctor-diagnosed obesity-related cancers were identified. Data on diet, measured by a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity, collected in 1991 was used to construct a 7-component score based on recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, foods that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcohol, and food preservation, processing, and preparation. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between the computed score, its components, and subcomponents in relation to obesity-related cancer risk. The overall score was not associated with obesity-related cancer risk after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, energy, and preexisting conditions (HR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.86-1.02). When score components were evaluated separately, for every unit increment in the alcohol score, there was 29 % lower risk of obesity-related cancers (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.51-0.99) and 49-71 % reduced risk of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Every unit increment in the subcomponent score for non-starchy plant foods (fruits, vegetables, and legumes) among participants who consume starchy vegetables was associated with 66 % reduced risk of colorectal cancer (HR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.22-0.88). Lower alcohol consumption and a plant-based diet consistent with the cancer prevention guidelines were associated with reduced risk of obesity-related cancers in this population.

  7. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Kehoe, M; Sasiadek, W; Hacking, D; Calvert, P

    2014-03-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is used to prevent the development of brain metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. PCI confers an overall survival (OS) benefit in both limited and extensive stage disease. We analyze the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a cohort of patients who received PCI, in a 5-year period. A retrospective review of all patients who had received PCI between 2006 and 2011 at the Whitfield Clinic was completed. Patient- and disease-related characteristics, the number of patients who developed brain metastases, PFS and OS data were collected. 24 patients were identified. 14 (58.3 %) patients were male, 10 (41.7 %) were female, with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 31-78). All patients were smokers. 12 (50 %) patients had limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 12 (50 %) had extensive stage disease. 2 (8.2 %) patients developed brain metastases post PCI (p = 0.478.) The median PFS for limited stage SCLC was 13 months (range 3-20) and 10 months (range 5-18) for extensive stage SCLC. Median OS was 15 months (range 4-29) in limited stage SCLC, and 11 months (range 5-29) in extensive stage SCLC. Our study demonstrated a low incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and favourable median PFS and OS in the patients that received PCI, when compared to published phase III data.

  8. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  9. [Current status of bacteriological studies at prefectural and municipal public health institutes in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Hiroto; Seto, Kazuko; Kawase, Jun; Arikawa, Kentaro; Funatogawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kubota, Hiroaki; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Prefectural and municipal public health institutes are located in prefectures and ordinance-designated cities in Japan, and play a vital role in the regional surveillance of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. These institutes, in close cooperation with national institutes such as the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Health Sciences, construct the national surveillance network for infectious diseases and their causative agents. Bacteriological examinations and studies on a variety of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses are core activities of prefectural and municipal public health institutes, through which novel and important bacteriological findings have been acquired. In this article, we report the latest findings regarding bacteriological examinations/studies and interesting cases at these institutes, especially concerning foodborne illnesses, tuberculosis, and antimicrobial resistances.

  10. Multi-institutional Validation Study of Commercially Available Deformable Image Registration Software for Thoracic Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Yujiro; Saito, Masahide; Miyabe, Yuki; Kurooka, Masahiko; Kito, Satoshi; Fujita, Yukio; Sasaki, Motoharu; Arai, Kazuhiro; Tani, Kensuke; Yagi, Masashi; Wakita, Akihisa; Tohyama, Naoki; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of the commercially available deformable image registration (DIR) software for thoracic images at multiple institutions. Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) CT images of 10 patients with esophageal or lung cancer were used. Datasets for these patients were provided by DIR-lab ( (dir-lab.com)) and included a coordinate list of anatomic landmarks (300 bronchial bifurcations) that had been manually identified. Deformable image registration was performed between the peak-inhale and -exhale images. Deformable image registration error was determined by calculating the difference at each landmark point between the displacement calculated by DIR software and that calculated by the landmark. Results: Eleven institutions participated in this study: 4 used RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden), 5 used MIM Software (Cleveland, OH), and 3 used Velocity (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The ranges of the average absolute registration errors over all cases were as follows: 0.48 to 1.51 mm (right-left), 0.53 to 2.86 mm (anterior-posterior), 0.85 to 4.46 mm (superior-inferior), and 1.26 to 6.20 mm (3-dimensional). For each DIR software package, the average 3-dimensional registration error (range) was as follows: RayStation, 3.28 mm (1.26-3.91 mm); MIM Software, 3.29 mm (2.17-3.61 mm); and Velocity, 5.01 mm (4.02-6.20 mm). These results demonstrate that there was moderate variation among institutions, although the DIR software was the same. Conclusions: We evaluated the commercially available DIR software using thoracic 4D-CT images from multiple centers. Our results demonstrated that DIR accuracy differed among institutions because it was dependent on both the DIR software and procedure. Our results could be helpful for establishing prospective clinical trials and for the widespread use of DIR software. In addition, for clinical care, we should try to find the optimal DIR procedure using thoracic 4D

  11. Conversation analysis and the study of social institutions: methodological, socio-cultural and epistemic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Roca-Cuberes, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show how conversation analysis, a sociological discipline, approaches the study of social institutions. Social institutions are conceived as the crystallization of members’ communicative, interactional practices. Two institutional domains—psychiatric interviews and broadcast news interviews —and a specific interactional practice—‘formulations’—are examined in this study. The results show that (1) in psychiatric interviews the psychiatrist uses formulations to...

  12. Factors Affecting Women Enrolment In Technical Institutions In Tanzania A Case Study Of Arusha Technical College

    OpenAIRE

    Glory B. Kaaya; Dr. Esther Waiganjo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions in Tanzania by focusing on the women. The study examined in detail the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical institutions and Arusha Technical College in particular as well as exploring sexual dynamics within Technical Institutions. Moreover a number of theoretical frameworks were concerned basing on the objectives a case study design was employed involving both qua...

  13. Curcumin AntiCancer Studies in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bimonte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the gold-standard therapy for patients with advanced PC; although this treatment is associated with a better overall survival compared to the old treatment, many side effects and poor results are still present. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for treatment of advanced PC. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has anticancer effects against different types of cancer, including PC, by modulating many molecular targets. Regarding PC, in vitro studies have shown potent cytotoxic effects of curcumin on different PC cell lines including MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3. In addition, in vivo studies on PC models have shown that the anti-proliferative effects of curcumin are caused by the inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis and are due to the induction of apoptosis. On the basis of these results, several researchers tested the anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials, trying to overcome the poor bioavailability of this agent by developing new bioavailable forms of curcumin. In this article, we review the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of curcumin in the treatment of PC.

