WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer institute hosts

  1. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  2. National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  3. ICMIC Institutions - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICMIC grants facilitate interaction among scientists from a variety of fields to conduct multidisciplinary research on cellular and molecular imaging related to cancer. Pre-ICMIC planning grants have provided time and funds for investigators and institutions to prepare themselves, organizationally and scientifically, to establish ICMICs.

  4. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Publications Shop AICR Health @ Work Healthy Recipes Cancer Research Update AICR eNews AICR Newsletter ScienceNow CancerResource Where ... Patients and Survivors Materials for Health Professionals Our Cancer Research Research Grants Conference Continuous Update Project Research Progress ...

  5. Single Institution Feasibility Trials - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the CIP program, the current R21 mechanism provides potential funding for small, single institution feasibility trials. The current announcement is titled In Vivo Cancer Imaging Exploratory/Developmental Grants.

  6. 78 FR 20118 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Biology and Therapy. Date: April 17... Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  7. 78 FR 25459 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Therapy (Omnibus). Date: June 27-28....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  8. 75 FR 20370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93...@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  9. Reducing cancer health disparities: Perspective of the National Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Kenneth C.; Hubbell, F. Allan

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Special Population Network (SPN) to develop cancer awareness, research and training with partnerships from community and research organizations. This paper provides background information about the Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network, one of the SPNs, and about the seven research projects that are described in this Supplement.

  10. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A.S.; Mohamed Abou Elmagd Salem; Hamza Abbass

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital durin...

  11. 77 FR 67015 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel NCI Omnibus and Cancer Therapy. Date: November... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  12. 78 FR 8157 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Provocative Questions: Cancer Therapy and... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  13. 78 FR 36200 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Biology and Therapy. Date: June 24, 2013... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  14. 78 FR 59362 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel Provocative Questions--Group D: Cancer Therapy... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  15. 78 FR 50065 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Therapy... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  16. 76 FR 50487 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI SPORE in Childhood ALL, Skin, Brain, Lung....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed...

  17. 76 FR 576 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...-Therapy Breast Cancer Patients. Date: March 3, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  18. 78 FR 27408 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Methods for the Detection of Cancer Recurrence in Post-Therapy Breast Cancer Patients. Date: June 4, 2013... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  19. 78 FR 58321 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Emphasis Panel, Provocative Questions: Cancer Therapy & Outcomes. Date: November 7-8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  20. 75 FR 21002 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer... Panel, SPORE in Lymphoma and Breast Cancer. Date: June 15-16, 2010. Time: 5 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  1. 75 FR 3239 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... Special Emphasis Panel, Basal-like Breast Cancer Assay. Date: March 10, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  2. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  3. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  4. 78 FR 50064 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...: 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Agenda: Cancer Communication for Prevention: In the Digital Commons... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with...

  5. 78 FR 69432 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: Cancer Communication in the Digital Era: Opportunities and Challenges... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with...

  6. 78 FR 53154 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93... Emphasis Panel NCI Experimental Therapeutics--Clinical Trials Network with Phase 1 Emphasis. Date: November... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  7. Nutritional profile of pediatric cancer patients at Cancer Institute, Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is widely prevalent in the pediatric population in India. There is paucity of data on the prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric cancer patients and the impact of cancer treatment on nutritional status of Indian children. Aims: The study was conducted to look at the prevalence of malnutrition and assess the impact of treatment on nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients. Settings And Design: This was a retrospective study. Materials And Methods: Data on the weight of pediatric cancer patients <16 years of age treated at Cancer Institute, Chennai, from January 2013 to May 2014 were analyzed at systematic time points in therapy. Patients' weight were plotted on the Centre for Disease Control (CDC growth charts. Patients were defined to be undernourished if their weight for age was ≤3rd centile in CDC growth charts and obese if their weight for age was ≥97th centile on CDC growth charts. RESULTS: A total of 295 patient case records were analyzed. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the most common malignancy. At diagnosis, under-nutrition was seen in 44% patients, this increased to 46% midway during treatment (end of induction in acute leukemia and completion of 50% of planned treatment in solid tumors and decreased to 27% at the end of treatment (beginning of maintenance in acute leukemia and completion of planned treatment in solid tumors (P = 0.0005. There was no significant difference in nutritional status between patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors (P = 0.8. Conclusion: Under-nutrition is present in close to half of the pediatric cancer patients presenting to our institute. Active nutritional intervention and education were able to significantly reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition in patients at the end of treatment.

  8. [Establishing and hosting an Institute for Fusion Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress was made during the past year in carrying out theoretical investigations pursuant to the scientific mission of the Institute. These achievements may be approximately classified in terms of the following categories (often with considerable overlap): sawteeth and MHD studies, turbulence theory and plasma transport, computational plasma physics, stability theory, mathematical physics, advanced ideas, and space plasma physics-related problems. An overview of this work is contained in this report. Detailed summaries of IFS Reports written during FY 89 are given in abstract form

  9. 78 FR 36201 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... new diagnostics for cancer. Place: National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 2W908... meeting is to evaluate requests for development resources for potential new cancer diagnostics. The... of the potential diagnostics to improve the treatment of cancer. The research proposals and...

  10. Host b7x promotes pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Yael M; Jeon, Hyungjun; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaya; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A; Lee, Jun Sik; Ray, Anjana; Gravekamp, Claudia; Zang, Xingxing

    2013-04-01

    B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1) is an inhibitory member of the B7 family of T cell costimulation. It is expressed in low levels in healthy peripheral tissues, such as the lung epithelium, but is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers with negative clinical associations, including metastasis. However, the function of B7x in the context of cancer, whether expressed on cancer cells or on surrounding "host" tissues, has not been elucidated in vivo. We used the 4T1 metastatic breast cancer model and B7x knockout (B7x (-/-)) mice to investigate the effect of host tissue-expressed B7x on cancer. We found that 4T1 cells were B7x negative in vitro and in vivo, and B7x(-/-) mice had significantly fewer lung 4T1 tumor nodules than did wild-type mice. Furthermore, B7x(-/-) mice showed significantly enhanced survival and a memory response to tumor rechallenge. Mechanistic studies revealed that the presence of B7x correlated with reduced general and tumor-specific T cell cytokine responses, as well as with an increased infiltration of immunosuppressive cells, including tumor-associated neutrophils, macrophages, and regulatory T cells, into tumor-bearing lungs. Importantly, tumor-associated neutrophils strongly bound B7x protein and inhibited the proliferation of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. These results suggest that host B7x may enable metastasizing cancer cells to escape local antitumor immune responses through interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, targeting the B7x pathway holds much promise for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:23455497

  11. 75 FR 16488 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  12. 75 FR 60132 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  13. 76 FR 42719 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  14. 77 FR 43098 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  15. 76 FR 10381 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  16. 77 FR 15782 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research.... ] Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel NCI Experimental...

  17. 75 FR 33817 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  18. 76 FR 66733 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... development of the potential therapeutic to improve the treatment of various forms of cancer. The research... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NCI Experimental Therapeutics...

  19. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Breast Cancer Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents ... Trials www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/Taking-Part-in-Cancer-Treatment-Research-Studies MedlinePlus tutorial www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ ...

  20. Cancer cell: using inflammation to invade the host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aller María-Angeles

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is increasingly recognized as an important component of tumorigenesis, although the mechanisms involved are not fully characterized. The invasive capacity of cancers is reflected in the classic metastatic cascade: tumor (T, node (N and metastasis (M. However, this staging system for cancer would also have a tumoral biological significance. Presentation of the hypothesis To integrate the mechanisms that control the inflammatory response in the actual staging system of cancer. It is considered that in both processes of inflammation and cancer, three successive phenotypes are presented that represent the expression of trophic functional systems of increasing metabolic complexity for using oxygen. Testing the hypothesis While a malignant tumor develops it express phenotypes that also share the inflammatory response such as: an ischemic phenotype (anoxic-hypoxic, a leukocytic phenotype with anaerobic glycolysis and migration, and an angiogenic phenotype with hyperactivity of glycolytic enzymes, tumor proliferation and metastasis, and cachexia of the host. The increasing metabolic complexity of the tumor cell to use oxygen allows for it to be released, migrate and proliferate, thus creating structures of growing complexity. Implication of the hypothesis One aim of cancer gene therapy could be the induction of oxidative phosphorylation, the last metabolic step required by inflammation in order to differentiate the tissue that it produces.

  1. 76 FR 1625 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Career Development, Career Development. Date: February 22-23, 2011. Time: February 22, 2011, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  2. 75 FR 48699 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development, NCI-I Career Development. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  3. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional Annotation of Cancer Genomes Principal Investigator: William C. Hahn, M.D., Ph.D. The comprehensive characterization of cancer genomes has and will continue to provide an increasingly complete catalog of genetic alterations in specific cancers. However, most epithelial cancers harbor hundreds of genetic alterations as a consequence of genomic instability. Therefore, the functional consequences of the majority of mutations remain unclear.

  4. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The s...

  5. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a National Cancer Institute-supported resource for outcome and intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Boice, John D; Chow, Eric J; Davies, Stella M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Green, Daniel M; Hammond, Sue; Meadows, Anna T; Mertens, Ann C; Mulvihill, John J; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Packer, Roger J; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sklar, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Strong, Louise C; Yasui, Yutaka; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2009-05-10

    Survival for childhood cancer has increased dramatically over the last 40 years with 5-year survival rates now approaching 80%. For many diagnostic groups, rapid increases in survival began in the 1970s with the broader introduction of multimodality approaches, often including combination chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. With this increase in rates of survivorship has come the recognition that survivors are at risk for adverse health and quality-of-life outcomes, with risk being influenced by host-, disease-, and treatment-related factors. In 1994, the US National Cancer Institute funded the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional research initiative designed to establish a large and extensively characterized cohort of more than 14,000 5-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. This ongoing study, which reflects the single most comprehensive body of information ever assembled on childhood and adolescent cancer survivors, provides a dynamic framework and resource to investigate current and future questions about childhood cancer survivors. PMID:19364948

  6. 78 FR 27974 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Platform Partnership Scientific Progress... Partnerships (CNPP) awarded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The CNPPs are part of the Alliance for... trans-Alliance collaboration, scientific milestones, progress towards clinical translation...

  7. New Hires at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-one people joined the facility in November and December 2013. The National Cancer Institute welcomes… Emily Boward Emad Darvishi Shuo Gu Sanath Kumar Janaka Robert Kortum Yasmin Lachir Jinbian Liu Yang Liu Eric Ramirez Salazar Brett Shelley Li Xia Jaeho Yoon

  8. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-12-31

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway. PMID:27096274

  9. Gastrointestinal Tumor Board: An Evolving Experience in Tehran Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Haddad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An

  10. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  11. Understanding and Reducing Obstacles in a Collaboration between a Minority Institution and a Cancer Center

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Beti; O’Connell, Mary; Löest, Helena; Anderson, Jennifer; Westcott, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the cancer incidence and mortality rates of underserved populations will require multidisciplinary efforts involving teams of diverse investigators. We describe a collaborative program between a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center and a minority-serving institution. The organizations worked together to discover institutional and cultural barriers and facilitators to productive collaboration.

  12. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  13. Cooperative research and development opportunities with the National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybert, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is responsible for negotiating Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), whereby the knowledge resulting from NCI investigators' government-sponsored research is developed in collaboration with universities and/or industry into new products of importance for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The NCI has recently executed a unique 'clinical trials' CRADA and is developing a model agreement based upon it for the development and commercialization of products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS. NCI drug screening, preclinical testing, clinical trials, and AIDS program capabilities form the basis for this new technology development/technology transfer vehicle. NCI's extensive drug screening program and 'designer foods' program serve as potential sources of investigational new drugs (INDs) and cancer preventatives. Collaborations between NCI and pharmaceutical companies having the facilities, experience, and expertise necessary to develop INDs into approved drugs available to the public are being encouraged where the companies have proprietary rights to INDs, or where NCI has proprietary rights to INDs and invites companies to respond to a collaborator announcement published in the Federal Register. The joint efforts of the NCI and the chosen collaborator are designed to generate the data necessary to obtain pharmaceutic regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market the drugs developed, and thereby make them available to health care providers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS.

  14. Interpreting cancer genomes using systematic host network perturbations by tumour virus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Deo, Rahul C; Padi, Megha; Adelmant, Guillaume; Calderwood, Michael A; Rolland, Thomas; Grace, Miranda; Dricot, Amélie; Askenazi, Manor; Tavares, Maria; Pevzner, Samuel J; Abderazzaq, Fieda; Byrdsong, Danielle; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Chen, Alyce A; Cheng, Jingwei; Correll, Mick; Duarte, Melissa; Fan, Changyu; Feltkamp, Mariet C; Ficarro, Scott B; Franchi, Rachel; Garg, Brijesh K; Gulbahce, Natali; Hao, Tong; Holthaus, Amy M; James, Robert; Korkhin, Anna; Litovchick, Larisa; Mar, Jessica C; Pak, Theodore R; Rabello, Sabrina; Rubio, Renee; Shen, Yun; Singh, Saurav; Spangle, Jennifer M; Tasan, Murat; Wanamaker, Shelly; Webber, James T; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Johannsen, Eric; Barabási, Albert-László; Beroukhim, Rameen; Kieff, Elliott; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Münger, Karl; Marto, Jarrod A; Quackenbush, John; Roth, Frederick P; DeCaprio, James A; Vidal, Marc

    2012-07-26

    Genotypic differences greatly influence susceptibility and resistance to disease. Understanding genotype-phenotype relationships requires that phenotypes be viewed as manifestations of network properties, rather than simply as the result of individual genomic variations. Genome sequencing efforts have identified numerous germline mutations, and large numbers of somatic genomic alterations, associated with a predisposition to cancer. However, it remains difficult to distinguish background, or 'passenger', cancer mutations from causal, or 'driver', mutations in these data sets. Human viruses intrinsically depend on their host cell during the course of infection and can elicit pathological phenotypes similar to those arising from mutations. Here we test the hypothesis that genomic variations and tumour viruses may cause cancer through related mechanisms, by systematically examining host interactome and transcriptome network perturbations caused by DNA tumour virus proteins. The resulting integrated viral perturbation data reflects rewiring of the host cell networks, and highlights pathways, such as Notch signalling and apoptosis, that go awry in cancer. We show that systematic analyses of host targets of viral proteins can identify cancer genes with a success rate on a par with their identification through functional genomics and large-scale cataloguing of tumour mutations. Together, these complementary approaches increase the specificity of cancer gene identification. Combining systems-level studies of pathogen-encoded gene products with genomic approaches will facilitate the prioritization of cancer-causing driver genes to advance the understanding of the genetic basis of human cancer. PMID:22810586

  15. Interpreting cancer genomes using systematic host perturbations by tumour virus proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Deo, Rahul C.; Padi, Megha; Adelmant, Guillaume; Calderwood, Michael A.; Rolland, Thomas; Grace, Miranda; Dricot, Amélie; Askenazi, Manor; Tavares, Maria; Pevzner, Sam; Abderazzaq, Fieda; Byrdsong, Danielle; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Chen, Alyce A.; Cheng, Jingwei; Correll, Mick; Duarte, Melissa; Fan, Changyu; Feltkamp, Mariet C.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Franchi, Rachel; Garg, Brijesh K.; Gulbahce, Natali; Hao, Tong; Holthaus, Amy M.; James, Robert; Korkhin, Anna; Litovchick, Larisa; Mar, Jessica C.; Pak, Theodore R.; Rabello, Sabrina; Rubio, Renee; Shen, Yun; Singh, Saurav; Spangle, Jennifer M.; Tasan, Murat; Wanamaker, Shelly; Webber, James T.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Johannsen, Eric; Barabási, Albert-László; Beroukhim, Rameen; Kieff, Elliott; Cusick, Michael E.; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Marto, Jarrod A.; Quackenbush, John; Roth, Frederick P.; DeCaprio, James A.; Vidal, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic differences greatly influence susceptibility and resistance to disease. Understanding genotype-phenotype relationships requires that phenotypes be viewed as manifestations of network properties, rather than simply as the result of individual genomic variations1. Genome sequencing efforts have identified numerous germline mutations associated with cancer predisposition and large numbers of somatic genomic alterations2. However, it remains challenging to distinguish between background, or “passenger” and causal, or “driver” cancer mutations in these datasets. Human viruses intrinsically depend on their host cell during the course of infection and can elicit pathological phenotypes similar to those arising from mutations3. To test the hypothesis that genomic variations and tumour viruses may cause cancer via related mechanisms, we systematically examined host interactome and transcriptome network perturbations caused by DNA tumour virus proteins. The resulting integrated viral perturbation data reflects rewiring of the host cell networks, and highlights pathways that go awry in cancer, such as Notch signalling and apoptosis. We show that systematic analyses of host targets of viral proteins can identify cancer genes with a success rate on par with their identification through functional genomics and large-scale cataloguing of tumour mutations. Together, these complementary approaches result in increased specificity for cancer gene identification. Combining systems-level studies of pathogen-encoded gene products with genomic approaches will facilitate prioritization of cancer-causing driver genes so as to advance understanding of the genetic basis of human cancer. PMID:22810586

  16. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects. PMID:22241505

  17. Demographic pattern of male breast cancer: an institutional based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Male breast cancer incidence rises with age with peak in the sixth and seventh decade. It is one of the rare diseases and accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in the late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to know the demographic pattern and tumour characteristic of breast cancer in men reported at Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar. Methods: Retrospective data was collected from the (IRNUM), Peshawar for a period of three years (2006-2008). The evaluation was done from the histopathological reports of mastectomy and biopsy specimens. All male patients in the age group 26 -86 year with breast cancer were included in the study. The age of the patients and tumour characteristics recorded were size, grade, type, skin involvement and stage. Results: Total number of male patients with breast cancer were 31 (2.1%) out of the total patients with breast malignancy during the study period with the mean age of 58.3 years. Tumour size ranged from 2 to 12 Cm. with average of 3.6 Cm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was found in 87% , papillary carcinoma in 6.5%, each of malignant fibrous histocytoma and sarcoma in 3.2% cases. Maximum number of patients was of grade II (41%). Patients in whom stage of the disease was know n were 22 cases with 45.5% had stage III disease and 32% had stage IV disease. Skin involvement was found positive in 8 (25.8%). Conclusion: Due to poor health care system breast cancer is diagnosed in a late stage of the disease and prognosis is poor. (author)

  18. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood. Presentation of the hypothesis Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs, which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs. Testing the hypothesis The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. Expected outcome The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified. Implications of the hypothesis Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and

  19. 75 FR 51830 - National Cancer Institute's Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute's Best Practices for Biospecimen... best practices, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking public comment on a revised version of the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources. This revised version of the NCI Best Practices...

  20. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Chattopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ′HPV′, ′cervical′, ′CIN′, ′polymorphism(s′, ′cervical′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01 and ′HPV′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals.

  1. CPTAC Establishes Formal Relationships with Two Academic Institutions in Taiwan - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has entered into memorandum of understandings (MOUs) with Chang Gung University and Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan.

  2. Host-site institutions, Regional Production Linkages and Technological Upgrading: A Study of Automotive Firms in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN Dinh Chuc; NGUYEN Dinh Anh; NGUYEN Ha Trang; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh

    2015-01-01

    Using technological capabilities that take account of technology embodied in machinery, organization, processes and products, this article examines its link with host-site institutions and regional production linkages. The statistical results show no relationship between these variables. In-depth interviews complement the quantitative findings. Overall, the result show that the government’s localization efforts failed because too many joint-venture assemblers were approved in the 1990s when t...

  3. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Morash; Douglas, Susan E.; Anna Robotham; Ridley, Christina M.; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of action. ...

  4. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Morash, Michael G.; Douglas, Susan E.; Anna Robotham; Ridley, Christina M.; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of actio...

  5. Effects of bestatin on the host immunity in patients treated for urogenital cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine effects of bestatin on the host immunity of patients with urogenital cancer, 54 patients were randomized into 2 groups: bestatin treated and controls. In each group, the patients were divided into 2 subgroups: one which received basic treatment expected to greatly affect host immunity ('invasive treatment') while the other one received other types of basic treatment ('non-invasive treatment'). Peripheral lymphocyte, OKT 4/8 ratio and purified protein derivative (PPD) skin reaction were used as immunological markers. There were significant differences in the 'invasive' treatment group between bestatin treated patients and controls concerning lymphocyte counts and PPD skin reactions and in the 'non-invasive' group concerning lymphocyte counts and OKT 4/8 ratios. These results suggest that bestatin may potentiate host immunity in patients with urogenital cancer. Further studies on larger materials are, however, needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn. (orig.)

  6. Internationalization and environmental disclosure: the role of home and host institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; F. Fortanier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The domestic institutional context has emerged as a key determinant of firms' environmental disclosure, but studies have hardly addressed the extent to which exposure to foreign institutional contexts plays a role in the occurrence and contents of non-financial disclosure, which are crucia

  7. The national cancer institute (NCI) and cancer biology in a 'post genome world'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) exists to reduce the burden of all cancers through research and discovery. Extensive restructuring of the NCI over the past year has been aimed at assuring that the institution functions in all ways to promote opportunities for discovery in the laboratory, in the clinic, and in the community. To do this well requires the difficult and almost paradoxical problem of planning for scientific discovery which, in turn is based on the freedom to pursue the unanticipated. The intellectual and structural landscape of science is changing and it places new challenges, new demands and new opportunities for facilitating discovery. The nature of cancer as a disease of genomic instability and of accumulated genetic change, coupled with a possibility of the development of new technologies for reading, utilizing, interpreting and manipulating the genome of single cells, provides unprecedented opportunities for a new type of high through-put biology that will change the nature of discovery, cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic decision-making and therapeutic discovery. To capture these new opportunities will require attention to be paid to integrate the development of technology and new scientific discoveries with the ability to apply advances rapidly and efficiently through clinical trials

  8. Chemokine receptors in cancer metastasis and cancer cell-derived chemokines in host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Keiichi; Hojo, Shozo; Akashi, Takuya; Yasumoto, Kazuo; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-11-01

    The chemotactic cytokines called chemokines are a superfamily of small secreted cytokines that were initially characterized through their ability to prompt the migration of leukocytes. Attention has been focused on the chemokine receptors expressed on cancer cells because cancer cell migration and metastasis show similarities to leukocyte trafficking. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) was first investigated as a chemokine receptor that is associated with lung metastasis of breast cancers. Recently, CXCR4 was reported to be a key molecule in the formation of peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer. In the present review, we highlight current knowledge about the role of CXCR4 in cancer metastases. In contrast to chemokine receptors expressed on cancer cells, little is known about the roles of cancer cell-derived chemokines. Cancer tissue consists of both cancer cells and various stromal cells, and leukocytes that infiltrate into cancer are of particular importance in cancer progression. Although colorectal cancer invasion is regulated by the chemokine CCL9-induced infiltration of immature myeloid cells into cancer, high-level expression of cancer cell-derived chemokine CXCL16 increases infiltrating CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells into cancer tissues, and correlates with a good prognosis. We discuss the conflicting biological effects of cancer cell-derived chemokines on cancer progression, using CCL9 and CXCL16 as examples. PMID:17894551

  9. 75 FR 992 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Advisory Board; Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Experimental Therapeutics. Open: February 8, 2010, 6:30 p.m. to 8 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on cancer experimental... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research;...

  10. Internationalization and environmental disclosure: the role of home and host institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Fortanier, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The domestic institutional context has emerged as a key determinant of firms' environmental disclosure, but studies have hardly addressed the extent to which exposure to foreign institutional contexts plays a role in the occurrence and contents of non-financial disclosure, which are crucial aspects for understanding multinationals' accountability. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between internationalization (both degree and spread) and environmental disclosu...

  11. Transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils: localized lineage replacement and host population response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Barmuta, Leon A; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Jones, Menna E

    2015-09-01

    Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a clonally transmissible cancer threatening the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) with extinction. Live cancer cells are the infectious agent, transmitted to new hosts when individuals bite each other. Over the 18 years since DFTD was first observed, distinct genetic and karyotypic sublineages have evolved. In this longitudinal study, we investigate the associations between tumour karyotype, epidemic patterns and host demographic response to the disease. Reduced host population effects and low DFTD infection rates were associated with high prevalence of tetraploid tumours. Subsequent replacement by a diploid variant of DFTD coincided with a rapid increase in disease prevalence, population decline and reduced mean age of the population. Our results suggest a role for tumour genetics in DFTD transmission dynamics and epidemic outcome. Future research, for this and other highly pathogenic emerging infectious diseases, should focus on understanding the evolution of host and pathogen genotypes, their effects on susceptibility and tolerance to infection, and their implications for designing novel genetic management strategies. This study provides evidence for a rapid localized lineage replacement occurring within a transmissible cancer epidemic and highlights the possibility that distinct DFTD genetic lineages may harbour traits that influence pathogen fitness. PMID:26336167

  12. 78 FR 28235 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Toolkit for Cancer Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment. Date: May 29, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... Diagnostic Assay to Detect Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: June 13, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 1:00...

  13. Noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 promote cell proliferation in nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the major cause of cancer death worldwide. Increasing evidence shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs are widely involved in the development and progression of NSCLC. ncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1 has not been studied in cancer, especially its role in lung cancer remains unknown. Our studies were designed to investigate the expression and biological significance of SNHG1 in lung cancer. SNHG1 may be a novel ncRNA in early diagnosis in lung cancer. Methods: Noncoding RNA SNHG1 expression in 7 lung cancer cell lines was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RNA interference approaches were used to find the biological functions of SNHG1. The effect of SNHG1 on proliferation was evaluated by cell count and crystal violet stains. Results: Noncoding RNA SNHG1 expression was significantly upregulated in lung cancer cells when compared with normal bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, in vitro assays our results indicated that knockdown of SNHG1 inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our data indicated that ncRNA SNHG1 is significantly upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and may represent a new biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC intervention.

  14. Prevalence of bone marrow necrosis in Egyptian cancer patients referring to the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow necrosis; Egyptian cancer patients Abstract Background: Bone marrow necrosis is a relatively rare entity which has been associated with a poor prognosis. It is most commonly found in patients with neoplastic disorders and severe infections. Methods: study comprised examination of 5043 bone marrow biopsy specimens performed at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, over 7 years period (March 2004-March 2011). It included 5 years retrospective (2867 archived samples) and 2 years prospective (2176 samples). Results: Bone marrow necrosis was diagnosed in fifteen out of 5043 examined specimens with a percentage of 0.3% and ranged from mild to massive according to semiquantitative estimation. Prognosis of all patients was poor with survival not exceeding 6 months from the date of marrow necrosis diagnosis. Conclusion: In Egyptian patients, bone marrow necrosis in association with malignancy is a rare disorder which is accompanied by a poor outcome

  15. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Colon Cancer Diagnosed at Primary Health Care Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Hyun; Song, Chi Wook; Kim, Yun Bae; Kim, Young Sun; Chun, Hwang Rae; Lee, Jung Hyun; Seol, Won Jong; Yoon, Hyung Sun; Lee, Myung Kwon; Lee, Jong Hyup; Bhang, Choon Sang; Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Ji Young; Do, Byung Hun; Park, Young Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of colon cancers detected at the SOK Sokpeynhan Internal Medical Network, a nationwide system of primary health care institutions. Methods We analyzed 579 colon cancer patients diagnosed using colonoscopy at the SOK network from January 2011 through December 2012. Cancers from the rectum to the splenic flexure were classified as left colon cancer. Patients over 65 were classified as senior. Results...

  16. 75 FR 26267 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Advisory Board Ad hoc Subcommittee on Experimental Therapeutics. Open: June 21, 2010, 6:30 p.m. to 8 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on Experimental Therapeutics. Place... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research;...

  17. Clinical study of the histologic host response of the patients with lung cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serial bronchofiberscopic biopsies were performed during radiotherapy in 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The effect of radiotherapy on tumor tissue was examined histologically as to the responsiveness of the host against tumor cells. The mononuclear cell infiltration induced in the tumor by irradiation correlated well with its direct effect on the tumor cells. The most remarkable infiltration was observed at the dose of 2000 rad and in the polypoid type. Indirect immunofluonescent technique with monoclonal anti OKT 3 and OKIa revealed that most of the infiltrated cells were T-lymphocytes. There was a good relationship between the grade of mononuclear cell infiltration and the survival period. These facts suggest that the mononuclear cells in the irradiated tumor tissues represent host resistance against cancer and the intensity of the infiltration correlates with the clinical course and prognosis of the lung cancer patients. (author)

  18. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-01-01

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809

  19. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809

  20. Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S.; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A.; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W.; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A.; Haddad, Robert I.; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J. G.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Dean; Chu, Andy; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Wong, Tina; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Lee, Semin; Parfenov, Michael; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Haseley, Psalm; Zeng, Dong; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Bristow, Christopher; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Casasent, Tod; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Motter, Thomas; Weinstein, John; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Fan, You Hong; Liu, Jinze; Wang, Kai; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buda, Elizabeth; Hayes, D. Neil; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kimes, Patrick K.; Marron, J.S.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Singh, Darshan; Soloway, Mathew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Walter, Vonn; Waring, Scot; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wu, Junyuan; Zhao, Ni; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Tward, Aaron D.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Carter, Scott L.; Zack, Travis I.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Freeman, Samuel S.; Meyerson, Matthew; Cho, Juok; Chin, Lynda; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael S.; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Hailei; Heiman, David I.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Voet, Doug; Lin, Pei; Frazer, Scott; Stojanov, Petar; Liu, Yingchun; Zou, Lihua; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Sougnez, Carrie; Lichtenstein, Lee; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Muzny, Donna; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Kovar, Christie; Reid, Jeff; Morton, Donna; Han, Yi; Hale, Walker; Chao, Hsu; Chang, Kyle; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kakkar, Nipun; Wheeler, David; Xi, Liu; Ciriello, Giovanni; Ladanyi, Marc; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Shen, Ronglai; Sinha, Rileen; Weinhold, Nils; Taylor, Barry S.; Aksoy, B. Arman; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Reva, Boris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Chan, Timothy; Morris, Luc; Stuart, Joshua; Benz, Stephen; Ng, Sam; Benz, Christopher; Yau, Christina; Baylin, Stephen B.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Herman, James G.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Laird, Peter W.; Triche, Timothy; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Agrawal, Nishant; Bishop, Justin; Boutros, Paul C.; Bruce, Jeff P; Byers, Lauren Averett; Califano, Joseph; Carey, Thomas E.; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hui; Chiosea, Simion I.; Cohen, Ezra; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ferris, Robert L.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Guo, Yan; Haddad, Robert I.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Harris, Thomas; Hayes, D. Neil; Hui, Angela BY; Lee, J. Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Liu, Fei-Fei; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Myers, Jeff; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Pickering, Curtis R.; Prystowsky, Michael; Romkes, Marjorie; Saleh, Anthony D.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Seethala, Raja; Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Si, Han; Tward, Aaron D.; Van Waes, Carter; Waggott, Daryl M.; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Yarbrough, Wendell; Zhang, Jiexin; Zuo, Zhixiang; Burnett, Ken; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candance; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Frick, Jessica; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Harper, Hollie A.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Baboud, Julien; Jensen, Mark A.; Kahn, Ari B.; Pihl, Todd D.; Pot, David A.; Srinivasan, Deepak; Walton, Jessica S.; Wan, Yunhu; Burton, Robert; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L.; Shaw, Kenna R. Mills; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Saller, Charles; Tarvin, Katherine; Chen, Chu; Bollag, Roni; Weinberger, Paul; Golusiński, Wojciech; Golusiński, Paweł; Ibbs, Matthiew; Korski, Konstanty; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Burnett, Ken; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Mallery, David; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Yena, Peggy; Beard, Christina; Mitchell, Colleen; Sandusky, George; Agrawal, Nishant; Ahn, Julie; Bishop, Justin; Califano, Joseph; Khan, Zubair; Bruce, Jeff P; Hui, Angela BY; Irish, Jonathan; Liu, Fei-Fei; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Waldron, John; Boutros, Paul C.; Waggott, Daryl M.; Myers, Jeff; Lippman, Scott M.; Egea, Sophie; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Herbert, Lynn; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Haddad, Andrea S.; Jones, Tamara R.; Komarck, Christine M.; Malakh, Mayya; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Nguyen, Ariane; Peterson, Lisa A.; Prince, Mark E.; Rozek, Laura S.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Taylor, Evan G.; Walline, Heather M.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Boice, Lori; Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Funkhouser, William K.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Hackman, Trevor G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Hayward, Michele C.; Huang, Mei; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Salazar, Ashley H.; Shockley, William W.; Shores, Carol G.; Thorne, Leigh; Weissler, Mark C.; Wrenn, Sylvia; Zanation, Adam M.; Chiosea, Simion I.; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; Ferris, Robert L.; Romkes, Marjorie; Seethala, Raja; Brown, Brandee T.; Guo, Yan; Pham, Michelle; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

  1. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  2. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors : Results of the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, F.; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the ne

  3. 77 FR 51032 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications... & Conference Center 5701 Marinelli Road Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person: Jeannette F. Korczak, Ph.D... Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394,...

