WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer institute imaging

  1. Qualification of National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Centers for Quantitative PET/CT Imaging in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Joshua S; Reddin, Janet S; Opanowski, Adam; Kinahan, Paul E; Siegel, Barry A; Shankar, Lalitha K; Karp, Joel S

    2017-07-01

    The National Cancer Institute developed the Centers for Quantitative Imaging Excellence (CQIE) initiative in 2010 to prequalify imaging facilities at all of the National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive and clinical cancer centers for oncology trials using advanced imaging techniques, including PET. Here we review the CQIE PET/CT scanner qualification process and results in detail. Methods: Over a period of approximately 5 y, sites were requested to submit a variety of phantoms, including uniform and American College of Radiology-approved phantoms, PET/CT images, and examples of clinical images. Submissions were divided into 3 distinct time periods: initial submission (T0) and 2 requalification submissions (T1 and T2). Images were analyzed using standardized procedures, and scanners received a pass or fail designation. Sites had the opportunity to submit new data for scanners that failed. Quantitative results were compared across scanners within a given time period and across time periods for a given scanner. Results: Data from 65 unique PET/CT scanners across 56 sites were submitted for CQIE T0 qualification; 64 scanners passed the qualification. Data from 44 (68%) of those 65 scanners were submitted for T2. From T0 to T2, the percentage of scanners passing the CQIE qualification on the first attempt rose from 38% for T1 to 67% for T2. The most common reasons for failure were SUV outside specifications, incomplete submission, and uniformity issues. Uniform phantom and American College of Radiology-approved phantom results between scanner manufacturers were similar. Conclusion: The results of the CQIE process showed that periodic requalification may decrease the frequency of deficient data submissions. The CQIE project also highlighted the concern within imaging facilities about the burden of maintaining different qualifications and accreditations. Finally, for quantitative imaging-based trials, further evaluation of the relationships between the level of

  2. National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and connect with NCI researchers via Twitter chats. Facebook Connect with NCI on its Facebook page to get updates on cancer information, including ... m. ET, the National Cancer Institute hosted a Facebook Live event about the NCI Contact Center. Astrid ...

  3. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  4. Managing Institutional Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiori, Gerlinda S.

    1990-01-01

    A managerial process for enhancing the image and public reputation of a higher education institution is outlined. It consists of five stages: market research; data analysis and market positioning; communication of results and recommendations to the administration; development of a global image program; and impact evaluation. (MSE)

  5. Prostate cancer: sextant localization at MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging before prostatectomy--results of ACRIN prospective multi-institutional clinicopathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Blume, Jeffrey D; Coakley, Fergus V; Wheeler, Thomas M; Cormack, Jean B; Sotto, Christopher K; Cho, Haesun; Kawashima, Akira; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M; Macura, Katarzyna J; Rosen, Mark; Gerst, Scott R; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-04-01

    To determine the incremental benefit of combined endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging, as compared with endorectal MR imaging alone, for sextant localization of peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer. This prospective multicenter study, conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) from February 2004 to June 2005, was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Research associates were required to follow consent guidelines approved by the Office for Human Research Protection and established by the institutional review boards. One hundred thirty-four patients with biopsy-proved prostate adenocarcinoma and scheduled to undergo radical prostatectomy were recruited at seven institutions. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and spectroscopic MR sequences were performed at 1.5 T by using a pelvic phased-array coil in combination with an endorectal coil. Eight readers independently rated the likelihood of the presence of PZ cancer in each sextant by using a five-point scale-first on MR images alone and later on combined MR-MR spectroscopic images. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were calculated with sextant as the unit of analysis. The presence or absence of cancer at centralized histopathologic evaluation of prostate specimens was the reference standard. Reader-specific receiver operating characteristic curves for values obtained with MR imaging alone and with combined MR imaging-MR spectroscopic imaging were developed. The AUCs were estimated by using Mann-Whitney statistics and appropriate 95% confidence intervals. Complete data were available for 110 patients (mean age, 58 years; range, 45-72 years). MR imaging alone and combined MR imaging-MR spectroscopic imaging had similar accuracy in PZ cancer localization (AUC, 0.60 vs 0.58, respectively; P > .05). AUCs for individual readers were 0.57-0.63 for MR imaging alone and 0.54-0.61 for combined MR imaging-MR spectroscopic

  6. Prostate Cancer: Sextant Localization at MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopic Imaging before Prostatectomy—Results of ACRIN Prospective Multi-institutional Clinicopathologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Jeffrey C.; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Coakley, Fergus V.; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Cormack, Jean B.; Sotto, Christopher K.; Cho, Haesun; Kawashima, Akira; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Rosen, Mark; Gerst, Scott R.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incremental benefit of combined endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging, as compared with endorectal MR imaging alone, for sextant localization of peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This prospective multicenter study, conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) from February 2004 to June 2005, was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Research associates were required to follow consent guidelines approved by the Office for Human Research Protection and established by the institutional review boards. One hundred thirty-four patients with biopsy-proved prostate adenocarcinoma and scheduled to undergo radical prostatectomy were recruited at seven institutions. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and spectroscopic MR sequences were performed at 1.5 T by using a pelvic phased-array coil in combination with an endorectal coil. Eight readers independently rated the likelihood of the presence of PZ cancer in each sextant by using a five-point scale—first on MR images alone and later on combined MR–MR spectroscopic images. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were calculated with sextant as the unit of analysis. The presence or absence of cancer at centralized histopathologic evaluation of prostate specimens was the reference standard. Reader-specific receiver operating characteristic curves for values obtained with MR imaging alone and with combined MR imaging–MR spectroscopic imaging were developed. The AUCs were estimated by using Mann-Whitney statistics and appropriate 95% confidence intervals. Results: Complete data were available for 110 patients (mean age, 58 years; range, 45–72 years). MR imaging alone and combined MR imaging–MR spectroscopic imaging had similar accuracy in PZ cancer localization (AUC, 0.60 vs 0.58, respectively; P > .05). AUCs for individual readers were 0.57–0.63 for MR imaging alone and 0

  7. 76 FR 9353 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Image Processing and Analysis Software for Oncology. Date... Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers...

  8. National Cancer Institute News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and events from NCI-funded research and programs News & Events Featured News High-Fat Diet Linked to Prostate Cancer Metastasis ... Scientific Meetings and Lectures Conferences Social Media Events News Archive 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 National ...

  9. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma: multi-institutional comprehensive cancer centre review of multiphasic CT and MR imaging in 35 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kitchin, Douglas; Lubner, Meghan G. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Ganeshan, Dhakshina M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Bhalla, Sanjeev [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Covey, Anne M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-04

    To assess the imaging features of primary hepatic angiosarcoma on multiphasic CT and MR. Multi-institutional review identified 35 adults (mean age, 57.1 years; 22M/13F) with pathologically proven hepatic angiosarcoma and pretreatment multiphasic CT (n = 33) and/or MR (n = 7). Multifocal hepatic involvement was seen in all 35 cases, with at least 10 lesions in 74.3 % (26/35). Mean size of the dominant mass was 8.9 ± 4.7 cm (range, 2.6-20 cm). Individual nodules were typically circumscribed. Arterial-phase foci of hypervascular enhancement without washout were seen in 89.7 % (26/29). Heterogeneously expanding foci of enhancement generally followed blood pool in 88.6 % (31/35). Progressive centripetal (n = 16) or diffuse ''flash-fill'' (n = 4) enhancement pattern resembling cavernous haemangiomas predominated in 20 cases, whereas a ''reverse haemangioma'' centrifugal pattern predominated in 11 cases. Rapid interval growth was seen in 24 (96.0 %) of 25 cases with serial imaging. Vascular invasion was not seen in any case. Underlying cirrhotic morphology was seen in 42.3 % (15/35). Primary hepatic angiosarcomas typically manifest as aggressive multifocal tumors containing small heterogeneous hypervascular foci that progressively expand and follow blood pool. The appearance can mimic cavernous haemangiomas, but distinction is generally possible. In the setting of cirrhosis, lack of tumour washout and vascular invasion argue against multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.)

  10. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  11. Transperineal gold marker implantation for image-guided external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. A single institution, prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgo, Kliton; Agoston, Peter; Major, Tibor; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    To present the feasibility and complications of transperineal fiducial marker implantation in prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Between November 2011 and April 2016, three radiopaque, gold-plated markers were transperineally implanted into the prostate of 300 patients under transrectal ultrasound guidance and with local anaesthesia. A week after the procedure patients filled in a questionnaire regarding pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, rectal bleeding, hematuria, hematospermia or fever symptoms caused by the implantation. Pain was scored on a 1-10 scale, where score 1 meant very weak and score 10 meant unbearable pain. The implanted gold markers were used for daily verification and online correction of patients' setup during IGRT. Based on the questionnaires no patient experienced fever, infection, dysuria or rectal bleeding after implantation. Among the 300 patients, 12 (4%) had hematospermia, 43 (14%) hematuria, which lasted for an average of 3.4 and 1.8 days, respectively. The average pain score was 4.6 (range 0-9). Of 300 patients 87 (29%) felt any pain after the intervention, which took an average of 1.5 days. None of the patients needed analgesics after implantation. Overall, 105 patients (35%) reported less, 80 patients (27%) more, and 94 patients (31%) equal amount of pain during marker implantation compared to biopsy. The 21 patients who had a biopsy performed under general anesthesia did not answer this question. Transperineal gold marker implantation under local anesthesia was well tolerated. Complications were limited; rate and frequency of perioperative pain was comparable to the pain caused by biopsy. The method can be performed safely in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Machbarkeit und Komplikationen der transperinealen Implantation von Goldmarkern bei mit perkutaner Strahlentherapie (IGRT) behandelten Prostatakarzinompatienten. Zwischen November 2011 und April 2016 bekamen 300

  12. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A.S.; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute?s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital durin...

  13. The role of magnetic resonance image guided prostate biopsy in stratifying men for risk of extracapsular extension at radical prostatectomy. Raskolnikov D, George AK, Rais-Bahrami S, Turkbey B, Siddiqui MM, Shakir NA, Okoro C, Rothwax JT, Walton-Diaz A, Sankineni S, Su D, Stamatakis L, Merino MJ, Choyke PL, Wood BJ, Pinto PA. Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Center for Interventional Oncology, National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Center for Interventional Oncology, National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; e-mail: pintop@mail.nih.gov.J Urol. 2015 Jul;194(1):105-11. [Epub 2015 Jan 23]. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.01.072.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eggener

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging detects extracapsular extension by prostate cancer with excellent specificity but low sensitivity. This limits surgical planning, which could be modified to account for focal extracapsular extension with image directed guidance for wider excision. In this study, we evaluate the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in extracapsular extension detection and determine which preoperative variables predict extracapsular extension on final pathology when multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging predicts organ confined disease. From May 2007 to March 2014, 169 patients underwent pre-biopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided biopsy, extended sextant 12-core biopsy, and radical prostatectomy at our institution. A subset of 116 men had multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging negative for extracapsular extension and were included in the final analysis. The 116 men with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging negative for extracapsular extension had a median age of 61 years (IQR: 57-66) and a median prostate specific antigen of 5.51 ng/ml (IQR: 3.91-9.07). The prevalence of extracapsular extension was 23.1% in the overall population. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extracapsular extension were 48.7%, 73.9%, and 35.9% and 82.8%, respectively. On multivariate regression analysis, only patient age (P = 0.002) and magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided biopsy Gleason score (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of extracapsular extension on final radical prostatectomy pathology. Because of the low sensitivity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extracapsular extension, further tools are necessary to stratify men at risk for occult extracapsular extension that would otherwise only become apparent on final pathology. Magnetic

  14. Imaging in oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeta Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

  15. 78 FR 26055 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Early-Stage Development of Informatics... of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 7W-236...

  16. 76 FR 16431 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Lymphoma, Breast, Ovarian..., Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting...

  17. 75 FR 20370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  18. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flaxseed Alkaline diets Supplements Asparagus Claims Vegetarian and vegan Sugar and other topics in the news Resources ... Coconut Topping Holiday Portion Quiz How the new nutrition facts label can help you lower cancer risk. ...

  19. 77 FR 49450 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI REVIEW of P50 and R01 applications in Lung, Skin, Ovarian... Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  20. 75 FR 79010 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Development of Devices for Point of Care Analysis of Circulating... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control...

  1. 77 FR 24969 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Breast, Prostate and....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  2. Meninges in cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Primary malignant tumours arising from the meninges are distinctly uncommon, and when they occur, they are usually sarcomas. In contrast, metastatic meningeal involvement is increasingly seen as advances in cancer therapy have changed the natural history of malignant disease and prolonged the life span of cancer patients. The meninges can either be infiltrated by contiguous extension of primary tumours of the central nervous system, paranasal sinuses and skull base origin or can be diffusely infiltrated from haematogenous dissemination from distant primary malignancies. Imaging in these patients provides crucial information in planning management. This article reviews the pertinent anatomy that underlies imaging findings, discusses the mechanism of meningeal metastasis and highlights different imaging patterns of meningeal carcinomatosis and the pitfalls. PMID:19965290

  3. 78 FR 27408 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Methods for the Detection of Cancer Recurrence in Post-Therapy Breast Cancer Patients. Date: June 4, 2013....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  4. 76 FR 50487 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI SPORE in Childhood ALL, Skin, Brain, Lung... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings...

  5. 78 FR 55750 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Innovative Molecular Analysis Technology Development for Cancer Research (R21). Date: October 24, 2013. Time...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Integrative Cancer Biology. Date: October 29, 2013. Time...

  6. 78 FR 78982 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... National Laboratory for Cancer Research. Place: National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Natcher...., Executive Secretary, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Drive... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  7. 75 FR 54161 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Sarcoma, Brain, Liver, Lung, and Prostate... Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer... Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...

  8. 75 FR 14172 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Emphasis Panel, Nucleic Acid Analysis for the Molecular Characterization of Cancer. Date: April 6, 2010... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control...

  9. 77 FR 19674 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Emphasis Panel; Innovative Molecular Analysis Technologies for Cancer (R21). Date: June 26-27, 2012. Time..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398...

  10. 75 FR 3239 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Basal-like Breast Cancer Assay. Date: March 10, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  11. 75 FR 21002 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Panel, SPORE in Lymphoma and Breast Cancer. Date: June 15-16, 2010. Time: 5 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  12. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  13. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  14. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  15. 77 FR 55848 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee; Ad hoc... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. 76 FR 69744 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Cancer Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents Enabled by Nanotechnology. Date: November 29, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  17. 77 FR 4052 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NCI SPORE in Breast, Endometrial, and Skin Cancers. Date...

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogia, A; Deo, S V S; Shukla, N K; Mohanti, B K; Raina, V

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) has been defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery. There is a paucity of data on PABC from India. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical-pathological parameters and outcome of PABC at Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences. We screened approximately 3,750 cases registered from January 2001 to December 2012 and found 26 cases of PABC. Patients' records were obtained from the computer database using International Classification of Diseases code (C-50). The median age was 26 years (range 20-35). The median duration of symptoms was 11.5 months. The American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution was Stage I - 1, Stage II - 3, Stage III - 14 and in Stage IV - 8 patients. Median clinical tumor size is 5.5 cm. Four patients were presented with the inflammatory breast cancer. Positive family history was elicited in three patients. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed after delivery, two patients in the first trimester, two patients in the second trimester and three patients in the third trimester. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negativity and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positivity was 56% and 38%, respectively. Nearly, 40% of patients had a high-grade tumor and 70% had pathological node positivity. With a median follow-up of 33 months, 3 years relapse free survival and overall survival was 40% and 50% respectively. Bone was the most common site for systemic relapse. PABC constituted 0.7% of all breast cancer patients. It is associated with advanced stage at presentation. Half of them were ER/PR negative and one-third was HER2/neu positive.

  19. 76 FR 81952 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... and Lung Cancers, and Sarcoma. Date: February 8-9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  20. 78 FR 8156 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... with Focus on Downstream Single Cell Molecular Analysis. Date: March 26-27, 2013. Time: 8:00 p.m. to 12....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...

  1. 76 FR 17930 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... Special Emphasis Panel; Innovative Emerging Molecular Analysis Technologies. Date: June 2-3, 2011. Time: 8..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology...

  2. Evidence-based cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Khorasani, Ramin [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  3. 78 FR 24224 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date... Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10...

  4. 76 FR 52960 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date... Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-wing, 6th Floor, 31 Center Drive...

  5. 76 FR 22407 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date... Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-Wing, 6th Floor, 31 Center Drive...

  6. 78 FR 53463 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Translational Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-Wing, 6th Floor, 31 Center... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date...

  7. 75 FR 75690 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials ] and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date... Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, C-Wing, 6th Floor...

  8. 76 FR 574 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date... Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, C-wing, 6th Floor...

  9. 77 FR 26303 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Translational Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-Wing, 6th Floor, 31 Center... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date...

  10. 77 FR 64817 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Translational Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-Wing, 6th Floor, 31 Center... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date...

  11. 77 FR 1703 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... a meeting of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory... Committee: National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date... Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, C-Wing, 6th Floor, 31 Center Drive...

  12. 76 FR 51044 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to.... Agenda: 09/21 Welcome and review of how science is changing; 09/ 22 The role of regulatory science; 09/23.... Contact Person: Shannon K. Bell, MSW, Director, Office of Advocacy Relations, National Cancer Institute...

  13. 75 FR 74068 - National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  14. 77 FR 50516 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging, And Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  15. 77 FR 25487 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of...

  16. 77 FR 17080 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  17. 77 FR 51544 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Institute of Biomedical Imaging, and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  18. 77 FR 2987 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy...

  19. 75 FR 61769 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  20. 75 FR 25273 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging & Bioeng, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy...

  1. 78 FR 25752 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  2. 76 FR 58023 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  3. 78 FR 31953 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  4. 76 FR 53690 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of...

  5. 76 FR 23326 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  6. Targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-09-30

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 19024 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Emphasis Panel; Topic 279 Phase II: Facilitating the Transfer of Statistical Methodology into Practice... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard... Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer...

  8. 78 FR 50065 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Bridge Gaps in Cancer Etiology and Early Detection. Date: October 16, 2013. Time: 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Core Infrastructure and...

  9. 78 FR 16274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ..., Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National..., Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 8...

  10. 78 FR 53154 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel Informatics Technology...

  11. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  12. Basal cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  13. 75 FR 39547 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special.... Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  14. 78 FR 52938 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special....D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  15. 78 FR 35041 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960...

  16. 76 FR 40922 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special.... Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  17. 78 FR 11660 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special.... Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  18. 78 FR 24763 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, including consideration of personal...

  19. 78 FR 76632 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  20. 78 FR 45254 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy...

  1. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 959...

  2. 78 FR 67373 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  3. 75 FR 15715 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special.... Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  4. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and, Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960...

  5. 77 FR 74675 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960...

  6. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National...

  7. 78 FR 67375 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  8. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and...

  9. 78 FR 54259 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging, and Bioengineering, 6707...

  10. 78 FR 66373 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  11. 78 FR 9066 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  12. 75 FR 81630 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and...

  13. 77 FR 24972 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, including consideration of personal...

  14. 78 FR 3009 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959...

  15. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  16. 78 FR 30933 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    .... Time: 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Cancer... Conference Call). Contact Person: Clifford W Schweinfest, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Nanotech-Biosensor Platforms for Cancer. Date...

  17. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute. PDQ transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer ...

  18. Multi-institutional Validation Study of Commercially Available Deformable Image Registration Software for Thoracic Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki, E-mail: kadoya.n@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakajima, Yujiro; Saito, Masahide [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Miyabe, Yuki [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kurooka, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kito, Satoshi [Department of Radiotherapy, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, Yukio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Hachioji (Japan); Sasaki, Motoharu [Department of Radiological Technology, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima (Japan); Arai, Kazuhiro [Department of Radiation Physics and Technology, Southern Tohoku Proton Therapy Center, Koriyama (Japan); Tani, Kensuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, St Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yagi, Masashi [Department of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Wakita, Akihisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tohyama, Naoki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Bay Advanced Imaging and Radiation Oncology Clinic Makuhari, Chiba (Japan); Jingu, Keiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of the commercially available deformable image registration (DIR) software for thoracic images at multiple institutions. Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) CT images of 10 patients with esophageal or lung cancer were used. Datasets for these patients were provided by DIR-lab ( (dir-lab.com)) and included a coordinate list of anatomic landmarks (300 bronchial bifurcations) that had been manually identified. Deformable image registration was performed between the peak-inhale and -exhale images. Deformable image registration error was determined by calculating the difference at each landmark point between the displacement calculated by DIR software and that calculated by the landmark. Results: Eleven institutions participated in this study: 4 used RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden), 5 used MIM Software (Cleveland, OH), and 3 used Velocity (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The ranges of the average absolute registration errors over all cases were as follows: 0.48 to 1.51 mm (right-left), 0.53 to 2.86 mm (anterior-posterior), 0.85 to 4.46 mm (superior-inferior), and 1.26 to 6.20 mm (3-dimensional). For each DIR software package, the average 3-dimensional registration error (range) was as follows: RayStation, 3.28 mm (1.26-3.91 mm); MIM Software, 3.29 mm (2.17-3.61 mm); and Velocity, 5.01 mm (4.02-6.20 mm). These results demonstrate that there was moderate variation among institutions, although the DIR software was the same. Conclusions: We evaluated the commercially available DIR software using thoracic 4D-CT images from multiple centers. Our results demonstrated that DIR accuracy differed among institutions because it was dependent on both the DIR software and procedure. Our results could be helpful for establishing prospective clinical trials and for the widespread use of DIR software. In addition, for clinical care, we should try to find the optimal DIR procedure using thoracic 4D

  19. Clinical photoacoustic imaging of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valluru, Keerthi S.; Willmann, Juergen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid technique that shines laser light on tissue and measures optically induced ultrasound signal. There is growing interest in the clinical community over this new technique and its possible clinical applications. One of the most prominent features of photoacoustic imaging is its ability to characterize tissue, leveraging differences in the optical absorption of underlying tissue components such as hemoglobin, lipids, melanin, collagen and water among many others. In this review, the state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging techniques and some of the key outcomes pertaining to different cancer applications in the clinic are presented.

  20. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  1. Helical image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of early-stage lung cancer: a single-institution experience at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lane R; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin W; Katz, Sanford R; Durci, Michael; Wu, Hsinshun Terry; Syh, Joseph; Syh, Jarron; Patel, Bijal

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to report on the clinical methods and outcomes of helical intensity-modulated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Seventy-nine patients with stage I NSCLC underwent helical SBRT with 48 Gy in 4 fractions or 60 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) or FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) scanning in the immobilized treatment position for planned fusion with a separate kilovoltage (KV) CT simulation prior to treatment. Megavoltage CT images were obtained on the treatment unit prior to therapy and repeated at mid-fraction with comparison and fusion to the KV CT simulation planning images to assure setup accuracy. Serial follow-up with FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT was performed at 3-4 months and every 6 months thereafter. Median follow-up was 27 months (range, 4-82 months). Overall local control rate (LCR) was 93.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.0-97.3%) and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 58.4% (95% CI, 47.2-69.5%). For patients with T1N0M0 disease (n = 59) the LCR was 94.9% (95% CI, 86.1-98.3%) and the 3-year OS was 62.8% (95% CI, 49.9-73.9%). Patients treated with 60 Gy had longer 3-year OS than patients treated with 48 Gy (65.2% vs 37.5%; P = 0.044). SBRT-related toxicity was modest, with 10 patients developing grade 1/2 chest wall toxicity based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Image-guided SBRT with helical IMRT delivered in 4 or 5 fractions of 12 Gy with rigid immobilization, FDG-PET-assisted targeting, and repeat mid-fraction CT scan is an effective treatment for early NSCLC.

  2. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam Kisailus, PHD; Wendy Huss, PHD ; Richard Hershberger, MBA, PHD; Anna Allen PHD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  3. 76 FR 14675 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ..., MD 20852. Contact Person: David G. Ransom, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review..., Bethesda, MD 20892-8328, 301-451-4757, david.ransom@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute...

  4. 75 FR 71713 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    .... Contact Person: David G. Ransom, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division..., MD 20892-8328, 301-451-4757, david.ransom@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute...

  5. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Meeting Ctr. Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: David G. Ransom, PhD... Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd, Rm 8133, Bethesda, MD 20892-8328, 301-451-4757, david.ransom...

  6. 76 FR 52960 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Regency Crystal City, 2799 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. Contact Person: Lynn M Amende, Ph..., Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH...

  7. 75 FR 35820 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., ARRA Related Biomedical Research and Research Support Awards, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  8. 77 FR 71605 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel; MSM Program Review. Date: February 26, 2013...

  9. 78 FR 76843 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) Announcement of Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... programs with respect to ] biomedical imaging and engineering and associated technologies and modalities... Seto, Deputy Director, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. BILLING CODE 4140...

  10. Analysis of Maryland cancer patient participation in National Cancer Institute-supported cancer treatment clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Claudia R; Ellison, Gary L; Mishra, Shiraz I

    2009-05-01

    We examined the relationship of sociodemographic factors, urban/rural residence, and county-level socioeconomic factors on accrual of Maryland patients with cancer to National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cancer treatment clinical trials. Data were analyzed for the period 1999 to 2002 for 2240 Maryland patients with cancer accrued onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials. The extent to which Maryland patients with cancer and patients residing in lower socioeconomic and/or rural areas were accrued to cancer trials and were representative of all patients with cancer in Maryland was determined. Data were obtained from several sources, including NCI's Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program for Maryland patients with cancer in Cooperative Group therapeutic trials, Maryland Cancer Registry data on cancer incidence, and United States Census and the Department of Agriculture. For Maryland patients with cancer accrued onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials between 1999 and 2002, subgroups accrued at a higher rate included pediatric and adolescent age groups, white patients, female patients (for sex-specific tumors), patients with private health insurance, and patients residing in the Maryland National Capitol region. Moreover, between 1999 and 2002, there was an estimated annual decline (8.9% per year; P Maryland patients with cancer onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials based on patient age, race/ethnicity, geography of residence, and county-level socioeconomic factors. Findings provide the basis for development of innovative tailored and targeted educational efforts to improve trial accrual, particularly for the underserved.