  14. Management Head and Neck Ewing's Sarcoma Family of tumors: Experience of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, M.; El-Baradie, T.; Bahaa, Sh.; Shalan, M.; El-Baradie, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma accounts for 4-6% of primary malignant bone tumors and it affects the head and neck in only 1-4% of cases. The purpose of this study was to review the NCI experience with Ewing's sarcoma of the head and neck in children. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of patient files with head and neck Ewing's sarcoma treated at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt, during the period from 1997 to 2008 was done. Files were reviewed and data for patients, tumor and treatment profile were extracted. Results: Twenty patients out of 280 with Ewing's sarcoma were identified during an 11 -year period. Patients had a median age of 11.5 years (range 5 months - 22 years) with a male to female ratio of 1:1. The most common tumor site was in the mandible (9/20, 45%) followed by a neck mass (4/20, 20%) and a clavicular mass (3/20, 15%). Six patients (30%) were metastatic at presentation. Most of the patients (19/20, 95%) received chemotherapy. Local therapy was in the form of radical radiotherapy for 8 patients (40%), 2 patients (10%) had surgery alone, while five patients (25%) had surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy. Overall survival ranged from 1 to 128 months, with a median of 36 months. At the end of the study, 9 patients (45%) were alive in CR, 6 (30%) were lost to FU in disease progression, while 5 patients died from disease progression. Conclusion: Ewing's sarcoma of the head and neck is a disease of a rare incidence with debate about the optimum local therapy. Small non-metastatic tumors with good response to chemotherapy have abetter outcome.

  15. Patterns of care study and evidence based medicine for radiation therapy. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2002-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, there is little evidence of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Therefore, we have to refer to the evidence of radiation therapy from Western countries, but we should pay attention to the differences of cultural, racial, or social background between Japan and Western countries. The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) was conducted in Japan and extramural audits were performed for 50 randomly selected institutions. Detailed information of 311 prostate cancer patients without distant metastases and other cancers, who were treated with radiation therapy in 1996-1998, was collected. In this article, the results of PCS for primary prostate cancer were shown, with a review of literature for the appropriate choice of radiation therapy. This study was supported by the Grantin-Aid for Cancer Research from Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (10-17). (author)

  16. One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification in Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node: A Single Institutional Experience and a Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Tatiana; Fiamengo, Barbara; Tinterri, Corrado; Testori, Alberto; Grassi, Massimo Maria; Sciarra, Amedeo; Abbate, Tommaso; Gatzemeier, Wolfgang; Roncalli, Massimo; Di Tommaso, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination is a standard in breast cancer patients, with several methods employed along its 20 years history, the last one represented by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). The latter is a intra-operative molecular assay searching for CK19 mRNA as a surrogate of metastatic cells. Our 3 years experience with OSNA (1122 patients) showed results overlapping those recorded in the same institution with a morphological evaluation (930 patients) of SLN. In detail,...

  17. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  18. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in ... and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. ... Results: Majority of the women have poor knowledge about cervical cancer ...

  19. Progression-free Survival Following Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Treatment-naive Recurrence: A Multi-institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Piet; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; As, Nicholas Van; Zilli, Thomas; Muacevic, Alexander; Olivier, Kenneth; Henderson, Daniel; Casamassima, Franco; Orecchia, Roberto; Surgo, Alessia; Brown, Lindsay; Tree, Alison; Miralbell, Raymond; De Meerleer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    The literature on metastasis-directed therapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence consists of small heterogeneous studies. This study aimed to reduce the heterogeneity by pooling individual patient data from different institutions treating oligometastatic PCa recurrence with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). We focussed on patients who were treatment naive, with the aim of determining if SBRT could delay disease progression. We included patients with three or fewer metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate distant progression-free survival (DPFS) and local progression-free survival (LPFS). Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. In total, 163 metastases were treated in 119 patients. The median DPFS was 21 mo (95% confidence interval, 15-26 mo). A lower radiotherapy dose predicted a higher local recurrence rate with a 3-yr LPFS of 79% for patients treated with a biologically effective dose ≤100Gy versus 99% for patients treated with >100Gy (p=0.01). Seventeen patients (14%) developed toxicity classified as grade 1, and three patients (3%) developed grade 2 toxicity. No grade ≥3 toxicity occurred. These results should serve as a benchmark for future prospective trials. This multi-institutional study pools all of the available data on the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy for limited prostate cancer metastases. We concluded that this approach is safe and associated with a prolonged treatment progression-free survival. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Epidemiological studies on gastric cancer in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Kenji; Shimokawa, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    1984-01-01

    One thousand-four hundred and twenty-four cases of gastric cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry between 1973 and 1977 were studied. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to be higher in persons exposed to the atomic bomb within 2.0 km from the hypocenter, especially in young persons, than in non-exposed individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with the nonexposed, the corrected relative risk of gastric cancer in persons exposed within 2.0 km from the hypocenter was 1.28 in males and 1.11 in females. In terms of histologic type or location, the incidence of gastric cancer showed no statistically significant difference between the exposed and nonexposed persons. (author)

  1. Breast cancer in women aging 35 years old and younger: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute (NCI) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, A D; Helal, A M; Aly El-Din, N H; Solaiman, L L; Amin, A

    2017-02-01

    The aim is to identify the epidemiological and clinicopathological features associated with young breast cancer (BC) patients and to discuss factors affecting tumor recurrence and DFS. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on medical records from young females patients aged ≤35 years with pathologically confirmed primary breast cancer treated during 2008-2010 at NCI. Cases with non invasive cancer and non carcinoma histology are excluded. Of the 5408 cases diagnosed with breast cancer, 554 were young. Four hundred & fifty eight patients representing 9.2% were within our inclusion criteria. Almost half of the patients (45.9%) presented with stage III. Axillary nodes involvement was in 63.9%, 83.3% were grade 2. More than one quarter of tumors was hormone receptors negative (28.8%) & Her2 was over-expressed in 30%. Mastectomy was offered in 72% while conservative breast surgery in 26%, 69.2% received chemotherapy either adjuvant, neoadjuvant or both, 82.5% received adjuvant radiotherapy, 68.6% received hormonal therapy. Metastatic disease developed in 51.3%, with 31% having more than one site of metastases. After a median follow up period of 66 months, the median DFS of patients was 60 months. The median DFS was significantly shorter among patients with positive lymph nodes (P Breast cancer in young women is aggressive from the time of diagnosis. Our results provide baseline data of young BC in the Middle East & North Africa region; thus, contributing to future epidemiological and hospital-based researches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND BUDGETARY FUNDING OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: INSTITUTIONS FINANCED BY THE LOCAL COUNCIL OF GALATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Riana Iren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full of reforms, accounting science always tried to approach the concerned user requirements as return on capital employed and the complete picture of the operations that occurred during the financial year. For public sector entities, international financial reporting practices are referring to International Accounting Standards for the Public Sector (IPSAS. In this paper we intend to present a parallel between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and IPSAS conjunction with the main aspects of budgetary lending highlighted through a case study aimed at the budget-funded institutions Galati Local Council in 2011-2013.