  4. 77 FR 29674 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the... evaluate grant applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel Conference & Center, 5701 Marinelli Road.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause...

  5. 77 FR 56215 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications.... Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and...

  6. 76 FR 64090 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated... Conference & Center Hotel, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person: Clifford W Schweinfest... Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394,...

  7. 75 FR 66770 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications... applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852... Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394,...

  8. 78 FR 66373 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... new diagnostics for cancer. Place: NCI Shady Grove, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 3W030, Rockville... diagnostics. The outcome of the evaluation will be information for consideration by an internal NCI committee... development of the potential diagnostics to improve the treatment of cancer. The research proposals and...

  9. Trends in Research on Energy Balance Supported by the National Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; Berrigan, David A.; Ross, Sharon A.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Dowling, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance–related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and ...

  10. A clinicoepidemiological study of esophageal cancer patients at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumaya Ezzat; Hisham El Hossieny; Mohamed Abd Alla; Azza Nasr; Nagwan Anter; Ahmed Adel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the clinicoepidemiological characteristics of esopha-geal cancer patients, (2) analyze the prognostic factors determining treatment failure and survival, and (3) evaluate the results of various treatment modalities for locoregional and disseminated disease and their ef ect on disease-free survival and overal survival (OS). Methods Clinicoepidemiological retrospective data from 81 esophageal cancer patients treated at the Na-tional Cancer Institute of Cairo between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Results The study showed that patients with esophageal cancer commonly present with local y advanced disease (87.7% had T-stage 3 and 12.3% had T-stage 4). There was a significant correlation between surgery and survival; patients who received radical surgery and postoperative radiation had a better median survival than patients who received radical radiotherapy (20 months vs. 16 months, respectively; P = 0.04). There was also a significant statistical correlation between radical concomitant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and pal iative treatment. Patients who received radical NCRT had a better median survival than patients who received pal-liative radiotherapy (16 months vs. 10 months, respectively; P = 0.001). The median fol ow-up period for al patients was 7 months. The median OS of the whole group was 12 months. The OS after 1 and 2 years was 57.8% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion High-dose NCRT is an acceptable alternative for patients unfit for surgery or with inoperable disease. High-dose radiation is more ef ective than low-dose radiation in terms of local control, time to relapse, and OS. Further study using a larger series of patients and introducing new treatment protocols is necessary for a final evaluation.

  11. 78 FR 25281 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications... grant applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction;...

  12. 77 FR 12600 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...; Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies. Date: March 8, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p... Emphasis Panel Cancer Imaging. Date: March 6, 2012. Time: 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate... Phase IIB Bridge Awards. Date: March 20, 2012. Time: 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  13. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  14. Validation of Cancer Institute Quality of Life Questionnaire Version II for cancer patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Vidhubala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Quality of Life (QOL questionnaire version I consisted of 38 items that were validated using 392 patients. The experiences gained through the interaction with the patients during the administration of the questionnaire provided a lot of inputs for the improvization of the tool. Aim: The current study is aimed at certain modifications of the QOL questionnaire version I and standardization of the same. Materials and Methods: The modifications of version I QOL scale included the change of verbatim, splitting, deleting, and adding of new items. Finally, version II included 42 items. It was administered to 183 cancer patients irrespective of their demographic details for further standardization. Statistics: The principal component method with varimax rotation was used. Spearman′s product moment correlation and Cronbach′s alpha coefficient were used for reliability analysis. Results: The data were subjected to factor analysis to explore the factors. Eleven factors emerged with the eigenvalue ranging from 8.03 to 1.10 and accounted for 66.7% variance. The first factor contributed maximally, 19.5%, and the remaining 10 factors contributed a total of 46.2% variance on QOL. They are general well-being, physical well-being, psychological well-being, familial relationship, sexual and personal ability, cognitive well-being, optimism and belief, economical well-being, information support, patient-physician relationship, and body image. The Cronbach alpha of 0.90 and split-half reliability of 0.80 indicated a high reliability of the tool. Conclusion: The factor structure showed that QOL is a multidimensional concept having different aspects. The Cancer Institute QOL Questionnaire version II for cancer patients is found to be a valid and reliable tool and feasible to administer at the clinical settings.

  15. Comments on Brazilian workshop model for training investigators in chronic graft-versus-host disease according to the 2005-2006 National Institutes of Health recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Barbosa da Silva Tavares; Márcia de Matos Silva; Luis Fernando da Silva Bouzas; Maria Cláudia Rodrigues; Afonso Celso Vigorito; Vaneusa Funke; Marcos Mauad; Maria Elvira Pizzigatti Correa; Clarissa Vasconcellos de Souza; Elenaide Nunes; Alessandra Ferrari; Ariana Paixão; Talita Martins; Érika Pallottino; Mary Evelyn Dantas Flowers

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lack of standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, classification and severity scores of chronic graft-versus-host disease led the National Institutes of Health to propose consensus criteria for the purpose of clinical trials. METHODS: Here we describe a one-day workshop model conducted by the Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Brazil-Seattle Consortium Study Group to train investigators interested in participating in multicenter clinical trials in Brazil. Workshop partic...

  16. Challenges in DCIS Risk Communication and Decision-Making: Report from an American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Ann H.; Elmore, Joann G.; Saslow, Debbie; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Schnitt, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute convened a conference to review current issues in DCIS risk communication and decision-making and to identify directions for future research. Specific topics included patient and healthcare provider knowledge and attitudes about DCIS and its treatment, how to explain DCIS to patients given the heterogeneity of the disease, consideration of nomenclature changes, and the utility of decision tools/aids. This report desc...

  17. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Castelló; Miguel Martín; Amparo Ruiz; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Virginia Lope; Silvia Antolín; Pedro Sánchez; Manuel Ramos; Antonio Antón; Montserrat Muñoz; Begoña Bermejo; Ana De Juan-Ferré; Carlos Jara; José I Chacón

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the W...

  18. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3–88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4–6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  19. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rafael Corrêa; Reinert, Tomás; Campos, Franz; Peixoto, Fábio Affonso; de Andrade, Carlos Augusto; Castro, Thalita; Herchenhorn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) at a single reference institution. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Results: Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%), with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71%) patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2%) patients. In 50 patients (86%), sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%), hypothyroidism (43%), mucositis (33%) and diarrhea (29%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%), hypertension (12%), thrombocytopenia (7%), neutropenia (5%) and hand-foot syndrome (5%). Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Conclusion: Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS. PMID:27564279

  20. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Material and methods Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual fu...

  1. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexu...

  2. Multi-Institutional Analysis of Early Glottic Cancer from 2000 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hirasawa Naoki; Itoh Yoshiyuki; Naganawa Shinji; Ishihara Shunichi; Suzuki Kazunori; Koyama Kazuyuki; Murao Takayuki; Asano Akiko; Nomoto Yoshihito; Horikawa Yoshimi; Sasaoka Masahiro; Obata Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the outcome of patients with early glottic cancer (GC) treated with radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy at 10 institutions in the Tokai District, Japan. Methods Ten institutions combined data from 279 patients with T1-T2 GC treated with RT with or without chemotherapy between 2000 and 2005. The overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and local control rate were evaluated in 270 patients, except for incomplet...

  3. Management of Ontario children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, S J; Barr, R D; Andrew, M.; deVeber, L L; Pai, M K

    1989-01-01

    There is ample evidence of the value of intensive therapeutic strategies in the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the commonest form of malignant disease in children. Such a program, devised at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), Boston, and incorporating high-dose L-asparaginase, was adopted in 1984 by the Children's Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Hamilton, Ont., and the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario, London. We describe the experience of these institutions in th...

  4. Outcome and treatment strategy in female lung cancer: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the survival rate of female lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology of the Vilnius University, Lithuania during the period between 1996-2005. Materials and Methods: During the period between 1996-2005, 471 women diagnosed with lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology of the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. Data on morphology, stage and treatment was collected from the medical records. All lung cancer cases by histology were classified in two groups: non-small cell lung cancer (includes squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other less common types) and small cell lung cancer. The vital status of the study group was assessed as of December 31, 2007, by passive follow-up, using data from the population registry. It was found that 411 (87.3%) of the patients had died. Survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median survival of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show to be 8.7 months (8.4 (95% CI 7.2-10.8) months with non-small cell lung cancer and 9.3 (95% CI 6.3-13.0) months with small-cell lung cancer). Survival was more than 20 months in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (stages I, II, IIIA). Non-small cell lung cancer survival in advanced stages was less than 7 months. Small-cell lung cancer patients median survival at limited and extended stages of the disease were 9.5 (95% CI 2.9-18.4) compared to 9.2 (95% CI 6.2-13.7) months. Non-small cell lung cancer patients most frequently were treated by surgery (27.0%), surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (19.6%). Small cell lung cancer patient treatment included chemo and radiotherapy (27.0%), chemotherapy (19.0%), radiotherapy (17.5%), surgery (27.9%). Conclusions: The single center study of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show a significantly better chance of survival in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Advanced stages of

  5. Prevention of cancer recurrence in tumor margins by stopping microcirculation in the tumor and tumor–host interface

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Katsuyoshi; Akita, Hirotoshi; Nonaka, Hiroi; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Combretastatins interrupt blood flow of solid tumor vascular networks and lead to necrosis by blocking nutrients. However, tumors recover from tumor blood flow interruption-induced damage and develop viable rims. To investigate why cancer recurs and its prevention, we used a combretastatin derivative, Cderiv (=AC7700), and analyzed changes in tumor–host interface (T-HI) vessels, which were closest to cancer cells in the tumor margin after tumor vessel disruption, and the microenvironment surr...

  6. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, a single institution-based study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among all cancers of female genital tract in countries where effective cervical cancer screening program exists. As the world's population ages, remarkable increase in the total number of ovarian cancer cases are expected. This is preliminary epidemiological study to decide priorities in ovarian cancer research. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with primary epithelial ovarian cancer cases registered in J. K. Cancer Institute, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' age at diagnosis, clinical feature, parity of patients, tumor histological type, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, chemotherapy regimens, and overall survival data were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty-three cases of primary ovarian epithelial cancer were analyzed. Patients' mean age at diagnosis was 55.98 ± 9.24 (median = 55. Serous adenocarcinoma (49.69% was the most prevalent type of histopathology followed by endometroid (19.1%, mucinous (10.42% and clear cell (4.29%. Combination of taxane and platin was most commonly used first line regimen in newly diagnosed as well as in relapsed patients post 1 year. Survival was not significantly different in various histopathology (log-rank P = 0.7406, but advancing stage demonstrated gradually poor survival (log-rank P < 0.05 when compared with early stage disease. Conclusion: Research efforts should be in the direction to find early diagnostic and effective screening tools as well as better therapeutic approaches for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  7. The host microenvironment influences prostate cancer invasion, systemic spread, bone colonization, and osteoblastic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourik S Ganguly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Most PCa patients die with osteoblastic bone metastases. What triggers PCa metastasis to the bone and what causes osteoblastic lesions remain unanswered. A major contributor to PCa metastasis is the host microenvironment. In this revew, we address how the primary tumor microenvironment influences PCa metastasis via integrins, extracellular proteases, and transient epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT to promote PCa progression, invasion, and metastasis. We discuss how the bone microenvironment influences metastasis; where chemotactic cytokines favor bone homing, adhesion molecules promote colonization, and bone-derived signals induce osteoblastic lesions. Animal models that fully recapitulate human PCa progression from primary tumor to bone metastasis are needed to understand the PCa pathophysiology that leads to bone metastasis. Better delineation of the specific processes involved in PCa bone metastasize is needed to prevent or treat metastatic PCa. Therapeutic regimens that focus on the tumor microenvironment could add to the PCa pharmacopeia.

  8. A multi-institute case-control study on the risk factors of developing pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, S; Watanabe, S; Nakamura, K; Omata, M; Oguchi, H; Ohashi, K; Ohyanagi, H; Fujiki, T; Motojima, K

    1992-08-01

    A multi-institute, hospital-based, case-control study on pancreatic cancer was carried out to examine its association with preceding diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on 124 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases and sex-, age- and institute-matched hospital controls in seven hospitals in Japan. Cigarette smoking showed a positive association with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Especially among smokers, a risk enhancing effect of involuntary/passive smoking prior to twenty years of age was observed (P tea or alcohol consumption. Among dietary factors, favoring food of a salty taste and drinking green tea five cups per day or more were positively associated with the risk. Drinking milk and eating fish everyday were inversely associated with the risk. PMID:1434027

  9. Profile of patients with lung cancer assisted at the National Cancer Institute, according to their smoking status, from 2000 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Mirian Carvalho de Souza; Ana Glória Godoi Vasconcelos; Marise Souto Rebelo; Paulo Antonio de Paiva Rebelo; Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is directly related to the future incidence of lung cancer. In Brazil, a growing tendency in age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates was observed in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of patients with lung cancer diagnosed and treated at the National Cancer Institute (INCA) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2000 and 2007 according to their smoking status. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using INCA's database of cancer cases. To ...

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians

  12. Cooperative Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer Using Host-Guest Nanoplatform Coloaded with Docetaxel and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Xu, Zhiai; Yu, Haijun; Feng, Bing; Zhang, Junying; Guo, Chengyue; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-27

    Conventional chemotherapy shows moderate efficiency against metastatic cancer since it targets only part of the mechanisms regulating tumor growth and metastasis. Here, gold nanorod (GNR)-based host-guest nanoplatforms loaded with docetaxel (DTX) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-p65 (referred to as DTX-loaded GNR (GDTX)/p65) for chemo-, RNA interference (RNAi), and photothermal ablation (PTA) cooperative treatment of metastatic breast cancer are reported. To prepare the nanoplatform, GNRs are first coated with cyclodextrin (CD)-grafted polyethylenimine (PEI) and then loaded with DTX and siRNA through host-guest interaction with CD and electrostatic interaction with PEI, respectively. Upon near-infrared laser irradiation, GNRs generate a significant hyperthermia effect to trigger siRNA and DTX release. DTX reduces tumor growth by inhibiting mitosis of cancer cells. Meanwhile, siRNA-p65 suppresses lung metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells by blocking the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and downregulating the downstream genes matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). It is demonstrated that GDTX/p65 in combination with laser irradiation significantly inhibits the growth and lung metastasis of 4T1 breast tumors. The antitumor results suggest promising potential of the host-guest nanoplatform for combinational treatment of metastatic cancer by using RNAi, chemotherapy, and PTA. PMID:26662850

  13. Emerging roles of the host defense peptide LL-37 in human cancer and its potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, William K K; Wang, Guangshun; Coffelt, Seth B; Betancourt, Aline M; Lee, Chung W; Fan, Daiming; Wu, Kaichun; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Cho, Chi H

    2010-10-15

    Human cathelicidin LL-37, a host defense peptide derived from leukocytes and epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity. Not only does LL-37 eliminate pathogenic microbes directly but also modulates host immune responses. Emerging evidence from tumor biology studies indicates that LL-37 plays a prominent and complex role in carcinogenesis. Although overexpression of LL-37 has been implicated in the development or progression of many human malignancies, including breast, ovarian and lung cancers, LL-37 suppresses tumorigenesis in gastric cancer. These data are beginning to unveil the intricate and contradictory functions of LL-37. The reasons for the tissue-specific function of LL-37 in carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we review the relationship between LL-37, its fragments and cancer progression as well as discuss the potential therapeutic implications of targeting this peptide. PMID:20521250

  14. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  15. Cancer Biochemistry and Host-Tumor Interactions: A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John H.

    This is a hierarchical decimal classification of information related to cancer biochemistry, to host-tumor interactions (including cancer immunology), and to occurrence of cancer in special types of animals and plants. It is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of many fields of biomedical information. Because the…

  16. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  17. Architectural and engineering design work for the Nevada Cancer Institute facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to complete the architectural and engineering design, program planning, and other preliminary work necessary to construct the new Nevada Cancer Institute facility. These goals were accomplished with the construction of a new building of approximately 119,000 gross square feet. The facility houses the diagnostic and radio therapeutic treatment laboratories, radiation oncology treatment facility, physician offices, and clinical research areas

  18. Treatment outcomes of female germ cell tumors: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute experience

    OpenAIRE

    Saber, Magdy M; Zeeneldin, Ahmed A.; Mosaad M. El Gammal; Salem E. Salem; Amira D. Darweesh; Alshaymaa A. Abdelaziz; Manar Monir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female germ cell tumors (GCTS) are rare tumors that carry a good prognosis. Aim: To report the experience of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (ENCI) in managing female GCTs. Methods: This retrospective study included 19 females with ovarian GCTs presenting to the ENCI between 2006 and 2010. Results: The median age was 23 years. Ovaries were the primary site in all patients. Dysgerminoma and teratoma were the predominant pathologies followed by mixed GCT in females...

  19. Long-term clinical outcomes of 420 consecutive prostate cancer patients in a single institute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edamura,Kohei

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was undertaken to reveal the trends of prostate cancer and the outcome of treatment modalities for each disease stage in patients in a single institute over a 10-year period. From January 1994 through December 2003, 420 consecutive patients with previously untreated and histologically confirmed prostate cancer were analyzed for annual distributions of disease stages and treatment modalities and for long-term clinical progression-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure-free survival rates for each stage and treatment modality. Annual trends showed that the number of patients, especially those with clinically localized cancer, increased dramatically. The 5-year disease-specific survival rates for patients with clinically localized disease were 100 percent for all treatment modalities, including hormonal therapy alone. Patients with PSA levels less than 10 ng/ml showed an 81 percent 5-year PSA failure-free survival rate with radical prostatectomy. Stage C patients treated by surgery or radiation-based therapy with concomitant hormonal therapy obtained 93 percent and 100 percent cause-specific survival rates, respectively, and those treated by hormonal therapy alone showed a 79 percent rate. The number of patients with localized prostate cancer was increasing in this decade. While long-term hormonal therapy alone was highly efficient in controlling localized prostate cancer, radical therapies in conjunction with neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy produced better survival rates in cases of locally advanced disease.

  20. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. PMID:26804371

  1. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    OpenAIRE

    Soejarto, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with the collaboration of the Arnold Arboretum and the Bishop Museum. Botanists from these and other institutions collaborated in the field work operation for the program, among others: J.S. BURLEY (A), ...

  2. Lumboaortic radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Experience of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Uterine cancer is still a prevalent disease in Chile. Is common to treat patients with tumors in stages IIB and IIIB where the risk of pelvic and paraortic limph node involvement is very high. Its treatment is radio-chemotherapy. Objective: To present a retrospective analysis of patients that suffered cervix-uterine cancer who were treated with radiotherapy including the aortic-lumbar area. Methods: From the revision of patients who were treated of cervix-uterine cancer between the years 1995 and 2007, 39 were treated including aortic-lumbar chains. Evolution and toxicity were analyzed. Two radiotherapy techniques were used. The first one, during the nineties, included two parallel previous and later and opposed fields, and a second technique, currently used, where pelvis and paraortic are radiated at the same time through four lateral (AP-PA) fields. Results: The dosimeter analysis of both techniques shows that there is a higher volume of radiated normal tissue with the two fields techniques, mainly in the small bowel. On the other hand, the toxicity was significantly different being today's technique less toxic and showing low gastrointestinal

  3. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with t

  4. Patterns of care for ovarian cancer patients at Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL) Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to analyze the incidence of ovarian cancer and changing patterns of therapy during the last six years at INMOL (Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Lahore Pakistan). Main objective was to review the results of treatment given and find out the causes of failure. Treatment and its outcome was also recorded to correlate the results with histological subtype and stage of diseases. It has been studied various factors like age of presentation, parity, social class, family history, method of surgery, stage of disease along with histologic type of the tumor. Epithelial ovarian cancer is not curable at advanced stages. Efforts should be made to find out some effective screening procedures for early detection. (Orig./A.B.)

  5. Male breast cancer: a report of 127 cases at a Moroccan institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijami Fouad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease representing less than 1% of all malignancies in men and only 1% of all incident breast cancers. Our study details clinico-pathological features, treatments and prognostic factors in a large Moroccan cohort. Findings One hundred and twenty-seven patients were collected from 1985 to 2007 at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco. Median age was 62 years and median time for consultation 28 months. The main clinical complaint was a mass beneath the areola in 93, 5% of the cases. Most patients have an advanced disease. Ninety-one percent of tumors were ductal carcinomas. Management consisted especially of radical mastectomy; followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonal therapy with or without chemotherapy. The median of follow-up was 30 months. The evolution has been characterized by local recurrence; in twenty two cases (17% of all patients. Metastasis occurred in 41 cases (32% of all patients. The site of metastasis was the bone in twenty cases; lung in twelve cases; liver in seven case; liver and skin in one case and pleura and skin in one case. Conclusion Male breast cancer has many similarities to breast cancer in women, but there are distinct features that should be appreciated. Future research for better understanding of this disease at national or international level are needed to improve the management and prognosis of male patients.

  6. [The (German) Center for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD) at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, U; Barnes, B; Bertz, J; Haberland, J; Laudi, A; Stöcker, M; Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K; Kurth, B-M

    2011-11-01

    Cancer represents the second most common cause of death in Germany. The country's federal states operate regional population-based cancer registries that collect and analyze data on cancer patients. This provides an essential basis for describing the cancer burden in the German population. In order to obtain valid and reliable information on cancer incidence at the national level, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) set up the Federal Cancer Surveillance Unit in 1983 as a central institution for evaluating this cancer registry data. In August 2009, when the Federal Cancer Registry Data Act (BKRG) came into force, the Center for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD) at the RKI took over the work of the Cancer Surveillance Unit with a broader remit. In the future, it will also regularly publish findings on survival, prevalence, and tumor stage distribution. A newly established record linkage process will help identify multiple submissions from the federal states. Further innovations and new tasks of the ZfKD include expanding an interactive Internet platform and encouraging a more intensive use of cancer registry data for epidemiological research by providing datasets to external scientists. The range of information available to the interested public is also to be expanded. PMID:22015795

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Difficulty of Importing Pattern-Based Concepts into the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Geller, James

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of biomedical ontologies is difficult. We have developed a pattern-based method for dealing with the problem of identifying missing concepts in the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). Specifically, we are mining patterns connecting NCIt concepts with concepts in other ontologies to identify candidate missing concepts. However, the final decision about a concept insertion is always up to a human ontology curator. In this paper, we are estimating the difficulty of this task for a domain expert by counting possible choices for a pattern-based insertion. We conclude that even with support of our mining algorithm, the insertion task is challenging. PMID:27577410

  8. A targeted nanoglobular contrast agent from host-guest self-assembly for MR cancer molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Han, Zhen; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The clinical application of nanoparticular Gd(III) based contrast agents for tumor molecular MRI has been hindered by safety concerns associated with prolonged tissue retention, although they can produce strong tumor enhancement. In this study, a targeted well-defined cyclodextrin-based nanoglobular contrast agent was developed through self-assembly driven by host-guest interactions for safe and effective cancer molecular MRI. Multiple β-cyclodextrins attached POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) nanoglobule was used as host molecule. Adamantane-modified macrocyclic Gd(III) contrast agent, cRGD (cyclic RGDfK peptide) targeting ligand and fluorescent probe was used as guest molecules. The targeted host-guest nanoglobular contrast agent cRGD-POSS-βCD-(DOTA-Gd) specifically bond to αvβ3 integrin in malignant 4T1 breast tumor and provided greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding non-targeted agent. The agent also provided significant fluorescence signal in tumor tissue. The histological analysis of the tumor tissue confirmed its specific and effective targeting to αvβ3 integrin. The targeted imaging agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular MR and fluorescent imaging. PMID:26874280

  9. Quality of life among young women with breast cancer: Study from a tertiary cancer institute in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dubashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The incidence of breast cancer in young patients less than 35 years is less than 1%. The physical and psychosocial morbidity may affect their ability to successfully function in their social roles. Hence we studied the quality of life (QOL issues in this subset. Materials and Methods :Younger women with age less than 35 years, diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer at our Institute, from 1995 to 2005, were included in the study. Quality of life issues were studied during the follow-up using EORTC QOL C30 and BR23. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in order to analyze the data. Results : A total of 51 patients were included for the study. The mean age at diagnosis was 30 years. The effect of breast cancer on the occupation and marital status was minimal. The global health status and the functional scores were high, while the overall sexual function was lower. The global health status was higher in the mastectomy group. The arm symptoms (P = 0.027 and pain were higher in the Breast conservation surgery (BCS group. The sexual symptoms appeared to be higher in the ovary ablated group when compared to the ovary preserved group. The sexual functional scores (P = 0.02 and sexual enjoyment scores (P = 0.003 were better in the mastectomy group. Conclusion : The overall QOL in younger patients with breast cancer appeared to be good. The QOL and sexual function were marginally worse in the breast conservation group when compared to mastectomy group.

  10. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs. We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients.In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008. Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007 and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013.A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001 and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001. The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001. In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001. Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period.Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications.

  11. Environmental dose in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimeters TLD-100 and TLD-900 were used to know the levels of environmental dose in areas of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The dosimeters calibration was carried out in the Metrology Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The radioisotopes used in the studied areas are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs with gamma energies between 93 and 662 KeV. Dosimeters were placed during five months in the diagnostic, injection, waiting and PET rooms as well as hot room, waste room, enclosed corridors to patient rooms treated with 131I and 137Cs and witness dosimeters to know the bottom. The values found vary between 0.3 and 70 major times that those of bottom. The maximum doses were measured in the waste room and in the enclosed corridor to the patient rooms with cervical uterine cancer treated with 137Cs. (Author)

  12. Radiation therapy with or without primary limited surgery for operable breast cancer: A 20-year experience at the Marseilles Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Marseilles Cancer Institute, the authors' first source of radioactive cesium was promptly applied to the treatment of breast cancer, to which it seemed ideally suited because of good superficial and intermediate penetration. Their favorable early experience led them to embark on a program of conservative treatment of operable breast cancer, which has supplanted the routine use of radical mastectomy at our institution. Since June 1960, more than 3000 consecutive operable breast cancers were treated primarily with radiation therapy with or without initial limited surgery. This paper presents the treatment results in 1440 cases eligible for five-year analysis, including 320 ten-year cases, thus representing the largest series of breast cancer patients treated with modern radiation therapy techniques thus far reported in the literature

  13. Cost comparison of curative therapies for localized prostate cancer in Japan. A single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to open surgery, curative therapies for prostate cancer now include endoscopic surgery and radiation therapies. Because of the expansion and subdivision of treatment methods for prostate cancer, the medical fee point schedule in Japan was revised in fiscal year 2006. We examined changes in medical income and expenditure after this revision of the medical fee system. We studied income and expenditure, after institution of the new medical fee schedule, for the five types of therapies for prostate cancer performed at our hospital: two surgical therapies (radical retropubic prostatectomy and laparoscopic prostatectomy) and three radiation therapies (three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and 125I low-dose-rate brachytherapy). Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was found to be associated with a profit of 199 yen per patient. Laparoscopic prostatectomy, a highly advanced medical treatment that the fee revision changed from a partially insured to an insured procedure, yielded a profit of 75672 yen per patient. However, high-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with a loss of 654016 yen per patient. Given the loss in hospital income per patient undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, the medical fee point system for this procedure should be reassessed. (author)

  14. Altered plasma apolipoprotein modifications in patients with pancreatic cancer: protein characterization and multi-institutional validation.

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    Kazufumi Honda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the more common human malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas has the worst prognosis. The poor outcome seems to be attributable to difficulty in early detection. METHODS: We compared the plasma protein profiles of 112 pancreatic cancer patients with those of 103 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (Cohort 1 using a newly developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (oMALDI QqTOF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS system. RESULTS: We found that hemi-truncated apolipoprotein AII dimer (ApoAII-2; 17252 m/z, unglycosylated apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII-0; 8766 m/z, and their summed value were significantly decreased in the pancreatic cancer patients [P = 1.36×10(-21, P = 4.35×10(-14, and P = 1.83×10(-24 (Mann-Whitney U-test; area-under-curve values of 0.877, 0.798, and 0.903, respectively]. The significance was further validated in a total of 1099 plasma/serum samples, consisting of 2 retrospective cohorts [Cohort 2 (n = 103 and Cohort 3 (n = 163] and a prospective cohort [Cohort 4 (n = 833] collected from 8 medical institutions in Japan and Germany. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed a robust quantitative MS profiling system and used it to validate alterations of modified apolipoproteins in multiple cohorts of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  15. Pelvic exenteration for colorectal cancer: oncologic outcome in 59 patients at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic exenteration (PE) continues to be the only curative option in selected patients with advanced or recurrent pelvic neoplasms. A current debate exists concerning the appropriate selection of patients for PE, with the most important factor being the absence of extrapelvic disease. To evaluate the outcome of patients submitted to exenterative surgery. A review of the clinical charts of patients with colorectal cancer who underwent PE between January 1994 and June 2010 at the Institute National of Cancerología in Mexico City was performed. We selected 59 patients, 53 of whom were females (90%), and six of whom were males (10%). Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 50 years (range, 21–77 years). A total of 51 patients underwent posterior PE (86%), and eight patients underwent total PE (14%). Operative mortality occurred in two cases (3%), and 29 patients developed complications (49%). Overall, 11 patients (19%) experienced local failure with mean disease-free survival time of 10.2 months. After a mean follow-up of 28.3 months, nine patients are still alive without evidence of the disease (15%). PE should be considered in advanced colorectal cancer without extrapelvic metastatic disease. PE is accompanied by considerable morbidity (49%) and mortality (3%), but local control is desirable. Overall survival justifies the use of this procedure in patients with primary or recurrent locally advanced rectal cancer

  16. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  17. Creating a “culture of research” in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-01-01

    Background The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute’s Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. Methods To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. Limitations The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important

  18. A 20 years evaluation of cancer of the tongue at cancer institute Imam Khomeini Hospital, 1978-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Informations regarding 152 patients of cancer of tongue in cancer institute from 1978 to 1998 was collected and analyzed. From these cases, 53.3 percent were male with a mean age of 54.49 years (SD=16.23 and the mean age of female was 2.5 years more than of male. Positive lymphadenopathy in men was positive and significantly more than that of female (P<0.05. The physical appearance of the tumor was ulcerative (66.7 percent. Most of the referrals were in the range of T1 (62.8 percent and were operated. Information from 88 patients was evaluated and it was found that 23.9 percent of the patients has died. One year survival was 92.05 percent and 3 years survival 83.3 percent and it was confirmed that advanced stage of the illness decreases the survival rate (P<0.001.      