  11. 77 FR 33476 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 611, Rockville, MD 20852... Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116..., 2012. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National...

  12. 77 FR 28613 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute...: Adriana Stoica, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of..., 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bethesda...

  13. 77 FR 12600 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 707, Rockville, MD..., Special Review & Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116... 8, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place...

  14. 78 FR 16274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to...: 8:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. Agenda: Challenges of Global HPV Vaccination. Place: Hilton Miami Downtown... when applicable, the business or professional affiliation of the interested person. Information is also...

  15. 76 FR 62079 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: November 15, 2011...

  16. 77 FR 31628 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: July 9, 2012. Time: 8...

  17. 75 FR 62547 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: November 15-16, 2010...

  18. 76 FR 33321 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: July 11, 2011. Time...

  19. 78 FR 10622 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute, NCI Board of Scientific...

  20. 75 FR 6043 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the...: Board of Scientific Counselors for Basic Sciences National Cancer Institute. Date: March 15-16, 2010...

  1. Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

  2. Comment Topic Evolution on a Cancer Institution's Facebook Page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph; Rozenblum, Ronen; Bates, David

    2017-08-23

    Our goal was to identify and track the evolution of the topics discussed in free-text comments on a cancer institution's social media page. We utilized the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model to extract ten topics from free-text comments on a cancer research institution's Facebook™ page between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2014. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between the comment categories to demonstrate topic intensity evolution. A total of 4,335 comments were included in this study, from which ten topics were identified: greetings (17.3%), comments about the cancer institution (16.7%), blessings (10.9%), time (10.7%), treatment (9.3%), expressions of optimism (7.9%), tumor (7.5%), father figure (6.3%), and other family members & friends (8.2%), leaving 5.1% of comments unclassified. The comment distributions reveal an overall increasing trend during the study period. We discovered a strong positive correlation between greetings and other family members & friends (r=0.88; p<0.001), a positive correlation between blessings and the cancer institution (r=0.65; p<0.05), and a negative correlation between blessings and greetings (r=-0.70; p<0.05). A cancer institution's social media platform can provide emotional support to patients and family members. Topic analysis may help institutions better identify and support the needs (emotional, instrumental, and social) of their community and influence their social media strategy.

  3. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional Annotation of Cancer Genomes Principal Investigator: William C. Hahn, M.D., Ph.D. The comprehensive characterization of cancer genomes has and will continue to provide an increasingly complete catalog of genetic alterations in specific cancers. However, most epithelial cancers harbor hundreds of genetic alterations as a consequence of genomic instability. Therefore, the functional consequences of the majority of mutations remain unclear.

  4. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of invasive breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    graphic findings, and screening for breast cancer in younger women with familial breast cancer. Interpretation of MR images requires a meticulous imaging technique including the use of contrast enhancement and fat suppression MR sequences using a good breast coil. Introduction. The role of MR imaging in the diagno-.

  6. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on May 23, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S...

  7. 75 FR 18216 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  8. 78 FR 71627 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  9. 76 FR 5593 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  10. 75 FR 57969 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  11. 77 FR 2737 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  12. 78 FR 63998 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  13. 76 FR 10910 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  14. 77 FR 31624 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  15. 75 FR 54641 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  16. 78 FR 55268 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  17. 75 FR 18217 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  18. 76 FR 28055 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  19. 77 FR 37684 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  20. 76 FR 62814 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  1. 77 FR 38845 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  2. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  3. 78 FR 58547 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  4. 75 FR 6039 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  5. Image policy of Russia: institutional and technological measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Shirochenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main state institutions, which are responsible for the formation of Russia’s image, estimation of their activity and the effectiveness of their activities. It analyses the main normative documents that regulating the activities of state institutions in the direction of forming the image of the country. Considered the most influential media institutions that have a direct influence on what will be the image of the Russian Federation in the perception of the international community. It analyses the activities of the most influential in Russia Internet-resources, TV channels, information agencies, radio. Learn the basic techniques and methods that are used to form a positive image of the Russian Federation. Analyzed the activities of international forums, created under the auspices of Russia, and their impact on the perception of Russia in the world. Provides a list and description of the most prominent Russian and foreign cultural projects implemented in many countries.Describes the activities of the most influential Russian funds, the purpose of which is to restore the interest to the Russian culture abroad. Considerable attention is paid to the methods of influence on public opinion and shaping the image of Russia in the context of recent developments, namely the Russian aggression in Ukraine.

  6. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway.

  7. New Hires at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-nine people joined the facility in September and October 2013. The National Cancer Institute welcomes… Aamir Akram Clarissa Alexander Robert Buckheit Brian Chan Kelly Dempsey Christopher Descalzi Ahmed Fahim Devikala Gurusamy Jaewoo Hong Rhushikesh Kulkarni James Shaum Dionysios Watson Yuheng Xi Yi Xiang Thomas Zengeya

  8. 78 FR 31569 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications Place: National Cancer Institute Shady... Call) Contact Person: Donald L Coppock, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics... Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications Place: Hilton, Rockville...

  9. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bethesda North... Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute..., 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National...

  10. 75 FR 5092 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    .... Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hyatt Regency Bethesda... Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer.... Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8041, Rockville, MD 20852...

  11. 76 FR 11800 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Emphasis Panel; Biosensors for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment. Date: March 29, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health...: Lalita D. Palekar, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of...

  12. 78 FR 27974 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Platform Partnership Scientific Progress..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Ways to enhance the quality, utility... for Strategic Scientific Initiatives, Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research, National Cancer...

  13. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  14. Deep learning for segmentation of brain tumors: can we train with images from different institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, David; Saha, Ashirbani; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in particular are increasingly popular tools for segmentation and classification of medical images. CNNs were shown to be successful for segmentation of brain tumors into multiple regions or labels. However, in the environment which fosters data-sharing and collection of multi-institutional datasets, a question arises: does training with data from another institution with potentially different imaging equipment, contrast protocol, and patient population impact the segmentation performance of the CNN? Our study presents preliminary data towards answering this question. Specifically, we used MRI data of glioblastoma (GBM) patients for two institutions present in The Cancer Imaging Archive. We performed a process of training and testing CNN multiple times such that half of the time the CNN was tested on data from the same institution that was used for training and half of the time it was tested on another institution, keeping the training and testing set size constant. We observed a decrease in performance as measured by Dice coefficient when the CNN was trained with data from a different institution as compared to training with data from the same institution. The changes in performance for the entire tumor and for four different labels within the tumor were: 0.72 to 0.65 (p=0.06), 0.61 to 0.58 (p=0.49), 0.54 to 0.51 (p=0.82), 0.31 to 0.24 (p<0.03), and 0.43 to 0.31(p<0.003) respectively. In summary, we found that while data across institutions can be used for development of CNNs, this might be associated with a decrease in performance.

  15. 78 FR 24223 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...). Contact Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  16. 76 FR 69748 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel,2012 P41 Reverse Site...

  17. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and...

  18. 78 FR 77474 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...). Contact Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  19. 76 FR 370 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: Manana Sukhareva, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and...

  20. 77 FR 13347 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel; Point-of-Care...

  1. 77 FR 58146 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and...

  2. 77 FR 49821 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special.... Contact Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  3. Gastrointestinal Tumor Board: An Evolving Experience in Tehran Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Haddad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An

  4. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and 6 fps. These imaging protocols should result in high quality images that pass the set tolerance levels on all systems. Average SAPA computation time for complete QA analysis for a 0.20 mm voxel, 400 slice Shelley phantom microCT data set

  5. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun1, Weibo Cai1,21Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼5% and nonmelanoma (∼95%, which can be further categorized into basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and some rare skin cancer types. Biopsy is still the gold standard for skin cancer evaluation in the clinic. Various anatomical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate different types of skin cancer lesions, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-frequency ultrasound, terahertz pulsed imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and some other recently developed techniques such as photoacoustic microscopy. However, anatomical imaging alone may not be sufficient in guiding skin cancer diagnosis and therapy. Over the last decade, various molecular imaging techniques (in particular single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography have been investigated for skin cancer imaging. The pathways or molecular targets that have been studied include glucose metabolism, integrin αvβ3, melanocortin-1 receptor, high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen, and several other molecular markers. Preclinical molecular imaging is thriving all over the world, while clinical molecular imaging has not lived up to the expectations because of slow bench-to-bedside translation. It is likely that this situation will change in the near future and molecular imaging will truly play an important role in personalized medicine of melanoma patients.Keywords: skin cancer, molecular imaging, melanoma, anatomical imaging, positron emission tomography, antibody

  6. 78 FR 44136 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...). The CNPPs are part of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, a network of awards funded by NCI to... the awards, along with their institutional business officials. The awards are administered by and the...

  7. Treatment outcome of high-dose image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy using intra-prostate fiducial markers for localized prostate cancer at a single institute in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda Ken

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have confirmed the advantages of delivering high doses of external beam radiotherapy to achieve optimal tumor-control outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer. We evaluated the medium-term treatment outcome after high-dose, image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT using intra-prostate fiducial markers for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods In total, 141 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with image-guided IMRT (76 Gy in 13 patients and 80 Gy in 128 patients between 2003 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. The patients were classified according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-defined risk groups. Thirty-six intermediate-risk patients and 105 high-risk patients were included. Androgen-deprivation therapy was performed in 124 patients (88% for a median of 11 months (range: 2–88 months. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA relapse was defined according to the Phoenix-definition (i.e., an absolute nadir plus 2 ng/ml dated at the call. The 5-year actuarial PSA relapse-free survival, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival, the 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS, the 5-year overall survival (OS outcomes and the acute and late toxicities were analyzed. The toxicity data were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The median follow-up was 60 months. Results The 5-year PSA relapse-free survival rates were 100% for the intermediate-risk patients and 82.2% for the high-risk patients; the 5-year actuarial distant metastasis-free survival rates were 100% and 95% for the intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively; the 5-year CSS rates were 100% for both patient subsets; and the 5-year OS rates were 100% and 91.7% for the intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively. The Gleason score ( Conclusions These medium-term results demonstrate a good tolerance of high-dose image-guided IMRT. However, further

  8. 77 FR 3480 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, R13 (2012/05). Date: February 15...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy in Cancer Theranostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Jin, Jiefu; Chen, Zhihang; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2016-10-01

    With its exquisite anatomical resolution and wide-ranging functional imaging capabilities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has found multiple applications in detection, staging, and monitoring treatment response in cancer. The metabolic information provided by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is being actively investigated to complement MRI parameters, as well as existing biomarkers, in cancer detection and in monitoring response to treatment. Located at the interface of detection and therapy, theranostic imaging is a rapidly expanding new field that is showing significant promise for precision medicine of cancer. Innovations in the development of novel nanoparticles decorated with imaging reporters that can be used to deliver therapeutic cargo to specific cells and environments have provided new roles for MRI and MRS in theranostic imaging.

  10. Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhled S. AL-TARAWNEH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, image processing techniques are widely used in several medical areas for image improvement in earlier detection and treatment stages, where the time factor is very important to discover the abnormality issues in target images, especially in various cancer tumours such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image quality and accuracy is the core factors of this research, image quality assessment as well as improvement are depending on the enhancement stage where low pre-processing techniques is used based on Gabor filter within Gaussian rules. Following the segmentation principles, an enhanced region of the object of interest that is used as a basic foundation of feature extraction is obtained. Relying on general features, a normality comparison is made. In this research, the main detected features for accurate images comparison are pixels percentage and mask-labelling.

  11. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  12. 78 FR 46995 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging, and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451-3398...

  13. 78 FR 42970 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel; P41 National Resource of Functional Imaging (2014/01). Date: October 10-11, 2013. Time: 3...

  14. 76 FR 76744 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel. Date: January 30-31, 2012. Time... Sukhareva, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  15. 76 FR 28795 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Dose-Optimized CT Imaging Protocols (2011/10). Date: June 17, 2011. Time: 12...

  16. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451-3397...

  17. 77 FR 54581 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-09-05

    ... National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, BTRC P41 Review. Date: October 10... Sukhareva, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  18. 77 FR 27784 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-8775...

  19. 76 FR 77546 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, Development of Dose-Optimized CT Imaging Protocols (2012-05). Date: February 15, 2012. Time...

  20. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  1. Imaging biomarker roadmap for cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, James P. B.; Aboagye, Eric O.; Adams, Judith E.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.; Barrington, Sally F.; Beer, Ambros J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Brady, Michael; Brown, Gina; Buckley, David L.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Collette, Sandra; Cook, Gary J.; Desouza, Nandita M.; Dickson, John C.; Dive, Caroline; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L.; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gallagher, Ferdia A.; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Gillies, Robert J.; Goh, Vicky; Griffiths, J. R.; Groves, Ashley M.; Halligan, Steve; Harris, Adrian L.; Hawkes, David J.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Huang, Erich P.; Hutton, Brian F.; Jackson, Edward F.; Jayson, Gordon C.; Jones, Andrew; Koh, Dow-Mu; Lacombe, Denis; Lambin, Philippe; Lassau, Nathalie; Leach, Martin O.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Leen, Edward L.; Lewis, Jason S.; Liu, Yan; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Manoharan, Prakash; Maxwell, Ross J.; Miles, Kenneth A.; Morgan, Bruno; Morris, Steve; Ng, Tony; Padhani, Anwar R.; Parker, Geoff J. M.; Partridge, Mike; Pathak, Arvind P.; Peet, Andrew C.; Punwani, Shonit; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Robinson, Simon P.; Shankar, Lalitha K.; Sharma, Ricky A.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Stroobants, Sigrid G.; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Tofts, Paul S.; Tozer, Gillian M.; van Herk, Marcel B.; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Wason, James; Williams, Kaye J.; Workman, Paul; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Brindle, Kevin M.; McShane, Lisa M.; Jackson, Alan; Waterton, John C.

    Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and

  2. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  3. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  4. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interinstitutional variation in management decisions for treatment of 4 common types of cancer: A multi-institutional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jane C; Uno, Hajime; Taback, Nathan; Ting, Gladys; Cronin, Angel; D'Amico, Thomas A; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Schrag, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    When clinical practice is governed by evidence-based guidelines and there is consensus about their validity, practice variation should be minimal. For areas in which evidence gaps exist, greater variation is expected. To systematically assess interinstitutional variation in management decisions for 4 common types of cancer. Multi-institutional, observational cohort study of patients with cancer diagnosed between July 2006 through May 2011 and observed through 31 December 2011. 18 cancer centers participating in the formulation of treatment guidelines and systematic outcomes assessment through the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 25 589 patients with incident breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Interinstitutional variation for 171 binary management decisions with varying levels of supporting evidence. For each decision, variation was characterized by the median absolute deviation of the center-specific proportions. Interinstitutional variation was high (median absolute deviation >10%) for 35 of 171 (20%) oncology management decisions, including 9 of 22 (41%) decisions for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 16 of 76 (21%) for breast cancer, 7 of 47 (15%) for lung cancer, and 3 of 26 (12%) for colorectal cancer. Forty-six percent of high-variance decisions involved imaging or diagnostic procedures and 37% involved choice of chemotherapy regimen. The evidence grade underpinning the 35 high-variance decisions was category 1 for 0%, 2A for 49%, and 2B/other for 51%. Physician identifiers were unavailable, and results may not generalize outside of major cancer centers. The substantial variation in institutional practice manifest among cancer centers reveals a lack of consensus about optimal management for common clinical scenarios. For clinicians, awareness of management decisions with high variation should prompt attention to patient preferences. For health systems, high variation can be used to prioritize comparative effectiveness research

  6. Optical imaging of cancer and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Bangwen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work included in this PhD thesis was to explore the diverse application possibility of using NIR fluorescent probes with specific properties to visualize and characterize cancer and cell death. In this thesis, we mainly focus on optical imaging and its application, both at microscopic and macroscopic level. Because we believe optical imaging in particular represents a technology that has unique potential to exploit further our knowledge in preclinical research. First, we imaged...

  7. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  8. Extensible Open-Source Zero-Footprint Web Viewer for Oncologic Imaging Research | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tumor Imaging Metrics Core (TIMC), a CCSG Shared-Resource of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, has developed software for managing the workflow and image measurements for oncology clinical trials. This system currently is in use across the five Harvard hospitals to manage over 600 active clinical trials, with 800 users, and has been licensed and implemented at several other Cancer Centers, including Yale, Utah/Huntsman Cancer Institute, and UW/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance.

  9. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Novel Oncogenes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread recurrent copy number alterations are observed across the majority of human cancers, yet the specific targets of such amplified or deleted regions remain undefined. Here, the CTD2 Center at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute took a systematic approach using cDNA overexpression screening to identify and validate oncogenes residing in such amplified regions. In representative examples, these experiments have identified the adaptor proteins CRKL, GAB2, FRS2 and the TLOC and SKIL proteins as novel amplified oncogenes.

  10. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of endometrial cancer. Optimizing the imaging delay for tumour-myometrium contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Bin [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, 41, Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sohee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, 41, Department of Biostatistics, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the optimal imaging delay time of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with endometrial cancer. This prospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the participants. Thirty-five women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 29-66 years) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a temporal resolution of 25-40 seconds. The signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were analyzed to investigate the optimal imaging delay time using single change-point analysis. The optimal imaging delay time for appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast ranged from 31.7 to 268.1 seconds. The median optimal imaging delay time was 91.3 seconds, with an interquartile range of 46.2 to 119.5 seconds. The median signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were 0.03, with an interquartile range of -0.01 to 0.06, on the pre-contrast MR imaging and 0.20, with an interquartile range of 0.15 to 0.25, on the post-contrast MR imaging. An imaging delay of approximately 90 seconds after initiating contrast material injection may be optimal for obtaining appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast in women with endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  12. 77 FR 54584 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, ZEB1 OSR-D(J2) P Tissue... 02138. Contact Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical...

  13. Current academic clinical trials in ovarian cancer: Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup and US National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, May 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Edward L; Birrer, Michael J; Hoskins, William J; Marth, Christian; Petryshyn, Ray; Quinn, Michael; Thomas, Gillian M; Kitchener, Henry C; Aghajanian, Carol; Alberts, David S; Armstrong, Deborah; Brown, Jubilee; Coleman, Robert L; Colombo, Nicoletta; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Michael; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Hunsberger, Sally; Kaye, Stan; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Lee, Susanna; Look, Katherine; Mannel, Robert; McNeish, Iain A; Minasian, Lori; Oza, Amit; Paul, Jim; Poveda, Andres; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Schoenfeldt, Mason; Swart, Ann Marie; von Gruenigen, Vivian; Wenzel, Lari

    2010-10-01

    To review the current status of large phase academic clinical trials for women with ovarian cancer, address cross-cutting issues, and identify promising areas for future collaboration. In May 2009, the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup, which represents 19 Cooperative Groups conducting trials for women with gynecologic cancer, and the US National Cancer Institute convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting. The topics covered included the impact of new developments in cancer biology upon molecular targets and novel agents, pharmacogenomics, advances in imaging, the potential benefit of diet and exercise to reduce the risk of recurrence, academic partnership with industry, statistical considerations for phases 2 and 3 trials, trial end points, and symptom benefit and health-related quality-of-life issues. The clinical trials discussed spanned the spectrum of ovarian cancer from initial diagnosis, staging, and cytoreductive surgery to consolidation chemotherapy, and treatment of recurrent disease. Ongoing and effective collaboration with industry, government, and patients aims to ensure that the most important scientific questions can be answered rapidly. We encourage women with ovarian cancer and their oncologists to consider participation in the academic clinical trials conducted by the member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup.

  14. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach.

  15. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  16. Imaging Surveillance After Primary Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Diana L.; Houssami, Nehmat; Lee, Janie M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Current clinical guidelines are consistent in supporting annual mammography for women after treatment of primary breast cancer. Surveillance imaging beyond standard digital mammography, including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), breast ultrasound, and MRI, may improve outcomes. This article reviews the evidence on the performance and effectiveness of breast imaging modalities available for surveillance after treatment of sporadic unilateral primary breast cancer and identifies additional factors to be considered when selecting an imaging surveillance regimen. CONCLUSION Evidence review supports the use of mammography for surveillance after primary breast cancer treatment. Variability exists in guideline recommendations for surveillance initiation, interval, and cessation. DBT offers the most promise as a potential modality to replace standard digital mammography as a front-line surveillance test; a single published study to date has shown a significant decrease in recall rates compared with standard digital mammography alone. Most guidelines do not support the use of whole-breast ultrasound in breast cancer surveillance, and further studies are needed to define the characteristics of women who may benefit from MRI surveillance. The emerging evidence about surveillance imaging outcomes suggests that additional factors, including patient and imaging characteristics, tumor biology and gene expression profile, and choice of treatment, warrant consideration in selecting personalized posttreatment imaging surveillance regimens. PMID:28075622

  17. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  18. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  19. 77 FR 19675 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  20. 75 FR 14175 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  1. 78 FR 39740 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  2. 78 FR 17937 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Meeting

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    2013-03-25

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  3. 76 FR 40923 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  4. 75 FR 43993 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  5. 78 FR 76634 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. Date: January 22...

  6. 76 FR 15988 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  7. 77 FR 72365 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering NACBIB, January 25...

  8. 75 FR 76019 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  9. Imaging biomarker roadmap for cancer studies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, JPB; Aboagye, EO; Adams, JE; Aerts, HJWL; Barrington, SF; Beer, AJ; Boellaard, R.; Bohndiek, SE; Brady, M.; Brown, G.; Buckley, DL; Chenevert, TL; Clarke, LP; Collette, S.; Cook, GJ

    2016-01-01

    Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and drug development. New IBs need to be established either as useful tools for testing research hypotheses in clinical trials and research studies, or as clinical decision-making tools for use in healthc...

  10. Developing a Comprehensive Cardio-Oncology Program at a Cancer Institute: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G.; Brown, Allen C.; Shields, Bernadette; Viganego, Federico; Damrongwatanasuk, Rongras; Patel, Aarti A.; Hartlage, Gregory; Roper, Natalee; Jaunese, Julie; Roy, Larry; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices. Given the complexities of this patient population, it is important for providers to possess knowledge of not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer subtypes and their specific therapeutics. Developing a cardio-oncology program at a stand-alone cancer center can present unique opportunities and challenges when compared to those affiliated with other institutions including resource allocation, cardiovascular testing availability and provider education. In this review, we present our experiences establishing the cardio-oncology program at Moffitt Cancer Center and provide guidance to those individuals interested in developing a program at a similar independent cancer institution. PMID:28781723

  11. Developing a Comprehensive Cardio-Oncology Program at a Cancer Institute: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G; Brown, Allen C; Shields, Bernadette; Viganego, Federico; Damrongwatanasuk, Rongras; Patel, Aarti A; Hartlage, Gregory; Roper, Natalee; Jaunese, Julie; Roy, Larry; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-06-14

    Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices. Given the complexities of this patient population, it is important for providers to possess knowledge of not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer subtypes and their specific therapeutics. Developing a cardio-oncology program at a stand-alone cancer center can present unique opportunities and challenges when compared to those affiliated with other institutions including resource allocation, cardiovascular testing availability and provider education. In this review, we present our experiences establishing the cardio-oncology program at Moffitt Cancer Center and provide guidance to those individuals interested in developing a program at a similar independent cancer institution.

  12. Imaging Neoadjuvant Therapy Response in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amy M; Mankoff, David A; Joe, Bonnie N

    2017-11-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing beyond the scope of locally advanced disease. Imaging provides important information in assessing response to therapy as a complement to conventional tumor measurements via physical examination. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and limitations of current assessment methods, as well as review functional and molecular imaging approaches being investigated as emerging techniques for evaluating neoadjuvant therapy response for patients with primary breast cancer. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  13. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: A comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute?s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; FRANZIN, LUISA; Cormier, Janice N.; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute?s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute?s SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 ...

  14. Nanotechnology for sensing, imaging, and treating cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Wickstrom, Eric

    2007-04-01

    Nanotechnology encompasses the creation and use of materials, devices, and systems at the level of atoms, molecules, and supramolecular structures. Nanotechnology for cancer consists of three main areas: (1) nanodetectors for sensing proteins and cancer cells, (2) nanoparticle or nanovector formulations for high-contrast imaging, and (3) nanotechnology-based drug delivery and therapeutic formulations. Although there are tremendous challenges facing nanotechnologists, nanotechnology, if properly integrated with established cancer research, can make laboratory-to-clinic transfer of technology successful, which can result in breakthrough potential for patient care.

  15. Image-Guided Cancer Nanomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles with superior imaging properties and therapeutic effects have been extensively developed for the nanomedicine. However, tumor-intrinsic barriers and tumor heterogeneity have resulted in low in vivo therapeutic efficacy. The poor in vivo targeting efficiency in passive and active targeting of nano-therapeutics along with the toxicity of nanoparticles has been a major problem in nanomedicine. Recently, image-guided nanomedicine, which can deliver nanoparticles loca...

  16. [Imaging in head and neck cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannessi, Antoine; Ouvrier, Matthieu John; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre-Yves

    2014-05-01

    The head and neck imaging plays a central role at all stages of the management of cancer. Indeed, the image allows the oncology planning, surgery and radiotherapy. It is a multimodal imaging and the advantages and limitations of each technique must be known. Good knowledge of cervical anatomy is a necessary prerequisite for communication with the multidisciplinary committee. The computerised tomodensitometry is the gold standard for the pharyngolarynx. The MRI is the modality of choice for the oral cavity, oropharynx and nasopharynx. Ultrasound allows a comprehensive study of cervical lymph nodes. Functional imaging and nuclear medicine are still under evaluation. However, the literature already allows establishing their usefulness where morphological imaging is limited. The diagnosis of subclinical metastatic lymph nodes, the differentiation between recurrence and post-treatment modifications, monitoring chemotherapy and radiation therapy planning are indications for which new imaging techniques are invaluable.