  3. Pazopanib in metastatic renal cancer: a “real-world” experience at National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chiara Cecere

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pazopanib is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor, currently approved for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC and soft tissue sarcoma. The present study analyzed the outcomes of pazopanib in first-line treatment of mRCC, in a single Italian cancer center. In the light of the retrospective, observational nature and the unselected population, our experience can be defined a real-world study. The medical records of 38 mRCC patients treated with front-line pazopanib were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The progression free survival (PFS and the overall survival (OS were the primary endpoints, while secondary objectives included Objective Response Rate (ORR, Disease Control Rate (DCR, and treatment tolerability. Pazopanib achieved a median PFS (mPFS of 12.7 months (95% CI, 6.9-18.5 months. The median OS (mOS was 26.2 months (95% CI, 12.6-39.9 months; the observed ORR and DCR were 30.3% and 72.7%, respectively, with a median duration of response of 11 weeks. mPFS appeared not to be influenced by number of co-morbidities (3, gender, Fuhrman grade and age. Conversely, the ORR and the DCR positively affect the mPFS (HR=0.05 [95% CI, 0.05-055], p=0.01; HR=0.10 [95% CI, 0.02-0.43], p=0.002 respectively. A worse outcome was associated with a lower mPFS in patients with liver metastases (p= 0.2 and with a high tumor burden (number of metastatic sites 6 (p= 0.08. Worst OS was observed in patients age >70 years old (HR=6.91 [95% CI, 1.49-31.91], p=0.01. The treatment was well tolerated: no grade 4 adverse events, nor discontinuation due to toxicities was reported. Grade 3 hypertension affected positively the OS reaching the statistical significance (HR=0.22 [95% CI, 0.05-0.8], p=0.03 and thyroid dysfunction (hypo and hyperthyroidism seems to correlate with better outcome in terms of a longer mPFS (HR=0.12 [95% CI, 0.02-0.78], p=0.02. Our results are consistent with those reported in prospective phase III trials and the published retrospective

  4. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...

  5. Cost and Outcome of Treatment of Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia at the National Cancer Institute-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, H.M.; Zeeneldin, A.A.; Samra, M.A.; El-Gammal, M.M.; Mattar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the majority of patients die of their disease, unless bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is done. Infection and hemorrhage are still the major causes of mortality in AML patients. Progress in therapy and supportive care has led to gradual improvement in the overall results, but further improvements are still needed. Patients and Methods: The aim of this study is to identify the outcome and costs of adult AML patients treated with conventional chemotherapy (CCT) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University during the time period from April 1999 to January 2002. Clinical, laboratory characteristics were all recorded. Data regarding different types of therapies given for these patients including response, outcome and costs were also collected. Results: The median age of 82 identified AML patients was 34 years. The complete remission (CR) rate after induction with CCT was 52% (42/82 patients) with a median CR duration of 9 months. Twenty-eight percent of patients who achieved CR subsequently relapsed. By January 2003, fifty-eight patients were dead (70.7%). Infections were the major mortality cause, followed by disease progression then bleeding (65%, 28% and 7% respectively). The median treatment cost per patient was 33158 Egyptian Pounds (LE). It was higher for patients who achieved CR compared to those who relapsed and/or died. Drugs contributed by 78 % to the total treatment cost, while hospitalization, investigations and blood-component therapy contributed by 6%, 7% and 8% respectively. Conclusions: Outcome of patients with AML treated at NCI- Cairo University can be enhanced by improvement of supportive therapy; mainly infection control and expanding BMT programs to accommodate all eligible patients

  6. Higher complication risk of totally implantable venous access port systems in patients with advanced cancer - a single institution retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Fang; Lo, An-Chi; Tsai, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Pei-Yi; Sun, Shen; Chang, Te-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Yuan-Shin; Chen, Jen-Ruei

    2013-02-01

    Totally implantable port systems are generally recommended for prolonged central venous access in diverse settings, but their risk of complications remains unclear for patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of port system failure in patients with advanced cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a comprehensive cancer centre. A detailed chart review was conducted among 566 patients with 573 ports inserted during January-June, 2009 (average 345.3 catheter-days). Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate factors during insertion and early maintenance that could lead to premature removal of the port systems due to infection or occlusion. Port system-related infection was significantly associated with receiving palliative care immediately after implantation (hazard ratio, HR = 7.3, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 1.2-46.0), after adjusting for probable confounders. Primary cancer site also impacted the occurrence of device-related infection. Receiving oncologic/palliative care (HR = 3.0, P = 0.064), advanced cancer stage (HR = 6.5, P = 0.077) and body surface area above 1.71 m(2) (HR = 3.4, P = 0.029) increased the risk of port system occlusion. Our study indicates that totally implantable port systems yield a higher risk of complications in terminally ill patients. Further investigation should be carefully conducted to compare outcomes of various central venous access devices in patients with advanced cancer and to develop preventive strategies against catheter failure.

  7. High Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Two 9 Gy Fractions in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer - a South Indian Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Rao, Pamidimukkala Bramhananda; Kotne, Sivasankar

    2015-01-01

    Although 3D image based brachytherapy is currently the standard of treatment in cervical cancer, most of the centres in developing countries still practice orthogonal intracavitary brachytherapy due to financial constraints. The quest for optimum dose and fractionation schedule in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is still ongoing. While the American Brachytherapy Society recommends four to eight fractions of each less than 7.5 Gy, there are some studies demonstrating similar efficacy and comparable toxicity with higher doses per fraction. To assess the treatment efficacy and late complications of HDR ICBT with 9 Gy per fraction in two fractions. This is a prospective institutional study in Southern India carried on from 1st June 2012 to 31st July 2014. In this period, 76 patients of cervical cancer satisfying our inclusion criteria were treated with concurrent chemo-radiation following ICBT with 9 Gy per fraction in two fractions, five to seven days apart. The median follow-up period in the study was 24 months (range 10.6 - 31.2 months). The 2 year actuarial local control rate, disease-free survival and overall survival were 88.1%, 84.2% and 81.8% respectively. Although 38.2% patients suffered from late toxicity, only 3 patients had grade III late toxicity. In our experience, HDR brachytherapy with 9 Gy per fraction in two fractions is an effective dose fractionation for the treatment of cervical cancer with acceptable toxicity.

  8. Radiation therapy outcomes in muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer: A single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, M S; Ni, L H; Saini, S; Verma, S K; Doddamani, D; Jain, N; Biswas, M; Gupta, Meenu; Gupta, Madhur; Saini, M; Chauhan, N

    2016-01-01

    To audit the survival outcomes and loco-regional control in muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT). From November 2008 through December 2011, 50 consecutively diagnosed muscle invasive urinary bladder carcinoma (T2-4a N0-2, M0) patients were included in this retrospective study. All these patients received external beam RT to a median dose of 60 Gy (range 30-66 Gy), and were not suitable for radical surgery due to patients' preference or medical comorbidities. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression was used to identify prognostic factors with respect to survival. Completion trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor was done in 38 (76%) patients of the cohort and 47 (94%) had transitional cell carcinoma on histopathology. Clinical stage T2 was diagnosed in 40 (80%) patients. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 14 ± 8.9 months (range 1-36 months). In conclusion, 24 patients (48%) were free of disease, 5 patients (10%) had residual disease, and 13 patients (26%) had died of disease. Two-year and 3 year overall survival of intact bladder for the entire cohort was 58% and 43.6%, respectively. Cox regression modeling strongly suggested clinical stage (P = 0.01) and RT dose (P = 0.001) as being predictors for overall survival. RT shows reliable outcomes and excellent compliance in this advanced disease. Prescribing a higher RT dose could potentially correlate to better intact bladder control rates while maintaining good quality of life in selected patients.