  19. Locally advanced cervix cancer: chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiotherapy. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy has potential advantages for locally advanced cervix cancer. It can down stage a cancer and allow definitive local therapy to be technically possible (surgery), or potentially more effective (radiotherapy). It can also eradicate subclinical systemic metastases. This report reviews a single institution's experience of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy for cervix cancer over a 13-year period. One hundred and six patients were treated with this intent. The patients were analysed for their response to chemotherapy, treatment received, survival, relapse and toxicity. The chemotherapy was feasible and the majority of patients had a complete or partial response (58.5%). Eight patients did not proceed to local treatment. Forty-six patients had definitive surgery and 52 had definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival was 27% and the majority of patients died with disease. The first site of relapse was usually in the pelvis (46.2%). Late complications that required ongoing medical therapy (n = 6) or surgical intervention (n = 2) were recorded in eight patients (7.5%). On univariate analysis stage (P= 0.04), tumour size (P = 0.01), lymph node status (P=0.003), response to chemotherapy (P = 0.045) and treatment (P = 0.003) were all significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.0001) and nodal status (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of survival. Despite the impressive responses to chemotherapy of advanced cervix cancer, there is evidence from randomized trials that it does not improve or compromise survival prior to radiotherapy. As its role prior to surgery remains unclear, it should not be used in this setting outside a prospective randomized trial. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Beneficial bacteria stimulate host immune cells to counteract dietary and genetic predisposition to mammary cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Levkovich, Tatiana; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Mirabal, Sheyla; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies suggest health benefits including protection from cancer after eating fermented foods such as probiotic yogurt, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we tested mechanistic hypotheses using two different animal models: the first model studied development of mammary cancer when eating a Westernized diet, and the second studied animals with a genetic predilection to breast cancer. For the first model, outbred Swiss mice were fed a Westernized chow putting them at increased risk for development of mammary tumors. In this Westernized diet model, mammary carcinogenesis was inhibited by routine exposure to Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC-PTA-6475 in drinking water. The second model was FVB strain erbB2 (HER2) mutant mice, genetically susceptible to mammary tumors mimicking breast cancers in humans, being fed a regular (non-Westernized) chow diet. We found that oral supplement with these purified lactic acid bacteria alone was sufficient to inhibit features of mammary neoplasia in both models. The protective mechanism was determined to be microbially-triggered CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. When isolated and transplanted into other subjects, these L. reuteri-stimulated lymphocytes were sufficient to convey transplantable anti-cancer protection in the cell recipient animals. These data demonstrate that host immune responses to environmental microbes significantly impact and inhibit cancer progression in distal tissues such as mammary glands, even in genetically susceptible mice. This leads us to conclude that consuming fermentative microbes such as L. reuteri may offer a tractable public health approach to help counteract the accumulated dietary and genetic carcinogenic events integral in the Westernized diet and lifestyle. PMID:24382758

  1. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)

  2. Relationship of Internet health information use with patient behavior and self-efficacy: experiences of newly diagnosed cancer patients who contact the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Gordon, Thomas F; Fleisher, Linda; McKeown-Conn, Nancy; Moore, Dirk

    2006-03-01

    This study examines the relationship of Internet health information use with patient behavior and self-efficacy among 498 newly diagnosed cancer patients. Subjects were classified by types of Internet use: direct use (used Internet health information themselves), indirect use (used information accessed by friends or family), and non-use (never accessing Internet information). Subjects were recruited from callers of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service, Atlantic Region. They were classified by type of Internet use at enrollment and interviewed by telephone after 8 weeks. There were significant relationships among Internet use and key study variables: subject characteristics, patient task behavior, and self-efficacy. Subjects' Internet use changed significantly from enrollment to 8 week follow-up; 19% of nonusers and indirect users moved to a higher level of Internet use. Significant relationships also were found among Internet use and perceived patient-provider relationship, question asking, and treatment compliance. Finally, Internet use was also significantly associated with self-efficacy variables (confidence in actively participating in treatment decisions, asking physicians questions, and sharing feelings of concern). The results of this study show that patients who are newly diagnosed with cancer perceive the Internet as a powerful tool, both for acquiring information and for enhancing confidence to make informed decisions. PMID:16537289

  3. Intraoperative radiation therapy at the National Cancer Institute: technical innovations and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical complexity of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) requires modification of the standard physical and dosimetric methods used in external electron beam therapy. At the National Cancer Institute, a number of technical innovations have been integrated into ongoing clinical studies of IORT. These include: (1) an electron beam applicator system that is significantly different from other IORT systems and includes customized squircle applicators; (2) peripheral dose shields; (3) a modified surgical table replacing the standard radiation treatment couch; and (4) routine use of multiple IORT fields that necessitates field matching. The IORT applicator system and related devices and techniques are dosimetrically characterized in detail both for use in the IORT program and in order to illustrate many useful facets of electron dosimetry

  4. The Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the National Cancer Institute - its resources to assist patients with bone marrow failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the bone marrow transplantation center of the brazilian National Cancer Institute, which is responsible for the cancer control in Brazil. The document also describes the resources available in the Institute for assisting patients presenting bone marrow failures. The Center provides for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants, peripheral stem cell transplants, umbilical cord collections and transplants, and a small experience with unrelated bone marrow transplants. The Center receives patient from all over the country and provides very sophisticated medical care at no direct cost to the patients

  5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: the experience at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana:

    OpenAIRE

    Stanic, Karmen; Kovac, Viljem

    2010-01-01

    Background Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been used in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to reduce the incidence of brain metastases (BM) and thus increase overall survival. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with SCLC referred to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, their eligibility for PCI, patterns of dissemination, and survival. Patients and methods Medical charts of 357 patients with SCLC, referred to the Institute of...

  6. Medical care costs incurred by patients with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta, Oscar; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger Humberto; Ahumada-Curiel, Gabriel; Corona-Cruz, Jose Francisco; Correa-Acevedo, Elma; Zinser-Sierra, Juan; de la Mata-Moya, Dolores; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is a public health problem in Mexico and worldwide; its economic impact on developing countries has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs attributable to smoking incurred by lung cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). Methods The study was conducted at INCan in 2009. We carried out a cost of illness (COI) methodology, using data derived from an expert panel consensus and from medical chart...

  7. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual function, were measured, applying the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the 7-grade Quality of Life Scale (QoL) and medical status, the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.03). Seed migration and loss, dosimetric parameters and learning effects were also analyzed. Medium follow-up time was 50 months (range, 1–85 months). The five-year biochemical failure rate was 7%. Acute proctitis rates were 19% (grade 1) and 1% (grade 2), respectively. The overall incidence of incontinence was 19% (mild), 16% (moderate) and < 1% (severe). An increase in IPSS ≥ 5 points was detected in 59% of patients, with 38% regaining their baseline. Seed dislocation was found in 24% of patients and correlated with D90 and V100. A learning curve was found for seed migration, D90 and V100. QoL correlated with the general health condition of patient, incontinence symptoms and IPSS. BT for early stage prostate cancer offers excellent five-year biochemical control with low toxicities. QoL aspects are favorable. A learning curve was detected for procedural aspects but its impact on patient relevant endpoints remains inconclusive

  8. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer progression: reciprocal tumor–microenvironment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive overview of breast cancer development and progression suggests that the process is influenced by intrinsic properties of the tumor cells, as well as by microenvironmental factors. Indeed, in breast carcinoma, an intensive interplay exists between the tumor cells on one hand, and inflammatory cells/cytokines/chemokines on the other. The purpose of the present review is to outline the reciprocal interactions that exist between these different elements, and to shed light on their potential involvement in breast cancer development and progression

  9. Quality Improvement in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program: The Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert D.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Eisenstein, Jana; Stallings, Holley; Hegedus, Patricia D.; Bryant, Donna M.; Kadlubek, Pam J.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007; it is a network of community-based hospitals funded by the NCI. Quality of care is an NCCCP priority, with participation in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) playing a fundamental role in quality assessment and quality improvement (QI) projects. Using QOPI methodology, performance on quality measures was analyzed two times per year over a 3-year period to enhance our implementation of quality standards at NCCCP hospitals. Methods: A data-sharing agreement allowed individual-practice QOPI data to be electronically sent to the NCI. Aggregated data with the other NCCCP QOPI participants were presented to the network via Webinars. The NCCCP Quality of Care Subcommittee selected areas in which to focus subsequent QI efforts, and high-performing practices shared voluntarily their QI best practices with the network. Results: QOPI results were compiled semiannually between fall 2010 and fall 2013. The network concentrated on measures with a quality score of ≤ 0.75 and planned voluntary group-wide QI interventions. We identified 13 measures in which the NCCCP fell at or below the designated quality score in fall 2010. After implementing a variety of QI initiatives, the network registered improvements in all parameters except one (use of treatment summaries). Conclusion: Using the NCCCP as a paradigm, QOPI metrics provide a useful platform for group-wide measurement of quality performance. In addition, these measurements can be used to assess the effectiveness of QI initiatives. PMID:25538082

  10. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Inflammatory and immune cells in tumour angiogenesis and arteriogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer progression is associated with and dependent upon robust neovascularization. It is becoming clear that tumour-associated 'normal' cells, such as immune/inflammatory cells, endothelial cells and stromal cells, conspire with cancer cells in promoting this process. In particular, infiltrating immune/inflammatory cells secrete a diverse repertoire of growth factors and proteases that enable them to enhance tumour growth by stimulating angiogenesis and, as we suggest here, by promoting 'tumour arteriogenesis' – enlargement of feeding vessels supplying the expanding tumour capillary bed. Macrophages and their chemoattractants (e.g. macrophage chemoattractant protein-1) are critical for the arteriogenic process in ischaemia, and probably also in breast neoplasia. A better understanding of these various cellular and molecular constituents of breast cancer neovascularization may be useful in designing more effective therapies

  11. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lee W.; Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M.; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D.; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Jason R.B. Dyck; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T.; Betof, Allison S.; Nelson, Erik R.; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C.; Young, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6–8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 105) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study....

  12. FDG-PET scanning in patients with differentiated thyroid cancers. Institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Patient with detectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and negative radioiodine whole body (RAI-WB) scan should have FDG-PET scan to locate tumor tissue. Sometimes scan fail to detect any pathologic accumulation of FDG. Some well-differentiated thyroid cancers do not accumulate FDG. In addition, tumor burden could be so small that imaging becomes impossible. To explore this possibility, several studies explored relationship between serum Tg level and result of FDG-PET scans. Results were inconclusive and it is not clear if there is some low level of serum Tg below which PET scanning is not cost effective. We examined all cases of thyroid cancer patients who underwent FDG-PET scanning in our institution (N-33) for relationship between Tg level and results of the scan. There were 16 females, 17 males. Age was 19-81 years. Follicular cancer was present in 2 patients while 31 had papillary cancer. 14 patients had PET scan while withdrawn from T4 therapy, and 19 patients were scanned while TSH was suppressed. Overall, 20 scans were considered positive, while 12 were negative. One patient was considered to have positive scan but after scan was repeated interpretation was changed into - positive uptake due to inflammation. In patients whose PET scan was positive, Tg level was in a range 6.6-7,108 ng/ml, while those with negative scan had Tg level in 1.7-36.5 ng/ml range. In group withdrawn from T4 therapy and positive scan Tg level ranged from 13.8-7,108 ng/ml, and with negative scan 2.8-36.5 ng/ml. In PET positive patients in euthyroid group Tg ranged 6.6-432 ng/ml and in negative 1.7-13.3 ng/ml. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients who have negative RAI scan and low Tg level may not benefit from PET scanning. In our study Tg level less than 6.6 ng/ml for the whole group, and below 13.8 ng/ml for patient withdrawn from T4 therapy did not result in positive FDG-PET scan result. Our group is small and more data need to be collected to clarify these

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  14. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer Solutions... industry partnership called TONIC (Translation Of Nanotechnology In Cancer) to promote...

  15. The co-evolved Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: trinity of bacterial virulence, host susceptibility and lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S Manjulata

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is an important yet unproven etiological agent of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection is more prevalent in developing Asian countries like India and it is usually acquired at an early age. It has been two decades since Marshall and Warren (1984 first described curved bacilli in the stomach of ulcer and gastritis patients. This discovery has won them the Nobel Prize recently, but the debate whether H. pylori is a pathogen or a commensal organism is still hot. Associations with disease-specific factors remain illusive years after the genome sequences were made available. Cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA and the so-called plasticity region cluster genes are implicated in pathogenesis of the carcinoma of stomach. Another virulence factor VacA whose role is still debatable, has recently been projected in pathology of gastric cancer. Studies of the evolution through genetic variation in H. pylori populations have provided a window into the history of human population migrations and a possible co-evolution of this pathogen with its human host. Possible symbiotic relationships were seriously debated since the discovery of this pathogen. The debate has been further intensified as some studies proposed H. pylori infection to be beneficial in some humans. In this commentary, we attempt to briefly discuss about H. pylori as a human pathogen, and some of the important issues linked to its pathophysiology in different hosts. 'We dance around in a ring and suppose, the secret sits in the middle and knows' – Robert Frost

  16. Tumor induction following intraoperative radiotherapy: Late results of the National Cancer Institute canine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.; Duray, P.; DeLuca, A.; Anderson, W.; Sindelar, W.; Kinsella, T. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy has been employed in human cancer research for over a decade. Since 1979, trials to assess the acute and late toxicity of IORT have been carried out at the National Cancer Institute in an adult dog model in an attempt to establish dose tolerance guidelines for a variety of organs. Of the 170 animals entered on 12 studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 148 dogs received IORT; 22 control animals received only surgery. Animals were sacrificed at designated intervals following IORT, usually at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 month intervals. 102 of 148 irradiated dogs were sacrificed less than 24 months; 46 dogs were followed greater than or equal to 24 months after IORT. To date, 34 of the 46 animals have been sacrificed; the 12 remaining animals are to be followed to 5 years. These 12 animals have minimum follow-up of 30 months. In the irradiated group followed for greater than or equal to 24 months, 10 tumors have arisen in 9 animals. One animal developed an incidental spontaneous breast carcinoma outside the IORT port, discovered only at scheduled post-mortem exam. The remaining nine tumors arose within IORT ports. Two tumors were benign neural tumors--a neuroma and a neurofibroma. One animal had a collision tumor comprised of grade I chondrosarcoma adjacent to grade III osteosarcoma arising in lumbar vertebrae. Two other grade III osteosarcomas, one grade III fibrosarcoma, and one grade III malignant fibrous histiocytoma arose in retroperitoneal/paravertebral sites. An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) arose within the irradiated urinary bladder of one animal. No sham irradiated controls nor IORT animals sacrificed less than 24 months have developed any spontaneous or radiation-induced tumors. The time range of diagnoses of tumors was 24-58 months. The IORT dose range associated with tumor development was 20-35 Gy.

  17. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: a mono-institutional retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC), and the prognostic factors in the setting of multidisciplinary approach strategies. 63 patients with LAPC and MPC receiving IMRT in our institution were retrospectively identified. Information on patient baseline, treatment characteristics and overall survival (OS) time were collected. Data of pain relief and toxicity were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate the prognostic factors. All patients received IMRT with a median dose of 46.0 Gy. The median OS for LAPC and MPC patients were 15.7 months and 8.0 months, respectively (p = 0.029). Symptomatic improvements were observed in the 44 patients with abdominal/back pain after radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), particularly in those with severe pain. Only 13.9% and 14.8% cases presented Grade ≥ 3 hematologic toxicities in RT and CCRT group, while no cases developed Grade ≥ 3 non-hematologic toxicities in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumors located in pancreas body/tail (HR 0.28, p = 0.008), pretreatment CA19-9 < 1000 U/mL (HR 0.36, p = 0.029) and concurrent chemotherapy (HR 0.37, p = 0.016) were independent favorable predictors for OS. CCRT further improved OS for LAPC and MPC with acceptable toxicities, and use of RT markedly alleviated pain. Tumors located in pancreas body/tail, pretreatment CA19-9 level of < 1000 U/mL and CCRT were associated with better OS. However, regional intra-arterial chemotherapy did not show any survival benefit in our study

  18. Breast cancer in women with x-ray exposure: models of dose, time, and host susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute postpartum mastitis (APM) is an inflammatory/infectious condition of the breast, occurring commonly at childbirth or during lactation. A series of 600 women who received x-ray therapy for APM during the 1940s or 1950s have been followed up by mail questionnaire, with medical verification of pertinent conditions, to ascertain their incidence of breast cancer. The groups have been followed for up to 45 years, with an average of 29 years. The relative risk of breast cancer, adjusted for age and interval since irradiation (or an equivalent entry definition for controls) was 3.2 for the irradiated breasts. The dose-response curve appeared to be essentially linear, except for a diminution of risk at high doses (≥ 700 rad). The fact that there were no breasts with doses between zero and 50 rad, however, means it was not possible to evaluate the curvature with the maximum contrast between low and high doses. The dose fractionation analyses showed that the number of dose fractions or the number of days between fractions had no apparent effect upon breast cancer risk, but there was a suggestion that lower doses per fraction led to a higher risk, which runs counter to what one would expect based on radiobiological theory. However, a Cox regression analysis, controlling for total breast dose, did not yield a significant effect for any of the fractionation variables

  19. Multi-Institutional Analysis of Early Glottic Cancer from 2000 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the outcome of patients with early glottic cancer (GC) treated with radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy at 10 institutions in the Tokai District, Japan. Ten institutions combined data from 279 patients with T1-T2 GC treated with RT with or without chemotherapy between 2000 and 2005. The overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and local control rate were evaluated in 270 patients, except for incomplete cases due to issues such as discontinuation, using the method of Kaplan-Meier and compared using the log-rank test. Results were considered statistically significant at the level of p < 0.05. For 122 patients, the tumors were classified as T1a, while 64 patients had T1b tumors, and 84 patients had T2 tumors. In three cases of T1 tumors, the subtype was unknown. Combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) was administered during each stage, and various chemotherapy drugs and regimens were used. The median follow-up period was 55.4 months. The 5-year LC rates for T1a, Tb, and T2 tumors in all patients were 87.9%, 82.7%, and 74.1%, respectively. The difference between T1a and T2 was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The 5-year LC rates for T1a, Tb, and T2 with CRT were 92.7%, 78.6%, and 80.7%, respectively, while the rates with radiation alone were 86.5%, 83.8%, and 64.4%, respectively. The difference between CRT and RT alone was not statistically significant in each stage. In this survey, CRT was performed for early GC at most institutions in clinical practice. Our data showed no statistical difference in the LC rates between CRT and RT alone in each stage. However, there was a tendency for the LCRs of the CRT group to be more favorable than those of the RT group in the T2-stage

  20. Multi-Institutional Analysis of Early Glottic Cancer from 2000 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasawa Naoki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the outcome of patients with early glottic cancer (GC treated with radiotherapy (RT with or without chemotherapy at 10 institutions in the Tokai District, Japan. Methods Ten institutions combined data from 279 patients with T1-T2 GC treated with RT with or without chemotherapy between 2000 and 2005. The overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and local control rate were evaluated in 270 patients, except for incomplete cases due to issues such as discontinuation, using the method of Kaplan-Meier and compared using the log-rank test. Results were considered statistically significant at the level of p  0.05. Results For 122 patients, the tumors were classified as T1a, while 64 patients had T1b tumors, and 84 patients had T2 tumors. In three cases of T1 tumors, the subtype was unknown. Combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT was administered during each stage, and various chemotherapy drugs and regimens were used. The median follow-up period was 55.4 months. The 5-year LC rates for T1a, Tb, and T2 tumors in all patients were 87.9%, 82.7%, and 74.1%, respectively. The difference between T1a and T2 was statistically significant (p = 0.016. The 5-year LC rates for T1a, Tb, and T2 with CRT were 92.7%, 78.6%, and 80.7%, respectively, while the rates with radiation alone were 86.5%, 83.8%, and 64.4%, respectively. The difference between CRT and RT alone was not statistically significant in each stage. Conclusions In this survey, CRT was performed for early GC at most institutions in clinical practice. Our data showed no statistical difference in the LC rates between CRT and RT alone in each stage. However, there was a tendency for the LCRs of the CRT group to be more favorable than those of the RT group in the T2-stage.

  1. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases. PMID:27050183

  2. Physical properties of a linear accelerator-based stereotactic installed at national cancer institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first dedicated Siemens PRIMUS M6/6ST linear accelerator-based Stereotactic installed in National Cancer Institute for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT). The data were obtained during the installation, acceptance test procedure, and commissioning of the unit. The Primus M6/6ST has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Siemens. The dosimetric data were taken using pin point ion chamber. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be < 0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of < or = 1.0 mm. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within +/- 0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The basic dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and cone factor needed for patient treatment were evaluated. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  3. Treatment outcomes of female germ cell tumors: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Female germ cell tumors (GCTS) are rare tumors that carry a good prognosis. Aim: To report the experience of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (ENCI) in managing female GCTs. Methods: This retrospective study included 19 females with ovarian GCTs presenting to the ENCI between 2006 and 2010. Results: The median age was 23 years. Ovaries were the primary site in all patients. Dysgerminoma and teratoma were the predominant pathologies followed by mixed GCT in females. Unilateral ovariectomy or ovarian tumorectomy were the classic surgical procedures with R0 resection being feasible in most cases. Surveillance was adopted in six patients with stage I disease. Chemotherapy was administered in 63% of ovarian GCTs with BEP being the commonest regimen with reasonable tolerability and good response rates. The median OS and EFS were not reached. The projected 5-year OS rate was 93.8%. Both OS and EFS were better in patients responding to chemotherapy than non-responders (p< 0.002). Stage of disease did not significantly affect OS or EFS. Conclusions: Female GCTs rarely affect Egyptian females. They have good prognosis.

  4. Evaluation of leakage in cobalt-60 unit in National Cancer Institute (NCI) Wad Medani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been conducted primarily to evaluate the leakages radiation in cobalt-60 unit in National Cancer Institute Wad Medani, which represent the basic risky factor in this unit for the radio therapists who spend much time during patient set up, also they need to stand near the head of the machine to fix some accessories. The measurements which done using survey meter give normal level of occupational exposure compared with IAEA references except one situation that the radio therapist to be close contact to the head of unit for long time which may increase the received dose, in this situation. The radio therapist either not well trained, or there is insufficient accessories to reduce the time inside the room. Radiotherapy department need a special considerations from the beginning of construction till starting of treatment. It is important to contain separate rooms, for planning to determine treatment area, another one for molding to shape lead blocks to protect normal parts and an optimum designed room for treatment to enable workers to apply basic radiation protection principles. (Author)

  5. The Gray Cancer Institute X-ray microprobe and its radiobiological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation micro-beams represent a unique and powerful tool to study and quantify the effects of precise doses of radiation delivered with micron precision to selected biological samples. The Gray Cancer Institute has developed two independent but complementary micro-irradiation facilities, specifically developed for the targeted irradiation of cells and structured tissues; a charged-particle microbeam that uses collimated protons or helium ions and an ultra-soft X-ray microprobe. The ultra-soft X-ray facility employs a focused electron bombardments source to produce a near monochromatic CK X-ray beam. Highly efficient zone plates optimised for the appropriate wavelength are used to focus the characteristic X-rays into a sub-micron spot. The facility is also equipped with a three-axis micro-positioning stage, an epi-fluorescent UV microscope with intensified CCD camera coupled to a fast PC for a automatic, fast and accurate samples recognition and alignment with the probe. Recent experiments have been directed to investigate the bystander effect by irradiating only one cell within a population of V79 cells that are subsequently individually revisited for colony formation. A clear bystander effect has been detected (∼ 10 % reduction in survival) when a single cell has been irradiated. The effect is triggered by very low doses ((∼ 100 mGy) and it is largely dose independent. (authors)

  6. Clinical and epidemiological profile of cases of deaths from stomach cancer in the National Cancer Institute, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Maria Teresa dos Santos; de Jesus, José Paulo; de Souza Filho, Odilon; Fontenele, Raquel Malta; Sousa, Ana Inês

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stomach cancer is the third most common cause of death worldwide, mainly affecting people with low socioeconomic status. In Brazil, we expect 20,390 new cases of stomach cancer in 2014, in both sexes, and according to the proportional distribution of the ten most prevalent types of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) expected for 2014, this type of cancer was estimated to be the fourth most common in men and sixth in women. Aim To investigate and analyse the clinical and epi...

  7. DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY BREAST CANCER TREATED BETWEEN 1997 AND 2010: A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žitnjak, Daniela; Soldić, Željko; Kust, Davor; Bolanća, Ante; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer accounted for 28% of all new cancers and 18% of female cancer deaths in Europe in 2010. It is the most common type of cancer in women in Croatia, with an incidence rate of 56.9/100 000 in the year 2010, and the highest number of newly diagnosed women aged between 60 and 64. Multiple factors are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: advancing age, family history, exposure to endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones, dietary factors, benign breast disease, and environmental factors. To assess demographic and clinicopathologic features of primary breast cancer, we retrospectively analyzed 870 patients treated in our institution between 1997 and 2010. Data were obtained from medical documentation and a printed questionnaire regarding life habits. Most of our patients presented with a breast lump and were self-diagnosed by breast examination. This fact highlights the need of regular breast self-examination, although it should also be taken into account that most of our patients did not attend regular mammography screening (only 31%). One of the most concerning facts is that the mean time from observing the first symptom to visiting a physician was 4 months. Previous studies have identified ignorance, fear and fatalistic attitudes, poor socioeconomic conditions, and illiteracy as important factors resulting in delay. Considering these facts, education and raising awareness about the disease in the general population is one of the key weapons for lowering breast cancer mortality. PMID:26666098

  8. Results of treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers using Iodine-131 at Sri Lanka's first private institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This department was started in order to meet the urgent demand of iodine-131 treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), as the waiting list in government hospitals was unduly long. Data obtained revealed that 52% of the patients had iodine-131 therapy within 4 months, 31% in 4 to 8 months and 17% over 8 months time. Institute received license to order, stock and administer iodine-131 from the AEA-Sri Lanka as its facilities were according to IAEA standards. Facility included three 'single bedded en-suit toilet rooms' with storage capacity for iodine-131 capsules. 115 cases (male: female ratio 1:4) of DTC were treated during the past one and half year and each received 100 GBq of radioactivity. 89 (77.3%) comprised papillary carcinoma, 25 (21.7%) follicular carcinoma and 1 case of mixed carcinoma. 52% of males and 60.8% of females were in the 26-45 years age group. Sixty cases of papillary carcinoma were sub-typed and grouped to observe the distribution of metastases and response to iodine-131. They were follicular variant (FV) in 28 (46%), micropaillary (MP) in 10 (20%), encapsulated (EP) in 8 (13.3%), tall cell (TC) in 3 (5%) and diffuse sclerosis (DS) in 9 (15%). TSH and Tg values were measured before therapy and four months afterwards. Activity readings were measured 30 min after ingestion and 4 days later and discharged when the values were less than 20 μSv / hour. Six of the nine (66%) DS cancer patients had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs when referred for iodine-131 treatment. In 8 of these patients, Tg levels were raised. 36% (8/9) of the FC patients also had raised Tg levels indicating metastases and 4/5 were found to have bony metastases. In post iodine-131 therapy whole body scans, 3.3% had metastases in the lungs in PC and 20% of FC in skeleton. With a single dose of iodine-131 over 90% had drop in Tg levels to less than I ng/ml except in DS (23% drop) and TC (33% drop). The study shows that sub-typing of PC was useful and TC and

  9. More Accurate Prediction of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Patients' Survival with Prognostic Model Using Both Host Immunity and Tumor Metabolic Activity.

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    Younak Choi

    Full Text Available Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR and standard uptake value (SUV by 18F-FDG PET represent host immunity and tumor metabolic activity, respectively. We investigated NLR and maximum SUV (SUVmax as prognostic markers in metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC patients who receive palliative chemotherapy.We reviewed 396 MPC patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. NLR was obtained before and after the first cycle of chemotherapy. In 118 patients with PET prior to chemotherapy, SUVmax was collected. Cut-off values were determined by ROC curve.In multivariate analysis of all patients, NLR and change in NLR after the first cycle of chemotherapy (ΔNLR were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS. We scored the risk considering NLR and ΔNLR and identified 4 risk groups with different prognosis (risk score 0 vs 1 vs 2 vs 3: OS 9.7 vs 7.9 vs 5.7 vs 2.6 months, HR 1 vs 1.329 vs 2.137 vs 7.915, respectively; P<0.001. In PET cohort, NLR and SUVmax were independently prognostic for OS. Prognostication model using both NLR and SUVmax could define 4 risk groups with different OS (risk score 0 vs 1 vs 2 vs 3: OS 11.8 vs 9.8 vs 7.2 vs 4.6 months, HR 1 vs 1.536 vs 2.958 vs 5.336, respectively; P<0.001.NLR and SUVmax as simple parameters of host immunity and metabolic activity of tumor cell, respectively, are independent prognostic factors for OS in MPC patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  10. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K.; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least t...

  11. Definitive Radiotherapy for T1-2 Hypopharyngeal Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Aya, E-mail: anakajima-kyt@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji; Morimoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miyagi, Ken [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Fujii, Takashi; Yoshino, Kunitoshi [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in T1-2 hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with T1-2 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical RT between March 2000 and June 2008 at our institution were analyzed. Pre-RT neck dissection (ND) was performed in 26 patients with advanced neck disease. Chemotherapy was used concurrently with RT in 14 patients. Sixty patients were associated with synchronous or metachronous malignancies. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. Results: The 3-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 70% and 79%, respectively. The 3-year local control rates were 87% for T1 and 83% for T2 disease. The ultimate local control rate was 89%, including 7 patients in whom salvage was successful. The ultimate local control rate with laryngeal preservation was 82%. Tumors of the medial wall of the pyriform sinus tended to have lower control rates compared with tumors of the lateral or posterior pharyngeal wall. Among patients with N2b-3 disease, the 3-year regional control rates were 74% for patients with pre-RT ND and 40% for patients without ND. The 3-year locoregional control rates were as follows: Stage I, 100%; Stage II, 84%; Stage III, 67%; Stage IVA, 43%; Stage IVB, 67%. Forty-two patients developed disease recurrence, with 29 (70%) patients developing recurrence within the first year. Of the 103 patients, 6 developed late complications higher than or equal to Grade 3. Conclusions: Definitive RT accomplished a satisfactory local control rate and contributed to organ preservation.

  12. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alvarez Rodríguez; Arias Fúnez, F.; Bueno Bravo, C.; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, R.; Sanz Mayayo, E.; V. Hevia Palacios; Burgos Revilla, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. ...

  13. Microbiological and host features associated with corynebacteriosis in cancer patients: a five-year study

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    CAS Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During a five-year period, 932 clinical isolates from cancer patients treated in a Brazilian reference centre were identified as corynebacteria; 86% of the cultures came from patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected and 77.1% of these patients had been hospitalised (71.1% from surgical wards. The adult solid tumour was the most common underlying malignant disease (66.7%. The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that hospitalised patients had a six-fold greater risk (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.15-26.30 p = 0.033 related to 30-day mortality. The predominant species were Corynebacterium amycolatum (44.7%, Corynebacterium minutissimum (18.3% and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (8.5%. The upper urinary tracts, surgical wounds, lower respiratory tracts, ulcerated tumours and indwelling venous catheters were the most frequent sources of C. amycolatum strains. Corynebacterium jeikeium infection occurred primarily in neutropenic patients who have used venous catheters, while infection caused by C. amycolatum and other species emerged mainly in patients with solid tumours.