  17. The Roswell Park Cancer Institute experience with extramammary Paget's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, J D; Zeitouni, N C

    2000-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm. Common sites of occurrence include the vulva, perianal region, perineum and scrotum. Despite frequent recurrences, surgery is the standard treatment. This study examines the recurrence rate for EMPD treated by conventional surgical management. Alternative and multimodal therapeutic approaches are reviewed. This retrospective analysis included all 30 patients treated for EMPD at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) between 1970 and 1998. Following conventional surgical treatment, 44% of our patients developed recurrence. Vulvectomy provided the lowest recurrence rate, but involved extensive tissue loss and functional debility. Multimodal treatment using Mohs' micrographic surgery and photodynamic therapy has been used at RPCI to manage EMPD with minimal tissue loss and no functional impairment. Surgical treatment offers a moderate chance of EMPD cure. Long-term multimodal approaches require close follow-up, but may conserve both tissue and function.

  18. 76 FR 576 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Mesothelioma, Lung, Breast and Ovarian Cancers. Date: February 2-3, 2011. Time: 8....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...

  19. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application.

  20. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  1. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  2. Optical imaging of cancer and cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Bangwen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work included in this PhD thesis was to explore the diverse application possibility of using NIR fluorescent probes with specific properties to visualize and characterize cancer and cell death. In this thesis, we mainly focus on optical imaging and its application, both at microscopic

  3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  4. Autofluorescence spectroscopic imaging for laryngeal cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lin; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2008-02-01

    Autofluorescence imaging has shown a high sensitivity for early diagnosis and detection of cancer and precancer in humans, however, this diagnostic technique has a limitation with high false positive rates resulting in a low diagnostic specificity. In this study, we develop an endoscope-based autofluorescence imaging system in combination with spectroscopy measurement system for tissue diagnostics and characterization in the head and neck. The results show that combining the spectroscopy and imaging techniques can improve both the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for discriminating laryngeal carcinoma from normal tissue.

  5. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and head and neck cancers risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Polesel, Jerry; Garavello, Werner; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; Franchin, Gianni; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bosetti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) have proposed eight recommendations for cancer prevention, related to body fatness, diet, and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the role of adherence to these recommendations on head and neck cancers risk. We obtained an overall score including seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, and examined its relationship with head and neck cancers risk in two Italian case-control studies including 946 patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal (OCP) cancer and 2492 controls, and 689 patients with laryngeal cancer and 1605 controls. Higher adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated to a reduced risk of OCP cancer (odds ratio, OR=0.45, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.33-0.62 for a score of 4-laryngeal cancer were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92) for a score of 3-cancer prevention is associated with a substantially decreased risk of head and neck cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging Prostate Cancer (PCa) Phenotype and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT...of mitochondrial aconitase, is an early change in carcinogenesis in the prostate. This change in metabolism is detectable by magnetic resonance. The... mitochondrial aconitase (m-Acon) activity. This has been associated with zinc-induced inhibition of m-Acon in the peripheral epithelial cells. Activation of m

  7. Towards In Vivo Imaging of Cancer Sialylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martinez-Duncker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo assessment of tumor glucose catabolism by positron emission tomography (PET has become a highly valued study in the medical management of cancer. Emerging technologies offer the potential to evaluate in vivo another aspect of cancer carbohydrate metabolism related to the increased anabolic use of monosaccharides like sialic acid (Sia. Sia is used for the synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides in the cell surface that in cancer cells are overexpressed and positively associated to malignancy and worse prognosis because of their role in invasion and metastasis. This paper addresses the key points of the different strategies that have been developed to image Sia expression in vivo and the perspectives to translate it from the bench to the bedside where it would offer the clinician highly valued complementary information on cancer carbohydrate metabolism that is currently unavailable in vivo.

  8. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Resistance Mechanisms | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to targeted therapy is emerging as a bottleneck to achieving durable drug responses in cancer. The goal of the CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute is to identify mechanisms of resistance for both existing therapeutics as well as for emerging targets even prior to the identification of lead compounds. They aim to use this information to inform combinatorial treatments. In representative examples they have found that YAP1 leads to resistance after KRAS targeting and that PRKACA mediates resistance to HER2 therapy.

  9. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Luca F. [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie [National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pisters, Katherine M. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dexter, Elisabeth U. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Niland, Joyce C. [Department of Information Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S., E-mail: Nirav.S.Kapadia@hitchcock.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  10. 76 FR 5597 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Emphasis Panel; Vaccine for Prevention of HIV Infection. Date: February 24, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3:30 p.m... Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  11. Preoperative MR Imaging in Women with Breast Cancer Detected at Screening US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, A Jung; Shin, Sung Ui; Ryu, Han Suk; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine additional cancer yield of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with breast cancer detected at screening ultrasonography (US) and to identify a subgroup of women who are likely to benefit from preoperative MR imaging. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. A retrospective review of 374 women (median age, 48 years; age range, 30-74 years) with breast cancer detected at screening US (invasive, n = 321) who underwent preoperative breast MR imaging between 2007 and 2013 was performed. Cancer yield and positive predictive value of biopsy were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical-pathologic features associated with additional cancer detected at MR imaging. Results Of 374 women, 21 (5.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5%, 8.5%) were diagnosed with additional cancer (positive predictive value of biopsy, 42.0% [21 of 50 women]; 95% CI: 28%, 57%). Index invasive lobular cancer (ILC) histologic type was significantly associated with additional cancer detected at MR imaging (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 13.6; P = .03). In women with index invasive cancer, premenopausal status (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 35.8; P = .03) and lobular histologic type (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 12.3; P = .03) were factors associated with additional cancer detected at MR imaging. Conclusion Preoperative MR imaging helped to detect additional sites of cancer in 5.6% of women with breast cancer detected at screening US. Women with index ILC and premenopausal women are more likely to benefit from preoperative MR imaging. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. The National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service: a premiere cancer information and education resource for the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Mary Anne

    2007-01-01

    Through the National Cancer Act and its amendments (National Cancer Act, 1971; National Cancer Act Amendments, 1974), the U.S. Congress mandated that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) - the nation's lead agency for cancer information and research - provides accurate, up-to-date information about cancer to all segments of the U.S. population. In 1975, the NCI established the Cancer Information Service (CIS), a premieer resource for providing cancer information and education to the nation. The CIS is designed to maximize reach to the public by responding to the cancer needs of clients through several communication technologies, including a telephone service, e-mail, and real-time instant messaging. By offering cancer information to the public through one-on-one interactions with CIS information specialists, the CIS is in a unique position to fill the gap that lies between the preferred, interpersonal source of the health care provider and the actual, impersonal Internet. Cancer Information Service can play an important role in providing health care practitioners, health departments, caregivers, and researchers with up-to-date and accurate information about cancer and clinical trials. Currently, 10% of CIS callers are health professionals. Referring patients to the CIS can augment health practitioners' ability to convey important health information to patients. The CIS program uses NCI resources to educate clients on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and rehabilitation and smoking cessation in simple terms that they can understand. Additionally, the CIS works with organizations to develop educational programs and interventions to reach underserved populations. A unique component of this information and education program is its ability to contribute to the field of health communications research by collaborating in research studies throughout the U.S. Finally, since its inception in 1975, the CIS has assisted international organizations with starting a

  13. 78 FR 64966 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 10-11, 2013, 03:00 p.m.-06:00 p.m...

  14. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, March 14, 2011, 6 p.m. to March 16, 2011, 12 p...

  15. 78 FR 66755 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 10-11, 2013, 09:00 a.m.-08:00 p.m...

  16. 78 FR 64506 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 11, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m...

  17. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, December 11, 2013, 08:30 a.m., National...

  18. 78 FR 64519 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 3, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m...

  19. 78 FR 55268 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, November 6, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m...

  20. 77 FR 25488 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, May 21, 2012, 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., Bethesda Marriott...

  1. Advances in Biomedical Imaging, Bioengineering, and Related Technologies for the Development of Biomarkers of Pancreatic Disease: Summary of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly A; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Christina H; Singh, Vikesh K; Srivastava, Sudhir; Wasan, Ajay D; Yadav, Dhiraj; Andersen, Dana K

    2015-11-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering focused on research gaps and opportunities in the development of new biomarkers of pancreatic disease. The session was held on July 22, 2015, and structured into 6 sessions: 1) Introduction and Overview; 2) Keynote Address; 3) New Approaches to the Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis; 4) Biomarkers of Pain and Inflammation; 5) New Approaches to the Detection of Pancreatic Cancer; and 6) Shed Exosomes, Shed Cells, and Shed Proteins. Recent advances in the fields of pancreatic imaging, functional markers of pancreatic disease, proteomics, molecular and cellular imaging, and detection of circulating cancer cells and exosomes were reviewed. Knowledge gaps and research needs were highlighted. The development of new methods for the noninvasive determination of pancreatic pathology; the use of cellular markers of pancreatic function, inflammation, pain, and malignancy; and the refinement of methods to identify cells and cellular constituents of pancreatic cancer were discussed. The further refinement of sophisticated technical methods and the need for clinical studies to validate these new approaches in large-scale studies of patients at risk for the development of pancreatic disease were repeatedly emphasized.

  2. 75 FR 42449 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Research Programs and Updates of the Implementation of the Clinical Trials and Translational Research....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...

  3. 77 FR 31030 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 20892, 301- 496-9723. Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  4. 78 FR 50064 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ..., [email protected] . Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research...

  5. 77 FR 5029 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ..., Room 10A30, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301- 496-9723. Any interested person may file written comments with the... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research...

  6. 77 FR 58851 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding ] the statement to the Contact..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology...

  7. 77 FR 46765 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-9582. Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the statement to... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control...

  8. 78 FR 48455 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...- 6340. Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the statement to....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  9. 78 FR 9402 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ..., Room 10A28, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301- 594-3194. Any interested person may file written comments with the... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer CentersSupport; 93.398, Cancer Research...

  10. 78 FR 2682 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ..., (301) 496-5147. Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control...

  11. 75 FR 26267 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ..., (301) 496-5147. Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  12. 78 FR 44577 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., [email protected] . Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  13. 75 FR 42453 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ....gov . Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the statement....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  14. 78 FR 50068 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Center Drive, Room 7W-102, Bethesda, MD 20892, (240) 276-6341. Any interested person may file written..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398...

  15. 76 FR 53687 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., Rm. 11A48, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-2455, [email protected] . Any interested person may file..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology...

  16. 77 FR 26772 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the statement to the Contact Person listed..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology...

  17. 75 FR 70013 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...-9399, [email protected] . Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  18. 75 FR 29769 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Emphasis Panel; Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes in Hospice and Palliative Care Practices. Date: June....395, Cancer ] Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...

  19. Robust breast cancer prediction system based on rough set theory at National Cancer Institute of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Saeed Khodary M; Wahed, Mohammed E; Abo Alez, Reda H; Riad, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major death causing diseases of the women in the world. Every year more than million women are diagnosed with breast cancer more than half of them will die because of inaccuracies and delays in diagnosis of the disease. High accuracy in cancer prediction is important to improve the treatment quality and the survivability rate of patients. In this paper, we are going to propose a new and robust breast cancer prediction and diagnosis system based on the Rough Set (RS). Also, introducing the robust classification process based on some new and most effective attributes. Comparing and evaluating the performance of our proposed approach with the clinical, Radial Basis Function, and Artificial Neural Networks classification schemes. The dataset used in our experiments consists of 60 samples obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of Egypt. We have used the RS theory to robustly find dependence relationships among data, and evaluate the importance of attributes through: Results: Conclusion: We have introduced the robustness of the RS theory in early predicting and diagnosing the breast cancer. This lay more importance to the contribution and efficiency of RS theory in the field of computational biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2009-11-01

    We explore an NIR autofluorescence imaging technique for cancer diagnosis and detection. A set of tissue images including NIR white light images, autofluorescence (AF) images and fluorescence polarized images (FPI) (parallel-, and perpendicular- polarization) were acquired in tandem on human colonic tissues. The results show that NIR fluorescence intensity of normal tissue is significantly higher than that of cancer tissue. The perpendicular-polarization image yields the highest diagnostic accuracy 93% compared to other imaging modes. This work demonstrates that Fluorescence polarization imaging (FPI) technique has great potential for cancer diagnosis and detection in the colon.

  1. Ultrasonic Imaging Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.

    2008-02-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology is needed to enhance its relevance to breast cancer detection. A novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method is described that exploits classical straight-ray migration. This novel method improves signal processing for better image resolution and uses novel staging hardware options using a pulse-echo approach. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using the classical migration method and is compared to standard computed tomography (CT) scans. These innovative ultrasonic methods incorporate ultrasound data acquisition, beam profile characterization, and image reconstruction. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions of approximately 1 cm are resolved and identified. Better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering remission percentages. Using these new techniques the inclusions in the phantom are resolved and compared to the results of standard methods. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also discussed.

  2. Multi-institutional tumor banking: lessons learned from a pancreatic cancer biospecimen repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Michael J; Sielaff, Timothy; Koep, Larry; Prinz, Richard; Moser, A James; Zeh, Herb; Hostetter, Galen; Black, Jodi; Decker, Ardis; Rosewell, Sandra; Bussey, Kimberly J; Von Hoff, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Clinically annotated pancreatic cancer samples are needed for progress to be made toward developing more effective treatments for this deadly cancer. As part of a National Cancer Institute-funded program project, we established a biospecimen core to support the research efforts. This article summarizes the key hurdles encountered and solutions we found in the process of developing a successful multi-institution biospecimen repository.

  3. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To... Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is initiating a public private... biotechnology companies. This consortium will evaluate promising nanotechnology platforms and facilitate their...

  4. Narrow band imaging for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Narrow band imaging (NBI is a newly developed technology aiming to provide additional endoscopic information for patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the diagnostic accuracy and treatment outcome using NBI cystoscopy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Current results showed improved sensitivity of NBI cystoscopy compared to conventional white light cystoscopy, although lower specificity and increased false-positive results were reported using NBI cystoscopy. The treatment outcome using NBI technology in transurethral resection of bladder tumor had a positive impact while decreased number of residual tumors and tumor recurrence at follow-up were reported. In the future, the application of NBI technology might refine the treatment and follow-up protocol in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. However, this large scale prospective studies are required to confirm the real cost-effectiveness of this new technology.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  6. Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Palcic, Branko

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected State I nonsmall cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for twenty-five years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect more than twice as many moderate-severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ sites than conventional white-light bronchoscopy. The use of fluorescence imaging to detect small peripheral lung nodules was investigated in a micro metastatic lung model of mice implanted with Lewis lung tumor cells. Fluorescence imaging was found to be able to detect small malignant lung lesions. The use of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to enhance fluorescence detection of CIS was investigated in a patient after oral administration of 60 mg/kg of ALA four hours prior to bronchoscopy, although ALA enhanced the tumor's visibility, multiple sites of false positive fluorescence were observed in areas of inflammation or metaplasia.

  7. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  8. Disparities in Geographic Accessibility of National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Fu, Cong; Onega, Tracy; Shi, Xun; Wang, Fahui

    2017-11-11

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Centers form the backbone of the cancer care system in the United States since their inception in the early 1970s. Most studies on their geographic accessibility used primitive measures, and did not examine the disparities across urbanicity or demographic groups. This research uses an advanced accessibility method, termed "2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA)" and implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to capture the degree of geographic access to NCI Cancer Centers by accounting for competition intensity for the services and travel time between residents and the facilities. The results indicate that urban advantage is pronounced as the average accessibility is highest in large central metro areas, declines to large fringe metro, medium metro, small metro, micropolitan and noncore rural areas. Population under the poverty line are disproportionally concentrated in lower accessibility areas. However, on average Non-Hispanic White have the lowest geographic accessibility, followed by Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black and Asian, and the differences are statistically significant. The "reversed racial disadvantage" in NCI Cancer Center accessibility seems counterintuitive but is consistent with an influential prior study; and it is in contrast to the common observation of co-location of concentration of minority groups and people under the poverty line.

  9. 77 FR 33488 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to... States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors and products containing same by reason of... image sensors and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1 and 2 of the `126...

  10. The Effect of Each Other Perceived Service Quality and Institutional Image In Pre - sc hool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Sönmez Karapınar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of service quality and dimensions of perceived institutional image; and effect of perceived institutional image and perceived service quality in pre-school education facilities. Two models were developed for that purpose. Perceived service quality was evaluated in five dimensions (empathy, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and tangibles and perceived institutional image was evaluated in four dimensions (quality image institutional communication, social image and institutional perspective. Influence of independent variable on dependent variable was mentioned in both of two models. Sample of the study consists of 250 families who use service provided by pre-schools in Kayseri. Data was collected by the way of a questionnaire which formed in the basis of two scales named as “servperf scale” and “institutional image scale”. Factor analysis, KMO test and regression analysis were used in order to test data. Findings indicate that there was a positive affect each other perceived service quality and perceived institutional image.

  11. Molecular MR imaging of fibrosis in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, Miloslav; Yang, Y.; Schühle, D. T.; Yaseen, M. A.; Kim, Y. R.; Sung, Y. S.; Guimaraes, A. R.; Caravan, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Aug 14 (2017), č. článku 8114. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fibrosis * molecular imaging * pancreatic cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-08838-6

  12. Travel Burden and Clinical Profile of Cancer Patients Admitted to the Cancer Institute of Iran in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Ardestani, Atefeh; Hadji, Maryam; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Kazemian, Ali; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah; Aghili, Mahdi; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-03-01

    Burden of cancer is increasing in developing countries, where healthcare infrastructures and resources are limited. Evaluating the pattern of care would provide evidence for planning and improvement of the situation. We studied the pattern of residential place and clinical information of cancer patients who were admitted to the Cancer Institute of Iran from January 1, to May 31, 2012. We studied 1,705 consecutive cancer patients admitted to the Cancer Institute in the study period. The most common cancers were breast (29.2%), colorectal (9.0%), stomach (8.3%), head & neck (8.0%) and esophageal (3.8%) cancers. Radiotherapy was the main treatment (52.1%) followed by chemotherapy (43.8%) and surgery (29.1%). We found that 60% of the patients presented in the loco-regional or advanced stages. About 35% of patients travelled from other provinces mainly from Mazandaran (13.4%), Lorestan (10.6%), Zanjan (7.8%) and Ghazvin (6.6%). On average, the cancer patients travelled about 455 kilometers to receive care in the cancer institute. We found more than 38% patients who were referred from other provinces had an early stage tumor. Establishment of comprehensive cancer centers in different geographical regions and implementation of a proper referral system for advanced cancer patients is needed to improve the patient outcomes and mitigate the burden of travel of patients for cancer care.

  13. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  14. Optical tomographic imaging for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Intes, Xavier; Wang, Ge

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer. This method splits the image reconstruction problem into the localization of abnormal tissues and quantification of absorption variations. The localization of abnormal tissues is performed based on a well-posed optimization model, which can be solved via a differential evolution optimization method to achieve a stable reconstruction. The quantification of abnormal absorption is then determined in localized regions of relatively small extents, in which a potential tumor might be. Consequently, the number of unknown absorption variables can be greatly reduced to overcome the underdetermined nature of DOT. Numerical simulation experiments are performed to verify merits of the proposed method, and the results show that the image reconstruction method is stable and accurate for the identification of abnormal tissues, and robust against the measurement noise of data.

  15. Readability of patient information regarding breast cancer prevention from the Web site of the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Ian C

    2010-12-01

    The increasing use of the Internet for gathering information regarding preventative health measures creates a unique dilemma. Access to the Internet is almost universal in the USA. Web sites presenting health information regarding breast cancer must create information that is understandable to the general public, meaning a reading level of around seventh grade. Text was obtained from the National Cancer Institute's Web site, and an examination of the text's grade level was performed. The text was written at between a 10th and 12th grade level. This indicates that information regarding breast cancer prevention obtained from the National Cancer Institute's web site is written at far too high of a level.

  16. Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Immunohistochemistry Department Of Cancer Institute 1996 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani F

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed neuroendocrine system (D.N.S consists of a wide variety of cells that are present in the central and peripheral nervous system and in many classic endocrine organs and different tissues such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, skin, prostate, breast and also their neoplasm show neuroendocrine differentiation by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry or biochemical techniques:"nMaterials and Methods: The present study has been carried out by case-series method in order to evaluating the characteristics of all types of neuroendocrine carcinoma: different anatomical locations during 5 years period in immunohistochemistry department of cancer institute."nResults: The diagnosis of 109 cases of neuroendocrine carcinoma consisting of neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma of thyroid, carcinoid tumor and merkel cell carcinoma are confirmed that among them the most common diagnosis was related to neuroendocrine carcinoma (50.5 percent. The most prevalent age group was 40-49 years and male to female distribution were 56 percent and 44 percent respectively. Anatomical distribution of tumor show that about 30 percent of cases were metastatic carcinoma, 30 percent in thyroid, respiratory tract and head and neck region and remainder in a variety of tissues. In over 50 percent of cases one of endocrinoid patterns as trabecular, organoid or mixed of them were seen."nConclusion: Immunohistochemically N.S.E (Neuron Specific Enolase show high sensitivity with 96 percent positive reaction and more specific endocrine markers as chromogranin A in 80 percent and synaptophysin only in 24 percent because of lesser application of the latter. Also epithelial markers such as cytokeratin and E.M.A."n(Epithelial Membrane Antigen were positive in 69 percent and 74 percent respectively. Mean survival rate of all neuroendocrine carcinoma reached to 4.8 years with lowest survival of 4.3 years among small cell carcinoma and

  17. 76 FR 66733 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the statement to the... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  18. 77 FR 2557 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    .... Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by forwarding the statement to the... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  19. 78 FR 29758 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... 20892, (240) 276- 6340.> Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  20. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  1. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , and molecular imaging information. Developments in imaging technologies, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), have improved the detection rate of prostate cancer. MRI has improved lesion detection and local staging. Furthermore, MRI...

  2. PET/MR Imaging in Head and Neck Cancer: Current Applications and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Samuel J; Marshall, Ryan V; Middlebrooks, Erik H; McConathy, Jonathan E; Bhambhvani, Pradeep

    2018-02-01

    Clinical PET/MR imaging is being implemented at institutions worldwide as part of the standard-of-care imaging for select oncology patients. This article focuses on oncologic applications of PET/MR imaging in cancers of the head and neck. Although current published literature is relatively sparse, the potential benefits of a hybrid modality of PET/MR imaging are discussed along with several possible areas of research. With the increasing number of PET/MR imaging scanners in clinical use and ongoing research, the role of PET/MR imaging in the management of head and neck cancer is likely to become more evident in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suneet; Porwal, Rabins

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  4. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  5. Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teresa Araújo; Guilherme Aresta; Eduardo Castro; José Rouco; Paulo Aguiar; Catarina Eloy; António Polónia; Aurélio Campilho

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis...

  6. Consortium for Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdiagnosis and false positives present | 8 lead investigators combining imaging methods for the visualization of lesions with biomarkers to improve the accuracy of screening, early cancer detection, and the diagnosis of early stage cancers.

  7. Design Management and Institutional Marketing in the Corporate Image of the Instituto Federal Fluminense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Marcia Alves Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a corporate image forthe Brazilian Federal Institutes of Education,Science and Technology, the Instituto FederalFluminense, in particular, by taking marketingactions, and creating a culture of designmanagement within these organizations. Inorder to do so, this paper presents and analyzesdiverse literature which provides the theoreticalbasis of how these two areas of knowledge canact strategically to develop, to strengthen, and todisseminate the perceived public image of theseeducational institutions.

  8. Patterns of use of medical cannabis among Israeli cancer patients: a single institution experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waissengrin, Barliz; Urban, Damien; Leshem, Yasmin; Garty, Meital; Wolf, Ido

    2015-01-01

    .... Efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis were evaluated using physician-completed application forms, medical files, and a detailed questionnaire in adult cancer patients treated at a single institution...

  9. Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer: A Concise Synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jadvar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and continues to be a major public health problem. Imaging of prostate cancer remains particularly challenging owing to disease heterogeneity. Molecular imaging can provide unprecedented opportunities for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development and natural progression of prostate cancer from a localized process to the hormone-refractory metastatic disease. Such understanding will be the key for targeted imaging and therapy and for predicting and evaluating treatment response and prognosis. In this article, we review briefly the contribution of multimodality molecular imaging methods for the in vivo characterization of the pathophysiology of prostate cancer.

  10. Assessing the Development of Multidisciplinary Care: Experience of the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eliot L; Chawla, Neetu; Morris, Paul T; Castro, Kathleen M; Carrigan, Angela C; Das, Irene Prabhu; Clauser, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007 with a goal of expanding cancer research and delivering quality care in communities. The NCCCP Quality of Care (QoC) Subcommittee was charged with developing and improving the quality of multidisciplinary care. An assessment tool with nine key elements relevant to MDC structure and operations was developed. Fourteen NCCCP sites reported multidisciplinary care assessments for lung, breast, and colorectal cancer in June 2010, June 2011, and June 2012 using an online reporting tool. Each site evaluated their level of maturity (level 1 = no multidisciplinary care, level 5 = highly integrated multidisciplinary care) in nine elements integral to multidisciplinary care. Thematic analysis of open-ended qualitative responses was also conducted. The proportion of sites that reported level 3 or greater on the assessment tool was tabulated at each time point. For all tumor types, sites that reached this level increased in six elements: case planning, clinical trials, integration of care coordination, physician engagement, quality improvement, and treatment team integration. Factors that enabled improvement included increasing organizational support, ensuring appropriate physician participation, increasing patient navigation, increasing participation in national quality initiatives, targeting genetics referrals, engaging primary care providers, and integrating clinical trial staff. Maturation of multidisciplinary care reflected focused work of the NCCCP QoC Subcommittee. Working group efforts in patient navigation, genetics, and physician conditions of participation were evident in improved multidisciplinary care performance for three common malignancies. This work provides a blueprint for health systems that wish to incorporate prospective multidisciplinary care into their cancer programs. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. National Cancer Institute and American Association for Clinical Chemistry Partner to Bridge the Gap | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.