  9. Can Internationalisation Really Lead to Institutional Competitive Advantage?--A Study of 16 Dutch Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, Haijing

    2014-01-01

    Public higher education institutions (PHEIs) have widely acknowledged a positive relationship between internationalization and their institutional competitive advantage enhancement. Although some concerns have been raised by practitioners and researchers about whether institutional competitive advantage can be enhanced given the current ways of…

  10. Whom to treat? Factors associated with chemotherapy recommendations and outcomes among patients with NHL at the Uganda Cancer Institute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Menon

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment options in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce despite an increasing burden of disease. Identification of those cancer patients who would benefit most from the limited resources available would allow broader and more effective therapy.We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients over the age of 18 at the time of a pathologic diagnosis of NHL between 2003 and 2010 who were residents of Kyandondo County (Uganda and presented to the Uganda Cancer Institute for care.A total of 128 patients were included in this analysis. Chemotherapy was recommended to 117 (91.4% of the patients; the odds of recommending chemotherapy decreased for each additional month of reported symptoms prior to diagnosis. Of the 117 patients to whom chemotherapy was recommended, 111 (86.7% patients received at least 1 cycle of chemotherapy; HIV infected patients, as well as those with a lower hemoglobin and advanced disease at the time of diagnosis were significantly less likely to complete therapy. Among the patients who initiated chemotherapy, twenty patients died prior to treatment completion (including nine who died within 30 days. Hemoglobin level at the time of presentation was the only variable associated with early mortality in the adjusted model.In resource-poor areas, it is essential to align health care expenditures with interventions likely to provide benefit to affected populations. Targeting cancer therapy to those with a favorable chance of responding will not only save limited resources, but will also prevent harm in those patients unlikely to realize an effect of cancer-directed therapy.

  11. Studies on retrospective analysis of leading primary cancers and improvement of cancer treatment method in Korea cancer center hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Kang Hyun; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    2000-12-01

    a. Retrospective studies included cancers of the stomach, breast, bladder, salivary gland, thyroid, esophagus, endometrium and ovary. (1) Study cancers were analyzed about clinical characteristics, prognostic factors influenced on survival time, survival rate, etc. (2) Among 5,305 study patients, 1,405(26.5%) were identified with death, 3,485(65.7%) were alive and 415(7.8%) were not identified. b. Prospective studies included 10 subjects such as bladder cancer, retinoblastoma, malignant patients, gastric cancer, uterine cervix cancer and ovary cancer. We are continuing registering eligible study patients. c. Results for 11 papers were published at the journal. d. We established follow-up system in order to identify the survival for study subjects through National Statistical Office, Government Provincial Office and Cancer Registration System at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. e. At present, we are establishing computerized registration system about case report form for study cancers.

  12. Studies on retrospective analysis of leading primary cancers and improvement of cancer treatment method in Korea cancer center hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Kang Hyun; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    2000-12-01

    a. Retrospective studies included cancers of the stomach, breast, bladder, salivary gland, thyroid, esophagus, endometrium and ovary. (1) Study cancers were analyzed about clinical characteristics, prognostic factors influenced on survival time, survival rate, etc. (2) Among 5,305 study patients, 1,405(26.5%) were identified with death, 3,485(65.7%) were alive and 415(7.8%) were not identified. b. Prospective studies included 10 subjects such as bladder cancer, retinoblastoma, malignant patients, gastric cancer, uterine cervix cancer and ovary cancer. We are continuing registering eligible study patients. c. Results for 11 papers were published at the journal. d. We established follow-up system in order to identify the survival for study subjects through National Statistical Office, Government Provincial Office and Cancer Registration System at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. e. At present, we are establishing computerized registration system about case report form for study cancers

  13. A longitudinal and experimental study of the impact of knowledge on the bases of institutional trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PytlikZillig, Lisa M; Kimbrough, Christopher D; Shockley, Ellie; Neal, Tess M S; Herian, Mitchel N; Hamm, Joseph A; Bornstein, Brian H; Tomkins, Alan J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined a knowledge-centered theory of institutional trust development. In the context of trust in water regulatory institutions, the moderating impact of knowledge was tested to determine if there were longitudinal changes in the bases of institutional trust as a function of increases in knowledge about a target institution. We hypothesized that as people learn about an institution with which they were previously unfamiliar, they begin to form more nuanced perceptions, distinguishing the new institution from other institutions and relying less upon their generalized trust to estimate their trust in that institution. Prior to having specific, differential information about a new institution, we expected institutional trust to be a function of generalized trust variables such as dispositional trust and trust in government. The longitudinal experiment involved 185 college students randomly assigned to one of three information conditions. Every 3 months for 15 months, participants read information about water regulatory institutions or a control institution. At each time point, participants reported their trust in and perceptions of the trust- and distrust-worthiness of the water regulatory institutions. Participants also completed measures of knowledge of water regulatory institutions, dispositional trust, and governmental trust. Our manipulation check indicated that, as expected, those in the experimental group increased in subjective knowledge of water regulatory institutions to a greater extent than those in the control condition. Consistent with our hypotheses, there was some evidence that, compared to the control group, the experimental group relied less on their general trust in government as a basis for their trust in water regulatory institutions. However, contrary to our hypotheses, there was no evidence the experimental group relied less on dispositional trust as a basis for institutional trust. There also was some evidence the experimental

  14. A longitudinal and experimental study of the impact of knowledge on the bases of institutional trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M PytlikZillig

    Full Text Available This study examined a knowledge-centered theory of institutional trust development. In the context of trust in water regulatory institutions, the moderating impact of knowledge was tested to determine if there were longitudinal changes in the bases of institutional trust as a function of increases in knowledge about a target institution. We hypothesized that as people learn about an institution with which they were previously unfamiliar, they begin to form more nuanced perceptions, distinguishing the new institution from other institutions and relying less upon their generalized trust to estimate their trust in that institution. Prior to having specific, differential information about a new institution, we expected institutional trust to be a function of generalized trust variables such as dispositional trust and trust in government. The longitudinal experiment involved 185 college students randomly assigned to one of three information conditions. Every 3 months for 15 months, participants read information about water regulatory institutions or a control institution. At each time point, participants reported their trust in and perceptions of the trust- and distrust-worthiness of the water regulatory institutions. Participants also completed measures of knowledge of water regulatory institutions, dispositional trust, and governmental trust. Our manipulation check indicated that, as expected, those in the experimental group increased in subjective knowledge of water regulatory institutions to a greater extent than those in the control condition. Consistent with our hypotheses, there was some evidence that, compared to the control group, the experimental group relied less on their general trust in government as a basis for their trust in water regulatory institutions. However, contrary to our hypotheses, there was no evidence the experimental group relied less on dispositional trust as a basis for institutional trust. There also was some evidence