  14. A pilot study to assess the level of depression and the coping strategies adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl

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    Gitumoni Konwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer, the second most common cause of death, has become a major health problem. Depression is the most common psychological problem encountered in patients with cancer. The coping skills adopted may affect the mental health of patients. Therefore, this research is undertaken to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by the patients diagnosed with cancer. Materials and methods: A descriptive study to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl was carried out from April to May 2014 with 30 convenient samples. Depression was assessed by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith in 1983. Coping strategy adopted by patients were assessed by revised version of the Ways of Coping Checklist developed by Folkman and Lazarus in 1985. Results: Findings of the study showed that depression was universal to all the cancer patients. Majority of cancer patients (66.5% had moderate depression while 13.26% of the cancer patients had severe depression, and only 6.7% of them reported to have low depression. The most effective coping strategy adopted was reappraisal, followed by distancing. There is significant correlation between depression and reappraisal (r=-0.538, p<0.002, and also with depression and acceptance (r=-0.415, p<0.022 strategies. Conclusion: As depression is universal to all cancer patients, use of appropriate coping strategy is very essential to improve their quality of life. The recognition of coping strategies by health team may enable appropriate information and interventions to be provided at optimal times for each individual.

  15. Morbidity associated to the transfusion support in pediatric patients with acute leukemia in the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute leukemia represents the most common cancer in pediatrics. The current treatments made necessary a hematological support which increases the risks of complications, like fever, immunologic reaction, infections and, graft versus host disease. The objective of the present study was to determine the morbidity associated with transfusion support in pediatric patients with acute leukemia. In the pediatric population with diagnosis of acute leukemia in the INC during one and half year, the morbidity associated with transfusions was low and couldn't be related to the treatment given to the transfused products

  16. Screening mammography. A missed clinical opportunity? Results of the NCI [National Cancer Institute] Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and national health interview survey studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from seven studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were used to determine current rates of breast cancer screening and to identify the characteristics of and reasons for women not being screened. All seven studies were population-based surveys of women aged 50 to 74 years without breast cancer. While over 90% of non-Hispanic white respondents had regular sources of medical care, 46% to 76% had a clinical breast examination within the previous year, and only 25% to 41% had a mammogram. Less educated and poorer women had fewer mammograms. The two most common reasons women gave for never having had a mammogram were that they did not known they needed it and that their physician had not recommended it. Many physicians may have overlooked the opportunity to recommend mammography for older women when performing a clinical breast examination and to educate their patients about the benefit of screening mammography

  17. Comparison of Serum Selenium Levels in Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy People at a Cancer Institute in 2004

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    M Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast Cancer is one of the most important fatal cancers in women. The mean age of breast cancer in Iran is 48.8 years which is very lower than other countries. Selenium can play an important role in reduction of cancer in several ways, for example selenium increases immunity response and protects cells from oxidation of free radicals and also decreases carcinogenic metabolites. Breast cancer is one of the most important cancers in our country because its incidence is very high and the mean age of patients is very low. Different studies have shown the benefits of selenium in prevention of cancer and since many years selenium has been used as a dietary supplement in advanced countries. Several studies regarding relationship between selenium levels and breast cancer have been done in different countries. We therefore planned a study to evaluate serum selenium levels in breast cancer patients and compare them with a healthy control group. Methods: We selected 45 patients younger than 48 years old and 33 patients older than 48 years old who had not yet received any therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, etc for their cancer as a case group and 46 healthy people who were matched with the patients as a control group and included 23 persons younger and 23 persons older than 48 years old. From each participant, 5cc blood was derived and in several stages, serum selenium levels were evaluated using atomic absorption technology. Data about type of cancer, stage, grade, IHC and cigarette smoking were also collected. Results: The mean Se level was 161.20 μg/l (SD=46.27 μg/l in the patients and 189.13 μg/l (SD=48.75 μg/l in the control group that was statistically significant (P48 years old was 155.39 μg/l (SD=46.68 μg/l that was lower than the control groups. Difference in serum selenium levels between patients and controls in the older group was significant (P=0.007, but in the younger group, it was not statistically significant (P=0

  18. Immune checkpoint blockade in cancer treatment: a double-edged sword cross-targeting the host as an "innocent bystander".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelao, Lucia; Criscitiello, Carmen; Esposito, Angela; Goldhirsch, Aron; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Targeted immune checkpoint blockade augments anti-tumor immunity and induces durable responses in patients with melanoma and other solid tumors. It also induces specific "immune-related adverse events" (irAEs). IrAEs mainly include gastrointestinal, dermatological, hepatic and endocrinological toxicities. Off-target effects that arise appear to account for much of the toxicity of the immune checkpoint blockade. These unique "innocent bystander" effects are likely a direct result of breaking immune tolerance upon immune check point blockade and require specific treatment guidelines that include symptomatic therapies or systemic corticosteroids. What do we need going forward to limit immune checkpoint blockade-induced toxicity? Most importantly, we need a better understanding of the roles played by these agents in normal tissues, so that we can begin to predict potentially problematic side effects on the basis of their selectivity profile. Second, we need to focus on the predictive factors of the response and toxicity of the host rather than serially focusing on individual agents. Third, rigorous biomarker-driven clinical trials are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of both the benefit and toxicity. We will summarize the double-edged sword effect of immunotherapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:24594636

  19. Influence of L-methionine-deprived total parenteral nutrition with 5-fluorouracil on gastric cancer and host metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bing Xiao; Wei-Xin Cao; Hao-Ran Yin; Yan-Zhen Lin; Shi-Hui Ye

    2001-01-01

    AIM To investigate the influence of L-methioninedeprived total parentaral nutrition with 5-FU on gastric cancer and host metabolism.``METHODS N-methyI-N-nitro-nitrosoguanidine ( MNNG )induced gastric cancer rats were randomly divided into four groups: Met-containing TPN group (n= 11 ), Metdeprived TPN group (n = 12), Met-containing TPN + 5-FU group (n = 11) and Met-deprived TPN + 5-FU group (n-12). Five rats in each group were sacrificed after 7days of treatment and the samples were taken for examination. The remaining rats in each group were then fed separately with normal diet after the treatment until death, the life span was noted.``RESULTS The tumors were enlarged in Met-containing group and shrank in Met-deprived group markedly after the treatment. The DNA index (DI) of tumor cells and the body weight (BW) of rats had no significant change in the two groups, however, the ratio of tumor cells' S phase was increased The ratio of G2M phase went up in Metcontaining group, but down in Met-deprived group. In the other two groups that 5-FU was added, the BW of rats,and the diameter of tumors, the DI of tumor cells, the S and G2M phase ratio of tumor cells were all decreased,particularly in Met-deprived plus 5-FU group. Pathological examination revealed that the necrotic foci of the tumor tissue increased after Met-deprived TPN treatment, and the nucleoli of tumor cells enlarged. In -MetTPN + 5-FUgroup, severe nuclear damage was also found by karyopyknosis and karyorrhexis, meanwhile there was slight degeneration in some liver and kidney cells. The serum free Met and Cysteine decreased markedly (P<0.001), while other amino acids, such as serum free serine and glutamine increased significantly ( P< 0.005).All the rats died of multiple organ failure caused by cancer metastasis. The average survival time was 18.6 days in Met-containing TPN group. 31 days in Met-deprived TPN group, 27.5 days in Met-containing TPN + 5-FU group, and 43 days in Met-deprived TPN+ 5-FU group

  20. Retrospective assessment of occupational asbestos exposure among 220 patients with respiratory cancer hospitalized at Vilnius University Institute of Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No cases of lung cancer or mesothelioma have ever been diagnosed or compensated as asbestos-related in Lithuania. This paper attempts to estimate the proportion of those occupationally exposed to asbestos among respiratory cancer patients. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed retrospectively for 218 lung cancer and 2 mesothelioma patients admitted to Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. The evaluation was based on personal interview data using an internationally established questionnaire. Cumulative exposure to asbestos at work was evaluated in fibre-years. A cumulative asbestos exposure of ≥25 fibre-years was found for 7 patients (3.2%), in further 135 (61.2%) a cumulative exposure from 0.01 to 24.99 fibre-years was assessed. The most common occupations among heavily (≥25 fibre-years) exposed patients were smith, welder or insulator in foundries, construction, shipyard as well as asbestos cement and glass industry. Preliminary findings indicate that a fraction (3.2%) of the respiratory cancer cases could be attributed to occupational exposure to asbestos. Since 1560 or more cases of lung cancer are registered every year in Lithuania, about 50 cases per year could be predicted to be asbestos-related. (author)

  1. Epidemiology and management of breast carcinoma in Egyptian males: Experience of a single Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the epidemiological and clinico-pathological features, surgical and reconstructive techniques, adjuvant treatments and clinical outcome of breast carcinoma in males (BCM) at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (NCI). Patients and methods: Thirty-two males with breast carcinoma presented to NCI between January 2000 and December 2002. They were evaluated by complete history, physical examination, laboratory and radiological investigations. Results: Median age was 59 years. Left sided and retroareolar breast lumps were the commonest presentations. Grade 11 tumors positive for hormone receptors were very common. Stage I, II, 111 and IV disease were encountered in 6.2%, 34.4%, 34.4% and 25.0% of patients, respectively. Curative surgery was done in 22 patients; they received adjuvant hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 22,16 and 10 patients, respectively. Eight metastatic patients were treated with palliative measures. Surgery was done in 25 patients; the most common procedure was modified radical mastectomy (40.6%). Primary closure was feasible in 17 patients (68%), local flaps were needed in 4 cases (16%), while myocutaneous flap was done in 3 cases (12%). The commonest complication was development of seroma (9 cases). The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 65.4%. The disease free survival (DPS) at 5 years was 53.9%. Stage and curative surgery significantly affected OS, while type of surgery was the only variable significantly affecting DPS. Conclusion: Male breast carcinoma occurs at older ages than females, usually in advanced stage. This necessitates directing attention of males and awareness on the prevalence and risk factors for this disease.needed in 4 cases (16%), while myocutaneous flap was done in 3 cases (12%). The commonest complication was development of seroma (9 cases). The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 65.4%. The disease free survival (DPS) at 5 years was 53.9%. Stage and curative surgery significantly affected OS

  2. Clinical features of esophageal cancer in the octogenarian treated by definitive radiotherapy. A multi-institutional retrospective survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As age-related infirmity often influences treatment options and outcome of esophageal cancer, the optimization of treatment for the elderly, especially in octogenarians, has been the subject of considerable debate. We performed a retrospective, multi-institutional survey to assess the effect of age on the outcome of definitive radiotherapy for esophageal cancer by a questionnaire sent to eight institutions in Japan. There were 362 evaluable replies. The patients included 317 males and 45 females, with a median age of 72 years (range 35-93 years), and 96% had squamous cell carcinoma. There were 30 clinical stage I, 71 stage IIA, 17 stage IIB, 113 stage III and 116 stage IV cases. The stage was not specified in 16 cases. Multiple co-morbidities existed in 40% of the patients who were 70 years of age or older. There was no statistically significant age-related difference in the incidence of adverse reactions to radiotherapy (p>0.05). Overall survival was more significantly affected by Karnofsky Performance Status than by the patient's age. The influence of performance status on cumulative survival for stage I and II disease was more pronounced in patients in their 80s. The safety of radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma is not influenced by the patient's age. Because the performance status strongly influenced survival, the multi-disciplinary assessment of functional status is mandatory for optimizing the choice of treatment for patients in their 80s with esophageal cancer. (author)

  3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and breast cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; James V Lacey; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Richesson, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction By inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease aromatase activity and might reduce breast cancer risk by suppressing estrogen synthesis. Epidemiologic evidence for a protective role of NSAIDs in breast cancer, however, is equivocal. Methods We tested NSAID use for its association with breast cancer incidence in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, where 127,383 female AARP (formerly known as the American Association...

  4. Patient-centered cancer treatment planning: improving the quality of oncology care. Summary of an Institute of Medicine workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Erin P; Ganz, Patricia A; Murphy, Sharon B; Nass, Sharyl J; Ferrell, Betty R; Stovall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Forum recently convened a workshop on patient-centered cancer treatment planning, with the aim of raising awareness about this important but often overlooked aspect of cancer treatment. A primary goal of patient-centered treatment planning is to engage patients and their families in meaningful, thorough interactions with their health care providers to develop an accurate, well-conceived treatment plan, using all available medical information appropriately while also considering the medical, social, and cultural needs and desires of the patient and family. A cancer treatment plan can be shared among the patient, family, and care team in order to facilitate care coordination and provide a roadmap to help patients navigate the path of cancer treatment. There are numerous obstacles to achieving patient-centered cancer treatment planning in practice. Some of these challenges stem from the patient and include patients' lack of assertiveness, health literacy, and numeracy, and their emotional state and concurrent illnesses. Others are a result of physician limitations, such as a lack of time to explain complex information and a lack of tools to facilitate treatment planning, as well as insensitivity to patients' informational, cultural, and emotional needs. Potential solutions to address these obstacles include better training of health care providers and patients in optimal communication and shared decision making, and greater use of support services and tools such as patient navigation and electronic health records. Other options include greater use of quality metrics and reimbursement for the time it takes to develop, discuss, and document a treatment plan. PMID:22128118

  5. Determinants of quality of life in prostate cancer patients: A single institute analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Lin Kao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that marital status is an important determinant of quality of life in prostate cancer patients besides other sociodemographic factors. Clinicians are advised to provide more social support recourses for patients who do not have a partner.

  6. Determinants of quality of life in prostate cancer patients: A single institute analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yao-Lin Kao; Yuh-Shyan Tsai; Fat-Ya Ou; Ya-Jhu Syu; Chien-Hui Ou; Wen-Horng Yang; Hong-Lin Cheng; Tzong-Shin Tzai; Jung-Der Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors that influence quality of life in prostate cancer patients. Patients and methods: Patients with pathologically verified prostate cancer and treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital were invited to fill out the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaires at the outpatient clinic. We explored the determinants of quality of life including age, education, income, marital status, disease stage, and treatment modality using a mixed-...

  7. Cryotherapy for primary treatment of prostate cancer: intermediate term results of a prospective study from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S Alvarez; Arias Fúnez, F; Bueno Bravo, C; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, R; Sanz Mayayo, E; Palacios, V Hevia; Burgos Revilla, F J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO). End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. PMID:24693437

  8. A Novel Cross-Disciplinary Multi-Institute Approach to Translational Cancer Research: Lessons Learned from Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC

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    Ashokkumar A. Patel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC, http://www.pcabc.upmc.edu is one of the first major project-based initiatives stemming from the Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance that was funded for four years by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The objective of this was to initiate a prototype biorepository and bioinformatics infrastructure with a robust data warehouse by developing a statewide data model (1 for bioinformatics and a repository of serum and tissue samples; (2 a data model for biomarker data storage; and (3 a public access website for disseminating research results and bioinformatics tools. The members of the Consortium cooperate closely, exploring the opportunity for sharing clinical, genomic and other bioinformatics data on patient samples in oncology, for the purpose of developing collaborative research programs across cancer research institutions in Pennsylvania. The Consortium’s intention was to establish a virtual repository of many clinical specimens residing in various centers across the state, in order to make them available for research. One of our primary goals was to facilitate the identification of cancer specific biomarkers and encourage collaborative research efforts among the participating centers.Methods: The PCABC has developed unique partnerships so that every region of the state can effectively contribute and participate. It includes over 80 individuals from 14 organizations, and plans to expand to partners outside the State. This has created a network of researchers, clinicians, bioinformaticians, cancer registrars, program directors, and executives from academic and community health systems, as well as external corporate partners - all working together to accomplish a common mission. The various sub-committees have developed a common IRB protocol template, common data elements for standardizing data collections for three organ sites, intellectual

  9. Recruitment and activation of pancreatic stellate cells from the bone marrow in pancreatic cancer: a model of tumor-host interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Scarlett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer are characterised by extensive stellate cell mediated fibrosis, and current therapeutic development includes targeting pancreatic cancer stroma and tumor-host interactions. Recent evidence has suggested that circulating bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDC contribute to solid organs. We aimed to define the role of circulating haematopoietic cells in the normal and diseased pancreas. METHODS: Whole bone marrow was harvested from male β-actin-EGFP donor mice and transplanted into irradiated female recipient C57/BL6 mice. Chronic pancreatitis was induced with repeat injections of caerulein, while carcinogenesis was induced with an intrapancreatic injection of dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA. Phenotype of engrafted donor-derived cells within the pancreas was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: GFP positive cells were visible in the exocrine pancreatic epithelia from 3 months post transplantation. These exhibited acinar morphology and were positive for amylase and peanut agglutinin. Mice administered caerulein developed chronic pancreatitis while DMBA mice exhibited precursor lesions and pancreatic cancer. No acinar cells were identified to be donor-derived upon cessation of cerulein treatment, however rare occurrences of bone marrow-derived acinar cells were observed during pancreatic regeneration. Increased recruitment of BMDC was observed within the desmoplastic stroma, contributing to the activated pancreatic stellate cell (PaSC population in both diseases. Expression of stellate cell markers CELSR3, PBX1 and GFAP was observed in BMD cancer-associated PaSCs, however cancer-associated, but not pancreatitis-associated BMD PaSCs, expressed the cancer PaSC specific marker CELSR3. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that BMDC can incorporate into the pancreas and adopt the differentiated state of the exocrine compartment. BMDC that

  10. A long-term survival pattern for breast cancer treated in a single institution

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    T Gokce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper presents a 14-year retrospective study evaluating the survival rates and prognostic factors of breast carcinoma patients treated in private treatment center in the west coast of Turkey. Materials and Methods: The survival rates of breast cancer patients (n = 1746 who have been treated from 1995 until 2008 were analyzed. The clinical data include age, menopausal stage, oestrogen (ER and progesterone (PR receptor status, and C-erbB-2 status as well as histopathological evaluation. AJCC (2002 was used for clinical tumor staging. Survival rates were computed using standard Kaplan-Meier methods, and the difference in survival curves was analyzed with the log-rank test. Results: The 14-year overall survival, disease-free survival, local failure-free survival, and distant failure-free survival rates were 77%, 95%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. Early-stage patients had higher overall survival rates compared to advanced-stage patients (stage IIIb and IIIc, AJCC 2002, and early-stage patients had higher survival rates than advanced-stage patients for disease-free survival, local failure-free survival, and distant failure-free survival. The risk for cancer development increases significantly for advanced-stage patients with positive ER and PR receptor as well as C-erbB-2 receptor. Conclusions: The incidence of breast cancer in Turkey is smaller compared to other European countries. Low advanced-stage patient numbers compared to high early-stage patient numbers; and very high median survival times could possibly be the result of the improvement of detection and treatment of breast cancer over the years.

  11. Radiotherapy in the cavum cancer: analysis of 30 cases treated in our institution in Beirut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the results obtained for nasopharyngeal cancers treated by irradiation, exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy. They also assess the impact of the different pathological and clinic variables on survival without relapse. The study is based on a sample of 30 patients treated between 1999 and 2009. Local control, metastatic dissemination, and toxicity are analysed and discussed. A ganglionary extension seems to be the worst prognostic factor. Short communication

  12. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: 30-Year Experience in a Single Institution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, Keiichi, E-mail: kjingu-jr@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Tanabe, Takaya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori; Umezawa, Rei; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Shimizu, Eiji; Abe, Keiko; Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with or without external beam radiotherapy ({+-} EBRT) for localized pancreatic cancer in the past three decades and to analyze prognostic factors by multivariate analysis. Methods and Materials: Records for 322 patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT in Tohoku University Hospital between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed. One hundred ninety-two patients who had no distant organ metastases or dissemination at the time of laparotomy were enrolled in the present study. Results: Eighty-three patients underwent gross total resection (R0: 48 patients, R1: 35 patients), and 109 patients underwent only biopsy or palliative resection. Fifty-five patients underwent adjuvant EBRT, and 124 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. The median doses of IORT and EBRT were 25 and 40 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 37.5 months. At the time of the analysis, 166 patients had disease recurrence, and 35 patients had local failure. The 2-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates were 71.0% and 16.9%, respectively. Comparison of the results for each decade showed that OS was significantly improved decade by decade (2-year: 25.0% vs. 18.8% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection (R0-1 vs. R2, hazard ratio = 1.97, p = 0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no, hazard ratio = 1.54, p = 0.028) had significant impacts on OS. Late gastrointestinal morbidity of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 4 or 5 was observed in four patients. Conclusion: Excellent local control for pancreatic cancer with few cases of severe late toxicity was achieved by using IORT. OS of patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT improved significantly decade by decade. Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection and adjuvant chemotherapy had significant impacts on OS.

  13. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.villeneuve@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  14. Lung Cancer in Homeless People: Clinical Outcomes and Cost Analysis in a Single Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koung Jin Suh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To characterize the demographic and clinical features, outcomes, and treatment costs of lung cancer in homeless people. Methods. Medical records of 22 homeless patients with lung cancer at Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. Results. All patients were men (median age, 62 years. Most patients (78% had advanced disease (stage IIIB, n=2; stage IV, n=15. Seven died during initial hospitalization (median survival, 1.5 months. Six were lost to follow-up after initial outpatient visits or discharges from initial admission (median follow-up, 13 days. Only 4 received appropriate treatment for their disease and survived for 1, 15, 19, and 28 months, respectively. Conversely, 4 of 5 patients with early stage disease (stage I, n=4; stage IIA, n=1 received curative surgery (median follow-up 25.5 months. The median treatment cost based on 29 days of hospitalization and 2 outpatient visits was $12,513, constituting 47.3% of the 2013 per capita income. Inpatient treatment accounted for 90% of the total costs. The National Health Insurance Service paid 82% of the costs. Conclusion. Among the homeless, lung cancer seems to be associated with poor prognosis and substantial costs during a relatively short follow-up and survival period.

  15. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  16. Emerging Roles of the Host Defense Peptide LL-37 in Human Cancer and its Potential Therapeutic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    WU, WILLIAM K.K.; Wang, Guangshun; Coffelt, Seth B.; Betancourt, Aline M.; Lee, Chung W.; Fan, Daiming; Wu, Kaichun; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J. Y.; Cho, Chi H.

    2010-01-01

    Human cathelicidin LL-37, a host defense peptide derived from leukocytes and epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity. Not only does it eliminate pathogenic microbes directly, LL-37 also modulates host immune responses. Emerging evidence from tumor biology studies indicates that LL-37 plays a prominent and complex role in carcinogenesis. While overexpression of LL-37 has been implicated in the development or progression of many human malignancies, including breas...

  17. Beneficial bacteria stimulate host immune cells to counteract dietary and genetic predisposition to mammary cancer in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica R Lakritz; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Levkovich, Tatiana; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Mirabal, Sheyla; Eric J Alm; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest health benefits including protection from cancer after eating fermented foods such as probiotic yogurt, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we tested mechanistic hypotheses using two different animal models: the first model studied development of mammary cancer when eating a Westernized diet, and the second studied animals with a genetic predilection to breast cancer. For the first model, outbred Swiss mice were fed a Westernized chow putting them at inc...

  18. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel; Rout Namita; Gnanasekar Munirathinam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood....

  19. A simple technique for the generation of institution-specific nomograms for permanent prostate cancer brachytherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lafata, Kyle J.; Bushe, Harry; Aronowitz, Jesse N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nomograms once had a vital role in prostate brachytherapy practice. Although some of their functions have been assumed by computerized dosimetry, many programs still find them useful to determine the number and strength of seeds to be ordered in advance of the implant. As it has been demonstrated that brachytherapists differ in their implant practices and preferences (in regard to seed distribution and total implanted activity), we propose a simple technique for generating institution...

  20. Comparison of two different treatment regimens for cancer of uterine cervix as practised in our institute: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the early days of radiotherapy practice till today, cancer of female uterine cervix is the most common malignant disease in India. A number of treatment modalities are being used for the treatment of this disease. Earlier, Wertheim's hysterectomy was the primary line of treatment. But due to poor cosmetic results and other complications, nowadays radiotherapy is the most preferred modality for the radical treatment of this commonest malignancy. Due to the lack of any universally accepted radiotherapy treatment regime, different oncology therapists within the same institute are practising different regimens derived from their own clinical practice experience. Majority of the patients are treated with two parallel opposed (AP-PA) portals up to 40 Gy, then 10 Gy dose is delivered using central shield to avoid overdose to bladder and rectum and to get dose uniformity caused by I/C application. External irradiation was delivered by a 60Co photon beam

  1. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.

  2. Displacements of fiducial markers in patients with prostate cancer treated with image guided radiotherapy: A single-institution descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendales, Ricardo; Torres, Felipe; Arbelaez, Juan; Gaitan, Armando; Vasquez, Jaider; Bobadilla, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe daily displacements when using fiducial markers as surrogates for the target volume in patients with prostate cancer treated with IGRT. Background The higher grade of conformity achieved with the use of modern radiation technologies in prostate cancer can increase the risk of geographical miss; therefore, an associated protocol of IGRT is recommended. Materials and methods A single-institution, retrospective, consecutive study was designed. 128 prostate cancer patients treated with daily on-line IGRT based on 2D kV orthogonal images were included. Daily displacement of the fiducial markers was considered as the difference between the position of the patient when using skin tattoos and the position after being relocated using fiducial markers. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to describe fiducial displacements. Results The implant itself took a mean time of 15 min. We did not detect any complications derived from the implant. 4296 sets of orthogonal images were identified, 128 sets of images corresponding to treatment initiation were excluded; 91 (2.1%) sets of images were excluded from the analysis after having identified that these images contained extreme outlier values. If IGRT had not been performed 25%, 10% or 5% of the treatments would have had displacements superior to 4, 7 or 9 mm respectively in any axis. Conclusions Image guidance is required when using highly conformal techniques; otherwise, at least 10% of daily treatments could have significant displacements. IGRT based on fiducial markers, with 2D kV orthogonal images is a convenient and fast method for performing image guidance. PMID:25535583

  3. Patterns of Resection among Patients with Hepatic-Only Metastatic Colorectal Cancer a Single Institution Experience and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Quintyne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hepatic-only metastasis in colorectal cancer is not a rare clinical finding and can account for 30% of cases. However, only 10-25% of cases are suitable for hepatic resection as part of their treatment pathway. We sought to document our own findings by reviewing patients with hepatic-only disease. Approach: A retrospective analysis was designed to include all patients seen at our institution from 1st January 2000 until 30th June 2010 and information as derived from the patients� records. Results: Forty-four (44 patients were found, with an average age of 60.8 years and a male preponderance. The majority of patients (approximately 57% with hepatic-only metastases developed their disease following adjuvant therapy. Better overall survival was seen when a primary tumor had a low grade of histological differentiation and fewer than 3 hepatic lesions appreciated on conventional radiology. Better outcome was seen in patients who underwent hepatic resection. Conclusion: Patients with hepatic-only metastases are not uncommon within our institution. Hepatic resection afforded better outcome and compares favorably with published literature.

  4. The role of regulatory T cells in cancer immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside TL

    2015-01-01

    Theresa L Whiteside University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, US Abstract: Regulatory T cells (Treg) are generally considered to be significant contributors to tumor escape from the host immune system. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that in some human cancers, Treg are necessary to control chronic inflammation, prevent tissue damage, and limit inflammation-associated cancer development. The dual role of Treg in cancer and underpinnings of Treg diversity are not well und...

  5. The costs of breast cancer in a Mexican public health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Alejandro Gómez-Rico

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jacobo Alejandro Gómez-Rico1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde1, Consuelo Rubio-Poo21Universidad Autónoma Metropolitano–Xochimilco (UAM-X, Departments: Biological Systems and Healthcare, Biological and Health Sciences Division (DCBS; 2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, Faculty of Professional Studies-Zaragoza (FES-ZaragozaAbstract: Breast cancer (BC is the second leading cause of death as a result of neoplasia in Mexico. This study aimed to identify the direct and indirect costs of treating female outpatients diagnosed with BC at a Mexican public hospital. A cross-sectional, observational, analytical study was conducted. A total of 506 medical records were analyzed and 102 were included in the cost analysis. The micro-costing process was used to estimate treatment costs. A 17-item questionnaire was used to obtain information on direct and indirect costs. Of the 102 women with BC included in the study, 92.2% (94 were at Stage II, and only 7.8% at Stage I. Total direct costs over six months for the 82 women who had modified radical mastectomy (MRM surgury were US$733,821.15. Total direct costs for the 15 patients with conservative surgery (CS were US$138,190.39. We found that the total economic burden in the study population was much higher for patients with MRM than for patients with CS.Keywords: breast cancer, Mexican women, direct and indirect costs

  6. Organ heterogeneity of host-derived matrix metalloproteinase expression and its involvement in multiple-organ metastasis by lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Minoru; Yano, Seiji; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Goto, Hisatsugu; Miki, Toyokazu; Miki, Keisuke; Zhang, Helong; Sone, Saburo

    2002-10-15

    Cancer metastasis is tightly regulated by the interaction of tumor cells and host organ microenvironments. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), produced by both tumor cells and host stromal cells, play a central role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. We determined whether metastatic potential of lung cancer to multiple organs is dependent solely on the expression of MMPs by tumor cells, using two metastasis models of human lung cancer cell lines expressing various levels of MMPs and a MMP inhibitor (ONO-4817). In the lung metastasis model, tumor cells (PC14, PC14PE6, H226, A549) inoculated i.v. into nude or SCID mice metastasized only in the lung. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, tumor cells (RERF-LC-AI, SBC-3/DOX, H69/VP, which express low levels of MMPs) inoculated i.v. into natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice metastasized into the liver, kidneys, and systemic lymph nodes. Film in situ zymography analysis revealed that the nontumor parenchyma of the lung had no gelatinolytic activity, whereas gelatinolytic activity of the liver and kidney was high and low, respectively. In the lung metastasis model, gelatinolytic activity of lung nodules directly correlated with the in vitro expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by tumor cells. Inhibition of MMP activity by ONO-4817 suppressed lung metastasis by the cell lines that expressed MMPs, but not those that did not express MMP, via the inhibition of MMP activity of lung tumors. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, liver parenchyma, but not liver nodules, showed gelatinolytic activity. The MMP inhibition reduced metastasis to the liver, but not to the kidney or lymph nodes, via inhibition of MMP activity of liver parenchyma. These findings suggest that MMP expression varies among the host organ microenvironments and that stromal MMPs may promote metastasis of lung cancer. Therefore, antimetastatic effects based on MMP inhibition may be dependent on MMPs derived not only from tumor cells but also from organ

  7. Decade evaluation of management of differentiated thyroid cancer in National Anticancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Although the differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has proven to have a good prognosis with significant decreases in mortality rates, many countries recently witnessed an increase in incidence of this pathology. In this respect, this study aims to assess 10 years of DTC management in the national cancer centre through a population survey. Materials and methods: 750 patients were referred to the department of endocrinology and nuclear medicine, Pierre and Marie curie centre for DTC management between 1996 and 2005. All patients have undergone a surgery with total thyroidectomy even for papillary microcarcinoma followed by an iodine 131 ablation (3.7 GBq). Results: This study confirms that the DTC incidence increased through the years, essentially from 2001(between 2 to 3 times).The incidence rate for the female sex is 6 times greater than that for males (86% vs. 14%) with a median age at diagnosis stage between 30 to 49 years in 49% of patients. In 64 % of the cases (33% for solitary nodule), the multinodular goiter is the principal reason for the first consultation. Even though the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) was performed only in 30% of patients, 70% were malignant. The papillary histology type is 5 times more frequent than the follicular type (75% vs. 16%). The mean time for radioiodine therapy after surgery has decreased from 34 months in 1996 to 7 months in 2005. 86% of patients have received an activity of 3.7GBq of I-131, while 9% have received 7.4GBq and 5% received more than 7.4GBq. After a minimum follow-up of one year, 78% of patients have had an undetectable Tg. Conclusion: Although an increased incidence rate of DTC has been observed since 2001, the reasons, according to our understanding, are due to the early stage diagnosis using FNA, the frequent availability of ultrasonography neck and the multidisciplinary approach, rather than the fallout atmosphere of radioactive iodine or the population's exposure to thyroid radiation, for

  8. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weems William A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems – such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG – seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. Methods An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios – difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Results Thirty-one (31 individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31 individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and

  9. CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the national Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.; Albanes, Demetrius; Altshuler, David; Berglund, Gran; Buring, Julie; Calle, Eugenia E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Cox, David G.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Linseisen, Jakob; Lund, Eiliv; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polym

  10. Lifestyle and cancer prevention in female employees at a health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Eugenia Canaval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the relationship between lifestyle for prevention of cervix and breast cancer and perceptual cognitive factors from the Pender model in working women. Materials and methods: Correlation and cross-sectional study with a random sample of 143 working women. The Lifestyle index is the total score of 5 variables: Papanicolau test, breast self-exam, physical activity, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. Results: The mean age for the sample was 44.4 + 6.2; 87% of the women had higher education and 85% were working in health care services. A total of 89% of the women had unhealthy lifestyles because of the lack of regular physical activity, not having a Papanicolau test according to the norm, not practicing breast self-exams, and having an altered body mass index. There was significant correlation between lifestyle and occupation, and also with self-efficacy perception for breast self-examination. Conclusion: The lifestyles for most of the women sampled were unhealthy. Recommendations: It is also recommend conducting culturally sensitive healthcare campaigns in addition to setting up flexible attention schedules for women.