  12. 77 FR 31628 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ....m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116..., MD, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural...: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive...

  13. Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, C.M.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Hambrock, T.; Yakar, D.; Somford, D.M.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vos, P.C.; Huisman, H.J.; Oort, I.M. van; Witjes, J.A.; Heerschap, A.; Futterer, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This review presents the current state of the art regarding multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of prostate cancer. Technical requirements and clinical indications for the use of multiparametric MR imaging in detection, localization, characterization, staging, biopsy guidance, and active

  14. Between prevention and therapy: Gio Batta Gori and the National Cancer Institute's Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme, 1974-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, David

    2012-10-01

    This paper explores the origins of the Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme (DNCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and its fate under its first director, Gio Batta Gori. The DNCP is used to explore the emergence of federal support for research on diet, nutrition and cancer following the 1971 Cancer Act, the complex relations between cancer prevention and therapeutics in the NCI during the 1970s, the broader politics around diet, nutrition and cancer during that decade, and their relations to Senator George McGovern's select committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. It also provides a window onto the debates and struggles over whether NCI research should be funded by contracts or grants, the nature of the patronage system within the federal cancer research agency, how a director, Gio Gori, lost patronage within that system and how a tightening of the budget for cancer research in the mid-to-late 1970s affected the DNCP.

  15. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    of more effective treatment modalities that could improve outcome. Prostate cancer represents an attractive target for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for several reasons, including pattern of metastatic spread (lymph nodes and bone marrow, sites with good access to circulating antibodies) and small volume......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  16. Factors Affecting Corporate Image from the Perspective of Distance Learning Students in Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fábio Reis; Pelissari, Anderson Soncini

    2016-01-01

    New information technologies enable different interactions in the educational environment, affecting how the image of educational institutions adopting distance-learning programmes is perceived. This article identifies factors affecting the perception of corporate image from the viewpoint of distance-learning students at public higher education…

  17. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  18. 78 FR 312 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Facility, 5701 Marinelli Road, North Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person: David G. Ransom, Ph.D., Scientific... Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8133, Bethesda, MD 20892-8328, 301-451-4757, david.ransom@nih.gov...

  19. Continuous-wave terahertz imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Cecil Sudhir

    Continuous wave terahertz imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human skin cancers. Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) has already shown that there is contrast between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin. Continuous-wave imaging offers a simpler, lower cost alternative to terahertz pulse imaging. This project aims to isolate the optimal contrast frequency for a continuous wave terahertz imaging system and demonstrate transmission based, in-vitro , imaging of thin sections of non-melanoma skin cancers and correlate the images to sample histology. The aim of this project is to conduct a proof-of-principle experiment that establishes whether continuous-wave terahertz imaging can detect differences between cancerous and normal tissue while outlining the basic requirements for building a system capable of performing in vivo tests.

  20. Analysis of esophagogastric cancer patients enrolled in the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program sponsored phase 1 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hideaki; Rubinstein, Larry; Harris, Pamela; Yoshino, Takayuki; Doi, Toshihiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Welch, John; Takebe, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    In phase 1 trials, an important entry criterion is life expectancy predicted to be more than 90 days, which is generally difficult to predict. The Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) prognostic score that is determined by lactate dehydrogenase level, albumin level, and number of metastatic sites of disease was developed to help project patient outcomes. There have been no systematic analyses to evaluate the utility of the RMH prognostic score for esophagogastric cancer patients. All nonpediatric phase 1 oncology trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program that began between 2001 and 2013 were considered in this review. Of 4722 patients with solid tumors, 115 patients were eligible for our analysis; 54 (47 %) with cancer of the esophagus, 14 (12 %) with cancer of the esopagogastric junction, and 47 (41 %) with stomach cancer. Eighty-six patients (75 %) had a good RMH prognostic score (0 or 1) and 29 patients (25 %) had a poor RMH prognostic score (2 or 3). Disease control rates were significantly different between patients with good and poor RMH prognostic scores (49 % vs 17 %; two-sided Fisher's exact test P = 0.004). The median treatment duration and overall survival for good and poor RMH prognostic score patients were significantly different (median treatment duration 2.1 months vs 1.2 months respectively, P = 0.016; median overall survival 10.9 months vs 2.1 months respectively, P cancer patients who might participate in a phase 1 trial.

  1. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: luminal B molecular subtype is associated with enhancement dynamics at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A; Zhang, Jing; Grimm, Lars J; Yoon, Sora C; Silber, James I

    2014-11-01

    To investigate associations between breast cancer molecular subtype and semiautomatically extracted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features. Imaging and genomic data from the Cancer Genome Atlas and the Cancer Imaging Archive for 48 patients with breast cancer from four institutions in the United States were used in this institutional review board approval-exempt study. Computer vision algorithms were applied to extract 23 imaging features from lesions indicated by a breast radiologist on MR images. Morphologic, textural, and dynamic features were extracted. Molecular subtype was determined on the basis of genomic analysis. Associations between the imaging features and molecular subtype were evaluated by using logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests. The analysis controlled for the age of the patients, their menopausal status, and the orientation of the MR images (sagittal vs axial). There is an association (P = .0015) between the luminal B subtype and a dynamic contrast material-enhancement feature that quantifies the relationship between lesion enhancement and background parenchymal enhancement. Cancers with a higher ratio of lesion enhancement rate to background parenchymal enhancement rate are more likely to be luminal B subtype. The luminal B subtype of breast cancer is associated with MR imaging features that relate the enhancement dynamics of the tumor and the background parenchyma.

  2. Supporting the Image of an Institution by Means of Communication and PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Elena Iacob

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to sell an image it is necessary to define it first, then to diffuse it, to consolidate it and to renew it permanently. Public relations are a form of institutional communication - being an element of persuasion mandated to influence opinions, attitudes and beliefs of consumers in order to sell the reputation of the institution. Public relations develop an atmosphere of sympathy based on knowledge, understanding and credibility of the organization. If the public image can be built, it is more difficult to control it in the social environment. If an institution or organization has the ability to create an image and direct it in a favorable direction for itself however it cannot have total control over the received image.

  3. 75 FR 30407 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...: David G. Ransom, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural...-4757. david.ransom@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer...

  4. 78 FR 26379 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    .... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Garden Inn and Homewood Suites, 14975... the Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies. Date: June 20, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m...

  5. Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Cecil S; Yaroslavsky, Anna N; Neel, Victor A; Goyette, Thomas M; Giles, Robert H

    2011-08-01

    Continuous wave terahertz imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating human skin cancers. Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) has already shown that there is contrast between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin. Continuous-wave imaging offers a simpler, lower cost alternative to TPI. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of continuous wave terahertz imaging for delineating skin cancers by demonstrating contrast between cancerous and normal tissue in transmission mode. Two CO(2) optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas lasers were used for illuminating the tissue at two frequencies, 1.39 and 1.63 THz. The transmitted signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled Silicon bolometer. Fresh skin cancer specimens were obtained from Mohs surgeries. The samples were processed and imaged within 24 hours after surgery. During the imaging experiment the samples were kept in pH-balanced saline to prevent tissue dehydration. At both THz frequencies two-dimensional THz transmission images of nonmelanoma skin cancers were acquired with spatial resolution of 0.39 mm at 1.4 THz and 0.49 mm at 1.6 THz. For evaluation purposes, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology was processed from the imaged tissue. A total of 10 specimens were imaged and it was determined that for both frequencies, the areas of decreased transmission in the THz image correlated well with cancerous areas in the histopathology. Two negative controls were also imaged. The difference in transmission between normal and cancerous tissue was found to be approximately 60% at both frequencies, which suggests that contrast between normal and cancerous tissue at these frequencies is dominated by differences in water content. Our results suggest that intraoperative delineation of nonmelanoma skin cancers using continuous-wave terahertz imaging is feasible. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  7. Multiparametric MRI with dynamic contrast enhancement, diffusion-weighted imaging, and 31-phosphorus spectroscopy at 7 T for characterization of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Veldhuis, WB; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Van Der Kemp, Wybe J M; Van Der Velden, Tijl A.; Kock, Marc C J M; Westenend, Pieter J.; Klomp, Dennis W J; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and to correlate tumor characteristics onmultiparametric 7 tesla (T) breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with prognostic characteristics from postoperative histopathology in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and

  8. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  9. Novel imaging strategies for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic imaging is the cornerstone of all cancer treatment. Unfortunately, modern imaging modalities have several unsolved problems and limitations. The differentiation between inflammation and cancer infiltration, false positive and false negative findings as well as lack...... of confirming biopsies in suspected metastases may have serious negative consequences in cancer patients. This review describes some of these problems and challenges the use of conventional imaging by suggesting new combined strategies that include selective use of confirming biopsies and complementary methods...... to detect microscopic cancer dissemination....

  10. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    for breast cancer specimens that involve microcalcifications or nonpalpable masses and does not occur for palpable breast masses (Cabioglu et al...John V Frangioni. 2008. “Detection of Breast Cancer Microcalcifications Using a Dual-modality SPECT/NIR Fluorescent Probe.” Journal of the American...Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rebekah Drezek, Ph.D

  11. Nanoparticle imaging probes for molecular imaging with computed tomography and application to cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Ryan K.; Curtis, Tyler E.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Irimata, Lisa E.; McGinnity, Tracie L.; Cole, Lisa E.; Vargo-Gogola, Tracy; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2017-03-01

    Precision imaging is needed to realize precision medicine in cancer detection and treatment. Molecular imaging offers the ability to target and identify tumors, associated abnormalities, and specific cell populations with overexpressed receptors. Nuclear imaging and radionuclide probes provide high sensitivity but subject the patient to a high radiation dose and provide limited spatiotemporal information, requiring combined computed tomography (CT) for anatomic imaging. Therefore, nanoparticle contrast agents have been designed to enable molecular imaging and improve detection in CT alone. Core-shell nanoparticles provide a powerful platform for designing tailored imaging probes. The composition of the core is chosen for enabling strong X-ray contrast, multi-agent imaging with photon-counting spectral CT, and multimodal imaging. A silica shell is used for protective, biocompatible encapsulation of the core composition, volume-loading fluorophores or radionuclides for multimodal imaging, and facile surface functionalization with antibodies or small molecules for targeted delivery. Multi-agent (k-edge) imaging and quantitative molecular imaging with spectral CT was demonstrated using current clinical agents (iodine and BaSO4) and a proposed spectral library of contrast agents (Gd2O3, HfO2, and Au). Bisphosphonate-functionalized Au nanoparticles were demonstrated to enhance sensitivity and specificity for the detection of breast microcalcifications by conventional radiography and CT in both normal and dense mammary tissue using murine models. Moreover, photon-counting spectral CT enabled quantitative material decomposition of the Au and calcium signals. Immunoconjugated Au@SiO2 nanoparticles enabled highly-specific targeting of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells for contrast-enhanced detection in model tumors.

  12. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Mo, Jianhua; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2008-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a novel optical technique with an ability of probing larger volume of tissues or lesions located in deep tissue areas. An integrated fluorescence and reflectance imaging system was developed to evaluate its potential for cancer diagnosis. The results show that the NIR autofluorescence intensity of normal colon tissues is significantly higher than that of cancer, and the diagnostic accuracy of 92.8% can be achieved using NIR autofluorescence/reflectance imaging. This work demonstrates that NIR autofluorescence/NIR reflectance imaging technique has potential for colonic cancer diagnosis and detection.

  14. Applications of molecular MRI and optical imaging in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Mikhaylova, Maria; Li, Cong; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Glunde, Kristine; Pathak, Arvind P; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2010-06-01

    Some of the most exciting advances in molecular-functional imaging of cancer are occurring at the interface between chemistry and imaging. Several of these advances have occurred through the development of novel imaging probes that report on molecular pathways, the tumor micro-environment and the response of tumors to treatment; as well as through novel image-guided platforms such as nanoparticles and nanovesicles that deliver therapeutic agents against specific targets and pathways. Cancer cells have a remarkable ability to evade destruction despite the armamentarium of drugs currently available. While these drugs can destroy cancer cells, normal tissue toxicity is a major limiting factor, a problem further compounded by poor drug delivery. One major challenge for chemistry continues to be to eliminate cancer cells without damaging normal tissues. Here we have selected examples of MRI and optical imaging, to demonstrate how integrating imaging with novel probes can facilitate the successful treatment of this multifaceted disease.

  15. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  16. 77 FR 6130 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology... INSTITUTE, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of... privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology...

  17. 75 FR 62552 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology... Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of... privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology...

  18. 75 FR 6041 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology... Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of... privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology National...

  19. 77 FR 31627 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology... Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of... privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology...

  20. 78 FR 312 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Translational Research Advisory Committee. Date: March 13, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: Strategic Discussion of NCI's Clinical and Translational Research Programs. Place: National Institutes of Health... and Translational Research Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  1. 75 FR 65364 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...: November 2, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place...). Contact Person: Sherwood Githens, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive...

  2. 77 FR 14026 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville..., MD, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural... proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (Telephone...

  3. 77 FR 56215 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    .... Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person: Adriana Stoica, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review & Logistics Branch.... ] Place: National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 511, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...

  4. 77 FR 55849 - National Cancer Institute ;Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...: October 1-2, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. ] Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place... and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural...

  5. Metabolic Imaging of Glutamine in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Ploessl, Karl; Zhou, Rong; Mankoff, David

    2017-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant nutrients for producing energy and building blocks in normal and tumor cells. Increased glycolysis in tumors, the Warburg Effect, is the basis for 18F-FDG PET imaging. Cancer cells can also be genetically reprogrammed to use glutamine. 5-11C-(2S)-glutamine and 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine may be useful complementary tools to measure changes in tumor metabolism. In glioma patients, the tracer 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine showed tumor-to-background contrast different from that of 18F-FDG and differences in uptake in glioma patients with clinical progression of disease versus stable disease (tumor-to-brain ratio > 3.7 in clinically active glioma tumors, minimal or no specific uptake in clinically stable tumors). These preliminary results suggest that 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine PET may be a new tool for probing in vivo metabolism of glutamine in cancer patients and for guiding glutamine-targeted therapeutics. Further studies of uptake mechanism, and comparison of kinetics for 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine versus the 11C-labeled native glutamine, will be important and enlightening. PMID:28232608

  6. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Validation Centers. Date: March 17, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... Panel; NCI Cancer Nanotechnology Training (R25) and Career Development Award (K99/R00) Applications. Date: March 23-24, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications...

  7. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Role of RGD Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women of all ages worldwide. With advances in molecular imaging procedures, it has been possible to detect breast cancer in its early stage, determine the extent of the disease to administer appropriate therapeutic protocol and also monitor the effects of treatment. By accurately characterizing the tumor properties and biological processes involved, molecular imaging can play a crucial role in minimizing the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer. The integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in breast cancer angiogenesis and is expressed on tumor endothelial cells as well as on some tumor cells. It is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide sequence and therefore RGD peptides can preferentially bind to integrin αvβ3. In this context, targeting tumor vasculature or tumor cells by RGD-based probes is a promising strategy for molecular imaging of breast cancer. Using RGD-based probes, several preclinical studies have employed different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and optical imaging for visualization of integrin αvβ3 expression in breast cancer models. Limited clinical trials using (18)F-labeled RGD peptides have also been initiated for non-invasive detection and staging of breast cancer. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes and discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancement of the field. The reported strategies for molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes holds promise for making clinically translatable advances that can positively impact the overall diagnostic and therapeutic processes and result in improved quality of life for breast cancer patients.

  8. Synchronous gynecologic cancer and the use of imaging for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Camila Silva; Galvão, José Lucas Scarpinetti; Soares, Giovanna Milanes Bego; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Chojniak, Rubens; Bringel, Shenia Lauanna Rezende; Brot, Louise De

    2016-04-01

    Endometrial and cervical cancers are the most prevalent gynecologic neoplasms. While endometrial cancer occurs in older women, cervical cancer is more prevalente in young subjects. The most common clinical manifestation in these two gynecological cancers is vaginal bleeding. In the first case, diagnosis is made based on histological and imaging evaluation of the endometrium, while cervical cancers are diagnosed clinically, according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). The authors present a case of synchronous gynecological cancer of the endometrium and cervix diagnosed during staging on MRI and confirmed by histological analysis of the surgical specimen.

  9. Radiogenomic analysis of lower grade glioma: a pilot multi-institutional study shows an association between quantitative image features and tumor genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Clark, Kal; Czarnek, Nicholas M.; Shamsesfandabadi, Parisa; Peters, Katherine B.; Saha, Ashirbani

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies showed that genomic analysis of lower grade gliomas can be very effective for stratification of patients into groups with different prognosis and proposed specific genomic classifications. In this study, we explore the association of one of those genomic classifications with imaging parameters to determine whether imaging could serve a similar role to genomics in cancer patient treatment. Specifically, we analyzed imaging and genomics data for 110 patients from 5 institutions from The Cancer Genome Atlas and The Cancer Imaging Archive datasets. The analyzed imaging data contained preoperative FLAIR sequence for each patient. The images were analyzed using the in-house algorithms which quantify 2D and 3D aspects of the tumor shape. Genomic data consisted of a cluster of clusters classification proposed in a very recent and leading publication in the field of lower grade glioma genomics. Our statistical analysis showed that there is a strong association between the tumor cluster-of-clusters subtype and two imaging features: bounding ellipsoid volume ratio and angular standard deviation. This result shows high promise for the potential use of imaging as a surrogate measure for genomics in the decision process regarding treatment of lower grade glioma patients.

  10. Nanomedicines for image-guided cancer therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinzi

    2016-09-01

    Imaging technologies are being increasingly employed to guide the delivery of cancer therapies with the intent to increase their performance and efficacy. To date, many patients have benefited from image-guided treatments through prolonged survival and improvements in quality of life. Advances in nanomedicine have enabled the development of multifunctional imaging agents that can further increase the performance of image-guided cancer therapy. Specifically, this talk will focus on examples that demonstrate the benefits and application of nanomedicine in the context of image-guide surgery, personalized drug delivery, tracking of cell therapies and high precision radiotherapy delivery.

  11. New developments in medical imaging to detect breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical imaging modalities are used to detect breast cancer, the most common being X-rays (mammography), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and various radionuclide techniques.2. The purpose of this article is to review these and other novel medical imaging modalities. The American College of Radiology ...

  12. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...

  13. FCCC Institutional Breast Cancer Training Program (FCCC-IBCTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Y, Ke Y (2004) Carcinogenesis 25:2201- 6. 15. Granja F, Morari J, Morari EC, Correa LA, Assumpcao LV, Ward LS. (2004) Cancer Lett 210:151-7. 16...LeukLymphoma 45:957-64. 4. Xi YG, Ding KY, Su XL, Chen DF, You WC, Shen Y, Ke Y (2004) Carcinogenesis 25:2201-6. 5. Granja F, Morari J, Morari EC, Correa LA

  14. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8615; (301) 496-5583 www.cancer.gov/ American Cancer Society Phone Number(s): (800) 227-2345; (404) 329-7520 www.cancer.org/docroot/home/ National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Phone number(s): (888) 232-6348 www.cdc.gov/cancer/ ...

  15. Image Processing Based Signature Verification Technique to Reduce Fraud in Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Walid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten signature is broadly utilized as personal verification in financial institutions ensures the necessity for a robust automatic signature verification tool. This tool aims to reduce fraud in all related financial transactions’ sectors. This paper proposes an online, robust, and automatic signature verification technique using the recent advances in image processing and machine learning. Once the image of a handwritten signature for a customer is captured, several pre-processing steps are performed on it including filtration and detection of the signature edges. Afterwards, a feature extraction process is applied on the image to extract Speeded up Robust Features (SURF and Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT features. Finally, a verification process is developed and applied to compare the extracted image features with those stored in the database for the specified customer. Results indicate high accuracy, simplicity, and rapidity of the developed technique, which are the main criteria to judge a signature verification tool in banking and other financial institutions.

  16. Clinicopathologic characteristics of double primary endometrial and colorectal cancers in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun J; Choi, Min C; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Jung, Sang G; Park, Hyun; Joo, Won D; Kim, Tae H; Lee, Chan; Lee, Je H

    2018-02-14

    To investigate the clinicopathologic and genetic correlations between double primary endometrial and colorectal cancer related to Lynch syndrome and to analyze germline mutations in mismatch repair genes in endometrial cancer patients in Korea. Thirteen patients diagnosed with pathologically endometrial and colorectal cancer between January 2005 and November 2016 in a single institution were enrolled in the study. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed. The genetic mutational information of endometrial cancer in Korea was retrieved from the literature review. Endometrial cancer was diagnosed first in eight (62%) patients, and one patient was diagnosed with colorectal cancer first. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma was reported in 10 of 13 (77%) endometrial cancer patients. Endometrial cancer was found at the low uterine segment in three patients. Three of four patients had high microsatellite instability. The loss of mismatch repair proteins was confirmed in 7 of 11 cases using immunohistochemistry. Four patients fulfilled clinical criteria based on a family history of cancer. Overall, the incidence of suspected Lynch syndrome was 77% (10/13). Four of them underwent genetic testing and three were found to have a pathogenic germline mutation. A possible founder mutation, c.1757_1758insC in MLH1, was observed in 21 germline mutation information from literature review. The present study describes the clinicopathologic data of double primary endometrial and colorectal cancer patients and supports that these patients should undergo closed approach for Lynch syndrome. Moreover, a possible founder mutation in Korean endometrial cancer patients was identified. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an essential role in the clinical management of patients. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis of anatomic, functional....../CT imaging of prostate cancer. Among these, choline (labeled with (18)F or (11)C), (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-fluoride have demonstrated promising results, and other new radiopharmaceuticals are currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies....

  18. Women’s experiences and preferences regarding breast imaging after completing breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandzel S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Susan Brandzel,1 Dori E Rosenberg,1 Dianne Johnson,1 Mary Bush,1 Karla Kerlikowske,2–5 Tracy Onega,6,7 Louise Henderson,8 Larissa Nekhlyudov,9,10 Wendy DeMartini,11 Karen J Wernli1 1Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Biostatistics, 5Department of Veterans Affairs, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 6Department of Biomedical Data Science, 7Department of Epidemiology, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, 8Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 9Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 10Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, 11Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: After treatment for breast cancer, most women receive an annual surveillance mammography to look for subsequent breast cancers. Supplemental breast MRI is sometimes used in addition to mammography despite the lack of clinical evidence for it. Breast imaging after cancer treatment is an emotionally charged experience, an important part of survivorship care, and a topic about which limited patient information exists. We assessed women’s experiences and preferences about breast cancer surveillance imaging with the goal of determining where gaps in care and knowledge could be filled. Participants and methods: We conducted six focus groups with a convenience sample of 41 women in California, North Carolina, and New Hampshire (USA. Participants were aged 38–75 years, had experienced stage 0–III breast cancer within the previous 5 years, and had completed initial treatment. We used inductive thematic analysis to identify key themes from verbatim transcripts. Results: Women reported various types and frequencies of surveillance imaging and a range of surveillance imaging

  19. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction improves image quality without affecting perfusion CT quantitation in primary colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Prezzi, Davide; Goh, V.; Virdi, S.; Mallett, S; Grierson, C; Breen, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) on perfusion CT (pCT) parameter quantitation and image quality in primary colorectal cancer. Methods: Prospective observational study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent pCT (100 kV, 150 mA, 120 s acquisition, axial mode). Tumour regional blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability sur...

  20. A Selective Ensemble Classification Method Combining Mammography Images with Ultrasound Images for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Cong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been one of the main diseases that threatens women’s life. Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer play an important role in reducing mortality of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a selective ensemble method integrated with the KNN, SVM, and Naive Bayes to diagnose the breast cancer combining ultrasound images with mammography images. Our experimental results have shown that the selective classification method with an accuracy of 88.73% and sensitivity of 97.06% is efficient for breast cancer diagnosis. And indicator R presents a new way to choose the base classifier for ensemble learning.

  1. Image-derived biomarkers and multimodal imaging strategies for lung cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Divine, Mathew R.; Pichler, Bernd J. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. For this reason, advances in diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. With the introduction of new, highly innovative hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/CT, staging and therapy response monitoring in lung cancer patients have substantially evolved. In this review, we discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in the management of lung cancer patients and the importance of new emerging imaging technologies and radiotracer developments on the path to personalized medicine. (orig.)

  2. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0595 TITLE: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A Multi- Institutional Validation... Institutional Validation Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0595 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel Lin, MD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...to report. Other Products As part of this project we continue to maintain a large biospecimen repository with associated clinical and demographic

  3. In vitro derby imaging of cancer biomarkers using quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mee Hyang; Kim, Soonhag; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kang, Hyungu; Moon, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Do Won; Ko, Hae Young; Lee, Dong Soo

    2009-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which have broad absorption with narrow emission spectra, are useful for multiplex imaging. Here, fluorescence derby imaging using dual color QDs conjugated by the AS1411 aptamer (targeting nucleolin) and the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (targeting the integrin alpha(v)beta(3)) in cancer cells is reported. Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of cellular distribution of nucleolin and integrin alpha(v)beta(3) using QDs enables easy monitoring of separate targets in the cancer cells and the normal healthy cells. These results suggest the feasibility of a concurrent visualization of QD-based multiple cancer biomarkers using small molecules such as aptamer or peptide ligands.