  15. Statistical study on cancer patients of Korea cancer centre hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Kee Hwa; Mok, Kang Sung [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 53,566 cases(14.1%) among 379,582 patients from 1984 to 1993. On sex, females with 51.3% were much more than males with 48.7%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 35.0% in males and 28.4% in females, respectively for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 33.2%, followed by liver(15.1%), lung(14.9%), esophagus(5.3%) and larynx(3.3%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 37.8%, followed by stomach(16.5%), breast(14.8%), thyroid gland(4.3%) and lung (3.8%). The proportion of malignant neoplasms diagnosed by histology made up 67.0%, whereas 20.2% was diagnosed by clinical investigation(X-ray, CT, MRI etc). Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 3.7% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 58.7% for patients with localized involvement, 18.4% for patients with regional involvement and 11.1% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 27.5% for surgery, 22.5% for radiotherapy and 30.1% for chemotherapy. The proportion of cancer patients traced to death was only to 3.6%, 1,944 cases. Among them, 72.5% survived for less than 1 year. 17 figs, 7 tabs, 28 refs. (Author).

  16. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yun Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    1993-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  17. Statistical study on cancer patients of Korea cancer centre hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Kee Hwa; Kang Sung Mok

    1994-12-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 53,566 cases(14.1%) among 379,582 patients from 1984 to 1993. On sex, females with 51.3% were much more than males with 48.7%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 35.0% in males and 28.4% in females, respectively for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 33.2%, followed by liver(15.1%), lung(14.9%), esophagus(5.3%) and larynx(3.3%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 37.8%, followed by stomach(16.5%), breast(14.8%), thyroid gland(4.3%) and lung (3.8%). The proportion of malignant neoplasms diagnosed by histology made up 67.0%, whereas 20.2% was diagnosed by clinical investigation(X-ray, CT, MRI etc). Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 3.7% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 58.7% for patients with localized involvement, 18.4% for patients with regional involvement and 11.1% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 27.5% for surgery, 22.5% for radiotherapy and 30.1% for chemotherapy. The proportion of cancer patients traced to death was only to 3.6%, 1,944 cases. Among them, 72.5% survived for less than 1 year. 17 figs, 7 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)

  18. Stage at presentation of breast cancer in Luanda, Angola - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Miguel, Fernando; Freitas, Helga; Tavares, António; Pangui, Salvador; Castro, Clara; Lacerda, Gonçalo Forjaz; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2015-10-15

    It is expected that, by 2020, 15 million new cases of cancer will occur every year in the world, one million of them in Africa. Knowledge of cancer trends in African countries is far from adequate, and improvements in cancer prevention efforts are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to characterize breast cancer clinically and pathologically at presentation in Luanda, Angola; we additionally provide quality information that will be useful for breast cancer care planning in the country. Data on breast cancer cases were retrieved from the Angolan Institute of Cancer Control, from 2006 to 2014. For women diagnosed in 2009 (5-years of follow-up), demographic, clinical and pathological information, at presentation, was collected, namely age at diagnosis, parity, methods used for pathological diagnoses, tumor pathological characteristics, stage of disease and treatment. Descriptive statistics were performed. The median age of women diagnosed with breast cancer in 2009 was 47 years old (range 25-89). The most frequent clinical presentation was breast swelling with axillary lymph nodes metastasis (44.9 %), followed by a mass larger than 5 cm (14.2 %) and lump (12.9 %). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the main histologic type (81.8 %). Only 10.1 % of cancer cases had a well differentiated histological grade. Cancers were diagnosed mostly at advanced stages (66.7 % in stage III and 11.1 % in stage IV). In this study, breast cancer was diagnosed at a very advanced stage. Although it reports data from a single cancer center in Luanda, Angola it reinforces the need for early diagnosis and increasing awareness. According to the main challenges related to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment herein presented, we propose a realistic framework that would allow for the implementation of a breast cancer care program, built under a strong network based on cooperation, teaching, audit, good practices and the organization of health services. Angola needs urgently a program for

  19. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Symptom management in cancer: pain, depression, and fatigue, July 15-17, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Daniel L; Ferketich, Sandra L; Frame, Paul S; Harris, Jesse J; Hendricks, Carolyn B; Levin, Bernard; Link, Michael P; Lustig, Craig; McLaughlin, Joseph; Reid, L Douglas; Turrisi, Andrew T; Unützer, Jürgen; Vernon, Sally W

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and effective treatment, cancer remains one of the most feared diseases. Among the most common side effects of cancer and treatments for cancer are pain, depression, and fatigue. Although research is producing increasingly hopeful insights into the causes and cures for cancer, efforts to manage the side effects of the disease and its treatments have not kept pace. The challenge that faces us is how to increase awareness of the importance of recognizing and actively addressing cancer-related distress. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a State-of-the-Science Conference on Symptom Management in Cancer: Pain, Depression, and Fatigue to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the management of pain, depression, and fatigue in individuals with cancer and to identify directions for future research. Specifically, the conference examined how to identify individuals who are at risk for cancer-related pain, depression, and/or fatigue; what treatments work best to address these symptoms when they occur; and what is the best way to deliver interventions across the continuum of care. STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE PROCESS: A non-advocate, non-Federal, 14-member panel of experts representing the fields of oncology, radiology, psychology, nursing, public health, social work, and epidemiology prepared the statement. In addition, 24 experts in medical oncology, geriatrics, pharmacology, psychology, and neurology presented data to the panel and to the conference audience during the first 1.5 days of the conference. The panel then prepared its statement, addressing the five predetermined questions and drawing on submitted literature, the speakers' presentations, and discussions held at the conference. The statement was presented to the conference audience, followed by a press conference to allow the panel to respond to questions from the media. After its release at the conference, the draft statement was made available on the Internet