  11. Lifestyle and cancer prevention in female employees at a health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Eugenia Canaval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the relationship between lifestyle for prevention of cervix and breast cancer and perceptual cognitive factors from the Pender model in working women.Materials and methods: Correlation and cross-sectional study with a random sample of 143 working women. The Lifestyle index is the total score of 5 variables: Papanicolau test, breast self-exam, physical activity, body mass index, and cigarette smoking.Results: The mean age for the sample was 44.4 + 6.2; 87% of the women had higher education and 85% were working in health care services. A total of 89% of the women had unhealthy lifestyles because of the lack of regular physical activity, not having a Papanicolau test according to the norm, not practicing breast self-exams, and having an altered body mass index. There was significant correlation between lifestyle and occupation, and also with self-efficacy perception for breast self-examination.Conclusion: The lifestyles for most of the women sampled were unhealthy.Recommendations: It is recommend the reorientation of health services based on health promotion, which permit planning and executing health care, health education and nursing care programs specifically for working women. It is also recommend conducting culturally sensitive.

  12. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: A Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Gary W.; Steel, Jennifer L.; Amesur, Nikhil; Zajko, Albert; Nastasi, Bryon E.; Joyce, Judith; Sheetz, Michael; Gamblin, T. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. We sought to evaluate our experience using yttrium-90 (90Y) resin microsphere hepatic radioembolization as salvage therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with unresectable mCRC who were treated with 90Y after failing first and second line systemic chemotherapy. Demographics, treatment dose, biochemical and radiographic response, toxicities, and survival were examined. Results. Fifty-one patients underwent 90Y treatments of which 69% were male. All patients had previously undergone extensive chemotherapy, 31% had undergone previous liver-directed therapy and 24% had a prior liver resection. Using RECIST criteria, either stable disease or a partial response was seen in 77% of patients. Overall median survival from the time of first 90Y treatment was 10.2 months (95% CI = 7.5–13.0). The absence of extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y was associated with an improved survival, median survival of 17.0 months (95% CI = 6.4–27.6), compared to those with extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y, 6.7 months (95% CI = 2.7–10.6 Conclusion: 90Y therapy is a safe locoregional therapy that provides an important therapeutic option to patients who have failed first and second line chemotherapy and have adequate liver function and performance status. PMID:22312513

  13. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: A Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Nace

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to evaluate our experience using yttrium-90 (90Y resin microsphere hepatic radioembolization as salvage therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. Methods. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with unresectable mCRC who were treated with 90Y after failing first and second line systemic chemotherapy. Demographics, treatment dose, biochemical and radiographic response, toxicities, and survival were examined. Results. Fifty-one patients underwent 90Y treatments of which 69% were male. All patients had previously undergone extensive chemotherapy, 31% had undergone previous liver-directed therapy and 24% had a prior liver resection. Using RECIST criteria, either stable disease or a partial response was seen in 77% of patients. Overall median survival from the time of first 90Y treatment was 10.2 months (95% CI = 7.5–13.0. The absence of extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y was associated with an improved survival, median survival of 17.0 months (95% CI = 6.4–27.6, compared to those with extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y, 6.7 months (95% CI = 2.7–10.6 Conclusion: 90Y therapy is a safe locoregional therapy that provides an important therapeutic option to patients who have failed first and second line chemotherapy and have adequate liver function and performance status.

  14. Multi-institutional analysis of bioimpedance spectroscopy in the early detection of breast cancer related lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicini FA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy’s (BIS ability to detect and monitor extracellular fluid accumulation of the upper limb as it relates to the extent of loco-regional therapy. Methods: A total of 125 patients with breast cancer from 4 clinical practices were evaluated with BIS at baseline and following loco-regional procedures. In order to assess the ability of BIS to detect subclinical changes by treatment modality, the change in L-Dex score from baseline to measurements taken within 180 days following surgery were calculated. Results: Mean age was 55 years with 68 patients (54.4% undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN sampling while 57 (45.6% underwent an axillary dissection (ALND. Sixty-five patients (52% underwent radiation therapy (RT. Patients receiving RT had a significantly increased change in L-Dex score (0.8 v.-2.5, p=0.03 compared with those patients not receiving RT. For all patients, ALND was associated with a significantly increased change in L-Dex score (5.0 v. 0.3, p=0.003 compared with SLN. When stratifying by the number of nodes removed, a statistically significant increase in the change in L-Dex score was noted (0.4 v. 0.4 v. 4.3 v. 6.4, p=0.04 for 0-3, 4-6, 7-10 and greater than 10 lymph nodes removed. Conclusions: In this limited analysis, L-Dex scores paralleled the extent of axillary sampling and the addition of radiation therapy; these results demonstrate that BIS can be used to monitor patients for the early onset of edema as differences emerged within 180 days of surgery.

  15. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs and Eosinophils (Eos with Host Mast Cells (MCs and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Khatami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host and recruited immune cells: (a, acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs, IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b, intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs, tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c, chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mfs, increased (irregular size B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth and/or thinning (necrosis and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  16. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  17. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Mahin [Inflammation and Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute (Ret), the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  18. Liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at the Liver Cancer Institute of Fudan University, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; HE Yi-feng; YANG Guo-huan; SONG Kang; YUAN Zhou; WANG Yu-qi; TANG Zhao-you; FAN Jia; WU Zhi-quan; QIU Shuang-jian; HUANG Xiao-wu; YU Yao; WANG Zheng; SUN Jian; XIAO Yong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Selection of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains controversial. Since there is a trend to expand the transplant criteria for HCC patients, we reviewed the data of patients with HCC who had received OLT at our institute to determine their survival and prognostic factors.Methods A total of 67 patients with HCC who had undergone OLT from April 2001 through December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Selection OLT candidates with HCC was dependent on the anatomical characteristics and/or the severity of underlying liver cirrhosis. The 67 patients were followed up for more than 6 months after transplantation. Their survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to reveal the factors affecting the survival rate.Results No perioperative death occurred in this series. The 1- and 2-year cumulative survival rates were 90.0% and 65.6%, and the disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.5% and 62.5% respectively. Univariate analysis revealed the tumor size, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), serum alpha-fetoprotein level, bilobular distribution of tumors, pTNM stage and histological differentiation were statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed tumor size and PVTT were independent and statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P=0.005 and 0.010, respectively). In this series, all but 2 received systemic chemotherapy, among them 13 had tumor recurrence within 8 months after OLT.Conclusions OLT is indicated for patients with HCC, even for some patients with end-stage liver disease who may survive longer without tumor recurrence. Adjuvant chemotherapy may decrease the recurrence of HCC after OLT.

  19. 对国企内审机构隶属的立法思考%Legislation of the Host Unit of Internal Audit Institutions in State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟心惠

    2015-01-01

    The state-owned enterprise reform turns to the direction of management after the formal transformation from state-institution to business-oriented,where the internal audit institu-tions are very important parts.Considering the disorder in this field,an efficient host unit should be developed.It is suggested to enforce the function and power of board of directors and attac-hing the audit institutions to the audit committee subordinating to the borad.%在具备公司的形式之后,国企改革的目标转向了公司治理的完善,内部审计成为完善公司治理不可或缺的一部分。然而,实践中国企的内部审计乱象丛生,并没有发挥出其应有的作用,导致该现象的一个重要原因就是内部审计机构隶属的缺陷。该问题的解决可从加强董事会职能入手,使内部审计机构隶属于董事会下属的审计委员会。

  20. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: III. The 2014 Biomarker Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Sophie; Hakim, Frances T; Pidala, Joseph; Cooke, Kenneth R; Lathrop, Julia; Griffith, Linda M; Hansen, John; Jagasia, Madan; Miklos, David; Pavletic, Steven; Parkman, Robertson; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Flowers, Mary E D; Lee, Stephanie; Martin, Paul; Vogelsang, Georgia; Walton, Marc; Schultz, Kirk R

    2015-05-01

    Biology-based markers to confirm or aid in the diagnosis or prognosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation or monitor its progression are critically needed to facilitate evaluation of new therapies. Biomarkers have been defined as any characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of a normal biological or pathogenic process, or of a pharmacologic response to a therapeutic intervention. Applications of biomarkers in chronic GVHD clinical trials or patient management include the following: (1) diagnosis and assessment of chronic GVHD disease activity, including distinguishing irreversible damage from continued disease activity; (2) prognostic risk to develop chronic GVHD; and (3) prediction of response to therapy. Sample collection for chronic GVHD biomarkers studies should be well documented following established quality control guidelines for sample acquisition, processing, preservation, and testing, at intervals that are both calendar and event driven. The consistent therapeutic treatment of subjects and standardized documentation needed to support biomarker studies are most likely to be provided in prospective clinical trials. To date, no chronic GVHD biomarkers have been qualified for use in clinical applications. Since our previous chronic GVHD Biomarkers Working Group report in 2005, an increasing number of chronic GVHD candidate biomarkers are available for further investigation. This paper provides a 4-part framework for biomarker investigations: identification, verification, qualification, and application with terminology based on Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. PMID:25644957

  1. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Pooled analysis from a multi-institutional consortium of prospective phase II trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The effectiveness of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer is tested. Methods and materials: A total of 1100 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were enrolled in separate prospective phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT from 8 institutions during 2003–11 and pooled for analysis. SBRT using the CyberKnife delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4–5 fractions. Patients were low-risk (58%), intermediate-risk (30%) and high-risk (11%). A short-course of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was given to 14%. PSA relapse defined as a rise >2 ng/ml above nadir was analyzed with the Kaplan Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 36 months there were 49 patients with PSA failure (4.5%), 9 of whom were subsequently determined to be benign PSA bounces. The 5-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rate was 93% for all patients; 95%, 83% and 78% for GS ⩽6, 7 and ⩾8, respectively (p = 0.001), and 95%, 84% and 81% for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively (p 0.2 ng/ml was noted among 16% of patients. For 135 patients possessing a minimum of 5 years follow-up, the 5-year bRFS rate for low- and intermediate-risk patients was 99% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: PSA relapse-free survival rates after SBRT compare favorably with other definitive treatments for low and intermediate risk patients. The current evidence supports consideration of SBRT among the therapeutic options for these patients

  2. Cancer risk among Italian veterans from the Balkans: the activities of the Italian National Institute of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, cases of cancer have been reported among Italian troops involved in the peace-keeping mission in Bosnia and Kosovo. By the end of 2000, the Italian Minister of Defence appointed a Committee of Enquiry to gain a scientifically sound, reliable picture of the health consequences of the exposure of military personnel to Depleted Uranium (DU) and to assess the possible etiologic role DU may have played in the occurrence of specific pathologies. The Committee found a statistically significant excess of Hodgkin's lymphomas, but up to now the lack of thorough knowledge about internal uranium exposure and its potential effects has prevented us from determining whether lymphatic cancers are correlated with DU exposure. The Committee of Enquiry issued several recommendations, in particular: 1) to follow up the cohort of military personnel deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo and monitor the incidence of tumours and the evolution of the ensuing epidemiological scenario, and 2) to list the individuals that could have been exposed to DU for different reasons and enrol them in a long-term programme of medical surveillance. A decision was also made to quantify levels of U and other potentially toxic elements - as well as to measure the isotopic ratio 235U/238U for the assessment of DU - in biological samples of soldiers deployed in war theatres where presumably DU weapons were used, together with tentative indexes of contact with possible genotoxic factors. In this paper a general description is given of the activities carried out by the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in the Italian acronym) in compliance with both the recommendations of the Committee of Enquiry and the decision to quantify potential exposures. (author)

  3. Clinical results of stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I small-cell lung cancer. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). From April 2003 to September 2009, a total of eight patients with Stage I SCLC were treated with SBRT in our institution. In all patients, the lung tumors were proven as SCLC pathologically. The patients' ages were 58-84 years (median: 74). The T-stage of the primary tumor was T1a in two, T1b in two and T2a in four patients. Six of the patients were inoperable because of poor cardiac and/or pulmonary function, and two patients refused surgery. SBRT was given using 7-8 non-coplanar beams with 48 Gy in four fractions. Six of the eight patients received 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy using carboplatin (CBDCA) + etoposide (VP-16) or cisplatin (CDDP) + irinotecan (CPT-11). The follow-up period for all patients was 6-60 months (median: 32). Six patients were still alive without any recurrence. One patient died from this disease and one died from another disease. The overall and disease-specific survival rate at three years was 72% and 86%, respectively. There were no patients with local progression of the lesion targeted by SBRT. Only one patient had nodal recurrence in the mediastinum at 12 months after treatment. The progression-free survival rate was 71%. No Grade 2 or higher SBRT-related toxicities were observed. SBRT plus chemotherapy could be an alternative to surgery with chemotherapy for inoperable patients with Stage I small-cell lung cancer. However, further investigation is needed using a large series of patients. (author)

  4. Clinicopathological analysis of thymic malignancies with a consistent retrospective database in a single institution: from Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), which comprise thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare cancers with specific morphological and clinical features. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes have gradually been clarified by assessing large-scale, retrospective data obtained with international cooperation. The study is a retrospective review of 187 Japanese patients with TETs who attended our institution from 1976 to 2012. Relevant clinical features of patients with TETs and their tumors, including histology, staging, treatment strategies, and overall survival, were investigated. Differences in survival were assessed by the Kaplan–Meier method and uni- and multi-variate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. The 187 patients included 52 patients with stage I, 37 with stage II, 22 with stage III, and 76 with stage IVa/IVb tumors according to the Masaoka–Koga Staging System. As to histological type, five patients had type A, 33 type AB, 19 type B1, 39 type B2, and 15 type B3 thymomas, whereas 68 patients had thymic carcinoma, including 11 with neuroendocrine carcinomas according to the 2004 WHO classification. Either insufficient data were available to classify the tumors of the remaining eight patients or they had rare types. Immunological abnormalities were present in 26 patients, most of whom had thymomas (21.8% of the thymoma group). Most of the patients who presented with symptoms had myasthenia gravis or extensive thymic carcinoma. Secondary cancers were present in 25 patients (13.3%). The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates for thymoma were 85.4 and 71.5%, respectively, and those for thymic carcinoma were 33.8 and 2.3%, respectively. OS differed significantly between stage IVa thymomas and thymic carcinomas. The stage and whether the tumors were thymomas or thymic carcinomas were significant determinants of survival according to multivariate analysis. The efficacy of treatments for thymoma and thymic carcinoma should be investigated separately

  5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: the experience at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been used in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to reduce the incidence of brain metastases (BM) and thus increase overall survival. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with SCLC referred to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, their eligibility for PCI, patterns of dissemination, and survival. Medical charts of 357 patients with SCLC, referred to the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between January 2004 and December 2006, were reviewed to determine characteristics of patients chosen for PCI. The following data were collected: age, gender, performance status (PS), extent of the disease, smoking status, type of primary treatment with outcome, haematological and biochemical parameters, PCI use, and finally brain metastases (BM) status at diagnoses and after treatment. PCI was performed in 24 (6.7%) of all patients. Six (25%) patients developed brain metastases after they were treated with PCI. Brain was the only site of metastases in 4 patients, two progressed to multiple organs. Median overall survival of patients with PCI was 21.9 months, without PCI 12.13 months (p = 0.004). From the collected data there were good prognostic factors: age under 65 years, limited disease (LD), performance status, normal levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and normal levels of C-reactive protein levels (CRP). Other prognostic factors did not show statistical significant values. Survival of patients with LD, who have had PCI, was significantly better than those who had not. We decided to perform PCI in patients with LD, in those with complete or near complete response, and those with good performance status (≥ 80). We did not use PCI in extended disease (ED). The reason for that shall be addressed in the future. Doses for PCI were not uniform, therefore more standard approach should be considered

  6. Impact of institutional experience on survival outcome of patients undergoing combined chemoradiation therapy for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Clinical experience of both physicians and institutions has been shown to significantly influence the outcome of patients. We conducted this retrospective cohort study to examine its impact on the outcome of patients undergoing combined chemoradiation therapy for the treatment of locally advanced inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We compared the clinical data from 239 patients who were enrolled in two consecutive Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials (RTOG 91-06, RTOG 92-04) according to the number of patients enrolled from each institution in either trial alone or the two trials combined. Results: Overall, patients treated at the institutions that enrolled ≥5 patients survived longer than those treated at the institutions that enrolled <5 patients (median survival 20.5 vs. 13.4 months, p=0.0006) with a more than doubling of the 2- and 3-year survival rates (45% and 31% vs. 20% and 13%, respectively). Multivariate analyses confirmed that the number of patients enrolled from each institution was an important prognostic factor for the entire group (p=0.001) and also for RTOG 91-06 (p=0.05) and RTOG 92-04 (p=0.004) when the data were analyzed separately. Conclusion: Institutional experience has a significant impact on the survival outcome of patients undergoing combined chemoradiation therapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

  7. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among nursing staff of a tertiary care teaching institute in South India

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    Sneha Badwe Dhodapkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the females worldwide. India has the highest burden of cervical cancer patients, accounting for approximately one-fifth of the cases in world. Nurses being an important link between the doctors and female patients in OPD or wards, it is imperative that they should be aware of the facts about cervical cancer and especially of screening techniques which can be utilized in low-resource settings. Methods: A cross-sectional interview based study was done among 200 nurses of a tertiary care teaching institute from June 2013 to July 2013, to assess the knowledge and awareness of nursing staff regarding causes of cervical cancer and its prevention and early detection. Results: Among all participated nurses, 85% (n=170 were aware of the term cancer cervix and 45% reported that it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer in India. Only 30.6% reported that it is the leading cause of death among women due to cancer. Young age at first intercourse, multiple sex partners, cigarette smoking, high parity and lower socio-economic status were correctly responded by 13%, 48%, 16%, 9% and 13% of participants respectively, as risk factors for cervical cancer. None of the participants knew about the VIA method of screening for cervical cancer. Among 119 of those participants who knew that cervical cancer can be detected by Pap smear, only 5 (4% had ever undergone Pap smear examination. Conclusions: Nurses identify certain aspects of cervical cancer correctly but their knowledge is not adequate, hence necessary changes should be made in their curriculum. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1056-1060

  8. Cyclodextrin type dependent host-guest interaction mode with phthalocyanine and their influence on photodynamic activity to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S; Wang, A; Ma, Y J; Xuan, H Y; Zhao, B; Li, X D; Zhou, J H; Zhou, L; Wei, S H

    2016-09-01

    Three host-guest complexes of phthalocyanines (Pc) with α-, β- or γ-cyclodextrins (CDs) were prepared and their interaction modes, reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability and in vitro anticancer activities were studied and compared. After forming complex with CD, the aggregation degree of Pc was greatly decreased and the water solubility and photodynamic activity was sharply increased. Computer modeling results indicated that the interaction modes between Pc and CDs were varied with different kinds of CD. Especially, the complex of Pc and β-CD has superior stability, ROSs generation ability, and anticancer activity to other complexes. PMID:27185136

  9. Monitoring of people and workers exposure to the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in an Italian national cancer Institute

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    Palomba Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper reports the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (emf measurements carried out in the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute (NCI. Several devices, used in diagnostics and in medical cures, can represent sources of emf for the workers and for the public subjected to the treatments. The aim is to evaluate their exposition, in order to assess the compliance with the law. Methods The investigations have been carried out in the departments of: intensive care, physiotherapy, MR presstherapy and in the surgical rooms. The measurements have been performed using broad band probes in the frequency ranges 5 Hz÷30 kHz and 100 kHz-3 GHz. Results The variability of the magnetic induction (B(μT levels is between 0,05 μT and 80 μT. The statistical distribution shows that most of the measurements are in the range 0,05 Conclusion The measurement of the emf levels in the NCI is recommended because of the presence of the oncological patients; their long stay near the equipments and their day-long exposure represent additional risk factors for which a prudent avoidance strategy have to de adopted.

  10. Web services-based access to local clinical trial databases: a standards initiative of the Association of American Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Douglas C; Evans, Richard M; Afrin, Lawrence B; DeTeresa, Richard M; Ko, Dave; Mitchell, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Electronic discovery of the clinical trials being performed at a specific research center is a challenging task, which presently requires manual review of the center's locally maintained databases or web pages of protocol listings. Near real-time automated discovery of available trials would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical trial searching, and would facilitate the development of new services for information providers and consumers. Automated discovery efforts to date have been hindered by issues such as disparate database schemas, vocabularies, and insufficient standards for easy intersystem exchange of high-level data, but adequate infrastructure now exists that make possible the development of applications for near real-time automated discovery of trials. This paper describes the current state (design and implementation) of the Web Services Specification for Publication and Discovery of Clinical Trials as developed by the Technology Task Force of the Association of American Cancer Institutes. The paper then briefly discusses a prototype web service-based application that implements the specification. Directions for evolution of this specification are also discussed. PMID:14728248

  11. Adjuvant radiotherapy after prostatectomy for prostate cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional survey study of the JROSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the use of adjuvant radiotherapy after prostatectomy for prostate cancer has not increased compared with the use of salvage radiotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of adjuvant radiotherapy together with prognostic factors of outcome in Japan. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 87 patients were referred for adjuvant radiotherapy in 23 institutions [median age: 64 years (54–77 years), median initial prostate-specific antigen: 11.0 ng/ml (2.9–284 ng/ml), Gleason score (GS): 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 = 13.8, 35.6, 23.0, 27.6, 0%, respectively]. Rates of positive marginal status, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and extra-prostatic extension (EPE) were 74%, 26% and 64%, respectively. Median post-operative PSA nadir: 0.167 ng/ml (0–2.51 ng/ml). Median time from surgery to radiotherapy was 3 months (1–6 months). A total dose of ≥60 Gy and 0.2 (P=0.02), and tended to be more favorable after radiotherapy ≤3 months from surgery than >3 months from surgery (P=0.069). Multivariate analysis identified SVI and post-operative PSA nadir as independent prognostic factors for bRFS (P=0.001 and 0.018, respectively). (author)

  12. ONE STEP NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION IN BREAST CANCER SENTINEL LYMPH NODE.A SINGLE INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCE AND A SHORT REVIEW.

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    Tatiana eBrambilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph node (SLN examination is a standard in breast cancer patients, with several methods employed along its 20-years history, the last one represented by OSNA. The latter is a intra-operative molecular assay searching for CK19 mRNA as a surrogate of metastatic cells. Our 3-years experience with OSNA (1122 patients showed results overlapping those recorded in the same Institution with a morphological evaluation (930 patients of SLN. In detail the data of OSNA were almost identical to those observed with standard post-operative procedure in terms of patients with positive SLN (30% and micrometastatic/macrometastatic involvement of SLN (respectively 38-45% and 62-55%. By contrast when OSNA was compared to the standard intra-operatory procedure it was superior in terms of accuracy, prompting the use of this molecular assay as a very valid and reproducible for intra-operative evaluation of SLN.Further possibilities prompting the use of OSNA range from adhesion to quality control programs, saving of medical time, ability to predict, during surgery, additional nodal metatastis and molecular bio-banking.

  13. 75 FR 71134 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting..., Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 16, 2010. Jennifer S....

  14. Host-derived RANKL is responsible for osteolysis in a C4-2 human prostate cancer xenograft model of experimental bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C4-2 prostate cancer (CaP) cells grown in mouse tibiae cause a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic response with increases in osteoclast numbers and bone resorption. Administration of osteoprotegerin (OPG) blocks these increases, indicating the critical role of RANKL in osteolysis in this model. The objective of our study was to investigate whether RANKL expressed by tumor cells (human origin) directly stimulates osteolysis associated with the growth of these cells in bone or whether the increased osteolysis is caused by RANKL expressed by the host environment cells (murine origin). The relative contribution of tumor-vs. host-derived RANKL has been difficult to establish, even with human xenografts, because murine and human RANKL are both capable of stimulating osteolysis in mice, and the RANKL inhibitors used to date (OPG and RANK-Fc) inhibit human and murine RANKL. To address this question we used a neutralizing, antibody (huRANKL MAb), which specifically neutralizes the biological activities of human RANKL and thereby the contribution of C4-2 derived RANKL in this tibial injection model of experimental bone metastases. Administration of huRANKL MAb did not inhibit the osteolytic response of the bone to these cells, or affect the establishment and growth of the C4-2 tumors in this environment. In conclusion, our results suggest that in this model, murine RANKL and not the tumor-derived human RANKL is the mediator of the osteolytic reaction associated with C4-2 growth in bone. We hypothesize that C4-2 cells express other factor/s inducing host production of RANKL, thereby driving tumor-associated osteolysis

  15. Comparison of the epidemiologic features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer between public and private institutions: a survey by the Brazilian Society of Urology

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    Aguinaldo Cesar Nardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer at public and private institutions in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,082 physicians affiliated to the Sao Paulo Section of the Brazilian Society of Urology were invited to participate in this cross-sectional, web-based survey. Between September 2004 and September 2005, participating urologists entered data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in their practice. Data on patients attended at public institutions were analyzed and compared with those patients attended at private practice. RESULTS: One hundred and ten society members contributed with data from 1915 patients, 1026 (53.6% of whom from public institutions. When compared with patients attended at private institutions, those attended at public institutions were older and more likely to be black, had higher serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, had a higher probability of being diagnosed with metastatic disease, but were less likely to undergo prostatectomy (all P < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, age, biopsy Gleason score, and being attended at a public institution were independently associated with metastatic disease upon diagnosis. The significant predictors of nonsurgical treatment were age, black race, and higher serum levels of PSA. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide registry provides valuable information regarding patient demographics, clinical features, and patterns of care. The results of this study suggest that significant disparities exist for patients with prostate cancer attended at different health-care systems. The relative contribution of biological versus socioeconomic features remains uncertain.

  16. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. II. Cellular and animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This segment of the report of the proceedings of the National Cancer Institute symposium is devoted to the presentations about studies with in vitro cell systems, in vitro-in vivo systems, and whole animals including humans. The NCI symposium was designed to cover many aspects of carcinogenesis so that the similarities and differences of the manner in which ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens initiate cancer and complete its expression could be examined. The hope was that the identification of both the common and the clearly distinct features would help elucidate mechanisms and indicate areas for new research

  17. Tumor and host factors that may limit efficacy of chemotherapy in non-small cell and small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David J

    2010-09-01

    While chemotherapy provides useful palliation, advanced lung cancer remains incurable since those tumors that are initially sensitive to therapy rapidly develop acquired resistance. Resistance may arise from impaired drug delivery, extracellular factors, decreased drug uptake into tumor cells, increased drug efflux, drug inactivation by detoxifying factors, decreased drug activation or binding to target, altered target, increased damage repair, tolerance of damage, decreased proapoptotic factors, increased antiapoptotic factors, or altered cell cycling or transcription factors. Factors for which there is now substantial clinical evidence of a link to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) resistance to chemotherapy include MRP (for platinum-based combination chemotherapy) and MDR1/P-gp (for non-platinum agents). SPECT MIBI and Tc-TF scanning appears to predict chemotherapy benefit in SCLC. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the strongest clinical evidence is for taxane resistance with elevated expression or mutation of class III beta-tubulin (and possibly alpha tubulin), platinum resistance and expression of ERCC1 or BCRP, gemcitabine resistance and RRM1 expression, and resistance to several agents and COX-2 expression (although COX-2 inhibitors have had minimal impact on drug efficacy clinically). Tumors expressing high BRCA1 may have increased resistance to platinums but increased sensitivity to taxanes. Limited early clinical data suggest that chemotherapy resistance in NSCLC may also be increased with decreased expression of cyclin B1 or of Eg5, or with increased expression of ICAM, matrilysin, osteopontin, DDH, survivin, PCDGF, caveolin-1, p21WAF1/CIP1, or 14-3-3sigma, and that IGF-1R inhibitors may increase efficacy of chemotherapy, particularly in squamous cell carcinomas. Equivocal data (with some positive studies but other negative studies) suggest that NSCLC tumors with some EGFR mutations may have increased sensitivity to chemotherapy, while K-ras mutations

  18. A single-institution experience with bevacizumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and in conjunction with liver resection

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    Osterlund P

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pia Osterlund,1,2 Reetta Peltonen,2,3 Tuomo Alanko,1 Petri Bono,1,2 Helena Isoniemi2,3 1Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 3Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Background: Bevacizumab is active in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. However, efficacy of bevacizumab has predominantly been evaluated on selected patients with relatively good performance status and minor comorbidities. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in unselected patients with mCRC, some of whom underwent liver resection. Material and methods: All patients with inoperable mCRC, fit for combination chemotherapy (n=180, who were initially not resectable, not included into studies and without contraindications to bevacizumab, and initiated on bevacizumab at the Helsinki University Central Hospital between April 2004 and December 2005 were included (n=114. Most (n=70 received 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan plus bevacizumab as first-line therapy. The remainder (n=44 of the patients received bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin or irinotecan with or without 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine. Minimum follow-up was 7 years. Treatment response was evaluated every 8–10 weeks according to RECIST criteria. Results: Median age was 59.6 years (range 35–79; male/female ratio was 54%/46%; World Health Organization performance status 0/1/2–3 was 33%/55%/11%, respectively; and the number of metastatic sites, one/two/three or more, was 31%/21%/48%, respectively. Median duration of bevacizumab therapy was 7.8 months (range 0.5–70.5 with pauses. In first-line (n=40, response rate (RR was 62%, progression-free survival (PFS 11.7 months, and overall survival (OS 22.1 months. In second-line (n=43, RR was 44%, PFS 8.7 months, and OS 18.7 months. In later lines (n=31, RR was 14%, PFS 6.7 months, and OS 14

  19. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Epithelial-cell–stromal-cell interactions and steroid hormone action in normal and cancerous mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary epithelial cells comprise the functional component of the normal gland and are the major target for carcinogenesis in mammary cancer. However, the stromal compartment of the normal gland and of tumors plays an important role in directing proliferative and functional changes in the epithelium. In vivo and in vitro studies of the murine mammary gland have provided insights into novel stroma-dependent mechanisms by which estrogen and progesterone action in the epithelium can be modulated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the extracellular matrix proteins, collagen type I, fibronectin and laminin. In vitro and in vivo studies of estrogen receptor positive, estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells have also demonstrated that estrogen responsiveness of tumor cells can also be modulated by extracellular matrix proteins, collagen type I and laminin

  20. National Cancer Institute News

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    ... and Foundation Medicine, Inc. (FMI), a molecular information company. Newly launched Genomic Data Commons to facilitate data ... of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp ...