  4. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, Youssef H., E-mail: youssefzaidan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnstone, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Terry, Colin [Methodist Research Institute, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod [CENTA Otolaryngology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Yeh, Alex [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3-88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4-6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  5. Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound Fusion for Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Shyam; Jones, Tonye A; Priester, Alan M; Geoghegan, Rory; Lieu, Patricia; Delfin, Merdie; Felker, Ely; Margolis, Daniel J A; Sisk, Anthony; Pantuck, Allan; Grundfest, Warren; Marks, Leonard S

    2017-10-01

    Focal laser ablation is a potential treatment in some men with prostate cancer. Currently focal laser ablation is performed by radiologists in a magnetic resonance imaging unit (in bore). We evaluated the safety and feasibility of performing focal laser ablation in a urology clinic (out of bore) using magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion for guidance. A total of 11 men with intermediate risk prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board approved pilot study. Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion was used to guide laser fibers transrectally into regions of interest harboring intermediate risk prostate cancer. Thermal probes were inserted for real-time monitoring of intraprostatic temperatures during laser activation. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla) was done immediately after treatment and at 6 months along with comprehensive fusion biopsy. Ten of 11 patients were successfully treated while under local anesthesia. Mean procedure time was 95 minutes (range 71 to 105). Posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging revealed a confined zone of nonperfusion in all 10 men. Mean zone volume was 4.3 cc (range 2.1 to 6.0). No CTCAE grade 3 or greater adverse events developed and no changes were observed in urinary or sexual function. At 6 months magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion biopsy of the treatment site showed no cancer in 3 patients, microfocal Gleason 3 + 3 in another 3 and persistent intermediate risk prostate cancer in 4. Focal laser ablation of prostate cancer appears safe and feasible with the patient under local anesthesia in a urology clinic using magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion for guidance and thermal probes for monitoring. Further development is necessary to refine out of bore focal laser ablation and additional studies are needed to determine appropriate treatment margins and oncologic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  6. [The Mexican Institute of Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Numbers. Functional inventory of imaging medical equipment, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Medical technology is a fundamental instrument for the provision of health services in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and as a support for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The inventory of relevant medical equipment describes the needs for upgrading the technological infrastructure, organize its distribution and plan its renovation in order to guarantee the quality of health services. In this report we describe the type of equipment used in radiology and other imaging services, its geographical distribution, median age in operation and its productivity. The inventory reported 2091 pieces of equipment, ultrasonography and radiology were the most common types (31%) followed by fluoroscopic equipment (20%). Follow-up in the inventory should help in planning the acquisition and maintenance of sophisticated technology used for medical purposes.

  7. Rational use and effectiveness of morphine in the palliative care of cancer patients at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamuhabwa, A; Ezekiel, D

    2009-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the rational use and effectiveness of morphine for management of pain in the palliative care of cancer patients at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Tanzania...

  8. Rational use and effectiveness of morphine in the palliative care of cancer patients at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es salaam, Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamuhabwa, A; Ezekiel, D

    2010-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the rational use and effectiveness of morphine for management of pain in the palliative care of cancer patients at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Tanzania...

  9. A prospective study of the screening for breast cancer by using DMR; Collaboration with four institutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tokiko; Kido, Choichiro; Horita, Katsuhei (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital) (and others)

    1991-05-01

    Digital mammoradiography (DMR) is a new apparatus for mammography. Three thousands and six hundred seventy four breasts, including 192 cancer lesions, were evaluated by DMR and palpation in each institute. Screening ability for breast cancer was discussed by ROC analysis in the each group. Results were as follows: (1) DMR group showed inferior results compared with palpation group; (2) But, true positive rate was not enough for screening; (3) By a good education, higher true positive rate could be acquired in DMR group. In conclusion, DMR is an useful apparatus for mass screening for breast cancer in combination with palpation. (author).

  10. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers

  11. Functionalized upconversion nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light administrated fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have shown great promising in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Especially with the recent development of the rare earth ions doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), much attentions have been attracted in

  12. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina

    2018-01-01

    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  13. Imaging hallmarks of cancer in living mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Saskia I J; van Rheenen, Jacco

    To comprehend the complexity of cancer, the biological characteristics acquired during the initiation and progression of tumours were classified as the 'hallmarks of cancer'. Intravital microscopy techniques have been developed to study individual cells that acquire these crucial traits, by

  14. PET Imaging to Monitor Cancer Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Improved knowledge and understanding of key aspects of cancer has led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics acting through complex pathways and mode of actions. The success of these novel cancer therapeutics is often difficult to predict using standard response criteria based on anatomic

  15. Evaluation of the cost of cervical cancer at the National Institute of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Cervical Cancer (CC) is one of the heavy and costly diseases for the population and the health system. We want to know through this study, the first in Morocco, the annual cost of the treatment of this disease at the National Institute of Oncology (NIO) in Rabat, we also want to explore the possibility of ...

  16. The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, data from Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandip A

    2013-07-01

    Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad presented data of total 840 patients, out of which 775 (90%) were in chronic phase. Complete hematological response (CHR) was seen in 96% of patients and median time to achieve (CHR) was 2 months. Complete cytogenetic response was seen in 36%.

  17. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  18. DWI as an Imaging Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Waseda, Yuma; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    OBJECTIVE. DWI has been increasingly applied in the management of bladder cancer. In this article, we discuss the role of DWI as an imaging biomarker for bladder cancer. CONCLUSION. The DWI signal is derived from the motion of water molecules, which represents the physiologic characteristics of the

  19. Biomedical nanomaterials for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuran; He, Sha; Cao, Weipeng; Cai, Kaiyong; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-10-21

    To date, even though various kinds of nanomaterials have been evaluated over the years in order to develop effective cancer therapy, there is still significant challenges in the improvement of the capabilities of nano-carriers. Developing a new theranostic nanomedicine platform for imaging-guided, visualized cancer therapy is currently a promising way to enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects. Firstly, conventional imaging technologies are reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Then, advanced biomedical materials for multimodal imaging are illustrated in detail, including representative examples for various dual-modalities and triple-modalities. Besides conventional cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy), current biomaterials are also summarized for novel cancer therapy based on hyperthermia, photothermal, photodynamic effects, and clinical imaging-guided surgery. In conclusion, biomedical materials for imaging-guided therapy are becoming one of the mainstream treatments for cancer in the future. It is hoped that this review might provide new impetus to understand nanotechnology and nanomaterials employed for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

  20. Detection of Melanoma Skin Cancer in Dermoscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most hazardous type of human skin cancer and its incidence has been rapidly increasing. Early detection of malignant melanoma in dermoscopy images is very important and critical, since its detection in the early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer Aided Diagnosis systems can be very helpful to facilitate the early detection of cancers for dermatologists. In this paper, we present a novel method for the detection of melanoma skin cancer. To detect the hair and several noises from images, pre-processing step is carried out by applying a bank of directional filters. And therefore, Image inpainting method is implemented to fill in the unknown regions. Fuzzy C-Means and Markov Random Field methods are used to delineate the border of the lesion area in the images. The method was evaluated on a dataset of 200 dermoscopic images, and superior results were produced compared to alternative methods.

  1. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  2. The using of megavoltage computed tomography in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Janla-or, Suwapim; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Supawongwattana, Bongkot; Chitapanarux, Imjai [Division of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Galalae, Razvan M. [Faculty of Medicine, Christian-Albrecht University (Campus Kiel), Kiel (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We present a case of cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. In radiation therapy part, the combination of the whole pelvic helical tomotherapy plus image-guided brachytherapy with megavoltage computed tomography of helical tomotherapy was performed. We propose this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting in some problematic situation as our institution.

  3. Risk of Advanced Neoplasia Using the National Cancer Institute's Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperiale, Thomas F; Yu, Menggang; Monahan, Patrick O; Stump, Timothy E; Tabbey, Rebeka; Glowinski, Elizabeth; Ransohoff, David F

    2017-01-01

    There is no validated, discriminating, and easy-to-apply tool for estimating risk of colorectal neoplasia. We studied whether the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Risk Assessment Tool, which estimates future CRC risk, could estimate current risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia among average-risk persons. This cross-sectional study involved individuals age 50 to 80 years undergoing first-time screening colonoscopy. We measured medical and family history, lifestyle information, and physical measures and calculated each person's future CRC risk using the NCI tool's logistic regression equation. We related quintiles of future CRC risk to the current risk of advanced neoplasia (sessile serrated polyp or tubular adenoma ≥ 1 cm, a polyp with villous histology or high-grade dysplasia, or CRC). All statistical tests were two-sided. For 4457 (98.5%) with complete data (mean age = 57.2 years, SD = 6.6 years, 51.7% women), advanced neoplasia prevalence was 8.26%. Based on quintiles of five-year estimated absolute CRC risk, current risks of advanced neoplasia were 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3% to 3.3%), 4.8% (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), 6.4% (95% CI = 4.9% to 8.2%), 10.0% (95% CI = 8.1% to 12.1%), and 17.6% (95% CI = 15.5% to 20.6%; P neoplasia were 2.2% (95% CI = 1.4% to 3.5%), 4.8% (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), 6.5% (95% CI = 5.0% to 8.3%), 9.3% (95% CI = 7.5% to 11.4%), and 18.4% (95% CI = 15.9% to 21.1%; P neoplasia was 12.8%, compared with 3.7% among those below the median (relative risk = 3.4, 95 CI = 2.7 to 4.4). The NCI's Risk Assessment Tool, which estimates future CRC risk, may be used to estimate current risk for advanced neoplasia, making it potentially useful for tailoring and improving CRC screening efficiency among average-risk persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  5. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  6. Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaging has enormous untapped potential to improve cancer research through software to extract and process morphometric and functional biomarkers. In the era of non-cytotoxic treatment agents, multi- modality image-guided ablative therapies and rapidly evolving computational resources, quantitative imaging software can be transformative in enabling minimally invasive, objective and reproducible evaluation of cancer treatment response. Post-processing algorithms are integral to high-throughput analysis and fine- grained differentiation of multiple molecular targets.

  7. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system, the...

  8. Image processing based detection of lung cancer on CT scan images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Bariqi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Sarwinda, Devvi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we implement and analyze the image processing method for detection of lung cancer. Image processing techniques are widely used in several medical problems for picture enhancement in the detection phase to support the early medical treatment. In this research we proposed a detection method of lung cancer based on image segmentation. Image segmentation is one of intermediate level in image processing. Marker control watershed and region growing approach are used to segment of CT scan image. Detection phases are followed by image enhancement using Gabor filter, image segmentation, and features extraction. From the experimental results, we found the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the best approach for main features detection is watershed with masking method which has high accuracy and robust.

  9. Novel Nanotechnologies for Brain Cancer Therapeutics and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Scienza, Renato; Bressan, Eriberto; D'Avella, Domenico; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Despite progress in surgery, radiotherapy, and in chemotherapy, an effective curative treatment of brain cancer, specifically malignant gliomas, does not yet exist. The efficacy of current anti-cancer strategies in brain tumors is limited by the lack of specific therapies against malignant cells. Besides, the delivery of the drugs to brain tumors is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Nanotechnology today offers a unique opportunity to develop more effective brain cancer imaging and therapeutics. In particular, the development of nanocarriers that can be conjugated with several functional molecules including tumor-specific ligands, anticancer drugs, and imaging probes, can provide new devices which are able to overcome the difficulties of the classical strategies. Nanotechnology-based approaches hold great promise for revolutionizing brain cancer medical treatments, imaging, and diagnosis.

  10. Fully automatic classification of breast cancer microarray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Dehghan Khalilabad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A microarray image is used as an accurate method for diagnosis of cancerous diseases. The aim of this research is to provide an approach for detection of breast cancer type. First, raw data is extracted from microarray images. Determining the exact location of each gene is carried out using image processing techniques. Then, by the sum of the pixels associated with each gene, the amount of “genes expression” is extracted as raw data. To identify more effective genes, information gain method on the set of raw data is used. Finally, the type of cancer can be recognized via analyzing the obtained data using a decision tree. The proposed approach has an accuracy of 95.23% in diagnosing the breast cancer types.

  11. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  12. Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging of prostate cancer: quantitative T2 values for cancer discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Joseph R; Haker, Steven J; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Rybicki, Frank J; Tempany, Clare M; Mulkern, Robert V

    2009-05-01

    Quantitative, apparent T(2) values of suspected prostate cancer and healthy peripheral zone tissue in men with prostate cancer were measured using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) imaging sequence in order to assess the cancer discrimination potential of tissue T(2) values. The CPMG imaging sequence was used to image the prostates of 18 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Whole gland coverage with nominal voxel volumes of 0.54 x 1.1 x 4 mm(3) was obtained in 10.7 min, resulting in data sets suitable for generating high-quality images with variable T(2)-weighting and for evaluating quantitative T(2) values on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Region-of-interest analysis of suspected healthy peripheral zone tissue and suspected cancer, identified on the basis of both T(1)- and T(2)-weighted signal intensities and available histopathology reports, yielded significantly (P<.0001) longer apparent T(2) values in suspected healthy tissue (193+/-49 ms) vs. suspected cancer (100+/-26 ms), suggesting potential utility of this method as a tissue specific discrimination index for prostate cancer. We conclude that CPMG imaging of the prostate can be performed in reasonable scan times and can provide advantages over T(2)-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) imaging alone, including quantitative T(2) values for cancer discrimination as well as proton density maps without the point spread function degradation associated with short effective echo time FSE sequences.

  13. Imaging of pancreatic cancer: what the surgeon wants to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Randy; Steinman, Jonathan; Luk, Lyndon; Kluger, Michael D; Hecht, Elizabeth M

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. Early detection is challenging because symptoms are relatively nonspecific. Imaging is vital in detecting and staging pancreatic tumors, and management depends on imaging findings. Radiologists should be aware of current surgical treatments for pancreatic neoplasms, as surgeons rely on interpretation of cross-sectional imaging for presurgical planning. Understanding postsurgical anatomy is critical to assess for complications and recurrence. This review will emphasize the role of the radiologist in planning for surgery and will review postoperative changes based on surgical intervention and common complications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Breast MR Imaging in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dipti; Billadello, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The role of breast MR imaging in preoperative evaluation of disease extent remains controversial. MR imaging increases detection of mammographically occult ipsilateral and contralateral disease, but the clinical impact of these incidental cancers in unknown. There are no randomized trials of recurrence or mortality as the primary end point. This missing evidence is needed before the role of extent of disease MR imaging can be outlined. There are specific clinical scenarios in which breast MR imaging plays a clear role. In most cases, the decision to obtain MR imaging depends on physician practice style and patient preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Organization of European Cancer Institute Pathobiology Working Group and its support of European biobanking infrastructures for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegman, Peter H J; de Jong, Bas W D; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Today's translational cancer research increasingly depends on international multi-center studies. Biobanking infrastructure or comprehensive sample exchange platforms to enable networking of clinical cancer biobanks are instrumental to facilitate communication, uniform sample quality, and rules for exchange. The Organization of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Pathobiology Working Group supports European biobanking infrastructure by maintaining the OECI-TuBaFrost exchange platform and organizing regular meetings. This platform originated from a European Commission project and is updated with knowledge from ongoing and new biobanking projects. This overview describes how European biobanking projects that have a large impact on clinical biobanking, including EuroBoNeT, SPIDIA, and BBMRI, contribute to the update of the OECI-TuBaFrost exchange platform. Combining the results of these European projects enabled the creation of an open (upon valid registration only) catalogue view of cancer biobanks and their available samples to initiate research projects. In addition, closed environments supporting active projects could be developed together with the latest views on quality, access rules, ethics, and law. With these contributions, the OECI Pathobiology Working Group contributes to and stimulates a professional attitude within biobanks at the European comprehensive cancer centers. Improving the fundamentals of cancer sample exchange in Europe stimulates the performance of large multi-center studies, resulting in experiments with the desired statistical significance outcome. With this approach, future innovation in cancer patient care can be realized faster and more reliably.

  16. MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Won; Lim, Hyo Soon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Heo, Suk Hee; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho

    2017-10-01

    To describe the MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation and evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging. The MR images of nine patients (age range, 29-37 years) with pathologically confirmed breast carcinoma during lactation were evaluated retrospectively. Background parenchymal enhancement of the lactating mammary tissue was determined. The images were reviewed for evaluation of lesion detection, enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement and time-intensity curve pattern in the dynamic study. The breast MR images after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also reviewed. Although the breasts showed marked (n = 7) or moderate (n = 2) background parenchymal enhancement, MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients. All nine tumours were visible as masses. The most common shape and margin of the masses were an irregular mass (n = 5) with an irregular margin (n = 9). Contrast enhancement was heterogeneous or rim enhancement. The predominant kinetic pattern was rapid increase (n = 9) in the initial phase and washout (n = 5) in the delayed phase. Additional sites of cancer other than the index lesion were detected with MR imaging in three patients (33.3%). MR imaging demonstrated partial response in five of six patients who were evaluated for response to chemotherapy. All breast cancers in lactating females in this study were observed on breast MR imaging despite the moderate-to-marked background parenchymal enhancement of lactating mammary tissue. Advances in knowledge: MR imaging can be used in the evaluation of disease extent and assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation.

  17. On the reverse. Some notes on photographic images from the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Mazzucco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How can the visual and textual data about an image – the image of a work of art – on recto and verso of a picture be interpreted? An analogical-art-documentary photograph represents a palimpsest to be considered layer by layer. The examples discussed in this article, which refer to both Aby Warburg himself and the first nucleus of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection, contribute to effectively outline elements of the debate around the question of the photographic reproduction of the work of art as well as of the position of photography in relation to the perception of the work of art.

  18. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and condu......Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity...... and conductivity in the breast. In this paper two nonlinear tomographic algorithms are compared – one is a single-frequency algorithm and the other is a time-domain algorithm....

  19. In vivo imaging of cancer cells with electroporation of quantum dots and multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Won, Nayoun; Kim, Hong Bae; Bang, Jiwon; Kim, Sungjee; Ahn, Saeyoung; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2010-06-01

    Our understanding of dissemination and growth of cancer cells is limited by our inability for long-term followup of this process in vivo. Fluorescence molecular imaging has the potential to track cancer cells with high contrast and sensitivity in living animals. For this purpose, intracellular delivery of near-infrared fluorescence quantum dots (QDs) by electroporation offers considerable advantages over organic fluorophores and other cell tagging methods. In this research we developed a multispectral imaging system that could eliminate two major parameters compromising in vivo fluorescence imaging performance, i.e., variations in the tissue optical properties and tissue autofluorescence. We demonstrated that electroporation of QDs and multispectral imaging allowed in vivo assessment of cancer development and progression in the xenograft mouse tumor model for more than 1 month, providing a powerful means to learn more about the biology of cancer and metastasis.

  20. The experience of body image of children and adolescents with cancer: A meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Chou, Shih-Shang; Chen, Yu-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the body image experience of children and adolescents with cancer. This review considered studies that utilised qualitative methods to examine the experience of children and adolescents with cancer. The phenomena of interest were experiences of children and adolescents with cancer living in acute care, home, and community settings of any cultural context. The research was limited to studies published in Chinese or English only. The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies. CINAHL, MEDLINE, Mednar, Scius, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, electronic theses and dissertations system and Chinese electronic periodical services were used to search the articles.Methodological quality: Each paper was assessed independently by two reviewers for methodological quality. The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to appraise the methodological quality of the articles. Any disagreements that arose between the reviewers were resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Qualitative research findings were extracted and pooled using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Eight papers were included in the review. Four meta-syntheses emerged from the analysis: (1) Being kept away from body: Clinicians should be aware that children and adolescents with cancer feel that they are kept away from normal body, (2) Loss of self-identity: Clinicians should be aware that children and adolescents with cancer feel that they have lost their self-identity, (3) Self-protective strategies and support: Clinicians should understand the protective strategies that children and adolescents with cancer develop and utilise with support from family and friends, and (4) Getting rid of shackles of the body: There should be a strategy to facilitate the development of positive attitudes toward the illness and body image change in children and

  1. Nanotechnological Applications in Cancer Treatment and Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Erdogan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology which is used in many sectors from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals, from paints industry to biotechnology, continue to benefit from the efforts of cancer treatment. Cancer cells can be killed with nanoparticles applications in some studies which have been approved and are being tested in the world. Applications with a special carrier systems which is developed using nanotechnology, do not affect healthy cells but kill cancer cells is possible now. Recent developments in cancer nanotechnology provide new tools to researchers in both tumor imaging and treatment of cancer. This technology led to the development of nanoparticles which can be used in oncology and can be conjugated with more than one functional molecule simultaneously including tumor-specific ligands, antibodies, anti-cancer drugs and imaging probes. Those nanoparticles are smaller than cancer cells. They can be transferred easily through blood vessels and interact with targeted tumor-specific proteins both on the surface and inside of cancer cells. High cancer treatment success can be achieved with drug delivery systems using nanoparticles target to tumor cells develop at much lower drug doses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 426-440

  2. SU-E-J-10: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Bai, S [Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Y [Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Ed, Beijing, Beijing (China); Deng, J [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate imaging doses and cancer risks to organs-at-risk as a Result of cumulative doses from various radiological imaging procedures in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a large cohort of cancer patients. Methods: With IRB approval, imaging procedures (computed tomography, kilo-voltage portal imaging, megavoltage portal imaging and kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography) of 4832 cancer patients treated during 4.5 years were collected with their gender, age and circumference. Correlations between patient’s circumference and Monte Carlo simulated-organ dose were applied to estimate organ doses while the cancer risks were reported as 1+ERR using BEIR VII models. Results: 80 cGy or more doses were deposited to brain, lungs and RBM in 273 patients (maximum 136, 278 and 267 cGy, respectively), due largely to repetitive imaging procedures and non-personalized imaging settings. Regardless of gender, relative cancer risk estimates for brain, lungs, and RBM were 3.4 (n = 55), 2.6 (n = 49), 1.8 (n = 25) for age group of 0–19; 1.2 (n = 87), 1.4 (n = 98), 1.3 (n = 51) for age group of 20–39; 1.0 (n = 457), 1.1 (n = 880), 1.8 (n=360) for age group of 40–59; 1.0 (n = 646), 1.1 (n = 1400), 2.3 (n = 716) for age group of 60–79 and 1.0 (n = 108),1.1 (n = 305),1.6 (n = 147) for age group of 80–99. Conclusion: The cumulative imaging doses and associated cancer risks from multi-imaging procedures were patient-specific and site-dependent, with up to 2.7 Gy imaging dose deposited to critical structures in some pediatric patients. The associated cancer risks in brain and lungs for children of age 0 to 19 were 2–3 times larger than those for adults. This study indicated a pressing need for personalized imaging protocol to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy in Gynecologic Malignancies: A Review of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor, Paul C.; Lele, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality used in the management of solid tumor malignancies that employs the use of a photosensitizing agent, a light source and oxygen in order to illicit a direct cytotoxic effect. Its use in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat novel and has been used for palliative and curative intent. At the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the use of PDT in the management of gynecologic cancers began in the mid 1980s and since that time 35 patients have received P...

  5. Targeting SR-BI for cancer diagnostics, imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Amrita Rajora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumours and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents.

  6. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  7. How one institution overcame the challenges to start an MRI-based brachytherapy program for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Harkenrider

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Adaptive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based brachytherapy results in improved local control and decreased high-grade toxicities compared to historical controls. Incorporating MRI into the workflow of a department can be a major challenge when initiating an MRI-based brachytherapy program. This project aims to describe the goals, challenges, and solutions when initiating an MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy program at our institution. Material and methods : We describe the 6-month multi-disciplinary planning phase to initiate an MRI-based brachytherapy program. We describe the specific challenges that were encountered prior to treating our first patient. Results : We describe the solutions that were realized and executed to solve the challenges that we faced to establish our MRI-based brachytherapy program. We emphasize detailed coordination of care, planning, and communication to make the workflow feasible. We detail the imaging and radiation physics solutions to safely deliver MRI-based brachytherapy. The focus of these efforts is always on the delivery of optimal, state of the art patient care and treatment delivery within the context of our available institutional resources. Conclusions : Previous publications have supported a transition to MRI-based brachytherapy, and this can be safely and efficiently accomplished as described in this manuscript.

  8. Use of multiple imaging modalities to detect ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Elizabeth; Walker, Ross; Marion, Sam; Hoyer, Patricia; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2005-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a common cancer-approximately 25,000 new cases in 2004-but it is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women (over 16,000 in 2004). Little is known about the precursors and early stages of ovarian cancer partially due to the lack of human samples at the early stages. A cohesive model that incorporates ovarian cancer induction into a menopausal rodent would be well suited for comprehensive studies of ovarian cancer. Non-destructive imaging would allow carcinogenesis to be followed. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) and Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are minimally invasive optical modalities that allow both structural and biochemical changes to be noted. Rat ovaries were exposed to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) for 20 days in order to destroy the primordial follicles. Plain sutures and sutures coated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were implanted in the right ovary, in order to produce epithelial based ovarian cancers (a plain suture was inserted in the control). Rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks and ovaries were harvested and imaged with a combined OCT/LIF system and with the OCM. Histology was preformed on the harvested ovaries and any pathology determined. Two of the ovaries were visually abnormal; the OCT/LIF imaging confirmed these abnormalities. The normal ovary OCM and OCT images show the organized structure of the ovary, the follicles, bursa and corpus lutea are visible. The OCM images show the disorganized structure of one of the abnormal ovaries. Overall this pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of both the animal model and optical imaging.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camisao, Claudia C. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccamisao@inca.gov.br; Brenna, Sylvia M.F. [Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lombardelli, Karen V.P. [Hospital do Cancer (HCII), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Djahjah, Maria Celia R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ginecologia

    2007-05-15

    Cervical cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related death of women, especially in developing countries. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends staging during surgery, however, surgical-pathologic staging would not be feasible in cases of more advanced cancers. Generally, in these cases, the staging is performed by means of clinical and gynecological examination and basic imaging studies. However, such an approach fails to demonstrate the actual extent of the disease, and does not include significant prognostic factors such as tumor volume, stromal invasion and lymph node involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been utilized in cervical cancer staging, since at early stages of the disease its performance may be compared to intraoperative findings and, at advanced stages, it shows to be superior to the clinical evaluation. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging presents an excellent imaging resolution for the different densities of pelvic structures, does not require ionizing radiation, is comfortable for the patient, improves de staging, allowing the early detection of recurrence and the identification of reliable prognostic factors which contribute to the therapeutic decision making process and results prediction with an excellent cost-effectiveness. The present article is aimed at reviewing the most significant aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in the cervical cancer staging. (author)

  10. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  11. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  12. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  13. Pioneering Quality Assessment in European Cancer Centers: A Data Analysis of the Organization for European Cancer Institutes Accreditation and Designation Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; Hummel, Henk; Koot, Bert; Harrison, Chris; Rajan, Abinaya; de Valeriola, Dominique; Otter, Renee; Pontes, Jose Laranja; Lombardo, Claudio; McGrath, Eoin; Ringborg, Ulrik; Tursz, Thomas; van Harten, Willem H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve the quality of care in Cancer Centers (CC) and designate Comprehensive Cancer Centers (CCCs), the Organization for European Cancer Institutes (OECI) launched an Accreditation and Designation (A&D) program. The program facilitates the collection of defined data and the

  14. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET] have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”.