  20. Pazopanib in Metastatic Renal Cancer: A “Real-World” Experience at National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Sabrina C.; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Della Pepa, Chiara; Di Napoli, Marilena; Crispo, Anna; Iovane, Gelsomina; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Domenico; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Maiolino, Piera; Muto, Paolo; Perdonà, Sisto; Berretta, Massimiliano; Pignata, Sandro; Facchini, Gaetano; D'Aniello, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Pazopanib is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor, currently approved for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and soft tissue sarcoma. The present study analyzed the outcomes of pazopanib in first-line treatment of mRCC, in a single Italian cancer center. In the light of the retrospective, observational nature and the unselected population, our experience can be defined a “real-world” study. The medical records of 38 mRCC patients treated with front-line pazopanib were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The progression free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) were the primary endpoints, while secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and treatment tolerability. Pazopanib achieved a median PFS (mPFS) of 12.7 months (95% CI, 6.9–18.5 months). The median OS (mOS) was 26.2 months (95% CI, 12.6–39.9 months); the observed ORR and DCR were 30.3 and 72.7%, respectively, with a median duration of response of 11 weeks. mPFS appeared not to be influenced by number of co-morbidities (< 3 vs. ≥3), gender, Fuhrman grade and age. Conversely, the ORR and the DCR positively affect the mPFS (HR = 0.05 [95% CI, 0.05–0.55], p = 0.01; HR = 0.10 [95% CI, 0.02–0.43], p = 0.002, respectively). A worse outcome was associated with a lower mPFS in patients with liver metastases (p = 0.2) and with a high tumor burden (number of metastatic sites < 6 vs. ≥6) (p = 0.08). Worst OS was observed in patients aged ≥70 years old (HR = 6.91 [95% CI, 1.49–31.91], p = 0.01). The treatment was well-tolerated: no grade 4 adverse events, nor discontinuation due to toxicities was reported. Grade 3 hypertension affected positively the OS reaching the statistical significance (HR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.05–0.8], p = 0.03). Thyroid dysfunction (hypo and hyperthyroidism) seems to correlate with better outcome in terms of a longer mPFS (HR = 0.12 [95% CI, 0.02–0.78], p = 0.02). Our results are consistent with those reported in

  1. Participation without Parity in U.S. Higher Education: Gender, Fields of Study, and Institutional Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ann L.; Baker, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    While women now earn more bachelor's degrees than men in many parts of the world, large gender gaps persist in fields of study, and women remain underrepresented in the most prestigious institutions. This study updates and extends the literature on gender disparities in higher education by comparing the selectivity of the institutions where men…

  2. Comparative Analysis of Institutional Policy Definitions of Plagiarism: A Pan-Canadian University Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article shares the findings of a study investigating institutional policy definitions of plagiarism at twenty English-speaking Canadian universities. The types of primary sources consulted for this study included: (1) university academic calendars for 2016-2017, (2) institutional policies on academic misconduct, and (3) student academic codes…

  3. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  4. Planning a multi-institutional information for development study centre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moreno, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available . The I4D Study Centre tasks are to increase both the research expertise pool available for Meraka and the partner university, and the joint development of study programs with universities that will prepare students for a researcher career with an ICT4D...

  5. [Scientific production and cancer-related collaboration networks in Peru 2000-2011: a bibliometric study in Scopus and Science Citation Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Huamaní, Charles; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Samanez-Figari, César; González-Alcaide, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to describe the scientific production on cancer written by Peruvians and published in international health journals, as well as to assess the scientific collaboration networks. It included articles on cancer written in Peru between the years 2000 and 2011 and published in health journals indexed in SCOPUS or Science Citation Index Expanded. In the 358 articles identified, an increase in the production was seen, from 4 articles in 2000 to 57 in 2011.The most studied types were cervical cancer (77 publications); breast cancer (53), and gastric cancer (37). The National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) was the most productive institution (121 articles) and had the highest number of collaborations (180 different institutions). 52 clinical trials were identified, 29 of which had at least one author from INEN. We can conclude that, cancer research is increasing in Peru, the INEN being the most productive institution, with an important participation in clinical trials.

  6. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  7. Digital preservation and institutional repositories: case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irene Nyachiro

    The study investigated the strategies used by ... data. Lord et al. argue that much needs to be done to enable this data to remain available and valid to ... cycle perspective facilitates continuity of .... The major modes of scholarly preservation.

  8. Platinum-Based Therapy in Adenosquamous Pancreatic Cancer: Experience at Two Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luiz De Souza; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare type of pancreatic cancer. Although its molecular biology profile hasbeen shown to be similar to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors, it has different prognostic features. There is noconsensus or guidelines to treat this tumor differently from pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but therapies based on gemcitabineand platinum chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin and oxaliplatin have been used based on results of a few case reports. Wediscuss the Abst...

  9. Employee Retention Factors For South African Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Netswera

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of the most competitive companies throughout the world, including higher education institutions, lies in their highly skilled employees on which these institutions spend millions to retain. Literature reveals the cost of losing best employees to be enormous – beyond monetary quantification. Also worth noting is that the loss of one competent employee to a competitor institution strengthens the competitor’s advantage. This case study analysed human resources turnover data, and interviewed academic managers and employees in order to examine the possible employee retention factors for a higher education institution in South Africa. The findings reveal different institutional interests between institutional managers and employees. The former are concerned more about profits, business sustenance and justification for spending, while the latter are driven by introverted interests such as development, monetary rewards and personal fulfilment.

  10. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  11. Institution Based Prospective Cross-Sectional Study on Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Every year, millions of babies are born and a large proportion of them are being admitted to hospital for various indications. This study was conducted to identify the general characteristics, disease spectrum and common causes of Neonatal morbidity and mortality at Gondar University Hospital, Neonatal ...

  12. Instituting Cultural Change at a Major Organization: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulek, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development and implementation of a strategic cultural change program from a case study perspective. Initially, the article describes how the program was developed, including an explanation as to how a communication component was integrated into the program from inception. This integration helped reduce the anxiety that…

  13. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Negusie, Azezu Asres

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth in a health institution has been shown to be associated with lower rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, about 85% of mothers in Ethiopia deliver at home. To assess factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among women who gave birth within one year prior to the study in Dangila district. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01-28, 2015. A total of 763 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Crude and adjusted Odds ratios were computed for selected variables. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Only 18.3% of mothers gave birth at health facilities. Knowledge on danger signs [AOR=2.0, 95% CI: (1.1, 3.4)], plan to give birth at health institution [AOR=5.4, 95% CI: (3.0, 9.6)], having ANC follow up during pregnancy [AOR=12.9, 95% CI: (5.0, 33.3)] and time taken to get to a nearby health institution [AOR=5.1, 95% CI: (2.9, 9.1)] were associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Institutional delivery was very low. Knowledge about danger signs, having ANC visits, and time were factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Thus, the findings recommend repeated re-enforcement of institutional delivery service utilization through professionals. And also, the findings recommend promotion of institutional delivery service utilization through mass media.