  1. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer M Fouad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate

  2. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Khorshid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

  3. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the breast: 23 years of experience at the Colombian national cancer institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary non- Hodgkin's lymphomas of the breast (PNHLB) are an infrequent malignancy. In a review of the literature, in which six Latin American journals are included, approximately 450 cases have been reported during the past two decades. in this paper we present the experience of the national cancer institute of Colombia during the last 23 years. Objective: to carry out a retrospective analysis of the characteristics, natural history, prognostic factors, and outcome of patients with PNHLB at the NCI of Colombia. Methods: the medical histories of patients diagnosed with PNHLB between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed; likewise, the clinical characteristics, treatment protocols, and final outcomes were analyzed. Results: 25 patients were identified as PNHLB. The average follow-up was 57 months. The medium age was 58, ranging from 26 to 83. 84% had diffused large cell lymphoma. The Karnofsky index was over 80 in 92% of the patients. 72% received chop chemotherapy. Two patients received a combination without doxorubicin. 68% received combined chemo- and radiation therapy. Two patients refused therapy. Two patients died before receiving any type of treatment. CNS compromise was observed in 20% of patients during the evolution of their disease. The youngest patient, whose case deserves special comment, obtained a second complete remission with simple mastectomy, after having relapsed after conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and autologous bone marrow transplant. No significant prognostic variables were found using the univariate analysis. Conclusions: a high rate of complete remission can be achieved by using combined treatment in patients with PNHLB. The medium overall survival was not reached after 71 months of follow-up. The most frequent relapse site was the CNS

  4. Brachytherapy for T1-T2 floor-of-the-mouth cancers: the Gustave-Roussy Institute experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis, we evaluated the Gustave-Roussy Institute's experience of locoregional control, survival, and complications of low-dose rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the floor of the mouth. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 1985, 160 patients with previously untreated carcinoma of the floor of the mouth received interstitial brachytherapy as definitive treatment. Of the 160 patients, 79 (49%) had T1 and 81 (51%) had T2 lesions, and 127 (79%) had N0 and 33 (21%) had N1; 84% of tumors arose from the anterior floor of the mouth. Brachytherapy was performed with 192Ir wires, according to the Paris system rules, followed by neck dissection (T2 or N1) or follow-up (T1N0). Results: With a follow-up period of 9-19 years, the observed survival rates were 89% at 2 years and 76% at 5 years, and the local control rates were 93% in T1 and 88% in T2 tumors. A low rate of distant metastases was noticed (5%); 31% of patients developed a second primary cancer. Severe mucosal necrosis was observed in <10% of patients. Any grade of bone necrosis was seen in 18% of cases (only 2.5% had G3 necrosis). This complication occurred more frequently in patients with poor dental status and in those treated without dental protection during implantation (p <0.001). Conclusion: Radical brachytherapy offers excellent local control (89%) and an acceptable rate of complications (<10% severe necrosis) that may be significantly decreased with dental care and the use of protective devices. The high incidence of second malignancies remains a major concern in these patients

  5. Cost and Outcome of Treatment of Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia at the National Cancer Institute-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the majority of patients die of their disease, unless bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is done. Infection and hemorrhage are still the major causes of mortality in AML patients. Progress in therapy and supportive care has led to gradual improvement in the overall results, but further improvements are still needed. Patients and Methods: The aim of this study is to identify the outcome and costs of adult AML patients treated with conventional chemotherapy (CCT) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University during the time period from April 1999 to January 2002. Clinical, laboratory characteristics were all recorded. Data regarding different types of therapies given for these patients including response, outcome and costs were also collected. Results: The median age of 82 identified AML patients was 34 years. The complete remission (CR) rate after induction with CCT was 52% (42/82 patients) with a median CR duration of 9 months. Twenty-eight percent of patients who achieved CR subsequently relapsed. By January 2003, fifty-eight patients were dead (70.7%). Infections were the major mortality cause, followed by disease progression then bleeding (65%, 28% and 7% respectively). The median treatment cost per patient was 33158 Egyptian Pounds (LE). It was higher for patients who achieved CR compared to those who relapsed and/or died. Drugs contributed by 78 % to the total treatment cost, while hospitalization, investigations and blood-component therapy contributed by 6%, 7% and 8% respectively. Conclusions: Outcome of patients with AML treated at NCI- Cairo University can be enhanced by improvement of supportive therapy; mainly infection control and expanding BMT programs to accommodate all eligible patients

  6. The single institutional outcome of postoperative radiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Chun; Kim, Yeon Si; Oh, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Dong Soo; Song, Jin Ho; Kang, Jin Hyung; Park, Jae Ki [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study was conducted to observe the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in single institution. From 2002 to 2013, 78 patients diagnosed with NSCLC after curative resection were treated with radiotherapy alone (RT, n = 48) or concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT, n = 30). The indications of adjuvant radiation therapy were N2 node positive (n = 31), close or involved resection margin (n = 28), or gross residual disease due to incomplete resection (n = 19). The median radiation dose was 57.6 Gy (range, 29.9 to 66 Gy). Median survival time was 33.7 months (range, 4.4 to 140.3 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 49.5% (RT 46% vs. CCRT 55.2%; p = 0.731). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 45.5% (RT 39.4% vs. CCRT 55.3%; p = 0.130). The 3-year local control rate was 68.1% (RT 64.4% vs. CCRT 77.7%; p = 0.165). The 3-year DMFS rate was 56.1% (RT 52.6% vs. CCRT 61.7%; p = 0.314). In multivariate analysis, age > or =66 years and pathologic stage III were significant poor prognostic factors for OS. Treatment failure occurred in 40 patients. Four patients had radiologically confirmed grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. In NSCLC, adjuvant RT or CCRT after curative surgery is a safe and feasible modality of treatment. OS gain was seen in patients less than 66 years. Postoperative CCRT showed a propensity of achieving better local control and improved disease-free survival compared to RT alone according to our data.

  7. Radiolabeled antibodies in prostate cancer: A case study showing the effect of host immunity on antibody bio-distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Human tumors xenografted in immunodeficient mice are crucial models in nuclear medicine to evaluate the effectiveness of candidate diagnostic and therapeutic compounds. However, little attention has been focused on the biological profile of the host model and its potential effects on the bio-distribution and tumor targeting of the tracer compound under study. We specifically investigated the dissimilarity in bio-distribution of 111In-DTPA-5A10, which targets free prostate specific antigen (fPSA), in two animal models. Methods: In vivo bio-distribution studies of 111In-DTPA-5A10 were performed in immunodeficient BALB/c-nu or NMRI-nu mice with subcutaneous (s.c.) LNCaP tumors. Targeting-specificity of the tracer was assessed by quantifying the uptake in (a) mice with s.c. xenografts of PSA-negative DU145 cells as well as (b) BALB/c-nu or NMRI-nu mice co-injected with an excess of non-labeled 5A10. Finally, the effect of neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn) inhibition on the bio-distribution of the conjugate was studied by saturating FcRn-binding capacity with nonspecific IgG1. Results: The inherent biological attributes of the mouse model substantially influenced the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics of 111In-DTPA-5A10. With LNCaP xenografts in BALB/c-nu mice (with intact B and NK cells but with deficient T cells) versus NMRI-nu mice (with intact B cells, increased NK cells and absent T cells), we observed a significantly higher hepatic accumulation (26 ± 3.9 versus 3.5 ± 0.4%IA/g respectively), and concomitantly lower tumor uptake (25 ± 11 versus 52 ± 10%IA/g respectively) in BALB/c-nu mice. Inhibiting FcRn by administration of nonspecific IgG1 just prior to 111In-DTPA-5A10 did not change tumor accumulation significantly. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the choice of immunodeficient mouse model importantly influence the bio-distribution of 111In-DTPA-5A10. This study further highlighted important considerations in the evaluation of preclinical tracers

  8. Can concomitant-boost accelerated radiotherapy be adopted as routine treatment for head-and-neck cancers? A 10-year single-institution experience

    OpenAIRE

    Allal, Abdelkarim Said; Taussky, Daniel; Mach, Nicolas; Becker, Minerva; Bieri, Sabine; Dulguerov, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated schedules are effective in overcoming repopulation during radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancers, but their feasibility is compromised by increased toxicity. The therapeutic ratio may be particularly favorable for 5-week regimens. This study reports the 10-year experience of a single institution in the routine use of concomitant boost RT as standard radical treatment in all but the most favorable stage patients.

  9. Challenges in converting an interviewer-administered food probe database to self-administration in the National Cancer Institute Automated Self-administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24)

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Hull, Stephen G.; McNutt, Suzanne; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi; Guenther, Patricia M.; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy A.; Subar, Amy F.

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an automated, self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) application to collect and code dietary intake data. The goal of the ASA24 development is to create a web-based dietary interview based on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) instrument currently used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The ASA24 food list, detail probes, and portion probes were drawn from the ...

  10. Pathological Mobilization and Activities of Dendritic Cells in Tumor-Bearing Hosts: Challenges and Opportunities for Immunotherapy of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesone, Amelia J.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Allegrezza, Michael J.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2013-01-01

    A common characteristic of solid tumors is the pathological recruitment of immunosuppressive myeloid cells, which in certain tumors includes dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are of particular interest in the field of cancer immunotherapy because they induce potent and highly specific anti-tumor immune responses, particularly in the early phase of tumorigenesis. However, as tumors progress, these cells can be transformed into regulatory cells that contribute to an immunosuppressive microenvironment favoring tumor growth. Therefore, controlling DC phenotype has the potential to elicit effective anti-tumor responses while simultaneously weakening the tumor’s ability to protect itself from immune attack. This review focuses on the dual nature of DCs in the tumor microenvironment, the regulation of DC phenotype, and the prospect of modifying DCs in situ as a novel immunotherapeutic approach. PMID:24339824

  11. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among female students and staff in a tertiary institution in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoeye I.O.G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical screening is rudimentary or non- existent. Aim: This study seeks to assess the knowledge, level of perception and the attitude of female staff and students of Niger Delta University, Nigeria, towards cervical cancer screening. Methods: A questionnaire was used for data collection. The questions were made to capture the objectives of the study. Results: Most of the respondents 278 (72% were aware of cervical cancer, while only 182 (50.6% were aware of cervical cancer screening. Pap smear was the most popular screening test mentioned by respondents 100 (41.2%, while some respondents (8.5% of staff and 16.3% of students wrongly believed that blood test is used for cervical cancer screening. There is a significant association between awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst staff and students (X2 = 29.4, P=0.00. Conclusion: The study shows that awareness of cervical cancer screening was higher amongst students than staff of Niger Delta University. Uptake was low in both staff and students. There was an association between awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst respondents. Overall, a greater proportion of the staff respondents had little or no knowledge of cervical cancer screening.

  12. High dietary level of synthetic vitamin E on lipid peroxidation, membrane fatty acid composition and cytotoxicity in breast cancer xenograft and in mouse host tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Christopher J

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background d-α-tocopherol is a naturally occurring form of vitamin E not previously known to have antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E (sE is a commonly used dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of d-α-tocopherol and 7 equimolar stereoisomers. To test for antilipid peroxidation and for antitumor activity of sE supplementation, two groups of nude mice bearing a MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer tumor were fed an AIN-76 diet, one with and one without an additional 2000 IU/kg dry food (equivalent to 900 mg of all-rac-α-tocopherol or sE. This provided an intake of about 200 mg/kg body weight per day. The mice were killed at either 2 or 6 weeks after the start of dietary intervention. During necropsy, tumor and host tissues were excised for histology and for biochemical analyses. Results Tumor growth was significantly reduced by 6 weeks of sE supplementation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were suppressed in tumor and in host tissues in sE supplemented mice. In the sE treated mice, the fatty acid composition of microsomal and mitochondrial membranes of tumor and host tissues had proportionately less linoleic acid (n-6 C 18-2, similar levels of arachidonic acid (n-6 C 20-4, but more docosahexanoic acid (n-3 C 22-6. The sE supplementation had no significant effect on blood counts or on intestinal histology but gave some evidence of cardiac toxicity as judged by myocyte vacuoles and by an indicator of oxidative stress (increased ratio of Mn SOD mRNA over GPX1 mRNA. Conclusions At least one of the stereoisomers in sE has antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E appears to preferentially stabilize membrane fatty acids with more double bonds in the acyl chain. Although sE suppressed tumor growth and lipid peroxidation, it may have side-effects in the heart.

  13. Using Large Institutional or National Databases to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Patterns of Care: Possibilities and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Su; Jang, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non–skin-related cancer in men. With advances in technology, the care and treatment for men with this disease continues to become more complex. Large databases offer researchers a unique opportunity to conduct prostate cancer research in various areas, and provide important information that helps patients and providers determine prognosis after treatment. Furthermore, the studies using these databases may provide information on how side effects from various ...

  14. Treatment and prognosis of cervical cancer associated with pregnancy: analysis of 20 cases from a Chinese tumor institution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Yong-liang; Yang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic approaches and prognosis for cervical cancer associated with pregnancy. Clinical information, therapeutic strategies, and follow-up results of 20 patients with cervical cancer associated with pregnancy from Jan. 2000 to June 2009 in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages were: in situ (n=1), stage IA1 (n=1), stage IB1 (n=5), stage IB2 (n=1), stage...

  15. Long-Term Survival and Local Relapse Following Surgery Without Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Upper Rectal Cancer: An International Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Simon, Ng Siu Man; Law, Wai Lun; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shan, Hester Cheung Yui; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Choi, Gyu-Seog

    2016-05-01

    Controversy remains regarding whether preoperative chemoradiation protocol should be applied uniformly to all rectal cancer patients regardless of tumor height. This pooled analysis was designed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiation can be safely omitted in higher rectal cancer.An international consortium of 7 institutions was established. A review of the database that was collected from January 2004 to May 2008 identified a series of 2102 patients with stage II/III rectal or sigmoid cancer (control arm) without concurrent chemoradiation. Data regarding patient demographics, recurrence pattern, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. The primary end point was the 5-year local recurrence rate.The local relapse rate of the sigmoid colon cancer (SC) and upper rectal cancer (UR) cohorts was significantly lower than that of the mid/low rectal cancer group (M-LR), with 5-year estimates of 2.5% for the SC group, 3.5% for the UR group, and 11.1% for the M-LR group, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that tumor depth, nodal metastasis, venous invasion, and lower tumor level were strongly associated with local recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate of local failure was 90.6%, 92.5%, and 94.4% for tumors located within 5, 7, and 9 cm from the anal verge, respectively.Routine use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II/III rectal tumors located more than 8 to 9 cm above the anal verge would be excessive. The integration of a more individualized approach focused on systemic control is warranted to improve survival in patients with upper rectal cancer. PMID:27258487

  16. Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Treatment: A Double-Edged Sword Cross-Targeting the Host as an “Innocent Bystander”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gelao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Targeted immune checkpoint blockade augments anti-tumor immunity and induces durable responses in patients with melanoma and other solid tumors. It also induces specific “immune-related adverse events” (irAEs. IrAEs mainly include gastrointestinal, dermatological, hepatic and endocrinological toxicities. Off-target effects that arise appear to account for much of the toxicity of the immune checkpoint blockade. These unique “innocent bystander” effects are likely a direct result of breaking immune tolerance upon immune check point blockade and require specific treatment guidelines that include symptomatic therapies or systemic corticosteroids. What do we need going forward to limit immune checkpoint blockade-induced toxicity? Most importantly, we need a better understanding of the roles played by these agents in normal tissues, so that we can begin to predict potentially problematic side effects on the basis of their selectivity profile. Second, we need to focus on the predictive factors of the response and toxicity of the host rather than serially focusing on individual agents. Third, rigorous biomarker-driven clinical trials are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of both the benefit and toxicity. We will summarize the double-edged sword effect of immunotherapeutics in cancer treatment.

  17. Robert Clarke Named as the National Cancer Institute - Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer for 2012-2013 — Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Clarke is an expert on the effects of hormones and growth factors on breast cancer. He and his laboratory are actively pursuing the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the emergence of resistance in breast cancer cells to endocrine and cytotoxic therapies.

  18. Rituximab in Preventing Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Graft Versus Host Disease; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III

  19. Impact of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 on prostate cancer aggressiveness: Lessons from a contemporary single institution radical prostatectomy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Koloff

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of TP5 and suggest that criteria for tertiary pattern reporting in prostate cancer should be standardized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of tertiary patterns in prognostic models.

  20. Multi-institutional phase II trial of intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate iridium brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 84 intermediate risk prostate cancer (T2b or T2c, or 10< prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≤20 ng/ml, or Gleason score =7) patients were enrolled from five institutions. External beam radiotherapy were 3 Gy x 13 fraction =39 Gy and high dose rate iridium brachytherapy were 9 Gy x 2=18 Gy in one or two days. Primary endpoint of this study is the incidence of grade 3 late toxicity (NCI-CTC Ver.3) and secondary endpoint are acute toxicity and PSA relapse free rate. No grade 3 toxicity was observed and only one patient among 84 patients is noted PSA failure. Combined treatment of external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate iridium brachytherapy against intermediate risk of prostate cancer is safe and effective treatment. (author)

  1. Intraoperative radiation therapy delivered prior to lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer: a single institution study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wei; Lin, Zhi; Ju, Zhong-Jian; Li, Xi-Ru; ZHANG, YAN-JUN; Kong, Qing-Long; Gong, Han-Shun; Wang, Jian-Dong; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, cosmesis, and clinical outcome of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) delivered prior to lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods: From December 2008 to March 2012, 75 breast cancer patients (ages 34-66 years) were treated with IOERT during breast conservative surgery. IOERT was delivered using a mobile linear accelerator. Suitable energy and applicator size were chosen to ensure coverage of the tumor with anterior and posterior margin...

  2. Preoperative Nomograms for Predicting Extracapsular Extension in Korean Men with Localized Prostate Cancer: A Multi-institutional Clinicopathologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae Seung; Choi, Han Yong; Song, Hae-Ryoung; Byun, Seok-Soo; Seo, Seong Il; Song, Cheryn; Cho, Jin Seon; Lee, Sang Eun; Ahn, Hanjong; Lee, Eun Sik; Kim, Won-Jae; Chung, Moon Kee; Jung, Tae Young; Yu, Ho Song; Choi, Young Deuk

    2010-01-01

    We developed a nomogram to predict the probability of extracapsular extension (ECE) in localized prostate cancer and to determine when the neurovascular bundle (NVB) may be spared. Total 1,471 Korean men who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 1995 and 2008 were included. We drew nonrandom samples of 1,031 for nomogram development, leaving 440 samples for nomogram validation. With multivariate logistic regression analyses, we made a nomogram to predicts the ECE probabi...

  3. Two-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy within a single day combined with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: single institution experience and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Junyang; Kaidu, Motoki; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Ayukawa, Fumio; Yamana, Nobuko; Sato, Hiraku; Tanaka, Kensuke; Kawaguchi, Gen; Ohta, Atsushi; Maruyama, Katsuya; Abe, Eisuke; Kasahara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the outcomes of treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) followed by two-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy within a single day (2-fr.-HDR-BT/day) at a single institution. A total of 156 consecutive Asian males (median age, 67 years) were enrolled. To compare our findings with those of other studies, we analyzed our results using the D'Amico classification, assigning the patients to low- ( n =5; 3.2%), ...

  4. Cancer of Unknown Primary Site:A Review of 28 Cases and the Efficacy of Cisplatin/Docetaxel Therapy at a Single Institute in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimori, Hisakazu; TAKAHASHI, SHUNJI; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Ennishi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Sano,Koji; SHINOZAKI, EIJI; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Mishima, Yuko; Terui, Yasuhito; Chin,Keisho; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Takeuchi, Kengo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin/docetaxel (CDDP/TXT) chemotherapy and identified prognostic factors in Japanese patients with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP). Twenty-eight consecutive patients seen at a single institute were reviewed retrospectively. Sixteen patients were treated with TXT 80mg/m2, followed by CDDP 75mg/m2. The overall response rate to CDDP/TXT treatment was 62.5%, with a median survival time (MST) of 22.7 months. Common adverse reactions were myelosup...

  5. Cancer-specific survival after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: proposal and multi-institutional validation of a post-operative nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, D R; Hupertan, V.; Colin, P.; Ouzzane, A; Descazeaud, A; Long, J. A.; Pignot, G; Crouzet, S; Rozet, F; Neuzillet, Y; Soulie, M.; Bodin, T; Valeri, A.; Cussenot, O; Rouprêt, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Owing to the scarcity of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) it is often necessary for investigators to pool data. A patient-specific survival nomogram based on such data is needed to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) post nephroureterectomy (NU). Herein, we propose and validate a nomogram to predict CSS post NU. Patients and methods: Twenty-one French institutions contributed data on 1120 patients treated with NU for UUT-UC. A total of 667 had full data for nom...

  6. Multi-institutional comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared to static beam Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), the main advantage of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a shortened delivery time, which leads to improved patient comfort and possibly smaller intra-fraction movements. This study aims at a treatment planner-independent comparison of radiotherapy treatment planning of IMRT and VMAT for head-and-neck cancer performed by several institutes and based on the same CT- and contouring data. Five institutes generated IMRT and VMAT plans for five oropharyngeal cancer patients using either Pinnacle3 or Oncentra Masterplan to be delivered on Elekta linear accelerators. Comparison of VMAT and IMRT plans within the same patient and institute showed significantly better sparing for almost all OARs with VMAT. The average mean dose to the parotid glands and oral cavity was reduced from 27.2 Gy and 39.4 Gy for IMRT to 25.0 Gy and 36.7 Gy for VMAT, respectively. The dose conformity at 95% of the prescribed dose for PTVboost and PTVtotal was 1.45 and 1.62 for IMRT and 1.37 and 1.50 for VMAT, respectively. The average effective delivery time was reduced from 13:15 min for IMRT to 5:54 min for VMAT. Independently of institution-specific optimization strategies, the quality of the VMAT plans including double arcs was superior to step-and-shoot IMRT plans including 5–9 beam ports, while the effective treatment delivery time was shortened by ~50% with VMAT

  7. Hosting a Katrina Evacuee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, David

    2008-03-01

    No individual or institution anticipated the impact on the academic research community of hurricane Katrina. When Tulane physicist Wayne Reed asked me to host his research group just a day or two after the disaster, with no authorization or understanding of the commitment, I agreed immediately and then pondered implications. Fortunately, colleagues helped in making the commitment real, only the bureaucracy of my public university posing small hindrances. Industry was remarkably generous in providing Reed with significant ``loaner'' equipment, and amazingly, a suite of custom Reed experiments was running within weeks. At the end, the most productive collaborations for Reed seemed not to have been with my group, with its similar research, but to other groups at my institution, particularly the synthetic chemists, who gained access to methods previously unique to Tulane while offering samples previously unique to UMass. Quickly designed projects exploiting this match turned out remarkably productive. Although begun with trepidation, hosting of Reed had huge positive benefits to me and UMass, and I believe, also to Reed and Tulane. Some key lessons for the future: (i) industry has capacity and willingness to help academic research during disruption (ii) commitment of a host institution must be immediate, without a wait for formal approvals or arrangement of special funding -- delay leads only to discouragement, (iii) continuing academic progress of displaced students must come first, and (iv) intellectual synergy rather than overlap should be the basis for seeking a host. Lastly, NSF or other funding agency should consider a program directly addressing the research needs of unexpectedly disrupted academic scientists, and most particularly, graduate students who face greatly extended studies.

  8. miR-17-92a-1 cluster host gene (MIR17HG) evaluation and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Chiara; Salvi, Samanta; Foca, Flavia; Teodorani, Nazario; Saragoni, Luca; Puccetti, Maurizio; Passardi, Alessandro; Tamberi, Stefano; Avanzolini, Andrea; Lucci, Enrico; Calistri, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by surgery is the gold standard for the treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). However, response is variable, and no predictive markers have been validated. The amplification of 13q31–34 seemed to distinguish between nonresponders and responders to NCRT. The miR-17-92a-1 cluster host gene (MIR17HG), which is involved in the development, progression, and aggressiveness of colorectal cancer, and the ABCC4 gene, an ATP-binding cassette transporter, are located at this region. Moreover, the transcription factor c-Myc is closely related to MIR17HG. The aim of this study was to examine the role of MIR17HG, ABCC4, and CMYC gene copy numbers (CNs) in determining response to NCRT. We analyzed DNA CN of pretherapy biopsies from 108 LARC patients and the expression of microRNA (miR)-17, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b-1, miR-20a, and miR-92a-1 in 34 biopsies. MIR17HG, CMYC, and ABCC4 gene CNs were frequently altered in pretreatment tumors, amplification being the most frequent alteration. With regard to response to therapy, 41% of responders showed MIR17HG deletion, while MIR17HG amplification was observed in 41% of nonresponders. With regard to pathological T stage (ypT), a higher percentage of ypT3–4 than ypT0–2 tumors showed MIR17HG amplification. Finally, a higher, albeit nonsignificant, variability in the expression of MIR17HG cluster members was detected in nonresponders compared to responders. No association was observed between clinical pathological parameters and ABCC4 or CMYC CN. Our data did not highlight a significant association between MIR17HG, CMYC, and ABCC4 gene CNs and response to NCRT in LARC. However, MIR17HG gene amplification would seem to be related to a lack of response. Evaluation of the expression of MIR17HG cluster members is warranted in a larger case series, together with functional studies, to evaluate the potential of this gene as a new predictive marker. PMID:27226732

  9. Pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease

    OpenAIRE

    Abhinav Deol; Voravit Ratanatharathorn; Uberti, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Abhinav Deol, Voravit Ratanatharathorn, Joseph P UbertiDepartment of Oncology, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is an immunologically mediated inflammatory reaction, which continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Although the occurrence and severity...

  10. Survival in women with ovarian cancer before and after the introduction of adjuvant paclitaxel; a 25-year, single institution review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shireen, R

    2012-02-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy regime for ovarian cancer patients remains to be a contentious issue. The aim of this study was to compare the overall and progression-free survival of women with ovarian cancer before and after introduction of paclitaxel in our unit in 1992. A sample of 112 women who received adjuvant therapy following surgery for ovarian cancer was collected, 68 (61%) received platinum+alkylating agent before 1992 and later 44 (39%) received platinum+paclitaxel. Five-year survival was same in both treatment groups when there was no macroscopic disease after surgery (78% versus 70%) and when residual disease was <2 cm (50% versus 40%). Survival was greater in women with residual disease >2 cm in the platinum+paclitaxel group (50% versus 24%), (p = 0.04). However, progression-free survival was similar in both groups irrespective of stage or residual volume of disease. Therefore consideration to selective use of paclitaxel could reduce patient morbidity and costs significantly.

  11. Cancer Institute of New Jersey: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey to proceed with the design, construction, and equipping of the proposed Clinical Treatment and Research Facility of the University of New Jersey on the New Brunswick campus. The facility will provide for the integration of new and existing clinical outpatient cancer treatment with basic and clinical research to expedite the application of new discoveries in cancer treatment. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

  12. Hypofractionated Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy with simultaneous Elective Nodal Irradiation is feasible in prostate cancer patients: A single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed W. Hegazy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Hypo-fractionation dose escalation VMAT–SIB–ENI–WPRT using 2 arcs is a feasible technique for intermediate/high risk OC prostate cancer patients, with acceptable rates of acute/late toxicities, much favorable planning target volume (PTV coverage, and shorter overall treatment time. Prospective randomized controlled trials are encouraged to confirm its equivalence to other fractionation schemes.

  13. Prevalence based epigrammatic study of oral cancer and other mucosal disorders in elderly patients visiting dental institution of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj T Bhagawati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This report provides the descriptive information about the oral health among the elderly population. The objective is to assess the association of age, medical status, recent use of dental services, habits and dentures with that of oral cancer, and other mucosal disorders. Materials and Methods: Data from the interviews and clinical examination of 285 persons aged above 60 years were obtained. Patients were divided into three groups of 75 patients each with age group of 60-65 years, 66-70 years, and 71 years above, respectively. Patients were examined and questioned regarding the oral health complaints and the presence of cancer and other mucosal disorders. Results: There are no statistically significant differentiates between the three groups in terms of oral health complaint, medical status. The patients in all the three groups gave the history of consumption of betel quid/alcohol/smoking. About 22.1% patients in Group A, 18.9% in Group B, and 37.9% in Group C had associated mucosal lesion like oral cancer, growth, pigmentation, red lesion, ulcer, and white lesions. Association between deleterious habits and oral mucosal lesions was seen in 12, 15, and 16 patients in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusion: The oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions were associated with oral habits and the use of faulty dentures. Age had minimal influence but coexistence of multiple conditions might further complicate the oral health.

  14. Laparoscopic versus Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of 163 Patients in a Single Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Salman, Bulent; Yuksel, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancers. Materials and Methods. The medical records from a total of 163 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancers were retrospectively analyzed. Patient's demographic data, operative details and postoperative early outcomes, outpatient follow-up, pathologic results, and stages of the cancer were reviewed from the database. Results. The patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery showed significant advantages due to the minimally invasive nature of the surgery compared with those who underwent open surgery, namely, less blood loss, faster postoperative recovery, and shorter postoperative hospital stay (P 0.05). Open surgery resulted in more incisional infections and postoperative ileus compared with laparoscopic surgery (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the pathologic parameters between two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions. These findings indicated that laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer had the clear advantages of a minimally invasive surgery and relative disadvantage with longer surgery time and exhibited similar pathologic parameters compared with open surgery. PMID:25506425

  15. Radiotherapy in the cavum cancer: analysis of 30 cases treated in our institution in Beirut; La radiotherapie dans le cancer du cavum: analyse de 30 cas traites dans notre institution a Beyrouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helou, J.; Nasr, E.; Nasr, D.N.; Haddad, A. [service de radio-oncologie, Hotel-Dieu-de-France, Beyrouth (Lebanon); Rizk, H.; Melkane, A.; Tabchy, B. [service d' oto-rhino-laryngologie, Hotel-Dieu-de-France, Beyrouth (Lebanon); Chahine, G.; Ghosn, M. [service d' oncologie, Hotel-Dieu-de-France, Beyrouth (Lebanon); Khater, C. [service d' oncologie, Saint-Charles, Beyrouth (Lebanon)

    2010-10-15

    The authors describe the results obtained for nasopharyngeal cancers treated by irradiation, exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy. They also assess the impact of the different pathological and clinic variables on survival without relapse. The study is based on a sample of 30 patients treated between 1999 and 2009. Local control, metastatic dissemination, and toxicity are analysed and discussed. A ganglionary extension seems to be the worst prognostic factor. Short communication

  16. Stakeholder perspectives on implementing the National Cancer Institute's patient-reported outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Hanisch, Laura J; Reeve, Bryce B; Trotti, Andy M; Schrag, Deborah; Sit, Laura; Mendoza, Tito R; Minasian, Lori; O'Mara, Ann; Denicoff, Andrea M; Rowland, Julia H; Montello, Michael; Geoghegan, Cindy; Abernethy, Amy P; Clauser, Steven B; Castro, Kathleen; Mitchell, Sandra A; Burke, Laurie; Trentacosti, Ann Marie; Basch, Ethan M

    2011-03-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing a patient-reported version of its Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, called the "PRO-CTCAE." The PRO-CTCAE consists of a library of patient-reported items which can be administered in clinical trials to directly capture the patient experience of adverse events during cancer treatment, as well as a software platform for administering these items via computer or telephone. In order to better understand the impressions of stakeholders involved in cancer clinical research about the potential value of the PRO-CTCAE approach to capturing adverse event information in clinical research, as well as their perspectives about barriers and strategies for implementing the PRO-CTCAE in NCI-sponsored cancer trials, a survey was conducted. A survey including structured and open-ended questions was developed to elicit perceptions about the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for adverse event reporting, and to explore logistical considerations for implementing the PRO-CTCAE in cancer trials. The survey was distributed electronically and by paper to a convenience sample of leadership and committee members in the NCI's cooperative group network, including principal investigators, clinical investigators, research nurses, data managers, patient advocates, and representatives of the NCI and Food and Drug Administration. Between October, 2008 through February, 2009, 727 surveys were collected. Most respondents (93%) agreed that patient reporting of adverse symptoms would be useful for improving understanding of the patient experience with treatment in cancer trials, and 88%, 80%, and 76%, respectively, endorsed that administration of PRO-CTCAE items in clinical trials would improve the completeness, accuracy, and efficiency of symptom data collection. More than three fourths believed that patient reports would be useful for informing treatment dose modifications and towards FDA regulatory evaluation of drugs. Eighty

  17. Assessment of treatment tolerance and response of elderly head and neck cancer patients: A single institution retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck (H and N cancers are the leading cancer in elderly Indian population especially in Central India. Poor socioeconomic (SE factors, lack of knowledge, and that of proper facilities is responsible for delayed presentation in advanced stages of the disease. Management of such patients is challenging for an oncologist. Aim: The present study evaluated the pattern of tolerance and response to treatment in elderly (>65 years H and N cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Medical records of elderly H and N cancer patients presenting from January to December 2014 to the Department of Radiotherapy, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal were reviewed, and data were collected from the departmental case files. Results: A total 112 patients were selected for this study. The mean age of presentation was 70 years. There was a marked male preponderance, with male to female ratio of 5.22:1. 102 patients presented in advanced stages (stage III and IV. The mean duration of symptoms was 6.5 months. Records of 99 patients were available and further analyzed. 59 patients were advised three courses of induction chemotherapy (CT out of which 44 patients completed the treatment. 28 of these patients showed a positive response to the treatment while 16 showed no response (NR/progression. Similarly, 24 patients were advised concurrent chemoradiotherapy out of which 17 patients completed the treatment. 13 of these patients showed a positive response while 04 showed NR/progression. On subgroup analysis, the difference between tolerance, response and overall treatment time between the two arms was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Treating elderly H and N cancer patients is a major therapeutic challenge for a clinician because of its poor prognosis, aggressive clinical behavior, associated co-morbidities, and SE factors. However, it is possible to achieve a quality outcome in select patients with basic CT and radiation.