  15. Trends in research on energy balance supported by the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Berrigan, David A; Ross, Sharon A; Nebeling, Linda C; Dowling, Emily C

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression, and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance-related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population, and energy balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance-relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI's total research project grants budget was allocated to energy balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01) and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI's investment in energy balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics, and disciplines-growth that reflects new directions in this field. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Changes in social function and body image in women diagnosed with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nunes Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impairment of social and emotional functions, body image and future perspective in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. This is a longitudinal research conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 at the chemotherapy unit of a private institution of Oncology located in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Sociodemographic and clinical questionnaires were applied, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 e Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer Module, to 48 women subjected for the first time to chemotherapy, in three different stages of the treatment. Analysis with Friedman`s, Spearman and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests was performed. Changes were observed in social function and body image, which compromised quality of life significantly. Results can subsidize the planning of and adjustments to the care provided to these women by considering the perception about the impact of therapy on QL and their perspectives.

  17. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  18. Second-Opinion Review of Breast Imaging at a Cancer Center: Is It Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Kristen; D'Alessio, Donna; Keating, Delia M; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Second-opinion review of breast imaging studies can be a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether reinterpretation of studies obtained at institutions outside a cancer center influences clinical management, specifically by revealing additional cancer and preventing unnecessary biopsy. A review was conducted of breast imaging studies of 200 patients who underwent ultrasound and MRI at community facilities and had the images submitted for second opinions at a cancer center between January and April 2014. Each case was evaluated for concordance between the original report and the second-opinion interpretation. Second-opinion review resulting in the recommendation and performance of new biopsies was further subdivided into benign, high-risk, and malignant categories based on the histopathologic results obtained at the cancer center. Second-opinion review of the 200 cases showed a change in interpretation in 55 cases (28%; 95% CI, 21-34%). Overall, 26 recommendations (13%; 95% CI, 9-18%) led to a major change in management. Twenty new biopsies were performed, yielding 10 malignancies (5%; 95% CI, 2-9%) and four high-risk lesions (2%; 95% CI, 1-5%). Surgical management was changed to mastectomy for 6 of 10 patients (60%) with new sites of biopsy-proven malignancy. Eight biopsies were averted (4%; 95% CI, 2-8%) on the basis of benign interpretation of the imaging findings, and no disease was found at 1-year follow-up evaluation. Reinterpretation of studies obtained outside a cancer center resulted in a change in interpretation in more than one-fourth of submitted studies. Additional cancer was detected in 5% of patients, and biopsy was averted for 4%. The practice of second-opinion review influences clinical management and adds value to patient care.

  19. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) as a quantitative parameter in diffusion weighted MR imaging in gynecologic cancer: Dependence on b-values used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted; Tanderup, Kari; Haack, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has gained interest as an imaging modality for assessment of tumor extension and response to cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the choice of b-values on the calculation of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) for locally ad...... advanced gynecological cancer and to estimate a stable interval of diffusion gradients that allows for best comparison of the ADC between patients and institutions....

  20. Imaging Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Discontinued Active Surveillance on 3-T Multiparametric Prostate MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, David J; Liu, Corinne C; Dao, Alex; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Katz, Aaron E

    2017-03-01

    Early-stage prostate cancer may be followed with active surveillance to avoid overtreatment. Our institution's active surveillance regimen uses annual MRI in place of serial biopsies, and biopsies are performed only when clinically necessary. The objective of our study was to report the multiparametric MRI characteristics of prostate cancer patients who discontinued active surveillance at our institution after repeat imaging revealed possible evidence of tumor upgrading. The Department of Urology at Winthrop University Hospital prospectively maintains a database of prostate cancer patients who are monitored with active surveillance. At the time of this study, there were 200 prostate cancer patients being monitored with active surveillance. Of those patients, 114 patients had an initial multiparametric MRI study that was performed before active surveillance started and at least one follow-up multiparametric MRI study that was performed after active surveillance began. The MRI findings were evaluated and correlated with pathology results, if available. Fourteen patients discontinued active surveillance because changes on follow-up MRI suggested progression of cancer. Follow-up MRI showed an enlarged or more prominent lesion compared with the appearance on a previous MRI in three (21.4%) patients, a new lesion or lesions suspicious for cancer in two (14.3%) patients, and findings suspicious for or confirming extracapsular extension in nine (64.3%) patients. Seven of the 14 (50.0%) patients had a biopsy after follow-up multiparametric MRI, and biopsy results led to tumor upgrading in six of the 14 (42.9%) patients. The duration of active surveillance ranged from 4 to 110 months. All patients received definitive treatment. The small number of patients with follow-up multiparametric MRI findings showing worsening disease supports the role of MRI in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI is useful in monitoring patients on active surveillance and

  1. Image guidance in prostate cancer - can offline corrections be an effective substitute for daily online imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devleena Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Offline correction using the NAL protocol resulted in unacceptably high residual errors in the AP direction, due to random uncertainties of rectal and bladder filling. Daily online imaging and corrections remain the standard image guidance policy for highly conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  2. Classification of normal and abnormal images of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Divyesh; Tiwari, Amit Kumar; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthy, A.

    2017-11-01

    To find the exact symptoms of lung cancer is difficult, because of the formation of the most cancers tissues, wherein large structure of tissues is intersect in a different way. This problem can be evaluated with the help of digital images. In this strategy images will be examined with basic operation of PCA Algorithm. In this paper, GLCM method is used for pre-processing of the snap shots and function extraction system and to test the level of diseases of a patient in its premature stage get to know it is regular or unusual. With the help of result stage of cancer will be evaluated. With the help of dataset and result survival rate of cancer patient can be estimated. Result is based totally on the precise and wrong arrangement of the patterns of tissues.

  3. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    will be those that exhibit more aggressive disease . In more aggressive cancer tissues, we expect to find metabolic signatures of enhanced fatty acid...using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the prediction of prostate disease aggressiveness. Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase...design we will recruit 50 men with low- grade and 50 men with high grade prostate cancer post- diagnosis as determined prior to prostatectomy. Each

  4. National Cancer Institute Patient Navigation Research Program: methods, protocol, and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Karen M; Battaglia, Tracy A; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Dudley, Donald J; Fiscella, Kevin; Paskett, Electra; Raich, Peter C; Roetzheim, Richard G

    2008-12-15

    Patient, provider, and systems barriers contribute to delays in cancer care, a lower quality of care, and poorer outcomes in vulnerable populations, including low-income, underinsured, and racial/ethnic minority populations. Patient navigation is emerging as an intervention to address this problem, but navigation requires a clear definition and a rigorous testing of its effectiveness. Pilot programs have provided some evidence of benefit, but have been limited by evaluation of single-site interventions and varying definitions of navigation. To overcome these limitations, a 9-site National Cancer Institute Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) was initiated. The PNRP is charged with designing, implementing, and evaluating a generalizable patient navigation program targeting vulnerable populations. Through a formal committee structure, the PNRP has developed a definition of patient navigation and metrics to assess the process and outcomes of patient navigation in diverse settings, compared with concurrent continuous control groups. The PNRP defines patient navigation as support and guidance offered to vulnerable persons with abnormal cancer screening or a cancer diagnosis, with the goal of overcoming barriers to timely, quality care. Primary outcomes of the PNRP are 1) time to diagnostic resolution; 2) time to initiation of cancer treatment; 3) patient satisfaction with care; and 4) cost effectiveness, for breast, cervical, colon/rectum, and/or prostate cancer. The metrics to assess the processes and outcomes of patient navigation have been developed for the NCI-sponsored PNRP. If the metrics are found to be valid and reliable, they may prove useful to other investigators.

  5. A role model program to promote institutional changes for management of acute and cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D E; Griffie, J; Gordon, D B; Dahl, J L

    1997-11-01

    This report describes an 18-month project to make acute and cancer pain management an institutional priority in Southeastern Wisconsin health-care facilities. Facility-based teams, each of which included a nurse in a leadership position, were recruited to participate in a project based on the Cancer Pain Role Model Program. The project was conducted in three stages: (a) a 1-day conference focusing on basic pain management issues and clinical standards, (b) a preceptorship at the Medical College of Wisconsin, and (c) a follow-up conference focusing on institutional change. Participants completed an Action Plan, outlining activities aimed at changing practice in their facility. Participants from 17 of the 32 participating facilities partially or completely met their Action Plan goals. Lack of ongoing facility commitment, staff turnover and facility closures were cited as reasons for failure to meet goals. Nurses in key positions, provided with strong institutional commitment and given suitable educational training and nurturing, are ideally suited to help facilitate changes in institutional pain practices.

  6. Multimodality imaging of TGFβ signaling in breast cancer metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serganova, Inna; Moroz, Ekaterina; Vider, Jelena; Gogiberidze, George; Moroz, Maxim; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Doubrovin, Michael; Minn, Andy; Thaler, Howard T.; Massague, Joan; Gelovani, Juri; Blasberg, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is a preferred site for breast cancer metastasis. We have developed a multimodality imaging approach to monitor the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in bone metastases, sequentially over time in the same animal. As model systems, two MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells lines with different metastatic tropisms, SCP2 and SCP3, were transduced with constitutive and TGFβ-inducible reporter genes and were tested in vitro and in living animals. The sites and expansion of metastases were visualized by bioluminescence imaging using a constitutive firefly luciferase reporter, while TGFβ signaling in metastases was monitored by microPET imaging of HSV1-TK/GFP expression with [18F]FEAU and by a more sensitive and cost-effective bioluminescence reporter, based on nonsecreted Gaussia luciferase. Concurrent and sequential imaging of metastases in the same animals provided insight into the location and progression of metastases, and the timing and course of TGFβ signaling. The anticipated and newly observed differences in the imaging of tumors from two related cell lines have demonstrated that TGFβ signal transduction pathway activity can be noninvasively imaged with high sensitivity and reproducibility, thereby providing the opportunity for an assessment of novel treatments that target TGFβ signaling.—Serganova, I., Moroz, E., Vider, J., Gogiberidze, G., Moroz, M., Pillarsetty, N., Doubrovin, M., Minn, A., Thaler, H. T., Massague, J., Gelovani, J., Blasberg, R. Multimodality imaging of TGFβ signaling in breast cancer metastases. PMID:19325038

  7. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  8. Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  9. Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: Correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Laura; Melsaether, Amy N; Heller, Samantha L; Gao, Yiming; Pysarenko, Kristine M; Babb, James S; Kim, Sungheon G; Moy, Linda

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates use of an abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging protocol with T2-weighted imaging in detecting biopsy-proven unifocal breast cancer. This is an institutional review board approved retrospective study of patients with biopsy-proven unifocal breast cancer (88% invasive; 12% in situ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. In three separate sessions, three breast imagers evaluated (1) T1-weighted non-contrast, post-contrast and post-contrast subtracted images, (2) T1-weighted images with clinical history and prior imaging, and (3) T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images with clinical history and prior imaging. Protocols were compared for cancer detection, reading time and lesion conspicuity. An independent breast radiologist retrospectively analyzed initial enhancement ratio of cancers and retrospectively reviewed lesion morphology and final pathology. All 107 cancers were identified at first protocol by at least one reader; five cancers were missed by either one or two readers. One cancer was missed by one reader at protocols two and three. Mean percentage detection for protocol one was 97.8%; protocol two, 99.4%, protocol three, 99.4%. T2-weighted images did not alter cancer detection but increased lesion conspicuity for 2/3 readers. 3/5 missed lesions were low grade cancers. Initial enhancement ratio was positively associated with increasing tumor grade (p=0.031) and pathology (p=0.002). Reader interpretation time decreased and lesion conspicuity increased as initial enhancement ratio increased. Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging has high rate of detection for known breast cancer and short interpretation time. T2 weighted imaging increased lesion conspicuity without altering detection rate. Initial enhancement ratio correlated with invasive disease and tumor grade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Institute of Medicine report on high-quality cancer care: implications for oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Betty; McCabe, Mary S; Levit, Laura

    2013-11-01

    To present key recommendations from a recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on high-quality cancer care. The recommendations were derived from the IOM report Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis. The authors reviewed each of the recommendations to identify implications for oncology nurses. Nurses will play a vital role in the future design and delivery of high-quality cancer care. Oncology nurses should use the IOM recommendations in their settings to prepare for the delivery of oncology care amidst health system challenges, including an aging society. The IOM recommendations identify key areas of concern to nurses. Key aspects of nursing practice, including involvement in advanced care planning, patient-centered care, and evidence-based practice, are essential for high-quality care. Oncology nurses will be centrally involved in healthcare innovations, such as rapid learning systems, and as key members of a well-trained workforce.

  11. Just for the Image? The Impact of Web 2.0 for Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bettina Linek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 is of growing importance and nowadays also a hot topic for public institutions. However, it is still an open question if users appreciate and recognize the merit of Web 2.0 applications in the context of public institutions. The presented paper describes first empirical findings on users’ reactions on the linkage of a modern library 2.0 with Web 2.0 applications, namely the presence in social networks and the integration of blogs and wikis. The results showed that most users didn’t recognize the benefit of Web 2.0 in the context of the homepage of a library 2.0. However, even though they didn’t use the accordingly Web 2.0 links by themselves, they thought that the connection to Web 2.0 is a necessity for the image of a modern library. These findings imply that the connection to Web 2.0 is important for the image of a modern public institution but the surplus benefit has to be better communicated and to be made more visible on the conventional homepage in Web 1.0.

  12. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  13. Quantitative Imaging Features and Postoperative Hepatic Insufficiency: A Multi-Institutional Expanded Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Linda M; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Gonen, Mithat; Chapman, William C; Do, Richard Kg; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Verhoef, Kees; Lee, Ser Yee; Massani, Marco; van der Stok, Eric P; Simpson, Amber L

    2018-02-14

    Post-hepatectomy liver insufficiency (PHLI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after liver resection. Quantitative imaging analysis using CT scans measures variations in pixel intensity related to perfusion. A preliminary study demonstrated a correlation between quantitative imaging features of the future liver remnant (FLR) parenchyma from preoperative CT scans and PHLI. The objective of the present study was to explore the potential application of quantitative imaging analysis in PHLI in an expanded, multi-institutional cohort. Patients were retrospectively identified from five high-volume academic centers that developed PHLI after major hepatectomy and were matched to control patients without PHLI (by extent of resection, pre-operative chemotherapy treatment, age (±5 years), and sex). Quantitative imaging features were extracted from the FLR in the preoperative CT scan, and the most discriminatory features were identified using conditional logistic regression. %RLV was defined as follows: (FLR volume)/(total liver volume)x100. Significant clinical and imaging features were combined in a multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression. From 2000 to 2015, 74 patients with PHLI and 74 matched controls were identified. The most common indications for surgery were colorectal liver metastases (53%), hepatocellular carcinoma (37%), and cholangiocarcinoma (9%). Two CT imaging features (FD1_4: image complexity; ACM1_10: spatial distribution of pixel intensity) were strongly associated with PHLI and remained associated with PHLI on multivariate analysis (p=0.018 and p=0.023, respectively), independent of clinical variables, including preoperative bilirubin and %RLV. Quantitative imaging features are independently associated with PHLI and are a promising preoperative risk stratification tool. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Survey of Policies and Guidelines on Antioxidant Use for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Survivorship in North American Cancer Centers: What Do Institutions Perceive as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gyeongyeon; White, Jennifer; Zhong, Lihong; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-07-01

    Health care policies and guidelines that are clear and consistent with research evidence are important for maximizing clinical outcomes. To determine whether cancer centers in Canada and the United States had policies and/or guidelines about antioxidant use, and whether policies were aligned with the evidence base, we reviewed current research evidence in the field, and we undertook a survey of the policies and guidelines on antioxidant use at cancer institutions across North America. A survey of policies and guidelines on antioxidant use and the development and communication of the policies and guidelines was conducted by contacting cancer institutions in North America. We also conducted a Website search for each institution to explore any online resources. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant use were collected from 78 cancer institutions. Few cancer institutions had policies (5%) but most provided guidelines (69%). Antioxidants from diet were generally encouraged at cancer institutions, consistent with the current research evidence. In contrast, specific antioxidant supplements were generally not recommended at cancer institutions. Policies and guidelines were developed using evidence-based methods (53%), by consulting another source (35%), or through discussions/conference (26%), and communicated mainly through online resources (65%) or written handouts (42%). For cancer institutions that had no policy or guideline on antioxidants, lack of information and lack of time were the most frequently cited reasons. Policies and guidelines on antioxidants from diet were largely consistent with the research evidence. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant supplements during treatment were generally more restrictive than the research evidence might suggest, perhaps due to the specificity of results and the inability to generalize findings across antioxidants, adding to the complexity of their optimal and safe use. Improved communication of comprehensive research

  15. Optical Imaging in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: The Next Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Herranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among the population of the Western world. Diagnostic methods include mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance; meanwhile, nuclear medicine techniques have a secondary role, being useful in regional assessment and therapy followup. Optical imaging is a very promising imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to assess optical properties of tissues and is expected to play an important role in breast cancer detection. Optical breast imaging can be performed by intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone (hemoglobin, water, and lipid content or with the use of exogenous fluorescent probes that target specific molecules for breast cancer. Major advantages of optical imaging are that it does not use any radioactive components, very high sensitivity, relatively inexpensive, easily accessible, and the potential to be combined in a multimodal approach with other technologies such as mammography, ultrasound, MRI, and positron emission tomography. Moreover, optical imaging agents could, potentially, be used as “theranostics,” combining the process of diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  17. Intestinal stem cell imaging in colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossavi, S; Ansari, R

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer and cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although, the step-wise genetic alteration in the course of adenoma-carcinoma progression is well-understood, the mechanism of the tumour initiation and promotion is yet to be elucidated. Murine studies indicate that intestinal tumour originates from normal intestinal stem cells which acquire the oncogenic hits. It is plausible to consider the abnormality of the stem cell compartment as the earliest potentially detectable phenotypic change in the course of intestinal tumourigenesis. Hereby, it is hypothesised that imaging of the abnormal state of the intestinal stem cell compartment could potentially be integrated in CRC screening strategy.

  18. [Retrospective NGS Study in High-risk Hereditary Cancer Patients at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macháčková, E; Hazova, J; Sťahlová Hrabincová, E; Vašíčková, P; Navrátilová, M; Svoboda, M; Foretová, L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, more than 200 hereditary cancer syndromes have been described, yet, in most countries genetic testing is restricted to a narrow spectrum of genes within a limited group of people tested. For this retrospective study we used the TruSight cancer panel (Illumina)--NGS panel targeting 94 cancer predisposition genes in order to analyze 50 high-risk cancer patients with significant personal and family history of cancer who did not carry mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53 or APC genes. All pathogenic and potentially pathogenic mutations detected by NGS technology have been confirmed by Sanger sequencing. There were several deleterious (frame-shift/nonsense) mutations detected in ATM, BAP1, FANCC, FANCI, PMS2, SBDS, ERCC2, RECQL4 genes. Various pathogenic or potentially pathogenic (missense, predicted splice site, in-frame insertion/deletion) mutations were detected in ATM, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, FANCA, MC1R, MEN1, MRE11A, MUTYH, PALB2, RAD51C, RET, SDHB, STK11. These mutations affect highly conserved protein domains and affect their function as proved by the available functional assays. They were confirmed to be pathogenic as an "Parent No2 " in serious recessive diseases such as Ataxia telangiectasia or Fanconi anemia. The clinical significance of the majority of detected missense variants still remains to be identified. Moderate or low penetrance variants are of limited clinical importance. Panel genetic testing in high-risk individuals with cancer provides important information concerning the cause of the investigated cancer, and may assist in the risk assesment and optimal management of the cancer, as well as in further preventive care.

  19. Imaging and Screening of Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Leon, Alberto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms. This article reviews CT and MR imaging in RCC and the role of screening in selected high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  1. Self-image of the Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Mixed Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Shalini G; Pai, Mamatha Shivananda; George, Linu Sara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the self-image of the patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) by using a mixed method research. A mixed method approach and triangulation design was used with the aim of assessing the self-image of the patients with HNCs. Data was gathered by using self-administered self-image scale and structured interview. Nested sampling technique was adopted. Sample size for quantitative approach was 54 and data saturation was achieved with seven subjects for qualitative approach. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance was obtained. The results of the study showed that 30 (56%) subjects had positive self-image and 24 (44%) had negative self-image. There was a moderate positive correlation between body image and integrity (r = 0.430, P = 0.001), weak positive correlation between body image and self-esteem (r = 0.270, P = 0.049), and no correlation between self-esteem and integrity (r = 0.203, P = 0.141). The participants also scored maximum (24/24) in the areas of body image and self-esteem. Similar findings were also observed in the phenomenological approach. The themes evolved were immaterial of outer appearance and desire of good health to all. The illness is long-term and impacts the individual 24 h a day. Understanding patients' self-concept and living experiences of patients with HNC is important for the health care professionals to improve the care.

  2. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    higher tumor uptake was apparent in all of the mice except the mouse injected with still-caged (inactive) CMP (Fig. 3). CMP distribution within the...sensitivity and specificity of FIAU-PET in detecting orthopedic infection. Aim #2: To extend the FIAU imaging technique to pulmonary infection. Aim #3...specificity of FIAU-PET in detecting orthopedic infection. Aim #2: To extend the FIAU imaging technique to pulmonary infection. Aim #3: To transition from

  3. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of using non- cellular solid state compartment as a source for therapeutic targets and for selective imaging of micro-metastasis2-5. In particular...for 1 hr in sodium acetate ( pH 5). After cooling room temperature, the polymer was treated with EDTA (0.05 M) to capture free 111In ions and further...Brooks, P.C. Impact of the non- cellular tumor microenvironment on metastasis: potential therapeutic and imaging opportunities. Journal of Cellular

  4. Nanotechnology: Emerging Developments and Early Detection of Cancer. A Two-Day Workshop Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, August 30–31 2001, on the National Institute of Standards and Technology Campus, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Steven J.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Looney, J. Patrick; Barker, Peter E.

    2002-01-01

    A recent meeting jointly sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) brought together researchers active in nanotechnology and cancer molecular biology to discuss and evaluate the interface between disciplines. Emerging areas where nanotechnologies may impact cancer prevention and early cancer detection were elaborated by key researchers who catalyzed interdisciplinary dialogue aimed at fostering cross-discipline communications and future collaboration. PMID:12590168

  5. Nanotechnology: Emerging Developments and Early Detection of Cancer. A Two-Day Workshop Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, August 30–31 2001, on the National Institute of Standards and Technology Campus, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Zullo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent meeting jointly sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST brought together researchers active in nanotechnology and cancer molecular biology to discuss and evaluate the interface between disciplines. Emerging areas where nanotechnologies may impact cancer prevention and early cancer detection were elaborated by key researchers who catalyzed interdisciplinary dialogue aimed at fostering cross-discipline communications and future collaboration.

  6. Pioneering the Transdisciplinary Team Science Approach: Lessons Learned from National Cancer Institute Grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on

  7. The Utility of Routine Follow-Up Procedures in the Surveillance of Uterine Cancer: A 20-Year Institutional Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rettenmaier, Chris R; Rettenmaier, Nicholas B; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Abaid, Lisa N; Brown III, John V; Micha, John P; Goldstein, Bram H

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of routine follow-up procedures during uterine cancer surveillance and the corresponding cost throughout a 20-year period at a single medical institution. Methods...

  8. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongying; Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-09-01

    To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging.

  9. The relationship of obesity, mammographic breast density, and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Jennifer; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Schnabel, Freya; Moy, Linda

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), mammographic breast density, magnetic resonance (MR) background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and MR fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer. Our institutional database was queried for patients with preoperative mammography and breast MR imaging. There were 573 women eligible for analysis. Elevated BMI was associated with advanced stage of disease (P=.01), lower mammographic density (Pbreast density and FGT. Higher BMI was also associated with advanced stage disease and nonpalpable tumors on clinical exam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging pancreatic cancer using bioconjugated InP quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ken-Tye; Ding, Hong; Roy, Indrajit; Law, Wing-Cheung; Bergey, Earl J; Maitra, Anirban; Prasad, Paras N

    2009-03-24

    In this paper, we report the successful use of non-cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) as highly efficient and nontoxic optical probes for imaging live pancreatic cancer cells. Indium phosphide (core)-zinc sulfide (shell), or InP/ZnS, QDs with high quality and bright luminescence were prepared by a hot colloidal synthesis method in nonaqueous media. The surfaces of these QDs were then functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid to make them highly dispersible in aqueous media. Further bioconjugation with pancreatic cancer specific monoclonal antibodies, such as anticlaudin 4 and antiprostate stem cell antigen (anti-PSCA), to the functionalized InP/ZnS QDs, allowed specific in vitro targeting of pancreatic cancer cell lines (both immortalized and low passage ones). The receptor-mediated delivery of the bioconjugates was further confirmed by the observation of poor in vitro targeting in nonpancreatic cancer based cell lines which are negative for the claudin-4-receptor. These observations suggest the immense potential of InP/ZnS QDs as non-cadmium-based safe and efficient optical imaging nanoprobes in diagnostic imaging, particularly for early detection of cancer.