  14. The path dependency theory: analytical framework to study institutional integration. The case of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvé, Hélène; Couturier, Yves; Etheridge, Francis; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

    2010-06-30

    The literature on integration indicates the need for an enhanced theorization of institutional integration. This article proposes path dependence as an analytical framework to study the systems in which integration takes place. PRISMA proposes a model for integrating health and social care services for older adults. This model was initially tested in Quebec. The PRISMA France study gave us an opportunity to analyze institutional integration in France. A qualitative approach was used. Analyses were based on semi-structured interviews with actors of all levels of decision-making, observations of advisory board meetings, and administrative documents. Our analyses revealed the complexity and fragmentation of institutional integration. The path dependency theory, which analyzes the change capacity of institutions by taking into account their historic structures, allows analysis of this situation. The path dependency to the Bismarckian system and the incomplete reforms of gerontological policies generate the coexistence and juxtaposition of institutional systems. In such a context, no institution has sufficient ability to determine gerontology policy and build institutional integration by itself. Using path dependence as an analytical framework helps to understand the reasons why institutional integration is critical to organizational and clinical integration, and the complex construction of institutional integration in France.

  15. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.villeneuve@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  16. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Motivation to study dental professions in one London Dental Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsi, A; Asimakopoulou, K; Donaldson, N; Gallagher, J

    2014-02-01

    While past research has explored dental students' motivation to study, there is limited understanding in the reasons behind career choice for hygienists/therapists and dental nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate simultaneously the views of students of dentistry, hygiene/therapy and dental nursing in King's College London and explore similarities or differences in career choice. All first-year students were invited to the questionnaire survey, exploring motivation to study using a 23-item instrument. Data were analysed using SPSS v18; statistical analysis included one-way analyses of variance and factor analysis. The overall response rate to the study was 75% (n = 209). Ten out of 23 factors were considered important by more than 80% of respondents, with 'job security' (93.8%), 'desire to work with people' (88%) and 'degree leading to recognised job' (87.5%) being top three. Analysis suggested that 52% of the total variation in motivating influences was explained by four factors: 'features of the job' (26%), 'education/skills' (11%), 'public service' (8%) and 'careers-advising' (7%); at group level 'features of the job' were significantly more important for the direct entrants to dentistry (P = 0.001). The findings suggest that across groups students were motivated to study by common influences reflecting altruistic, but also pragmatic and realistic motives, while 'features of the job' were more important for the direct entrants to dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J

    1998-01-01

    Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on High-Pressure Crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Boldyreva, Elena; High-Pressure Crystallography

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to the theme of crystallographic studies at high pressure, with emphasis on the phenomena characteristic to the compressed state of matter, as well as experimental and theoretical techniques used to study these phenomena. As a thermodynamic parameter, pressure is remarkable in many ways. In the visible universe its value spans over sixty orders of magnitude, from the non-equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in intergalactic space, to the kind of pressure encountered within neutron stars. In the laboratory, it provides the unique possibility to control the structure and properties of materials, to dramatically alter electronic properties, and to break existing, or form new chemical bonds. This agenda naturally encompasses elements of physics (properties, structure and transformations), chemistry (reactions, transport), materials science (new materials) and engineering (mechanical properties); in addition it has direct applications and implications for geology (minerals in deep Earth environmen...

  1. INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN CYST IN HYPOTHYROIDISM: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesan C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Primary hypothyroidism is the decrease in production and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. This is characterised by slackening of metabolism and leading to multiple system impairment. The important aetiological factors for primary hypothyroidism are congenital, iodine deficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis and iatrogenic.[1] Ovarian cysts are a common cause for gynaecological surgeries. The aetiology[2] of ovarian cysts can vary greatly including benign or malignant tumours, endometriosis and inflammation, etc. However, some cysts are direct result of endocrine disorders and do not require surgery. Hypothyroidism may cause reproductive and endocrinological disorders as well. The aetiopathogenesis is complex. In 1960 Van Wyk and Grumbach first described the relation between ovarian cyst and hypothyroidism. They proposed that there was a hormonal overlap in the pituitary feedback mechanism. It is due to the fact that TSH, GH, FSH and LH are all glycoproteins with a common alpha chain and may thus cross react. High TSH could produce FSH and LH like activity leading to luteinised ovarian cyst. The TRH may also act on pituitary cells to stimulate gonadotropin release and hence FSH and LH. Other postulated mechanisms are increased ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins, altered metabolism of oestrogen, hypothalamopituitary dysfunction and altered prolactin metabolism. AIMS To study the percentage of ovarian cyst among the diagnosed cases of primary hypothyroidism and then to find out the association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cyst. To study the relation between level of TSH and size of ovarian cyst. To study the percentage of ovarian cyst among patients with TSH 100 mIU/L separately. SETTINGS Study Design: Descriptive: Cross-sectional study. Duration: One year. Period: March 2013 to February 2014. Sample Size: 100. Study Area: Government Medical College, Calicut. INCLUSION CRITERIA Female patients of age more than 12

  2. An Empirical Study on Green Innovation Efficiency in the Green Institutional Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Gao; Sang-Bing Tsai; Xingqun Xue; Tingzhen Ren; Xiaomin Du; Quan Chen; Jiangtao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have found that reverse technology spillover effects can promote industrial technology modernization in developing countries. However, it is still unknown whether reverse technology spillover effects can improve green innovation efficiency in developing countries. In particular, institutional uncertainties characteristic of transition economies have a significant impact on industrial modernization. Therefore, researching the impact of the institutional environment on the rela...

  3. Availability and Accessibility in an Open Access Institutional Repository: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…

  4. Emerging Economies, Institutional Voids, and Innovation Drivers : A Study in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, Jaap; Saiyed, Abrar Ali; Dutta, Dev K.

    Research has highlighted the importance of the institutional context on innovation and entrepreneurship. The focus of this qualitative research was to study small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector in India with the purpose of understanding how institutional voids affect the

  5. Case Study of a Post-Secondary Institution and Its Response to Student Homelessness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kovacs Burns (Kathy); M.S. Richter (Magdalena); Y. Mao (Yuping); S. Mogale (Shirley); M. Danko (Margaret)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFrom the moment students are accepted into post-secondary institutions, the focus is on their studies and successful completion. Far less is known about what institutions understand about students’ personal stresses and issues with their finances, housing and especially student

  6. Circulation Policies for External Users: A Comparative Study of Public Urban Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, William H., Jr.; Stevenson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This article is a study of the policies that govern the use of the university library by external users at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and 12 peer institutions used by IUPUI for comparative purposes. A search of each institution's Web site was conducted as well as interviews with circulation librarians and managers.…