  18. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy: the only alternative in chemoradiation of head and neck cancer? Experience of the Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Concomitant chemoradiation is a widely used therapeutic concept in intensified locoregional treatment of high risk head and neck cancer patients. In this context, cisplatin monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapeutics is recognized as the most effective drug to be added to radiotherapy. Aim: The aim of this review is to present the rationale for combining radiotherapy with cisplatin in the treatment of head and neck cancer and to summarize the experience of the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Slovenia, gained through two prospective randomized trials on chemoradiation with mitomycin C and bleomycin in operable as well as inoperable head and neck cancer patients. Furthermore, recent developments in technology and biological drug modeling are discussed, which are considered to have a potential to add significantly to the locoregional effectiveness of radiotherapy. Materials/Methods: References were retrieved using the online data base of the National Library of Medicine (PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed). Terms used included: head and neck carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, concomitant chemoradiotherapy, cisplatin, mitomycin C, bleomycin. The results of studies using cisplatin- based chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of patients with inoperable tumors and on postoperative stetting were compared with the results of the studies, conducted at the Institute of Oncology and ENT Department at the Clinical Center Ljubljana, Slovenia. Results; When comparing mitomycin C-bleomycin chemotherapy with other comparable series on exclusively inoperable oropharyngeal cancer, but with cisplatin (or carboplatin) and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, and to standard dose cisplatin regimen used in postoperative setting, the effectiveness of our unconventional drug combination appeared to be at least equivalent to the well established platinum based chemotherapy standard. Conclusions: At the moment, concomitant chemoradiation with cisplatin

  19. Techniques for thyroid FNA: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Martha Bishop; Abele, John; Ali, Syed Z; Duick, Dan; Elsheikh, Tarik M; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Powers, Celeste N; Randolph, Gregory; Renshaw, Andrew; Scoutt, Leslie

    2008-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD. The 2-day meeting was accompanied by a permanent informational website and several on-line discussion periods between May 1 and December 15, 2007 (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov). This document summarizes matters addressing manual and ultrasound guided FNA technique and related issues. Specific topics covered include details regarding aspiration needles, devices, and methods, including the use of core needle biopsy; the pros and cons of anesthesia; the influence of thyroid lesion location, size, and characteristics on technique; the role of ultrasound in the FNA of a palpable thyroid nodule; the advantages and disadvantages of various specialists performing a biopsy; the optimal number of passes and tissue preparation methods; sample adequacy criteria for solid and cystic nodules, and management of adverse reactions from the procedure. (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/) PMID:18478608

  20. Predictive value of MTT assay as an in vitro chemosensitivity testing for gastric cancer: One institution's experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Jin-Shui Zhu; Yi Zhang; Wei-Ming Shen; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the predictive clinical value of in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for directing chemosensitivity in patients with gastric cancer.METHODS: Results of a total of 353 consecutive patients with gastric cancer treated with MTT-directed chemotherapy or physician's empirical chemotherapy from July 1997 to April 2003 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate of MTTsensitive group (MSG) and control group (CG) was 47.5% and 45.1%, respectively. The results of subgroup analysis with Cox proportional-hazards model were favorable for the MSG-sensitive group. However, no statistically significant difference in survival rate was observed between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Individualized chemotherapy based on in vitro MTT assay is beneficial, but needs to be confirmed by further randomized controlled trials.

  1. Impact of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer: a prospective evaluation at a single institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dault, R.; Rousseau, M.P.; Beaudoin, A.; Frenette, M.A.; Lemay, F.; Beauchesne, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin plays a major role in the treatment of colorectal cancer (crc), but is associated with the development of neuropathies. The main objective of the present prospective study was to estimate the proportion of participants with grade 1, 2, 3, or 4 peripheral sensory neuropathies according to the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4) among crc patients treated with oxaliplatin (adjuvant or metastatic, folfox or xelox regimens) at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke. Among the 57 patients so treated between May 2012 and April 2013, about 60% reported grade 2 neuropathy, at maximum, during treatment. About 25% of patients had to stop treatment because of neuropathies. In a subset of patients contacted approximately 22 months after treatment cessation, neuropathies persisted in 70%. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy affects a significant number of crc patients and can influence the course of treatment and outcomes. PMID:26966415

  2. From single-gene to multiplex analysis in lung cancer, challenges and accomplishments: a review of a single institution's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Weiqiang; Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular selection has led to the successful use of novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). For instance, mutations in EGFR and translocations and fusions in ALK render tumor cells sensitive to some TKIs, leading to substantial clinical benefits. Molecular testing such as DNA sequencing or fragment analysis following PCR, and evaluation of copy number and gene positioning by FISH, have been developed and used clinically to identify mutations/fusions. ...

  3. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  4. Application of the Western-based adjuvant online model to Korean colon cancer patients; a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjuvant Online (AOL) is web-accessible risk-assessment model that predicts the mortality and the benefits of adjuvant therapy. AOL has never been validated for Asian colon cancer patients. Using the Yonsei Tumor Registry database, patients who were treated within the Yonsei University Health System between 1990 and 2005 for T1-4, N0-2, and M0 colon cancer were included in the calculations for survival. Observed and predicted 5-year overall survival was compared for each patient. The median age of the study population of 1431 patients was 60 years (range, 15–87 years), and the median follow-up duration was 7.9 years (range, 0.06–19.8 years). The predicted 5-year overall survival rate (77.7%) and observed survival (79.5%) was not statistically different (95% Confidential interval, 76.3–81.5) in all patients. Predicted outcomes were within 95% confidential interval of observed survival in both stage II and III disease, including most demographic and pathologic subgroups. Moreover, AOL more accurately predicted OS for patients with stage II than stage III. AOL tended to offer reliable prediction for 5-year overall survival and could be used as a decision making tool for adjuvant treatment in Korean colon cancer patients whose prognosis is similar to other Asian patients

  5. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node–Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2–T4, N−) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3–6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node–negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  6. Enteral Feeding During Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience Using a Reactive Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The optimal method for providing enteral nutrition to patients with head-and-neck cancer is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of our reactive policy, which consists of the installation of a nasogastric (NG) feeding tube only when required by the patient's nutritional status. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with Stage III and IV head-and-neck cancer treated with concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy between January 2003 and December 2006 were reviewed. The overall and disease-free survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: The present study included 253 patients, and the median follow-up was 33 months. At 3 years, the estimated overall survival and disease-free survival rate was 82.8% and 77.8%, respectively, for the whole population. No survival difference was observed when the patients were compared according to the presence and absence of a NG tube or stratified by weight loss quartile. The mean weight loss during treatment for all patients was 10.4%. The proportion of patients requiring a NG tube was 49.8%, and the NG tube remained in place for a median duration of 40 days. No major complications were associated with NG tube installation. Only 3% of the patients were still dependent on enteral feeding at 6 months. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of a reactive NG tube with an interdisciplinary team approach is a safe and effective method to manage malnutrition in patients treated with concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  7. Cancer of Unknown Primary Site:A Review of 28 Cases and the Efficacy of Cisplatin/Docetaxel Therapy at a Single Institute in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimori,Hisakazu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin/docetaxel (CDDP/TXT chemotherapy and identified prognostic factors in Japanese patients with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP. Twenty-eight consecutive patients seen at a single institute were reviewed retrospectively. Sixteen patients were treated with TXT 80mg/m2, followed by CDDP 75mg/m2. The overall response rate to CDDP/TXT treatment was 62.5%, with a median survival time (MST of 22.7 months. Common adverse reactions were myelosuppression and hyponatremia. The MST of all 28 patients with CUP was 8.3 months, and the 1-year overall survival rate was 45.6%. Univariate analysis identified 5 prognostic factors:performance status, liver involvement, bone involvement, pleural involvement, and lymph node involvement. In conclusion, CDDP/TXT chemotherapy is effective with tolerable toxicity in patients with CUP. Japanese patients with CUP might be chemosensitive and may survive longer.

  8. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Jiménez-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count 100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population.

  9. Biweekly cetuximab and irinotecan in advanced colorectal cancer patients progressing after at least one previous line of chemotherapy: results of a phase II single institution trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martorell, P; Roselló, S; Rodríguez-Braun, E; Chirivella, I; Bosch, A; Cervantes, A

    2008-01-01

    This is a phase II institutional exploratory trial of biweekly irinotecan and cetuximab administration regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer patients progressing to at least one previous chemotherapy line. A total of 40 patients were treated between November 2005 and November 2007 with irinotecan 180 mg m−2 and cetuximab 500 mg m−2 q2w (every 2 weeks), in every 21-day cycles, until unacceptable toxicity or progressive disease. An overall response rate of 22.5% was obtained (two complete and seven partial responses). The disease control rate was 60%. The time to progression was 3.4 months and the overall survival was 8 months. The toxicity compared very favourably to weekly cetuximab combination schedules. Grade 3/4 adverse effects were observed in 12 patients. Overall, our results turn up very similar both in terms of toxicity and efficacy to those obtained by weekly and biweekly administration regimens. PMID:18665167

  10. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  12. Study On The Prevalence Of Various Forms Of Cancer In Diabetic Patients Hospitalized In The National Institute Of Diabetes, Nutrition And Metabolic Diseases “Prof. N.C. Paulescu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu-Vâlceanu Horaţiu-Cristian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with diabetes have a significantly increased risk of developing various cancers. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of various cancers in diabetic patients admitted in the National Institute of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases “Prof. N.C. Paulescu” between 01.01.2011 and 01.09.2014.

  13. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Badellino, Serena [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ceccarelli, Manuela [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Guarneri, Alessia [Radiation Oncology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Franco, Pierfrancesco [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monagheddu, Chiara [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Spadi, Rosella [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Racca, Patrizia [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials.

  14. Uncertainties of target volume delineation in MRI guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervix cancer: A multi-institutional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and aim: We aimed to quantify target volume delineation uncertainties in cervix cancer image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Materials and methods: Ten radiation oncologists delineated gross tumour volume (GTV), high- and intermediate-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV, IR CTV) in six patients. Their contours were compared with two reference delineations (STAPLE-Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation and EC- expert consensus) by calculating volumetric and planar conformity index (VCI and PCI) and inter-delineation distances (IDD). Results: VCISTAPLE and VCIEC were 0.76 and 0.72 for HR CTV, 0.77 and 0.68 for IR CTV and 0.59 and 0.58 for GTV. Variation was most prominent caudally and cranially in all target volumes and posterolaterally in IR CTV. IDDSTAPLE and IDDEC for HR CTV (3.6 ± 3.5 and 3.8 ± 3.4 mm) were significantly lower than for GTV (4.8 ± 4.2 and 4.2 ± 3.5 mm) and IR CTV (4.7 ± 5.2 and 5.2 ± 5.6 mm) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Due to lower delineation uncertainties when compared to GTV and IR CTV, HR CTV may be considered most robust volume for dose prescription and optimization in cervix cancer IGABT. Adequate imaging, training and use of contouring recommendations are main strategies to minimize delineation uncertainties

  15. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials

  16. Cross-cultural Adaptation of the EORTC QLQ CR-29 Questionnaire for Use in Colorectal Cancer Patients at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To validate a cross-cultural version of the EORTC QLQ CR-29 questionnaire version 2.0 (neutral Spanish) for use in Colombian patients. Methods: The EORTC quality of life group algorithm was applied including translation, translation comparison, reverse translation, and pilot application of the questionnaire. Results: The terms used to define the answers across items were modified. In four items the instrument was also modified using different words. The pilot verified a better understanding after the changes. Conclusions: An adapted version of the EORTC QLQ CR-29 is available for Colombia. Thus, validation of psychometric properties through its application in colorectal cancer patients is currently suitable.

  17. The challenge to bring personalized cancer medicine from clinical trials into routine clinical practice: the case of the Institut Gustave Roussy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedos, Monica; André, Fabrice; Farace, Françoise; Lacroix, Ludovic; Besse, Benjamin; Robert, Caroline; Soria, Jean Charles; Eggermont, Alexander M M

    2012-04-01

    Research with high throughput technologies has propitiated the segmentation of different types of tumors into very small subgroups characterized by the presence of very rare molecular alterations. The identification of these subgroups and the apparition of new agents targeting these infrequent alterations are already affecting the way in which clinical trials are being conducted with an increased need to identify those patients harboring specific molecular alterations. In this review we describe some of the currently ongoing and future studies at the Institut Gustave Roussy that aim for the identification of potential therapeutic targets for cancer patients with the incorporation of high throughput technologies into daily practice including aCGH, next generation sequencing and the creation of a software that allows for target identification specific for each tumor. The initial intention is to enrich clinical trials with cancer patients carrying certain molecular alterations in order to increase the possibility of demonstrating benefit from a targeted agent. Mid and long term aims are to facilitate and speed up the process of drug development as well as to implement the concept of personalized medicine. PMID:22483534

  18. Virtual Screening of Specific Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R Inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute (NCI Molecular Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR, which has a nearly identical sequence. A few potent inhibitors that are selective for IGF1R have been discovered experimentally with the aid of computational methods. However, studies on the rapid identification of IGF1R-selective inhibitors using virtual screening and confidence-level inspections of ligands that show different interactions with IGF1R and IR in docking analysis are rare. In this study, we established virtual screening and binding-mode prediction workflows based on benchmark results of IGF1R and several kinase receptors with IGF1R-like structures. We used comprehensive analysis of the known complexes of IGF1R and IR with their binding ligands to screen specific IGF1R inhibitors. Using these workflows, 17 of 139,735 compounds in the NCI (National Cancer Institute database were identified as potential specific inhibitors of IGF1R. Calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF with GROMACS were further conducted for three of the identified compounds to assess their binding affinity differences towards IGF1R and IR.

  19. Whole brain radiotherapy with a conformational external beam radiation boost for lung cancer patients with 1-3 brain metastasis: a multi institutional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the outcome of patients with brain metastasis (BM) from lung cancer treated with an external beam radiotherapy boost (RTB) after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). A total of 53 BM patients with lung cancer were treated sequentially with WBRT and RTB between 1996 and 2008 according to our institutional protocol. Mean age was 58.8 years. The median KPS was 90. Median recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and graded prognostic assessment (GPA) grouping were 2 and 2.5, respectively. Surgery was performed on 38 (71%) patients. The median number of BM was 1 (range, 1-3). Median WBRT and RTB combined dose was 39 Gy (range, 37.5 - 54). Median follow-up was 12.0 months. During the period of follow-up, 37 (70%) patients died. The median overall survival (OS) was 14.5 months. Only 13 patients failed in the brain. The majority of patients (n = 29) failed distantly. The 1-year OS, -local control, extracranial failure rates were 61.2%, 75.2% and 60.8%, respectively. On univariate analysis, improved OS was found to be significantly associated with total dose (≤ 39 Gy vs. > 39 Gy; p < 0.01), age < 65 (p < 0.01), absence of extracranial metastasis (p < 0.01), GPA ≥ 2.5 (p = 0.01), KPS ≥ 90 (p = 0.01), and RPA < 2 (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, total dose (p < 0.01) and the absence of extracranial metastasis (p = 0.03) retained statistical significance. The majority of lung cancer patients treated with WBRT and RTB progressed extracranially. There might be a subgroup of younger patients with good performance status and no extracranial disease who may benefit from dose escalation after WBRT to the metastatic site

  20. Breast cancer in malaysia: are our women getting the right message? 10 year-experience in a single institution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Nur Aishah; Yip, Cheng Har; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Ng, C J; Farizah, H

    2007-01-01

    The message that health care providers caring for patients with breast cancer would like to put forth, is that, not only early detection is crucial but early treatment too is important in ensuring survival. This paper examines the pattern of presentation at a single institution over a 10-year period from 1995 to 2005. In Malaysia, education outreach programmes are ongoing, with contributions not only from the public sector, but also private enterprise. Articles on breast cancer in local newspapers and women magazines and television are quite commonplace. However are our women getting the right message? Now is an appropriate time to bring the stakeholders together to formulate a way to reach all women in Malaysia, not excluding the fact that we are from different races, different education levels and backgrounds requiring differing ways of delivering health promotion messages. To answer the question of why women present late, we prospectively studied 25 women who presented with locally advanced disease. A quantitative, quasi-qualitative study was embarked upon, as a prelude to a more detailed study. Reasons for presenting late were recorded. We also looked at the pattern of presentation of breast lumps in women to our breast clinic in UMMC and in the surgical clinic in Hospital Kota Bharu, in the smaller capital of the state of Kelantan, in 2003. There is hope for the future, the government being a socially responsible one is currently making efforts towards mammographic screening in Malaysia. However understanding of the disease, acceptance of medical treatment and providing resources is imperative to ensure that health behaviour exhibited by our women is not self-destructive but self-preserving. Women are an integral part of not only the nation's workforce but the lifeline of the family - hopefully in the next decade we will see great improvement in the survival of Malaysian women with breast cancer. PMID:17477791

  1. Commentary on "Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010." Karami S, Daugherty SE, Schonfeld SJ, Park Y, Hollenbeck AR, Grubb RL 3rd, Hofmann JN, Chow WH, Purdue MP, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 177(12):1368-77. [Epub 2013 Apr 26]. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws406.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend= 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:25087669

  2. Next-generation sequencing in patients with advanced cancer: are we ready for widespread clinical use? A single institute's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenader, Tal; Tauber, Rachel; Shavit, Linda

    2016-10-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay targeting cancer-relevant genes has been adopted widely for use in patients with advanced cancer. The primary aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of commercially available NGS. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinicopathologic data, recommended therapy, and clinical outcomes of 30 patients with a variety of advanced solid tumors referred to Foundation Medicine NGS. The initial pathologic examination was performed at the pathology department of the referring hospital. The comprehensive clinical NSG assay was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor samples using the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified FoundationOne platform. The median number of genomic alterations was 3 (0-19). The median number of therapies with potential benefit was 2 (0-8). In 12 cases, a comprehensive clinical NGS assay did not indicate any therapy with potential benefit according to the genomic profile. Ten of the 30 patients received treatments recommended by genomic profile results. In six of the 10 cases, disease progressed within 2 months and four patients died within 3 months of treatment initiation. Three of the 30 patients benefited from a comprehensive clinical NGS assay and the subsequent recommended therapy. The median PFS was 12 weeks (95% confidence interval 10-57) in patients treated with molecularly targeted agents chosen on the basis of tumor genomic profiling versus 48 weeks (95% confidence interval 8-38) in the control group treated with physician choice therapy (P=0.12). Our study suggests that NGS can detect additional treatment targets in individual patients, but prospective medical research and appropriate clinical guidelines for proper clinical use are vital. PMID:27384593

  3. Best supportive care compared with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for unresectable gallbladder cancer: A tertiary care institute experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gallbladder represent the most common cancer among biliary tree, complete surgery offers only chance of cure, but most of patients with unresectable or metastatic stage, in such patients only palliative treatment be given. Aims: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate efficacy of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX, and or with radiotherapy over best supportive care (BSC in unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC. Materials and Methods: Patients with unresectable GBC were evaluated from our center between 2008 and 2011. Three cohorts were identified. Group A, BSC, Group B chemotherapy with GEMOX two weekly for maximum of six cycles. Group C, Chemotherapy with GEMOX and Radiotherapy. Patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD or Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP when required. Results: Total 50 patients included in analysis. 19 are male and 31 are female. 14 patients in Group A. 18 patients in Group B and 18 in Group C. Median follow up was 8.8 month. The progression free survival (PFS of patients who received of BSC at 15 month was 18%. PFS of patients who received chemotherapy (CCT at 28 month was 30%. PFS of patients who received CCT Chemotherapy and radiotherapy PFS at 15 month was 38%. When compared all three group none is statically significant (P = 0.538. Conclusion: Judicious used of BSC along with chemotherapy and or with radiotherapy may help in increase in period of stable disease along with overall survival (OS in selected group. In our retrospective analysis CCT with GEMOX and with radiotherapy has helped in improving the OS and PFS in few patients who had good performance status.

  4. Penile primary melanoma: analysis of 6 patients treated at Brazilian national cancer institute in the last eight years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ruschi Bechara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To describe our experience in treating penile melanoma in 06 patients followed at our institution. Materials and Methods Between 2004 and 2012 six consecutive patients with penile melanoma were treated at our Institution. Stage of the disease was classified according to the 2002 AJCC pathologic system. Melanoma in situ (TIS was diagnosed in one patient. One patient was staged as T1b, two patients as T2b and two patients as T4b. The clinical and pathological findings were evaluated. Immunohistochemical tests were performed for Melan-A, HNB-45, S-100 and C-KIT. All histological specimens were examined by the same pathologist (ABSS. The patients with Cis, stages T1b and one patient T2b underwent only local excision. One patient T2b underwent local excision and sentinel lymph node dissection. Two patients with melanoma stage T4b underwent partial penile amputation. One of these last patients had palpable inguinal lymph nodes at diagnosis and underwent bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy and received systemic chemotherapy (dacarbazine, 30 cycles. Results Mean follow-up was 36.3 months. One patient, with stage T2b, died after 12 months due to disease recurrence with bilateral inguinal involvement. The patient who underwent chemotherapy progressed with lung metastases and died after 14 months of follow up. The disease-free survival at five years was 33.3%. Conclusion: Penile melanoma is a disease with poor prognosis in most cases. Local excision or partial penile amputation may have effective control for stages T1 and T2 lesions. Patients who have clinically proven metastases died despite surgical and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Inter-observer variability of clinical target volume delineation in radiotherapy treatment of pancreatic cancer: a multi-institutional contouring experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observational multi-institutional study has been conducted aimed to evaluate the inter-observer variability in clinical target volume (CTV) delineation among different radiation oncologists in radiotherapy treatment of pancreatic cancer. A multi-institutional contouring dummy-run of two different cases of pancreatic cancer treated by postoperative and preoperative radiotherapy (RT) was performed. Clinical history, diagnostics, and planning CT imaging were available on AIRO website. Participants were requested to delineate CTVs according to their skills and knowledge. Aiming to quantify interobserver variability of CTVs delineations, the total volume, craniocaudal, laterolateral, and anteroposterior diameters were calculated. Descriptive statistic was calculated. The 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) for coefficient of variation (CV) was estimated. The Dice Similarity Index (DSI) was used to evaluate the spatial overlap accuracy of the different CTVs compared with the CTVs of a national reference Centre considered as a benchmark. The mean DSI (mDSI) was calculated and reported. A total of 18 radiation oncologists from different Institutes submitted the targets. Less variability was observed for the Elective CTV rather than the Boost CTV, in both cases. The estimated CV were 28.8% (95% CI: 21.2 - 45.0%) and 20.0% (95% CI: 14.9 - 30.6%) for the Elective CTV, in adjuvant (Case 1) and neoadjuvant (Case 2) case, respectively. The mDSI value was 0.68 for the Elective CTVs in both cases (range 0.19 - 0.79 in postoperative vs range 0.35 - 0.79 in preoperative case). The mDSI was increased to 0.71 (Case 1) and 0.72 (Case 2) if the observers with a worse agreement have been excluded. On the other hand, a CV of 42.4% (95% CI: 30.1 - 72.4%) and 63.8% (95% CI: 43.9 - 119.2%) with a mDSI value of 0.44 and 0.52, were calculated for the Boost CTV in Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. The CV and mDSI obtained values for Elective CTVs showed an acceptable agreement among participants

  6. Outcome in Advanced Ovarian Cancer following an Appropriate and Comprehensive Effort at Upfront Cytoreduction: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marszalek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients was to compare outcome with published findings from other centers and to discuss future options for the management of advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methods. A retrospective series of 340 patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 17–88 treated for FIGO stage III and IV ovarian cancer between January 1985 and January 2005 was reviewed. All patients had primary cytoreductive surgery, without extensive bowel, peritoneal, or systematic lymph node resection, thereby allowing initiation of chemotherapy without delay. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with alkylating agents before 2000, whereas carboplatin and paclitaxel regimes were generally used after 1999-2000. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Results. With a mean followup of 101 months (range: 5 to 203, 280 events (recurrence or death were observed and 245 patients (72% had died. The mortality and morbidity related to surgery were low. The main prognostic factor for overall survival was postoperative residual disease (P<.0002, while the main prognostic factor for disease-free survival was histological tumor type (P<.0007. Multivariate analysis identified three significant risk factors: optimal surgery (RR=2.2 for suboptimal surgery, menopausal status (RR=1.47 for postmenopausal women, and presence of a taxane in the chemotherapy combination (RR=0.72. Conclusion. These results confirm that optimal surgery defined by an appropriate and comprehensive effort at upfront cytoreduction limits morbidity related to the surgical procedure and allows initiation of chemotherapy without any negative impact on survival. The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to improve resectability while lowering the morbidity of the surgical procedure is discussed.

  7. Feasibility of laparoscopic abdomino - perineal resection for large - sized anorectal cancers : A single - institution experience of 59 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Parul

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic surgery for anorectal carcinoma is steadily gaining acceptance. While feasibility has already been reported, there are no reports addressing the impact of the actual size of large tumors on laparoscopic resectability . Aim: To assess the feasibility and short-term results (including oncological surrogate end points of performing laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection (APR for large rectal cancers. Materials And Methods: Data of 59 patients undergoing laparoscopic APR (LAPR for anorectal malignancies were reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes were evaluated considering the surgical procedure, surface area of the tumor and short-term outcomes. Results: Of the 59 cases, LAPR could be completed in 53 (89.8% patients. Thirty-one (58.4% patients had Astler-Coller C2 stage disease. The mean surface area of the tumors was 24±17.5 (4-83 cm2. The number of median lymph nodes harvested per case was 12 (1-48. Circumferential resection margin (CRM was positive in 11 (20.7% patients. No mortality was reported. Conclusion: This appears to be the first report analyzing the impact of the size of the rectal tumor in LAPR. The data clearly indicates that LAPR is not hampered by the size of the tumor. There appears to be a need for preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy before undertaking surgery on larger tumors in view of the higher circumferential resection margin positivity.

  8. Does Institutional Distance Still Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan

    This paper adds nuance to our understanding of institutional antecedents of foreign investment, in particular in global services sourcing. While prior research has stressed the various risks and effects associated with home-host country differences in national-level institutions, e.g. legal syste...

  9. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma: multi-institutional comprehensive cancer centre review of multiphasic CT and MR imaging in 35 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the imaging features of primary hepatic angiosarcoma on multiphasic CT and MR. Multi-institutional review identified 35 adults (mean age, 57.1 years; 22M/13F) with pathologically proven hepatic angiosarcoma and pretreatment multiphasic CT (n = 33) and/or MR (n = 7). Multifocal hepatic involvement was seen in all 35 cases, with at least 10 lesions in 74.3 % (26/35). Mean size of the dominant mass was 8.9 ± 4.7 cm (range, 2.6-20 cm). Individual nodules were typically circumscribed. Arterial-phase foci of hypervascular enhancement without washout were seen in 89.7 % (26/29). Heterogeneously expanding foci of enhancement generally followed blood pool in 88.6 % (31/35). Progressive centripetal (n = 16) or diffuse ''flash-fill'' (n = 4) enhancement pattern resembling cavernous haemangiomas predominated in 20 cases, whereas a ''reverse haemangioma'' centrifugal pattern predominated in 11 cases. Rapid interval growth was seen in 24 (96.0 %) of 25 cases with serial imaging. Vascular invasion was not seen in any case. Underlying cirrhotic morphology was seen in 42.3 % (15/35). Primary hepatic angiosarcomas typically manifest as aggressive multifocal tumors containing small heterogeneous hypervascular foci that progressively expand and follow blood pool. The appearance can mimic cavernous haemangiomas, but distinction is generally possible. In the setting of cirrhosis, lack of tumour washout and vascular invasion argue against multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.)

  10. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  11. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  12. Outcomes of patients with unresected stage III and stage IV non-small cell lung cancer: A single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Singh Tiwana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To report on the demographic profile and survival outcomes of North Indian population affected with stage III and stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Materials and Methods: From November 2008 to January 2012, 138 consecutively diagnosed NSCLC patients were included in this study. The patient, tumor and treatment related factors were analyzed. Median overall survival (OS, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, t-test, Cox proportional hazards models were generated by multivariate analysis [MVA] and analyzed on SPSS software (version 19.0; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL. Results: Median OS of stage III patients was 9.26 ± 1.85 months and 2-year survival rate of 13% while stage IV patients had median OS of 5 ± 1.5 months with a 2-year survival rate of 8%. Cox regression modeling for MVA demonstrated higher biologically equivalent dose (BED ( P = 0.01 in stage III while in stage IV non-squamous histology ( P = 0.01, administration of chemotherapy ( P = 0.02, partial responders to chemotherapy ( P = 0.001, higher BED ( P = 0.02, and those with skeletal metastasis alone ( P = 0.17 showed a better OS. Conclusion: Our data showed that a higher BED is associated with favorable outcomes, indicating a role of dose escalated radiation therapy to the primary lesion in both stage III and essentially in stage IV NSCLC. Additionally, optimal use of chemotherapy relates to better survival. The developing, resource restrained nations need to follow an economically feasible multimodality approach.