  11. Prostate cancer localization by novel magnetic resonance dispersion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischi, M; Saidov, T; Kompatsiari, K; Engelbrecht, M R W; Breeuwer, M; Wijkstra, H

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis and focal treatment of prostate cancer, the most prevalent form of cancer in men, is hampered by the limits of current clinical imaging. Angiogenesis imaging is a promising option for detection and localization of prostate cancer. It can be imaged by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, assessing microvascular permeability as an indicator for angiogenesis. However, information on microvascular architecture changes associated with angiogenesis is not available. This paper presents a new model enabling the combined assessment of microvascular permeability and architecture. After the intravenous injection of a gadolinium-chelate bolus, time-concentration curves (TCCs) are measured by DCE-MRI at each voxel. According to the convective dispersion equation, the microvascular architecture is reflected in the dispersion coefficient. A solution of this equation is therefore proposed to represent the intravascular blood plasma compartment in the Tofts model. Fitting the resulting model to TCCs measured at each voxel leads to the simultaneous generation of a dispersion and a permeability map. Measurement of an arterial input function is no longer required. Preliminary validation was performed by spatial comparison with the histological results in seven patients referred for radical prostatectomy. Cancer localization by the obtained dispersion maps provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve equal to 0.91. None of the standard DCE-MRI parametric maps could outperform this result, motivating towards an extended validation of the method, also aimed at investigating other forms of cancer with pronounced angiogenic development.

  12. Quantitative optical imaging for the detection of early cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao

    The objectives of this thesis are to provide insight of fundamental mechanisms of acetowhitening effect, upon which the colposcopic diagnosis of human cervical cancer is based and to develop novel quantitative optical imaging technologies supplementing colposcopy to improve its performance in detecting early cancer. Firstly, the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process are studied on monolayer cell cultures. It is found that the dynamic acetowhitening processes in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. Secondly, the changes in light scattering induced by acetic acid in intact cells and isolated cellular fractions are investigated by using confocal microscopy and light scattering spectroscopy. The results provide evidence that the small-sized components in the cytoplasm are the major contributors to the acetowhitening effect. Thirdly, a unified Mie and fractal model is proposed to interpret light scattering by biological cells. It is found that light scattering in forward directions is dominated by Mie scattering by bare cells and nuclei, whereas light scattering at large angles is determined by fractal scattering by subcellular structures. Fourthly, an optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is built to measure the 3-D surface topology of cervix and track the motion of patient. The information of motion tracking is used to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during colposcopic examination. The imaging system is evaluated by tracking the movements of cervix models. The results demonstrate that the imaging technique holds the promise to enable the quantitative mapping of the acetowhitening kinetics over cervical surface for more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer. At last, a calibrated autofluorescence imaging system is instrumented for detecting neoplasia in vivo. It is found that the calibrated autofluorescence signals from neoplasia are generally lower than signals from normal

  13. Imaging of congenital torticollis in infants: a retrospective study of an institutional protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Nicholas; Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Straka-DeMarco, Deborah; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors' objectives in this study were to evaluate their institutional protocol and create recommendations for radiographic imaging in infants with torticollis, with or without plagiocephaly, based on a retrospective clinical analysis and literature review. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted to identify infants with torticollis who were evaluated by the craniofacial team. The following patients were identified: those who underwent imaging in the form of radiography, CT scanning, or MRI; those who had a secondary diagnosis or additional clinical finding as the indication for imaging; and those with persistent torticollis despite completion of recommended repositioning techniques and physical therapy (PT). RESULTS A total of 683 infants between the ages of 1 day and 335 days (mean age 141.6 days) were referred for management of torticollis. Initial imaging was performed in 48 patients, of whom 44 were identified as having a diagnosis other than torticollis or a significant clinical finding as the indication for imaging. The remaining 4 patients (0.6% of the torticollis population) underwent imaging and did not have an additional diagnosis or a significant clinical finding. There were no abnormal radiological findings in these patients. Of the 639 patients diagnosed with congenital torticollis who did not have a secondary diagnosis that required initial imaging, 99.2% (634 patients) achieved resolution of torticollis with recommended repositioning techniques and completion of PT and without radiography, CT, or MRI. CONCLUSIONS Within the limits of this retrospective study and supporting literature, the authors provide the following recommendations regarding radiographic imaging of infants with congenital torticollis. 1) Clinical examination is sufficient in the diagnosis of congenital torticollis in infants. Radiography, CT scanning, and MRI are not necessary. 2) In cases in which additional clinical or neurological findings are present

  14. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectral region is of significant technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinct spectral fingerprints. To date, the limitations of mid-IR light sources, such as thermal emitters, low...... cancer detection with mid-IR imaging spectroscopy....

  15. Molecular Imaging of Cancer with Nanoparticle-Based Theranostic Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yu Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although advancements in medical technology supporting cancer diagnosis and treatment have improved survival, these technologies still have limitations. Recently, the application of noninvasive imaging for cancer diagnosis and therapy has become an indispensable component in clinical practice. However, current imaging contrasts and tracers, which are in widespread clinical use, have their intrinsic limitations and disadvantages. Nanotechnologies, which have improved in vivo detection and enhanced targeting efficiency for cancer, may overcome some of the limitations of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Theranostic nanoparticles have great potential as a therapeutic model, which possesses the ability of their nanoplatforms to load targeted molecule for both imaging and therapeutic functions. The resulting nanosystem will likely be critical with the growth of personalized medicine because of their diagnostic potential, effectiveness as a drug delivery vehicle, and ability to oversee patient response to therapy. In this review, we discuss the achievements of modern nanoparticles with the goal of accurate tumor imaging and effective treatment and discuss the future prospects.

  16. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  17. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontchos, Brian N; Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C; Korde, Larissa A; Lam, Diana L; Scheel, John R; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for

  18. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  19. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Francesco; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss about the role of new probes for molecular imaging in the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa). This review focuses particularly on the role of new promising radiotracers for the molecular imaging with PET/computed tomography in the detection of PCa recurrence. The role of these new imaging techniques to guide lesion-target therapies and the potential application of these molecular probes as theranostics agents is discussed. Finally, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to castration in PCa and the maintenance of active androgen receptor are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Image quality and cancer visibility of T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the prostate at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Lagemaat, M.W.; Barentsz, J.O.; Futterer, J.J.; Zamecnik, P.; Roozen, H.; Orzada, S.; Bitz, A.K.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the image quality of T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and the visibility of prostate cancer at 7 Tesla (T).Seventeen prostate cancer patients underwent T2w imaging at 7T with only an external transmit/receive array coil. Three radiologists independently scored

  1. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  2. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT, two-photon photoluminescence (TPL and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  3. Opportunities for Small Nutrition-Related Cancer Research Grants (R03) from the National Cancer Institute1

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Harold E Seifried; John A. Milner

    2011-01-01

    Small research grants, or R03 grants, provide limited, short-term support for individual research projects. R03s may be an excellent means of support for projects by nutrition scientists at all stages in their careers. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded roughly one-half of all nutrition-related NIH R03 grants in the period from 2005 to 2010. A detailed review of the recent NCI grant portfolio identified potential strategies for successful applications. Projects that addressed imp...

  4. Images of flight nursing in Australia: A study using institutional ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideson, Genevieve; Willis, Eileen; Mayner, Lidia; Chamberlain, Diane J

    2016-03-01

    Pictures speak a thousand words. The traditional romantic image of an Australian aeromedical service is a male doctor and male pilot, out to rescue the male stockman from the red dust of the Australian outback. However, the reality is considerably different, particularly in the current context of the Australian healthcare system. This paper examines the images of flight nursing using a critical lens. The images are derived from popular literature sources from the early 1940s through to the present. A textual analysis of the images of flight nursing using the methodology of institutional ethnography reveals a number of themes including the glamorous, the romantic, and the heroic nurse. This study illustrates that the way these nurses are portrayed within popular literature mirrors the Australian cultural ethic of heroic bush pioneer, yet at the same time the work these nurses do is undervalued by various omissions and misrepresentations. The results from this study have the potential to significantly improve recognition of the work performed by flight nurses and to challenge incorrect cultural myths. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Oncologists' perspectives on concurrent palliative care in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Ahles, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand oncology clinicians' perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. This was a qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: (1) treating the whole patient, (2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, (3) “some patients just want to fight,” and (4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists' views on the complementary role of palliative care: (1) “refer early and often,” (2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals “hospice”; “Heme patients are different,” (3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, (4) palliative care “shares the load,” and (5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care.

  6. Nuclear Imaging of Prostate Cancer with Gastrin-Releasing-Peptide-Receptor Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, H. J. K.; de Jong, I. J.; Dierckx, R. A.; van de Wiele, C.; Helfrich, W.; Elsinga, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer in men. Evaluating the different stages of prostate cancer with conventional imaging techniques still proves difficult. Nuclear imaging might provide a technique that is able to evaluate prostate cancer, but clinical application has been

  7. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Ramsamooj, Rajen; White, Ralph deVere

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of tissues under long-wavelength laser excitation in the green and red spectral region complemented by cross-polarized elastic light scattering was explored for cancer detection. Various types of normal and malignant human tissue samples were utilized in this investigation. A set of images for each tissue sample was recorded that consisted of two autofluorescence images obtained under 532- and 632.8-nm excitation and light-scattering images obtained under linearly polarized illumination at 700, 850, and 1000 nm. These images were compared with the histopathology of the tissue sample. The experimental results indicated that for various tissue types, the intensity of the autofluorescence integrated over the 700 to 1000-nm spectral region was considerably different in cancer tissues than in that of the contiguous non-neoplastic tissues. This difference provided the basis for the detection of cancer and delineation of the tumor margins. Variations on the relative intensity were observed among different tissue types and excitation wavelengths. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  8. Quantitative mitochondrial redox imaging of breast cancer metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Nioka, Shoko; Glickson, Jerry D.; Chance, Britton; Li, Lin Z.

    2010-05-01

    Predicting tumor metastatic potential remains a challenge in cancer research and clinical practice. Our goal was to identify novel biomarkers for differentiating human breast tumors with different metastatic potentials by imaging the in vivo mitochondrial redox states of tumor tissues. The more metastatic (aggressive) MDA-MB-231 and less metastatic (indolent) MCF-7 human breast cancer mouse xenografts were imaged with the low-temperature redox scanner to obtain multi-slice fluorescence images of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp). The nominal concentrations of NADH and Fp in tissue were measured using reference standards and used to calculate the Fp redox ratio, Fp/(NADH+Fp). We observed significant core-rim differences, with the core being more oxidized than the rim in all aggressive tumors but not in the indolent tumors. These results are consistent with our previous observations on human melanoma mouse xenografts, indicating that mitochondrial redox imaging potentially provides sensitive markers for distinguishing aggressive from indolent breast tumor xenografts. Mitochondrial redox imaging can be clinically implemented utilizing cryogenic biopsy specimens and is useful for drug development and for clinical diagnosis of breast cancer.

  9. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  10. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  11. Multiplexed imaging in cancer diagnosis: applications and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Longmire, Michelle R; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L; Kawamoto, Satomi

    2010-06-01

    The development of imaging technologies that have sufficient specificity and sensitivity to enable early, accurate detection of cancer and response to therapy has long been a goal in oncology. Various radiological techniques have been used for diagnosis and surveillance of disease recurrence and imaging has revolutionised oncology. However, despite the widespread use of technologies, the ability of currently available imaging methods to facilitate early detection, precise characterisation, and accurate localisation of malignant disease could be improved. The simultaneous use of two or more techniques, contrast reagents, signalling methods, or the coupling of agent and tissue properties to achieve so-called multiplexed imaging is a promising approach. In this review, we provide a broad overview of current and emerging multiplexed, imaging technologies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

  13. Prostate cancer characterization on MR images using fractal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R; Ayache, A; Makni, N; Puech, P; Villers, A; Mordon, S; Betrouni, N

    2011-01-01

    Computerized detection of prostate cancer on T2-weighted MR images. The authors combined fractal and multifractal features to perform textural analysis of the images. The fractal dimension was computed using the Variance method; the multifractal spectrum was estimated by an adaptation of a multifractional Brownian motion model. Voxels were labeled as tumor/nontumor via nonlinear supervised classification. Two classification algorithms were tested: Support vector machine (SVM) and AdaBoost. Experiments were performed on images from 17 patients. Ground truth was available from histological images. Detection and classification results (sensitivity, specificity) were (83%, 91%) and (85%, 93%) for SVM and AdaBoost, respectively. Classification using the authors' model combining fractal and multifractal features was more accurate than classification using classical texture features (such as Haralick, wavelet, and Gabor filters). Moreover, the method was more robust against signal intensity variations. Although the method was only applied to T2 images, it could be extended to multispectral MR.

  14. Significance of Image Guidance to Clinical Outcomes for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare toxicity profiles and biochemical tumor control outcomes between patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT and non-IGRT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 65 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IG-IMRT. This group of patients was retrospectively compared with a similar cohort of 62 patients who were treated between 2004 and 2009 with IMRT to the same dose without image guidance. Results. The median follow-up time was 4.8 years. The rectal volume receiving ≥40 and ≥70 Gy was significantly lower in the IG-IMRT group. Grade 2 and higher acute and late GI and GU toxicity rates were lower in IG-IMRT group, but there was no statistical difference. No significant improvement in biochemical control at 5 years was observed in two groups. In a Cox regression analysis identifying predictors for PSA relapse-free survival, only preradiotherapy PSA was significantly associated with biochemical control; IG-IMRT was not a statistically significant indicator. Conclusions. The use of image guidance in the radiation of prostate cancer at our institute did not show significant reduction in the rates of GI and GU toxicity and did not improve the biochemical control compared with IMRT.

  15. Ex-vivo endoscopic laryngeal cancer imaging using two forward-looking fiber optic scanning endoscope probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, R.; Tatla, T.; Pang, J.-Y.; Tadrous, P. J.; Gelikonov, G.; Gelikonov, V.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Bradu, A.; Li, X. D.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    Larynx cancer is one of the most common primary head and neck cancers. For early-stage laryngeal cancer, both surgery and radiotherapy are effective treatment modalities, offering a high rate of local control and cure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established non-invasive optical biopsy method, capable of imaging ranges of 2- 3 mm into tissue. By using the principles of low coherence light interferometry, OCT can be used to distinguish normal from unhealthy laryngeal mucosa in patients. Two forward-looking endoscope OCT probes of different sizes in a sweeping frequency OCT (SS-OCT) configuration were compared in terms of their performances for ex-vivo laryngeal cancer imaging. The setup configuration of the first OCT probe unit was designed and constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Russia (diameter of 1.9 mm and the rigid part at the distal end is 13 mm long). The second OCT endoscope probe was constructed at the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, USA, using a tubular piezoelectric actuator with quartered electrodes in combination with a resonant fiber cantilever (diameter of 2.4 mm, and rigid part of 45 mm). Cross-sectional images of laryngeal lesions using the two OCT configurations were aquired and compared with OCT images obtained in a 1310 nm SS-OCT classical non-endoscopic system. The work presented here is an intermediate step in our research towards in-vivo endoscopic laryngeal cancer imaging.

  16. Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Felker, Stephanie A; Tekchandani, Leena; Thomas, Mariam; Gupta, Esha; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Roth, Antoinette; Sayre, James; Rahbar, Guita

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performances of contrast material-enhanced spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of index and secondary cancers in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer by using histologic or imaging follow-up as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for newly diagnosed unilateral breast cancer between March 2014 and October 2015. Of those 52 patients, 46 were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted ultrasonography because they had additional suspicious lesions at MR imaging. In six of the 52 patients, breast cancer had been diagnosed at an outside institution. These patients were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted US as part of diagnostic imaging. Images from contrast-enhanced spectral mammography were analyzed by two fellowship-trained breast imagers with 2.5 years of experience with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both imaging modalities and compared by using the Bennett statistic. Results Fifty-two women with 120 breast lesions were included for analysis (mean age, 50 years; range, 29-73 years). Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography had similar sensitivity to MR imaging (94% [66 of 70 lesions] vs 99% [69 of 70 lesions]), a significantly higher PPV than MR imaging (93% [66 of 71 lesions] vs 60% [69 of 115 lesions]), and fewer false-positive findings than MR imaging (five vs 45) (P contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depicted 11 of the 11 secondary cancers (100%) and MR imaging depicted 10 (91%). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography is potentially as sensitive as MR imaging in the evaluation of extent of disease in newly diagnosed

  17. Gastric cancer staging with dual energy spectral CT imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilai Pan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical utility of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT in staging and characterizing gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 96 patients suspected of gastric cancers underwent dual-phasic scans (arterial phase (AP and portal venous phase (PP with DEsCT mode. Three types of images were reconstructed for analysis: conventional polychromatic images, material-decomposition images, and monochromatic image sets with photon energies from 40 to 140 keV. The polychromatic and monochromatic images were compared in TNM staging. The iodine concentrations in the lesions and lymph nodes were measured on the iodine-based material-decomposition images. These values were further normalized against that in aorta and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC values were statistically compared. Results were correlated with pathological findings. RESULTS: The overall accuracies for T, N and M staging were (81.2%, 80.0%, and 98.9% and (73.9%, 75.0%, and 98.9% determined with the monochromatic images and the conventional kVp images, respectively. The improvement of the accuracy in N-staging using the keV images was statistically significant (p<0.05. The nIC values between the differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes were significantly different both in AP (p = 0.02, respectively and PP (p = 0.01, respectively. Among metastatic lymph nodes, nIC of the signet-ring cell carcinoma were significantly different from the adenocarcinoma (p = 0.02 and mucinous adenocarcinoma (p = 0.01 in PP. CONCLUSION: The monochromatic images obtained with DEsCT may be used to improve the N-staging accuracy. Quantitative iodine concentration measurements may be helpful for differentiating between differentiated and undifferentiated gastric carcinoma, and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes.

  18. Review of outcomes of primary liver cancers in children: our institutional experience with resection and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Marcus M; Shah, Sohail R; Atri, Prashant; Paredes, Jose L; DiCicco, Leigh Anne; Sindhi, Rakesh; Soltys, Kyle A; Mazariegos, George V; Kane, Timothy D

    2010-10-01

    Operative intervention plays an important role in the management of primary liver cancers in children. Recent improvements in diagnostic modalities, pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, and operative technique have all led to improved survival in these patients. Both hepatic resection and orthotopic liver transplantation are effective operations for pediatric liver tumors; which intervention is pursued is based on preoperative extent of disease. This is a review of our institution's experience with operative management of pediatric liver cancer over an 18-year period. A retrospective chart review from 1990 to 2007 identified patients who were ≤18 years old who underwent operative intervention for primary liver cancer. Demographics, type of operation, intraoperative details, pre- and postoperative management, as well as outcomes were recorded for all patients. Fifty-four patients underwent 57 operations for primary liver cancer, 30 of whom underwent resection; the remaining 27 underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. The mean age at diagnosis was 41 months. Twenty patients had stage 1 or 2 disease and 34 patients had stage 3 or 4 disease. Forty-eight (89%) patients received preoperative chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy was given to 92% of patients. Mean overall and intensive care unit duration of stay were 18 and 6 days, respectively. About 45% of patients had a postoperative complication, including hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 8), line sepsis (n = 6), mild acute rejection (n = 3), biliary stricture (n = 2), pneumothorax (n = 2), incarcerated omentum (n = 1), Horner's syndrome (n = 1), and urosepsis (n = 1). Only 6 patients had a recurrence of their cancer, 5 after liver resection, 3 of whom later received a transplant. There was only 1 recurrence after liver transplantation. There was 1 perioperative mortality from cardiac arrest. Overall survival was 93%. Operative intervention plays a critical role in the management of primary liver cancer in the

  19. Rapid Cancer Fluorescence Imaging Using A γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase-Specific Probe For Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruaki Hino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We set out to examine the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT in lung cancer and the validity of γ-glutamyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (gGlu-HMRG for intraoperative imaging of primary lung cancer. METHODS: GGT activities and mRNA expression levels of GGT1 (one of the GGT subtypes in five human lung cancer cell lines were examined by fluorescence imaging and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vivo imaging of an orthotopic A549 xenograft model in nude mice was performed to confirm its applicability to intraoperative imaging. Furthermore, ex vivo imaging of 73 specimens from lung cancer patients were performed and analyzed to calculate the sensitivity/specificity of gGlu-HMRG for lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: GGT activities and mRNA expression levels of GGT1 are diverse depending on cell type; A549, H441, and H460 showed relatively high GGT activities and expression levels, whereas H82 and H226 showed lower values. In the in vivo mouse model study, tiny pleural dissemination and hilar/mediastinal lymph node metastasis (less than 1 mm in diameter were clearly detected 15 minutes after topical application of gGlu-HMRG. In the ex vivo study of specimens from patients, the sensitivity and specificity of gGlu-HMRG were calculated to be 43.8% (32/73 and 84.9% (62/73, respectively. When limited to female patients, never smokers, and adenocarcinomas, these values were 78.9% (15/19 and 73.7% (14/19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although GGT activity of lung cancer cells vary, gGlu-HMRG can serve as an intraoperative imaging tool to detect small foci of lung cancer when such cells have sufficient GGT activity.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, S A; Purdie, C A; Jordan, L B; Vinnicombe, S; Lerski, R A; Martin, P; Thompson, A M

    2016-02-01

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75%, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5%, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. • MR-derived entropy features, representing heterogeneity, provide important information on tissue composition. • Entropy features can differentiate between histological and immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer. • Differing entropy features between breast cancer subtypes implies differences in lesion heterogeneity. • Texture analysis of breast cancer potentially provides added information for decision making.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Difficulty of Importing Pattern-Based Concepts into the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Geller, James

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of biomedical ontologies is difficult. We have developed a pattern-based method for dealing with the problem of identifying missing concepts in the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). Specifically, we are mining patterns connecting NCIt concepts with concepts in other ontologies to identify candidate missing concepts. However, the final decision about a concept insertion is always up to a human ontology curator. In this paper, we are estimating the difficulty of this task for a domain expert by counting possible choices for a pattern-based insertion. We conclude that even with support of our mining algorithm, the insertion task is challenging.

  2. CRAFT: Multimodality confocal skin imaging for early cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tong; Xie, Hao; Ding, Yichen; Wang, Weichao; Li, Zhiming; Jin, Dayong; Tang, Yuanhe; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Although histological analysis serves as a gold standard to cancer diagnosis, its application on skin cancer detection is largely prohibited due to its invasive nature. To obtain both the structural and pathological information in situ, a Confocal Reflectance/Auto-Fluorescence Tomography (CRAFT) system was established to examine the skin sites in vivo with both reflectance and autofluorescence modes simultaneously. Nude mice skin with cancerous sites and normal skin sites were imaged and compared with the system. The cellular density and reflective intensity in cancerous sites reflects the structural change of the tissue. With the decay coefficient analysis, the corresponding NAD(P)H decay index for cancerous sites is 1.65-fold that of normal sites, leading to a 97.8% of sensitivity and specificity for early cancer diagnosis. The results are verified by the followed histological analysis. Therefore, CRAFT may provide a novel method for the in vivo, non-invasive diagnosis of early cancer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    transconjugated dye-labeled serum proteins . 13   Future Plans The PCa imaging in animal model was mainly conducted in the lab of Dr. Pomper at the Johns...the dye can transfer from CMP onto serum proteins (e.g. albumin) resulting in an unexpected drop in signal during serum stability assays and off...specifically target digested collagens with unfolded and partially denatured collagen triple helices. 2. Demonstration of ex vivo and in vivo targeting

  4. Advanced Cancer Genomics Institute: Genetic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets in Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    American and European American women . Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24062209. 13. Yu X, Song H, Xia T, Han S...Higgins MJ. Genome-wide methylation patterns provide insight into differences in breast tumor biology between American women of African and European... ancestry . Oncotarget. 2013 Nov 29. PubMed PMID: 24368439. 21. Liu B, Morrison CD, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Qin M, Conroy JC, Wang J, Liu S

  5. Imaging applications of nanotechnology in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, U Ayanthi; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Douek, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Consider a single agent capable of diagnosing cancer, treating it simultaneously and monitoring response to treatment. Particles of this agent would seek cancer cells accurately and destroy them without harming normal surrounding cells. Science fiction or reality? Nanotechnology and nanomedicine are rapidly growing fields that encompass the creation of materials and devices at atomic, molecular and supramolecular level, for potential clinical use. Advances in nanotechnology are bringing us closer to the development of dual and multi-functional nanoparticles that are challenging the traditional distinction between diagnostic and treatment agents. Examples include contrast agents capable of delivering targeted drugs to specific epithelial receptors. This opens the way for targeted chemotherapy which could minimise systemic side-effects, avoid damage to benign tissues and also reduce the therapeutic treatment dose of a drug required. Most of the current research is still at the pre-clinical stage, with very few instances of bench to bedside research. In order to encourage more translational research, a fundamental change is required to consider the current clinical challenges and then look at ways in which nanotechnology can address these.

  6. Surgical Feeding Tubes in Pediatric and Adolescent Cancer Patients: A Single-institution Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emma C; Curtin, Thomas; Slack, Rebecca S; Ge, Christine; Slade, Austen D; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Lally, Kevin P; Austin, Mary T

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate surgical enteric access in pediatric cancer patients to determine factors associated with postoperative complications. We performed a single-institution retrospective review of all patients below 21 years old with a primary cancer diagnosis who underwent surgical procedures for enteral access between 2004 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine independent predictors of postoperative complications. During the study period, 122 patients had surgically placed feeding tubes, of whom 58% developed ≥1 complication(s) and 16% experienced a major complication. No single factor was significantly associated with developing any complication or major complication. Several trends were noted including increased complications associated with jejunostomy tubes, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes, and abdominal radiation. Surgically placed enteric access in pediatric and adolescent cancer patients is associated with an extremely high complication rate emphasizing the importance of careful evaluation of these patients before embarking on surgical feeding access. Future work should evaluate mechanisms to decrease complications and/or explore alternative methods to provide supplemental nutrition in children and adolescents with cancer.