  7. Validity and Reliability of the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes Version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, Amylou C.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Rogak, Lauren J.; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Denicoff, Andrea M.; O'Mara, Ann M.; Li, Yuelin; Clauser, Steven B.; Bryant, Donna M.; Bearden, James D.; Gillis, Theresa A.; Harness, Jay K.; Siegel, Robert D.; Paul, Diane B.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Schrag, Deborah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Bruner, Deborah W.; Minasian, Lori M.; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Importance Symptomatic adverse events (AEs) in cancer trials are currently reported by clinicians using the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). To integrate the patient perspective, the NCI developed a patient-reported outcomes version of the CTCAE (PRO-CTCAE) to capture symptomatic AEs directly from patients. Objective To assess the construct validity, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of PRO-CTCAE items. Design Participants completed PRO-CTCAE items on tablet computers in clinic waiting rooms at two visits 1-6 weeks apart. A subset completed PRO-CTCAE items during an additional visit one business day after the first visit. Setting Nine U.S. cancer centers and community oncology practices. Participants 975 adult cancer patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy and/or radiation enrolled between January 2011 and February 2012. Eligibility required participants to read English and be without clinically significant cognitive impairment. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Primary comparators were clinician-reported Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Results 940/975 (96%) and 852/940 (91%) participants completed PRO-CTCAE items at each visit. 938/940 (99.8%) participants (53% female, median age 59, 32% high school education or less, 17% ECOG PS 2-4) reported having at least one symptom. All PRO-CTCAE items had at least one correlation in the expected direction with a QLQ-C30 scale (111/124 P<.05). Stronger correlations were seen between PRO-CTCAE items and conceptually-related QLQ-C30 domains. Scores for 94/124 PRO-CTCAE items were higher in the ECOG PS 2-4 versus 0-1 group (58/124 P<.05). Overall, 119/124 items met at least one construct validity criterion. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for 36/49 pre-specified items (median intra-class correlation coefficient

  8. Yoga as palliation in women with advanced cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracey; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Robertson, Susan; Duggleby, Wendy; Thomas, Roanne; Holtslander, Lorraine

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the palliative potential of home-based yoga sessions provided to women with advanced cancer. Personalised 45-minute yoga sessions were offered to three women with advanced cancer by an experienced yoga teacher. Each woman took part in a one-to-one interview after the completion of the yoga programme and was asked to describe her experiences of the programme's impact. The personalised nature of the yoga sessions resulted in similar positive physical and psychosocial effects comparable to those demonstrated in other studies with cancer patients. Participants described physical, mental, and emotional benefits as well as the alleviation of illness impacts. The enhancement of mind-body and body-spirit connections were also noted. Personalised home-based yoga programmes for people with advanced cancer may produce similar benefits, including palliation, as those institutionally-based programmes for people with non-advanced cancer.

  9. Understanding institutional stakeholders’ perspectives on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism at the end of life: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Heckel,1 Franziska A Herbst,2 Thomas Adelhardt,3 Johanna M Tiedtke,4 Alexander Sturm,5 Stephanie Stiel,2 Christoph Ostgathe1 1Department of Palliative Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany; 2Institute for General Practice, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 3Division of Health Management, School of Business and Economics, Institute of Management (IFM, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU, Bavaria, Germany; 4Institute of Psychogerontology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU, Bavaria, Germany; 5Department of General Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU, Hospital of the Order of St John of God Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Background: Information lacks about institutional stakeholders’ perspectives on management approaches of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in end-of-life situations. The term “institutional stakeholder” includes persons in leading positions with responsibility in hospitals’ multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management. They have great influence on how strategies on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approaches in institutions of the public health system are designed. This study targeted institutional stakeholders’ individual perspectives on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism colonization or infection and isolation measures at the end of life. Methods: Between March and December 2014, institutional stakeholders of two study centers, a German palliative care unit and a geriatric ward, were queried in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed qualitatively with the aid of the software MAXQDA for qualitative data analysis using principles of Grounded Theory. In addition, two external

  10. Drug induced xerostomia in elderly individuals: An institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : With better health care facilities and nutritional levels the average life expectancy of Indian population has been on the rise over the years. Most of the geriatric population is under long-term medication. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of multiple xerostomia drugs. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva was measured in 60 geriatric patients, and xerostomia questionnaire and quality-of-life scale were also administered. Results : There was a very highly significant reduction in the salivary flow rates of patients under multiple xerostomia-inducing drugs. Conclusion : The synergistic effect of the xerostomia inducing medication could be the possible factor responsible for reduced salivary flow in elderly individuals using such drugs

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low Temperature Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Timothy; Reisse, Jacques; Suslick, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Sonochemistry is studied primarily by chemists and sonoluminescence mainly by physicists, but a single physical phenomenon - acoustic cavitation - unites the two areas. The physics of cavitation bubble collapse, is relatively well understood by acoustical physicists but remains practically unknown to the chemists. By contrast, the chemistry that gives rise to electromagnetic emissions and the acceleration of chemical reactions is familiar to chemists, but practically unknown to acoustical physicists. It is just this knowledge gap that the present volume addresses. The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows. The two following sections address the new scientific discipline of sonochemistry, and the volume concludes with a section giving detailed descriptions of the applications of sonochemistry. The mixture of tutorial lectures ...

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Bio-Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare Di

    2011-01-01

    This volume describes an impressive array of the current photonic-related technologies being used in the investigation of biological systems. The topics include various types of microscopy (fluorescence correlation microscopy, two-photon microscopy), sensitive detection of biological molecules, nano-surgery techniques, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, nano-plasmonics, terahertz spectroscopy, and photosynthetic energy conversion. The emphasis is on the physical principles behind each technique, and on examining the advantages and limitations of each.The book begins with an overview by Paras Prasad, a leader in the field of biophotonics, of several important optical techniques currently used for studying biological systems. In the subsequent chapters these techniques are discussed in depth, providing the reader with a detailed understanding of the basic physical principles at work. An excellent treatment of terahertz spectroscopy demonstrates how photonics is being extended beyond the visible region. Rec...

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...

  15. Dose escalation by hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer - a large single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Klein, E.; Kupelian, P.

    2003-01-01

    To report the outcomes of high dose radiation therapy using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) with hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A total of 278 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IMRT between 1998 and 2001. All cases had available pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and biopsy Gleason scores (bGS), no nodal metastasis, a minimum 2 year follow-up, and >5 follow-up PSA levels. The frequency by T-stage was: T1-T2A in 86%, T2B-T2C in 9%, and T3 in 5%. The median iPSA was 8.35. The frequency by bGS was: =7 in 45%. The age range for the patients was from 48 to 85 years (median 68 years). The median follow-up was 33 months (range: 24-49 months). The median doses delivered were 83Gy (delivered at 2.5Gy per fraction to 70 Gy; this being equivalent to 83 Gy at standard fractionation of 1.8 Gy using an alpha/beta of 2). The ASTRO definition for biochemical failure was used. Toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. The 3-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) for the entire cohort at three years was 91%. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute genito-urinary (GU) side effects were seen in 79% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GU toxicity was seen in 18% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects were seen in 65% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GI toxicity was seen in 11% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GU side effects were seen in 3% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GU toxicity was seen in 1.5% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GI side effects were seen in 13% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GI toxicity was seen in 5% of patients. Higher doses of radiation delivered by IMRT resulted in excellent bRFS outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiation therapy. IMRT can be effectively used to safely increase dose delivery without compromising on quality of life

  16. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as