  7. Sexual outcomes after partial penectomy for penile cancer: results from a multi-institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Surgical treatment is inevitably mutilating. Considering the strong impact on patients′ sexual life we want to evaluate sexual function and satisfaction after partial penectomy. The patients in this study (n = 25 represented all those who attended our institutions and were diagnosed and treated for penile cancer from October 2011 to November 2013. All patients underwent partial penectomy and followed-up (mean: 14 months; range: 12-25. Sexual presurgical baseline was estimated using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction 15 (IIEF-15. Sexual outcomes of each patient were estimated considering four standardized and validated questionnaires. We analyzed the means and ranges of IIEF-15 including erectile function (IIEF-1-5 and -15, orgasmic function (IIEF-9 and -10, sexual desire (IIEF-11 and -12, intercourse satisfaction (IIEF-6-8, and overall satisfaction (IIEF-13 and -14. Then, we also used Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS and Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR to evaluate the sexual function and satisfaction of our patients. The final results showed that penile cancer leads to several sexual and psychosexual dysfunctions. Nevertheless, patients who undergo partial penectomy for penile cancer can maintain the sexual outcomes at levels slightly lower to those that existed in the period before surgery.

  8. Photoacoustic Image Analysis for Cancer Detection and Building a Novel Ultrasound Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Saugata

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging non-invasive soft tissue imaging modality which has the potential to detect tissue abnormality at early stage. Photoacoustic images map the spatially varying optical absorption property of tissue. In multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging, the soft tissue is imaged with different wavelengths, tuned to the absorption peaks of the specific light absorbing tissue constituents or chromophores to obtain images with different contrasts of the same tissue sample. From those images, spatially varying concentration of the chromophores can be recovered. As multiwavelength PA images can provide important physiological information related to function and molecular composition of the tissue, so they can be used for diagnosis of cancer lesions and differentiation of malignant tumors from benign tumors. In this research, a number of parameters have been extracted from multiwavelength 3D PA images of freshly excised human prostate and thyroid specimens, imaged at five different wavelengths. Using marked histology slides as ground truths, region of interests (ROI) corresponding to cancer, benign and normal regions have been identified in the PA images. The extracted parameters belong to different categories namely chromophore concentration, frequency parameters and PA image pixels and they represent different physiological and optical properties of the tissue specimens. Statistical analysis has been performed to test whether the extracted parameters are significantly different between cancer, benign and normal regions. A multidimensional [29 dimensional] feature set, built with the extracted parameters from the 3D PA images, has been divided randomly into training and testing sets. The training set has been used to train support vector machine (SVM) and neural network (NN) classifiers while the performance of the classifiers in differentiating different tissue pathologies have been determined by the testing dataset. Using the NN

  9. Transoral resection of pharyngeal cancer: summary of a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, November 6-7, 2011, Arlington, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, David J; Ridge, John A; Brizel, David M; Holsinger, F Christopher; Haughey, Bruce H; O'Sullivan, Brian; Genden, Eric M; Beitler, Jonathan J; Weinstein, Gregory S; Quon, Harry; Chepeha, Douglas B; Ferris, Robert L; Weber, Randal S; Movsas, Benjamin; Waldron, John; Lowe, Val; Ramsey, Scott; Manola, Judith; Yueh, Bevan; Carey, Thomas E; Bekelman, Justin E; Konski, Andre A; Moore, Eric; Forastiere, Arlene; Schuller, David E; Lynn, Jean; Ullmann, Claudio Dansky

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances now permit resection of many pharyngeal tumors through the open mouth, an approach that can greatly reduce the morbidity of surgical exposure. These transoral techniques are being rapidly adopted by the surgical community and hold considerable promise. On November 6-7, 2011, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address how to further investigate the use of transoral surgery, both in the good prognosis human papillomavirus (HPV)-initiated oropharyngeal cancers, and in those with HPV-unrelated disease. The proceedings of this meeting are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging for breast cancer analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its biological composition, both structural and functional. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. However, determination of the Mueller matrix requires tissue analysis under many different states of polarized light; a time consuming and measurement intensive process. Here we address this limitation with a new rapid polarimetry system, and use this polarimetry platform to investigate a variety of tissue changes associated with breast cancer. We have recently developed a rapid polarimetry imaging platform based on four photoelastic modulators (PEMs). The PEMs generate fast polarization modulations that allow the complete sample Mueller matrix to be imaged over a large field of view, with no moving parts. This polarimetry system is then demonstrated to be sensitive to a variety of tissue changes that are relevant to breast cancer. Specifically, we show that changes in depolarization can reveal tumor margins, and can differentiate between viable and necrotic breast cancer metastasized to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, the polarimetric property of linear retardance (related to birefringence) is dependent on collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. These findings indicate that our polarimetry platform may have future applications in fields such as breast cancer diagnosis, improving the speed and efficacy of intraoperative pathology, and providing prognostic information that may be beneficial for guiding treatment.

  11. A Statewide Intervention Improves Appropriate Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Patrick; Dhir, Apoorv; Gao, Yuqing; Drabik, Brian; Lim, Kenneth; Curry, Jon; Womble, Paul R; Linsell, Susan M; Brachulis, Andrew; Sexton, Donald W; Ghani, Khurshid R; Denton, Brian T; Miller, David C; Montie, James E

    2017-05-01

    We implemented a statewide intervention to improve imaging utilization for the staging of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. MUSIC (Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative) is a quality improvement collaborative comprising 42 diverse practices representing approximately 85% of the urologists in Michigan. MUSIC has developed imaging appropriateness criteria (prostate specific antigen greater than 20 ng/ml, Gleason score 7 or higher and clinical stage T3 or higher) which minimize unnecessary imaging with bone scan and computerized tomography. After baseline rates of radiographic staging were established in 2012 and 2013, we used multidimensional interventions to deploy these criteria in 2014. Imaging utilization was then remeasured in 2015 to evaluate for changes in practice patterns. A total of 10,554 newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer were entered into the MUSIC registry from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2013 and January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015. Of these patients 7,442 (79%) and 7,312 (78%) met our criteria to avoid bone scan and computerized tomography imaging, respectively. The use of bone scan imaging when not indicated decreased from 11.0% at baseline to 6.5% after interventions (p bone scans and computerized tomography among men at low risk for metastases. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extent of ovarian cancers. Evaluation on CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torashima, Miyuki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Hatanaka, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okamura, Hitoshi [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Fourty patients with ovarian cancer were retrospectively studied to assess the extention of disease with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The following assessments were made: invasive disease to adjacent pelvic structures, intra-abdominal extent of disease, lymphadenopathy and ascites. Twenty-five abdominal CT scans and 33 pelvic scans, 19 abdominal MR imaging and 36 pelvic MR imaging were obtained. All patients were examined prior to initial operation. Contralateral ovarian metastases were seen in 25 patients, and 20 patients (66.7%) had visible or palpable mesenterial and peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery. Ascites was the most common finding, direct invasion to rectum, sigmoid colon and parametrium, omental metastases and mesenterial metastases were followed. Involved lesions were depicted in 58.0% sites with CT and 57.0% with MRI. In uterus and ovarian involvement, the diagnostic ability of MR imaging was superior to that of CT. In lymph node metastases and mesenterium lesions, CT had superior diagnostic ability over MR imaging. Fat on MRI tended to mask high signal intensity lesions. Furthermore, motion artifacts due to bowel peristalsis and pulsation of vessels will lead to misinterpret the margin of normal organs. Small metastases under 0.5 cm in diameter were missed both on MRI and CT. The results of this study suggest that MR imaging is equivalent to CT in the detection of disseminated and metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer. (author).

  13. Diagnosis of breast cancer biopsies using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The standard practice in the histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope. The pathologist looks at certain morphological features, visible under the stain, to diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on qualitative inspection making it subject to investigator bias. Furthermore, since this method requires a microscopic examination by the pathologist it suffers from low throughput. A quantitative, label-free and high throughput method for detection of these morphological features from images of tissue biopsies is, hence, highly desirable as it would assist the pathologist in making a quicker and more accurate diagnosis of cancers. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of using quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated optical path length maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). As a first step towards diagnosis based on quantitative phase imaging, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of the imaging resolution and contrast of our label-free phase images. These images were shown to two pathologists who marked the tumors present in tissue as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. In our experiment, the agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was measured to be 88%. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for a push in the future towards quantitative, label-free and high throughput diagnosis.

  14. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  16. Multimodal Imaging Nanoparticles Derived from Hyaluronic Acid for Integrated Preoperative and Intraoperative Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Payne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the most promising treatment strategy for many types of cancer. Residual malignant tissue after surgery, a consequence in part due to positive margins, contributes to high mortality and disease recurrence. In this study, multimodal contrast agents for integrated preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and intraoperative fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS are developed. Self-assembled multimodal imaging nanoparticles (SAMINs were developed as a mixed micelle formulation using amphiphilic HA polymers functionalized with either GdDTPA for T1 contrast-enhanced MRI or Cy7.5, a near infrared fluorophore. To evaluate the relationship between MR and fluorescence signal from SAMINs, we employed simulated surgical phantoms that are routinely used to evaluate the depth at which near infrared (NIR imaging agents can be detected by FIGS. Finally, imaging agent efficacy was evaluated in a human breast tumor xenograft model in nude mice, which demonstrated contrast in both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. SU-D-9A-07: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Bai, S [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Zhang, Y [Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China); Ming, X [TianJin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Y [Tianjin University, Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Deng, J [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate the imaging doses and cancer risks associated with various imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation during image-guided radiotherapy of an increasingly large number of cancer patients. Methods: 141 patients (52 brain cases, 47 thoracic cases, 42 abdominal cases, aged 3 to 91 years old) treated between October 2009 and March 2010 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. During the whole radiotherapy course, each patient underwent at least one type of imaging procedures, i.e., kV portal, MV portal and kVCBCT, besides CT simulations. Based on Monte Carlo modeling and particle transport in human anatomy of various dimensions, the correlations between the radiation doses to the various organs-at-risk (OARs) at the head, the thoracic and the abdominal regions and one's weight, circumference, scan mAs and kVp have been obtained and used to estimate the radiation dose from a specific imaging procedure. The radiation-induced excess relative risk (ERR) was then estimated with BEIR VII formulism based on one's gender, age and radiation dose. 1+ ERR was reported in this study as relative cancer risk. Results: For the whole cohort of 141 patients, the mean imaging doses from various imaging procedures were 8.3 cGy to the brain, 10.5 cGy to the lungs and 19.2 cGy to the red bone marrow, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer risks were 1.140, 1.369 and 2.671, respectively. In comparison, MV portal deposited largest doses to the lungs while kVCBCT delivered the highest doses to the red bone marrow. Conclusion: The compiled imaging doses to a patient during his/her treatment course were patient-specific and site-dependent, varying from 1.2 to 263.5 cGy on average, which were clinically significant and should be included in the treatment planning and overall decision-making. Our results indicated the necessity of personalized imaging to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing the associated cancer risks

  18. The Image of Financial Institution as Islamic Bank In Mediation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction on Customer Loyalty in Purwokerto.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Warsito

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to determine the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction, service quality, customer satisfaction and image on customer loyalty, quality of service to the company’s image, to determine the image of financial institutions in mediating the relationship variable quality of service and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The samples used were 110 customers and methods of analysis used is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) test results find no significant effect of ...

  19. Cancer Metabolism and Tumor Heterogeneity: Imaging Perspectives Using MR Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain viability via genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations, expressing overall dynamic heterogeneity. The complex relaxation mechanisms of nuclear spins provide unique and convertible tissue contrasts, making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS pertinent imaging tools in both clinics and research. In this review, we summarized MR methods that visualize tumor characteristics and its metabolic phenotypes on an anatomical, microvascular, microstructural, microenvironmental, and metabolomics scale. The review will progress from the utilities of basic spin-relaxation contrasts in cancer imaging to more advanced imaging methods that measure tumor-distinctive parameters such as perfusion, water diffusion, magnetic susceptibility, oxygenation, acidosis, redox state, and cell death. Analytical methods to assess tumor heterogeneity are also reviewed in brief. Although the clinical utility of tumor heterogeneity from imaging is debatable, the quantification of tumor heterogeneity using functional and metabolic MR images with development of robust analytical methods and improved MR methods may offer more critical roles of tumor heterogeneity data in clinics. MRI/MRS can also provide insightful information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment response. With these future directions in mind, we anticipate the widespread utilization of these MR-based techniques in studying in vivo cancer biology to better address significant clinical needs.

  20. Cancer imaging using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Stefan; Wall, Matthew A; Huang, Ruimin; Kircher, Moritz F

    2017-07-01

    The unique spectral signatures and biologically inert compositions of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) nanoparticles make them promising contrast agents for in vivo cancer imaging. Our SERRS nanoparticles consist of a 60-nm gold nanoparticle core that is encapsulated in a 15-nm-thick silica shell wherein the resonant Raman reporter is embedded. Subtle aspects of their preparation can shift their limit of detection by orders of magnitude. In this protocol, we present the optimized, step-by-step procedure for generating reproducible SERRS nanoparticles with femtomolar (10-15 M) limits of detection. We provide ways of characterizing the optical properties of SERRS nanoparticles using UV/VIS and Raman spectroscopy, and their physicochemical properties using transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. We introduce several applications of these nanoprobes for biomedical research, with a focus on intraoperative cancer imaging via Raman imaging. A detailed account is provided for successful i.v. administration of SERRS nanoparticles such that delineation of cancerous lesions can be achieved in vivo and ex vivo on resected tissues without the need for specific biomarker targeting. This straightforward, yet comprehensive, protocol-from initial de novo gold nanoparticle synthesis to SERRS nanoparticle contrast-enhanced preclinical Raman imaging in animal models-takes ∼96 h.

  1. Ultra-high sensitivity imaging of cancer using SERRS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-05-01

    "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy" (SERS) nanoparticles have gained much attention in recent years for in silico, in vitro and in vivo sensing applications. Our group has developed novel generations of biocompatible "surfaceenhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy" (SERRS) nanoparticles as novel molecular imaging agents. Via rigorous optimization of the different variables contributing to the Raman enhancement, we were able to design SERRS nanoparticles with so far unprecedented sensitivity of detection under in vivo imaging conditions (femto-attomolar range). This has resulted in our ability to visualize, with a single nanoparticle, many different cancer types (after intravenous injection) in mouse models. The cancer types we have tested so far include brain, breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, sarcoma, and prostate cancer. All mouse models used are state-of-the-art and closely mimic the tumor biology in their human counterparts. In these animals, we were able to visualize not only the bulk tumors, but importantly also microscopic extensions and locoregional satellite metastases, thus delineating for the first time the true extent of tumor spread. Moreover, the particles enable the detection of premalignant lesions. Given their inert composition they are expected to have a high chance for clinical translation, where we envision them to have an impact in various scenarios ranging from early detection, image-guidance in open or minimally invasive surgical procedures, to noninvasive imaging in conjunction with spatially offset (SESORS) Raman detection devices.

  2. Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Araújo

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis. Computer-aided Diagnosis systems contribute to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of this process. Conventional classification approaches rely on feature extraction methods designed for a specific problem based on field-knowledge. To overcome the many difficulties of the feature-based approaches, deep learning methods are becoming important alternatives. A method for the classification of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast biopsy images using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs is proposed. Images are classified in four classes, normal tissue, benign lesion, in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma, and in two classes, carcinoma and non-carcinoma. The architecture of the network is designed to retrieve information at different scales, including both nuclei and overall tissue organization. This design allows the extension of the proposed system to whole-slide histology images. The features extracted by the CNN are also used for training a Support Vector Machine classifier. Accuracies of 77.8% for four class and 83.3% for carcinoma/non-carcinoma are achieved. The sensitivity of our method for cancer cases is 95.6%.

  3. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  4. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2011-01-01

    .0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number...... and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27...

  5. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Brussel, Aram S A; van der Groep, Petra; Morsink, Folkert H M; Bult, Peter; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-06-13

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  7. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  8. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  9. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

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    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent advances in optical cancer imaging of EGF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Marek, G; Longmire, M R; Choyke, P L; Kobayashi, H

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors are commonly expressed on the cell membrane of cancer cells and activity of these receptors results in accelerated cell growth and carcinogenesis. A variety of targeted molecules have been developed to block ligand binding and/or inhibit the function of these receptor tyrosine kinases, and several have proven therapeutic benefits. Along with the advent of new therapeutic agents comes a need for non-invasive tools to diagnose, characterize, and monitor tumor responsiveness to therapy. Imaging EGF receptors with radionuclides has been performed for decades. However, recently this area has advanced considerably with the development of EGF receptor-targeted optical imaging probes. Herein, we review recent advances in molecular imaging of the EGF receptor family, focusing specifically on optical imaging. Such agents provide the opportunity for earlier diagnosis, improved tumor characterization, and the ability to measure and monitor tumor responsiveness to anti-EGF receptor treatment strategies.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging for clinical management of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique

    2018-01-01

    Radiology (ESGAR) participated in a consensus meeting, organised according to an adaptation of the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) Chairs facilitated the meeting. 246 items were scored (comprising 229 items from the previous 2012 consensus and 17 additional items......OBJECTIVES: To update the 2012 ESGAR consensus guidelines on the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. METHODS: Fourteen abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal......) and classified as 'appropriate' or 'inappropriate' (defined by ≥ 80 % consensus) or uncertain (defined by consensus). RESULTS: Consensus was reached for 226 (92 %) of items. From these recommendations regarding hardware, patient preparation, imaging sequences and acquisition, criteria for MR imaging...

  12. Cellular transfer and AFM imaging of cancer cells using Bioimprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville DOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A technique for permanently capturing a replica impression of biological cells has been developed to facilitate analysis using nanometer resolution imaging tools, namely the atomic force microscope (AFM. The method, termed Bioimprint™, creates a permanent cell 'footprint' in a non-biohazardous Poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS polymer composite. The transfer of nanometer scale biological information is presented as an alternative imaging technique at a resolution beyond that of optical microscopy. By transferring cell topology into a rigid medium more suited for AFM imaging, many of the limitations associated with scanning of biological specimens can be overcome. Potential for this technique is demonstrated by analyzing Bioimprint™ replicas created from human endometrial cancer cells. The high resolution transfer of this process is further detailed by imaging membrane morphological structures consistent with exocytosis. The integration of soft lithography to replicate biological materials presents an enhanced method for the study of biological systems at the nanoscale.

  13. Survival of acral lentiginous melanoma in the National Cancer Institute of Colombia.

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    Duarte, C A; Flórez, J P; López, H G; Meneses, M X; de Vries, E

    2017-03-01

    To determine survival of a cohort of patients with acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), treated at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia, the largest referral hospital of the country. All patients diagnosed with an invasive ALM between 2003 and 2009 at the Colombian National Cancer Institute were included for analyses and followed for vital status and date of death. Using Kaplan-Meier methods, overall survival at 1, 3 and 5 years post diagnosis was determined, and Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for the variables showing a significant effect on survival in univariate analyses. Overall survival of this cohort of 90 patients was 77% at 1 year, 59% at 3 years and 54% at 5 years after diagnosis. Females had a better prognosis in univariate analyses but this advantage disappeared in multivariate models. Clinical stage was a strong predictor of survival, in univariate and multivariate models, particularly among elderly patients. Prognosis of ALM in Colombia is relatively poor, particularly for patients with higher clinical stage. The large proportions of ALM diagnosed in stage III and IV explain the relatively poor survival, and illustrate the importance of improving prognosis by lowering stage at diagnosis through better education and early detection programmes. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Computer-aided prognosis on breast cancer with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Li, Yan; Xu, Jun; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lin-Wei; Liu, Wen-Lou; Liu, Juan

    2017-03-01

    With the advance of digital pathology, image analysis has begun to show its advantages in information analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images. Generally, histological features in hematoxylin and eosin images are measured to evaluate tumor grade and prognosis for breast cancer. This review summarized recent works in image analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images for breast cancer prognosis. First, prognostic factors for breast cancer based on hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images were summarized. Then, usual procedures of image analysis for breast cancer prognosis were systematically reviewed, including image acquisition, image preprocessing, image detection and segmentation, and feature extraction. Finally, the prognostic value of image features and image feature-based prognostic models was evaluated. Moreover, we discussed the issues of current analysis, and some directions for future research.

  15. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Liao, Wei-Chih; Wu, Biing-Ru; Chen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs). We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients. In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008). Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007) and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013). A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001) and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001). The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001). In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001). Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications.

  16. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs. We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients.In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008. Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007 and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013.A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001 and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001. The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001. In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001. Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period.Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications.

  17. What Are We Missing? False-Negative Cancers at Multiparametric MR Imaging of the Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borofsky, Samuel; George, Arvin K; Gaur, Sonia; Bernardo, Marcelino; Greer, Matthew D; Mertan, Francesca V; Taffel, Myles; Moreno, Vanesa; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To characterize clinically important prostate cancers missed at multiparametric (MP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective single-center study, which included 100 consecutive patients who had undergone MP MR imaging and subsequent radical prostatectomy. A genitourinary pathologist blinded to MP MR findings outlined prostate cancers on whole-mount pathology slices. Two readers correlated mapped lesions with reports of prospectively read MP MR images. Readers were blinded to histopathology results during prospective reading. At histopathologic examination, 80 clinically unimportant lesions (PI-RADS) version 2 score to better understand false-negative lesion characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to define patient characteristics, including age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density, race, digital rectal examination results, and biopsy results before MR imaging. Student t test was used to determine any demographic differences between patients with false-negative MP MR imaging findings and those with correct prospective identification of all lesions. Results Of the 162 lesions, 136 (84%) were correctly identified with MP MR imaging. Size of eight lesions was underestimated. Among the 26 (16%) lesions missed at MP MR imaging, Gleason score was 3+4 in 17 (65%), 4+3 in one (4%), 4+4 in seven (27%), and 4+5 in one (4%). Retrospective PI-RADS version 2 scores were assigned (PI-RADS 1, n = 8; PI-RADS 2, n = 7; PI-RADS 3, n = 6; and PI-RADS 4, n = 5). On a per-patient basis, MP MR imaging depicted clinically important prostate cancer in 99 of 100 patients. At least one clinically important tumor was missed in 26 (26%) patients, and lesion size was underestimated in eight (8%). Conclusion Clinically important lesions can be missed or their size can be underestimated at MP MR imaging. Of missed lesions, 58% were not seen or were characterized as

  18. Image-guided enzyme/prodrug cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Penet, Marie-France; Winnard, Paul; Artemov, Dmitri; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2008-01-15

    The success of enzyme/prodrug cancer therapy is limited by the uncertainty in the delivery of the enzyme in vivo. This study shows the use of noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging to image the delivery of a prodrug enzyme. With this capability, prodrug administration can be timed so that the enzyme concentration is high in the tumor and low in systemic circulation and normal tissue, thereby minimizing systemic toxicity without compromising therapeutic efficiency. The delivery of a multimodal imaging reporter functionalized prodrug enzyme, cytosine deaminase, was detected by MR and optical imaging in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. Stability of the enzyme in the tumor was verified by (19)F MR spectroscopy, which detected conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-flurouracil. The optimal time window for prodrug injection determined by imaging was validated by immunohistochemical, biodistribution, and high-performance liquid chromatographic studies. The therapeutic effect and systemic toxicity of this treatment strategy were investigated by histologic studies and tumor/body weight growth curves. The delivery of the functionalized enzyme in tumors was successfully imaged in vivo. The optimal time window for prodrug administration was determined to be 24 h, at which time the enzyme continued to show high enzymatic stability in tumors but was biodegraded in the liver. Significant tumor growth delay with tolerable systemic toxicity was observed when the prodrug was injected 24 h after the enzyme. These preclinical studies show the feasibility of using a MR-detectable prodrug enzyme to time prodrug administration in enzyme/prodrug cancer therapy.

  19. Multimodality Image Fusion with PSMA PET/CT and High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Focal Therapy for Primary Diagnosis and Management of Prostate Cancer: A Planned Research Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Javitt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in diagnostic imaging herald a new approach to diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Multimodality fusion that combines anatomic with functional imaging data has surpassed either of the two alone. This opens up the possibility to “find and fix” malignancy with greater accuracy than ever before. This is particularly important for prostate cancer because it is the most common male cancer in most developed countries. This article describes technical advances under investigation at our institution and others using multimodality image fusion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, and PSMA PET/CT (defined as the combination of prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA], positron emission tomography [PET], and computed tomography [CT] for personalized medicine in the diagnosis and focal therapy of prostate cancer with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HiFUS.

  20. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity: MR Imaging Texture Analysis and Survival Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Ko, Eun Sook; Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between tumor heterogeneity assessed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture analysis and survival outcomes in patients with primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Between January and August 2010, texture analysis of the entire primary breast tumor in 203 patients was performed with T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction MR imaging for preoperative staging. Histogram-based uniformity and entropy were calculated. To dichotomize texture parameters for survival analysis, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used to determine cutoff points in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to determine the association of texture parameters and morphologic or volumetric information obtained at MR imaging or clinical-pathologic variables with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results There were 26 events, including 22 recurrences (10 local-regional and 12 distant) and four deaths, with a mean follow-up time of 56.2 months. In multivariate analysis, a higher N stage (RFS hazard ratio, 11.15 [N3 stage]; P = .002, Bonferroni-adjusted α = .0167), triple-negative subtype (RFS hazard ratio, 16.91; P breast cancers that appeared more heterogeneous on T2-weighted images (higher entropy) and those that appeared less heterogeneous on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images (lower entropy) exhibited poorer RFS. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.