  13. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  14. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  15. Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer. 20-year experience from a single institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrian, K.; Sauer, T.; Klemm, S.; Bayer, C.; Haller, B.; Molls, M.; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To report the efficacy and toxicity of radio(chemo)therapy (RCT) in the management of squamous cell anal carcinoma (SQ-AC) and to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing the outcomes. Patients and methods: A consecutive cohort of 138 patients with cT1-4, cN0-3, cM0 SQ-AC were treated with RCT between 1988 and 2011 at our department. Median follow-up time for surviving patients from the start of RCT was 98 months (range, 1-236 months). Patients were treated with a median radiation dose of 56 Gy (range, 4-61 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 119 patients (86%). Results: The survival rates at 2, 5, and 10 years were 88 {+-} 3, 82 {+-} 4, and 59 {+-} 6%, respectively, with a median overall survival (OS) of 167 months. The cumulative incidence for local recurrence at 2 and 5 years was 8 {+-} 2 and 11 {+-} 3%, respectively. The median disease-free survival (DFS) and colostomy-free survival (CFS) times were 132 and 135 months, respectively. In 19 patients (14%), a distant metastasis was diagnosed after a median time of 19 months. In the multivariate analysis, UICC (International Union Against Cancer) stage I-II, female gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and good/moderate histologic differentiation (G1-2) were significantly associated with a better OS, DFS, and CFS. Conformal radiotherapy planning techniques were significantly associated with a lower cumulative incidence of local recurrence (11 {+-} 3% vs. 38 {+-} 19% at 5 years, p = 0.006). A higher radiation dose beyond 54 Gy was not associated with an improvement in outcome, neither for smaller - (T1/T2) nor for larger tumors (T3/T4). Conclusion: RCT leads to excellent outcomes - especially in patients with stage I/II and G1/G2 tumors - with acceptable toxicity. The probable advantages of high-dose radiotherapy should be considered carefully against the risk of a higher rate of toxicity. Future studies are needed to investigate the role of a more

  16. A single-institution experience with bevacizumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and in conjunction with liver resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, Pia; Peltonen, Reetta; Alanko, Tuomo; Bono, Petri; Isoniemi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab is active in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, efficacy of bevacizumab has predominantly been evaluated on selected patients with relatively good performance status and minor comorbidities. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in unselected patients with mCRC, some of whom underwent liver resection. Material and methods All patients with inoperable mCRC, fit for combination chemotherapy (n=180), who were initially not resectable, not included into studies and without contraindications to bevacizumab, and initiated on bevacizumab at the Helsinki University Central Hospital between April 2004 and December 2005 were included (n=114). Most (n=70) received 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan plus bevacizumab as first-line therapy. The remainder (n=44) of the patients received bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin or irinotecan with or without 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine. Minimum follow-up was 7 years. Treatment response was evaluated every 8–10 weeks according to RECIST criteria. Results Median age was 59.6 years (range 35–79); male/female ratio was 54%/46%; World Health Organization performance status 0/1/2–3 was 33%/55%/11%, respectively; and the number of metastatic sites, one/two/three or more, was 31%/21%/48%, respectively. Median duration of bevacizumab therapy was 7.8 months (range 0.5–70.5 with pauses). In first-line (n=40), response rate (RR) was 62%, progression-free survival (PFS) 11.7 months, and overall survival (OS) 22.1 months. In second-line (n=43), RR was 44%, PFS 8.7 months, and OS 18.7 months. In later lines (n=31), RR was 14%, PFS 6.7 months, and OS 14.2 months. Ten patients with initially unresectable liver metastases became operable and R0 resection was achieved in 90% (9/10 resections). In 23% (7/31) of operated metastases, no vital tumor cells were found in histologic examination. Operative morbidity was low: two mild infections, no increased bleeding tendency

  17. Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors ≥6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available

  18. Comorbidity and Karnofksy performance score are independent prognostic factors in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: an institutional analysis of patients treated on four RTOG studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic role of comorbidity in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated definitively with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 112 patients with clinical Stage III NSCLC (American Joint Commission on Cancer 1997) enrolled in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies (83-11, 84-03, 84-07, and 88-08 nonchemotherapy arms) at a single institution were analyzed retrospectively for overall survival (OS) and comorbidity. Of the 112 patients, 105 (94%) completed their assigned radiotherapy. The median assigned dose was 50.4 Gy to the lymphatics (range 45-50.4 Gy) and 70.2 Gy to the primary tumor (range 60-79.2 Gy). Comorbidity was rated retrospectively using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and Charlson scales. Karnofsky performance scores (KPSs) and weight loss were prospectively recorded. Because only 8 patients had a KPS of 70). Results: The median survival was 10.39 months (range 7.87-12.91). The 2-, 3-, and 5-year OS rate was 20.5%, 12.5%, and 7.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, clinical stage (IIIA vs. IIIB) was found to be a statistically significant factor influencing OS (p=0.026), and the histologic features, grade, tumor size as measured on CT scans, age, tobacco use, weight loss ≥5%, and total dose delivered to the primary tumor were not. A KPS of ≤70 (p=0.001), the presence of a CIRS-G score of 4 (extremely severe; p=0.0002), and a severity index of >2 (p2 were independently associated with inferior OS; clinical tumor stage was not found to be an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: KPS and comorbidity are important independent prognostic factors in Stage III NSCLC. Comorbidity should be included in protocols studying advanced stage NSCLC and used for stratification

  19. A randomized phase III trial comparing concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in advanced head and neck cancers - mature results: Yoodhvir Singh Nagar, Lucknow Cancer Institute, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate contribution of concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) over and above radiotherapy alone (RT) in previously untreated stage III/IV, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCH and N). Patients with cancers of oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), supraglottis (SG) and hypopharynx (HP) were randomized into RT arm or CTRT arm. Radiotherapy was identical in both arms (70Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks). In CTRT arm concomitant cisplatin (35mg/m2) was given weekly for seven cycles. Surgery was reserved for salvage purposes when required. From May 1996 to December 1998, 155 patients (RT=78, CTRT=77) were enrolled and 139 patients (RT1,CTRT=68) were assessable. Over 90% patients in both arms completed planned treatment. The complete response rate was 51% in RT arm and 71% in CTRT arm (p=0.017). The median disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in RT arm and CTRT arm were 3 months vs. 11 months (p=0.0009) and 9 months vs. 26 months (p=0.01) respectively. The 5-year DFS and OS in the two arms were 10% vs. 27% (p=0.000) and 16% vs. 29% (p=0.01) respectively. Acute grade III toxicity was comparable in both the arms (12% vs. 16%, p=0.74). Late grade I/II toxicity was higher in CTRT arm (70% vs. 51%, p=0.09). Serious late toxicities were not seen in both arms. On univariate analysis the favorable factors for immediate response were protocol (CTRT better), primary site (SG and OP better than OC and HP), T-stage (T1-T2 better), Nodes (N0 better than N+), Stage (III > IV), KPS (>80) and lesser overall treatment time (OTT). Multivariate analysis retained protocol, T stage, N stage and OTT as factors independently affecting the immediate response. Addition of concomitant weekly cisplatin (35mg/m2) to radiotherapy improves the likelihood of local control, DFS and OS with acceptable acute and late toxicities and can be recommended as a standard form of treatment in advanced SCCH and N

  20. Beclomethasone Dipropionate in Preventing Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-05

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Graft Versus Host Disease; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Meningeal Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Disease, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small

  1. CPTAC-EDRN Joint Session - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) and the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) will host a session during the 9th US-HUPO annual conference entitled “Highlights from NCI Proteomic Research Programs.”

  2. Establishing daily quality control (QC) in screen-film mammography using leeds tor (max) phantom at the breast imaging unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acaba, K. J. C.; Cinco, L. D.; Melchor, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    Daily QC tests performed on screen film mammography (SFM) equipment are essential to ensure that both SFM unit and film processor are working in a consistent manner. The Breast Imaging Unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute has been conducting QC following the test protocols in the IAEA Human Health Series No.2 manual. However, the availability of Leeds breast phantom (CRP E13039) in the facility made the task easier. Instead of carrying out separate tests on AEC constancy and light sensitometry, only one exposure of the phantom is done to accomplish the two tests. It was observed that measurements made on mAs output and optical densities (ODs) using the Leeds TOR (MAX) phantom are comparable with that obtained from the usual conduct of tests, taking into account the attenuation characteristic of the phantom. Image quality parameters such as low contrast and high contrast details were also evaluated from the phantom image. The authors recognize the usefulness of the phantom in determining technical factors that will help improve detection of smallest pathological details on breast images. The phantom is also convenient for daily QC monitoring and economical since less number of films is expended.

  3. Long-term outcomes for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on The Cancer Institute of New Jersey ALL trial (CINJALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachtman, Richard A; Masterson, Margaret; Shenkerman, Angela; Vijayanathan, Veena; Cole, Peter D

    2016-10-01

    The Cancer Institute of New Jersey Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia trial (CINJALL) employed a post-induction regimen centered on intensive oral antimetabolite therapy, with no intravenous methotrexate (MTX). Fifty-eight patients enrolled between 2001 and 2005. A high rate of induction death (n = 3) or induction failure (n = 1) was observed. Among those who entered remission, five-year DFS is 80 ± 8.9% for those at standard risk of relapse and 76 ± 7.8% for high-risk patients, with median follow up over six years. The estimated cumulative incidence of testicular relapse among boys was elevated (13 ± 7.2%) compared to the rate observed on contemporary protocols. We conclude that post-induction therapy using intensive oral antimetabolites for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can result in overall long-term DFS comparable to that observed among children treated with regimens including intravenous MTX. However, an increased risk of late extramedullary relapse among boys was observed, supporting the prevailing opinion that high-dose MTX improves outcome for children with ALL. PMID:26879921

  4. Radiotherapy alone in breast cancer. I. Analysis of tumor parameters, tumor dose and local control: the experience of the Gustave-Roussy Institute and the Princess Margaret Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study involved 463 breast cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone at the Princess Margaret Hospital and at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. These patients either had operable tumors, but were unfit for general anesthesia, or had inoperable tumors due to local contraindications to surgery. Results were analyzed according to tumor response, local recurrence rate, tumor size, tumor fixation, nodal fixation and tumor dose. Conventional statistical analysis of local control showed two significant factors: tumor dose and tumor size. Multivariate analysis permitted to define an ''individual risk'' (IR) of local recurrence according to three independent factors: tumor size, tumor fixation, and nodal fixation. It was shown that the IR was a good prognostic factor for local control. Increase in tumor dose gave a similar effect in the local recurrence relative risk for all the IR groups. According to the slope of the dose-effect curve, it was deduced that a dose increase of 15 Gy can decrease the relative risk of local recurrence 2-fold. In fact, it was shown that tumor dose was the most significant independent factor on local control, able to produce up to a 10-fold increase compared to 2-fold decrease for tumor size. If the IR of local recurrence is known, a theoretical predictive value on local control, taking into account the tumor dose, can be determined according to the present data

  5. The frequency and management of asparaginase-related thrombosis in paediatric and adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute consortium protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Rachael F; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Neuberg, Donna; Sallan, Stephen E; Connors, Jean M; Neufeld, Ellis J; Deangelo, Daniel J; Silverman, Lewis B

    2011-02-01

    The optimal management of asparaginase-associated thrombotic complications is not well-defined. We report the features, management and outcome of paediatric (ages 0-18years) and adult (18-50years) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with asparaginase-related venous thromboembolic events (VTE) treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute on clinical trials for newly diagnosed ALL between 1991-2008. Of 548 patients, 43 (8%) had VTE, including 27/501 (5%) paediatric and 16/47 (34%) adult patients. Sinus venous thrombosis occurred in 1·6% of patients. Age was the only significant predictor of VTE, with those aged >30years at very high risk (VTE rate 42%). 74% of patients received low molecular weight heparin after VTE. Complications of anticoagulation included epistaxis (9%), bruising (2%) and, in two adult patients, major bleeding. Thirty patients (70%) ultimately received at least 85% of the intended doses of asparaginase. 33% of patients experienced recurrent VTE (paediatric 17% vs. adults 47%, P=0·07). The 48-month event-free survival for patients with VTE was 85±6% compared with 88±2% for those without VTE (P=0·36). This study confirms that, after VTE, asparaginase can be restarted with closely monitored anticoagulation after imaging demonstrates clot stabilization or improvement. With this management strategy, a history of VTE does not appear to adversely impact prognosis. PMID:21210774

  6. Surgical Excision with Forehead Flap as Single Modality Treatment for Basal Cell Cancer of Central Face: Single Institutional Experience of 50 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdeep Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer worldwide. The WHO has defined it as “a locally invasive, slowly spreading tumor which rarely metastasizes, arising in the epidermis or hair follicles and in which the peripheral cells usually simulate the basal cells of the epidermis.” Here we discuss the management of BCCs of central face with surgical excision and reconstruction with forehead flap as single modality treatment. Material and Methods. This is a retrospective review of 50 patients who underwent surgical excision of BCC involving the facial region followed by primary reconstruction using forehead flaps at a single institution. There were 20 males and 30 females, mean age of 59 years. Results. No recurrence at primary site was observed during the follow-up of 1–4 yrs. There was no ectropion or exposure sequela. However, epiphora was evident. Size of lesions ranged from 2 to 6 cm. Keloid formation was seen in 2 (4% patients. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were satisfactory. Conclusion. For the face, the best reconstructive effort eventually fails in the face of tumor recurrence. The forehead flap represents one of the best methods for repair of extensive facial defects. Complete tumor extirpation, the primary event, is the key.

  7. Definitive radiotherapy for uterine cervix cancer: long term results for patients treated in the period from 1998 till 2002 at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse results of the two-dimensional (2D) uterine cervix cancer treatment at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from 1998 till 2002, before the three-dimensional (3D) approach was introduced in our clinical practice. Ninety-eight patients with the following FIGO stage distribution were analysed: 10% IB, 7% IIA, 37% IIB, 4% IIIA and 42% IIIB. The influence of age, haemoglobin level, histology, grade, stage, lymph node status, cumulative point A dose, and an overall treatment time on the survival and local control (LC) were evaluated. Acute and late side effects were assessed. Five and 8-year overall survival (OS), disease specific survival (DSS) and LC rate were as follows: 47.2% and 43.0%, 54.7% and 53.4%, 74.9% and 72.5%, respectively. Point A dose and histology of the tumour influenced OS, positive lymph nodes DSS and point A dose LC rate. Probability of grade three and four late complications in the first five years was 7.1% for gastrointestinal tract and 3.3% for genitourinary system and vagina. Point A dose was independent predictor of OS and LC rate, lymph node status predicted DSS, while histology of the tumour influenced OS

  8. The use of Am-241 as Equivalence Thickness Measurement for Irradiation Room at National institute for Cancer and Malacca Hospital: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead equivalent thickness measurement of a shielding material in diagnostic radiology is very important to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have sufficient shielding thickness, for example for general radiography it must be at least equal to 2.0 mm of Pb, for panoramic dental radiography at least equal to 1.5 mm of Pb and for mammography should be a minimum of 1.0 mm of Pb. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for irradiation room at National Institute for Cancer (IKN) and General Malacca Hospital. Results of measurement of 10 irradiation rooms conducted in 2012 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that almost all the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  9. Institutions and Outward Foreign Direct Investment2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influence of the quality of a host country’s institutional environment on outflows from that country of foreign direct investment. The main finding of this paper is that such quality does play an important role, particularly with respect to governance quality and political stability. This implies that better institutional conditions may reduce undesirable outflows of capital, and the quality of those institutions may impact FDI effectiveness in host countries.

  10. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  11. 制度环境、 投资动机与中国 OFDI区位分布——基于发达东道国和发展中东道国的对比研究%Institutional Environment, Investment Motivation and Locational Distribution of China′s OFDI——Based on the Comparison of Developed Host Countries and Developing Host Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 钱晓英

    2016-01-01

    Based on China′s outward foreign direct investment ( OFDI ) flow data of 45 host countries during 2004-2013, this article makes the comparative analysis of regional distribution of China′s OFDI in developing and developed countries, with the method of Heckman two-stage model, and studies if the political institutions of host countries have an impact on investment choice and scale of China′s OFDI with different investment motivations.The results show that mar-ket, resource, technology and institution are the location factors affecting Chinese investment in developed countries, and they also affect the investment in developing countries besides technology;both institutional quality and the bilateral in-stitutional distance have positive impact on Chinese investment scale in developed countries;however corruption level of developing countries affect China′s OFDI negatively, the role of bilateral institutional distance is not clear; institutional environment has positive impact on Chinese market-seeking, resource-seeking investment in developed countries, but it has a negative effect on technology-seeking OFDI and market-seeking, resource-seeking investment in developing coun-tries.%本文基于2004-2013年中国对45个东道国的OFDI数据, 利用Heckman两阶段模型对比分析中国OFDI在发达东道国与发展中东道国间的区位分布, 并考察不同投资动机下东道国制度对中国企业投资选择和规模的作用. 实证结果发现: 市场、 资源、 技术、 制度都是影响中国在发达国家投资的区位因素, 除技术外, 其他三项对中国在发展中国家的OFDI也有影响; 发达国家的制度质量及其与中国的双边制度差距正向影响中国企业投资规模, 而发展中国家的腐败程度负向影响中国OFDI规模, 双边制度差异的作用尚不明显; 制度环境对中国在发达国家的市场、 资源寻求型投资有显著积极影响, 但对技术寻求型投资以及

  12. Unbundling Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the importance of property rights institutions', which protect citizens against expropriation by the government and powerful elites, and contracting institutions', which enable private contracts between citizens. We exploit exogenous variation in both types of institutions driven by colonial history, and document strong first-stage relationships between property rights institutions and the determinants of European colonization (settler mortality and population density bef...

  13. Cellular host responses to gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Najbauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Molecular and genetic analysis has advanced our understanding of glioma biology, however mapping the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment is crucial for understanding the pathology of this dreaded brain cancer. In this study we identified major cell populations attracted by glioma using orthotopic rodent models of human glioma xenografts. Marker-specific, anatomical and morphological analyses revealed a robust influx of host cells into the main tumor bed and tumor satellites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human glioma cell lines and glioma spheroid orthotopic implants were used in rodents. In both models, the xenografts recruited large numbers of host nestin-expressing cells, which formed a 'network' with glioma. The host nestin-expressing cells appeared to originate in the subventricular zone ipsilateral to the tumor, and were clearly distinguishable from pericytes that expressed smooth muscle actin. These distinct cell populations established close physical contact in a 'pair-wise' manner and migrated together to the deeper layers of tumor satellites and gave rise to tumor vasculature. The GBM biopsy xenografts displayed two different phenotypes: (a low-generation tumors (first in vivo passage in rats were highly invasive and non-angiogenic, and host nestin-positive cells that infiltrated into these tumors displayed astrocytic or elongated bipolar morphology; (b high-generation xenografts (fifth passage had pronounced cellularity, were angiogenic with 'glomerulus-like' microvascular proliferations that contained host nestin-positive cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its receptor CXCR4 were highly expressed in and around glioma xenografts, suggesting their role in glioma progression and invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a robust migration of nestin-expressing host cells to glioma, which

  14. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  15. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  16. Relationships among Internet health information use, patient behavior and self efficacy in newly diagnosed cancer patients who contact the National Cancer Institute's NCI Atlantic Region Cancer Information Service (CIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Linda; Bass, Sarah; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; McKeown-Conn, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This NCI funded study examined the relationship between the use of Internet health information by people newly diagnosed with cancer (N=500), with patient task behavior and perceived self efficacy. Study variables were compared among Direct users of Internet health information (people using the Internet themselves), Indirect users of Internet health information (people receiving Internet health information from friends or family members), and Non-users of Internet health information (people not using the Internet or receiving health information from the Internet). The subjects were recruited from persons who called the Atlantic Region of the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS), located at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, PA. Follow up phone interviews were done with participants six weeks after initial contact to assess impact of the use of the Internet on perceived patient task behavior and self efficacy. Results show significant relationships between Internet use and all study variables. PMID:12463827

  17. Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori CagA status and IL1B-31C > T genotypes: A host and environment interaction in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Camargo, M. Constanza; Schneider, Barbara G.; Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Correa, Pelayo; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) has been associated with a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. In contrast to most countries, available information on GC mortality trends showed a gradual increase in Mexico. Our aim was to explore potential interactions among dietary (chili pepper consumption), infectious (Helicobacter pylori) and genetic factors (IL1B-31 genotypes) on GC risk. The study was performed in three areas of Mexico, with different GC mortality rates. We included 158 GC pa...

  18. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A.; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of breast cancer by modulating estrogen metabolism, the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status is unclear.

  19. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  20. A Multi-institutional Clinical Trial of Rectal Dose Reduction via Injected Polyethylene-Glycol Hydrogel During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Dosimetric Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of a prostate-rectum spacer on dose to rectum during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer and to assess for factors correlated with rectal dose reduction. Methods and Materials: Fifty-two patients at 4 institutions were enrolled into a prospective pilot clinical trial. Patients underwent baseline scans and then were injected with perirectal spacing hydrogel and rescanned. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created on both scans for comparison. The objectives were to establish rates of creation of ≥7.5 mm of prostate-rectal separation, and decrease in rectal V70 of ≥25%. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between preinjection and postinjection changes in rectal V70 and changes in plan conformity, rectal volume, bladder volume, bladder V70, planning target volume (PTV), and postinjection midgland separation, gel volume, gel thickness, length of PTV/gel contact, and gel left-to-right symmetry. Results: Hydrogel resulted in ≥7.5-mm prostate-rectal separation in 95.8% of patients; 95.7% had decreased rectal V70 of ≥25%, with a mean reduction of 8.0 Gy. There were no significant differences in preinjection and postinjection prostate, PTV, rectal, and bladder volumes. Plan conformities were significantly different before versus after injection (P=.02); plans with worse conformity indexes after injection compared with before injection (n=13) still had improvements in rectal V70. In multiple regression analysis, greater postinjection reduction in V70 was associated with decreased relative postinjection plan conformity (P=.01). Reductions in V70 did not significantly vary by institution, despite significant interinstitutional variations in plan conformity. There were no significant relationships between reduction in V70 and the other characteristics analyzed. Conclusions: Injection of hydrogel into the prostate-rectal interface resulted in dose reductions to rectum

  1. Trusted Hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Amir

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to study the possibilities to establish trusted hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and implement certificate handling in HIP packets. The time complexity and performance while using certificates in HIP packets was also measured. The research project was carried out at Arcada University of Applied Sciences in collaboration with Helsinki University. The project aimed to implement standard x.509 certification of the public key used as HI (Host Identity) to deri...

  2. Lessons from the history of tobacco harm reduction: The National Cancer Institute's Smoking and Health Program and the "less hazardous cigarette".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2005-10-01

    Scientists and public health practitioners are sharply divided today over the risks and benefits of tobacco harm-reduction strategies. At the same time, a range of novel tobacco products is being marketed with claims of reduced exposure or risk. Current scientific efforts to study tobacco products and harm reduction should be informed by past experience. During the 1960s and 1970s, there was substantial support within government and academia, as well as among voluntary health organizations, for efforts to modify tobacco products to reduce harm. This paper analyzes the former National Cancer Institute (NCI) Smoking and Health Program, which, between 1968 and 1980, pursued the development of "less hazardous" cigarettes as its primary goal. During this period, the program spent over dollar 50 million on contract research, of which 74% went toward biological and chemical analysis of modified cigarettes, 9.6% to epidemiological studies of risk factors, and only 1.4% to studies evaluating smoking cessation or prevention programs. NCI officials predicted during the mid-1970s that new "low-tar" cigarette brands would substantially reduce smoking-related mortality, but by 1978 the research agenda began to change in response to a reorganization of NCI research activities, modification of government antismoking efforts, and an emerging understanding of nicotine addiction that challenged key scientific assumptions. In retrospect, the program suffered from significant weaknesses that severely limited the likelihood that it would generate knowledge beneficial to public health, including a research agenda that failed to include surveillance and behavioral research, tobacco industry influence of the research agenda, and a lack of access to information about the characteristics of products on the market. There exists today a need for a public health-oriented research agenda on tobacco products and harm reduction, but current efforts should include input from a diverse range of

  3. Continuing professional development for volunteers working in palliative care in a tertiary care cancer institute in India: A cross-sectional observational study of educational needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Kedar Deodhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Training programs for volunteers prior to their working in palliative care are well-established in India. However, few studies report on continuing professional development programs for this group. Aims: To conduct a preliminary assessment of educational needs of volunteers working in palliative care for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program for this group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Palliative Medicine of a tertiary care cancer institute in India. Materials and Methods: Participant volunteers completed a questionnaire, noting previous training, years of experience, and a comprehensive list of topics for inclusion in this program, rated in order of importance according to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics for overall data and Chi-square tests for categorical variables for group comparisons were applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18. Results: Fourteen out of 17 volunteers completed the questionnaire, seven having 5-10-years experience in working in palliative care. A need for continuing professional development program was felt by all participants. Communication skills, more for children and elderly specific issues were given highest priority. Spiritual-existential aspects and self-care were rated lower in importance than psychological, physical, and social aspects in palliative care. More experienced volunteers (>5 years of experience felt the need for self-care as a topic in the program than those with less (<5-years experience ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: Understanding palliative care volunteers′ educational needs is essential for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program and should include self-care as a significant component.

  4. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  5. Radiotherapeutic management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A critical review of 601 cases treated at the Cancer Institute in the period 1947 to 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in this paper are based upon information obtained from a critical review of 601 records of nasopharyngeal carcinoma retrieved from the files of the Cancer Institute. The records cover a period of 22 years. An analysis of the age and sex distribution revealed a male excess with a ratio of 2.2:1. No other significant age and sex differences were elucidated. About 80% of all the patients were found to manifest Stage II lesions. Early signs and symptoms were usually mild and non-incapacitating, which the patients usually ignored and may have misled the general practitioners. Single biopsy studies were conducted on 429 patients. The results have shown that more than 95% showed the presence of cell types I, III and IV, (36%, 31%, 31%, respectively), and these were mostly seen in patients manifesting Stage II lesions. Whether the cell type/stage relationship as observed is the true picture could not be ascertained, since the majority of the patients manifested Stage II lesions. The cell type(s) may however be an important factor in the evaluation of biologic response to radiotherapy and may further influence the dose/response relationship. Using port sizes of 6cm x 7cm to 6cm x 8cm, 178 patients were irradiated with doses ranging from about 4000 to 7000 rad (40-70Gy). The results have shown that 74 to 78% of the patients showing a 100% response (complete disappearance of the mass) were irradiated with doses in the range 5000 to 7000 rad (50 to 70Gy). 4000 to 5000 rad (40-50Gy) on the average resulted in optimum response rates to whole-neck irradiation. (author)

  6. Concurrent Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced (Stage III) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Single Institution Experience With 600 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav, E-mail: nebareje@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Milicic, Biljana; Milisavljevic, Slobodan [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Our institutional experience with the use of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (RT-CHT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer was reviewed. Methods and Materials: Three phase III and two phase II studies included a total of 600 patients. Hyperfractionated RT alone was given to 127 patients, and hyperfractionated RT-CHT was given to 473 patients. RT doses were 64.8 Gy and 69.6 Gy (using 1.2 Gy twice daily) and 67.6 Gy (using 1.3 Gy twice daily). CHT consisted of concurrent administration of carboplatin and etoposide to 409 patients and concurrent administration of carboplatin and paclitaxel to 64 patients. Results: The median survival times were 19 months, 21 months, and 12 months for all, RT-CHT, and RT-only patients, respectively. The survival difference between the RT-CHT and RT group was significant (p < 0.0001). Four-year rates of local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 29% and 35%, respectively, for the entire group. The RT-CHT group had significantly better LPFS rates than the RT group (31% for the RT-CHT group vs. 16% for the RT group; p = 0.0015) but not DMFS rates (36% for the RT-CHT group vs. 36% for the RT group, p = 0.0571). Acute high-grade esophagitis, pneumonitis, and hematological toxicities were seen most frequently and in 11%, 9%, and 12% of patients, respectively. Late high-grade esophageal and bronchopulmonary toxicity were each seen in 6% of patients. Conclusions: Compared to the majority of existing phase II and III studies, this study reconfirmed the excellent results achieved with concurrent RT-CHT, including low toxicity. Concurrent RT-CHT results in survival benefit primarily by increasing LPFS, not DMFS.

  7. Concurrent Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced (Stage III) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Single Institution Experience With 600 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our institutional experience with the use of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (RT-CHT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer was reviewed. Methods and Materials: Three phase III and two phase II studies included a total of 600 patients. Hyperfractionated RT alone was given to 127 patients, and hyperfractionated RT-CHT was given to 473 patients. RT doses were 64.8 Gy and 69.6 Gy (using 1.2 Gy twice daily) and 67.6 Gy (using 1.3 Gy twice daily). CHT consisted of concurrent administration of carboplatin and etoposide to 409 patients and concurrent administration of carboplatin and paclitaxel to 64 patients. Results: The median survival times were 19 months, 21 months, and 12 months for all, RT-CHT, and RT-only patients, respectively. The survival difference between the RT-CHT and RT group was significant (p < 0.0001). Four-year rates of local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 29% and 35%, respectively, for the entire group. The RT-CHT group had significantly better LPFS rates than the RT group (31% for the RT-CHT group vs. 16% for the RT group; p = 0.0015) but not DMFS rates (36% for the RT-CHT group vs. 36% for the RT group, p = 0.0571). Acute high-grade esophagitis, pneumonitis, and hematological toxicities were seen most frequently and in 11%, 9%, and 12% of patients, respectively. Late high-grade esophageal and bronchopulmonary toxicity were each seen in 6% of patients. Conclusions: Compared to the majority of existing phase II and III studies, this study reconfirmed the excellent results achieved with concurrent RT-CHT, including low toxicity. Concurrent RT-CHT results in survival benefit primarily by increasing LPFS, not DMFS.

  8. How Effective Are Clinical Pathways With and Without Online Peer-Review? An Analysis of Bone Metastases Pathway in a Large, Integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Flickinger, John C.; Rakfal, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rodgers, Edwin [Via Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Clinical pathways are an important tool used to manage the quality in health care by standardizing processes. This study evaluated the impact of the implementation of a peer-reviewed clinical pathway in a large, integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network. Methods: In 2003, we implemented a clinical pathway for the management of bone metastases with palliative radiation therapy. In 2009, we required the entry of management decisions into an online tool that records pathway choices. The pathway specified 1 or 5 fractions for symptomatic bone metastases with the option of 10-14 fractions for certain clinical situations. The data were obtained from 13 integrated sites (3 central academic, 10 community locations) from 2003 through 2010. Results: In this study, 7905 sites were treated with 64% of courses delivered in community practice and 36% in academic locations. Academic practices were more likely than community practices to treat with 1-5 fractions (63% vs. 23%; p < 0.0001). The number of delivered fractions decreased gradually from 2003 to 2010 for both academic and community practices (p < 0.0001); however, greater numbers of fractions were selected more often in community practices (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that a significantly greater selection of 1-5 fractions developed after implementation online pathway monitoring (2009) with an odds ratio of 1.2 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.4) for community and 1.3 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.6) for academic practices. The mean number of fractions also decreased after online peer review from 6.3 to 6.0 for academic (p = 0.07) and 9.4 to 9.0 for community practices (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to examine the efficacy of a clinical pathway for radiation oncology in an integrated cancer network. Clinical pathway implementation appears to be effective in changing patterns of care, particularly with online clinical

  9. Inhibition of tumor vasculogenic mimicry and prolongation of host survival in highly aggressive gallbladder cancers by norcantharidin via blocking the ephrin type a receptor 2/focal adhesion kinase/paxillin signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Vasculogenic mimicry (VM is a newly-defined tumor microcirculation pattern in highly aggressive malignant tumors. We recently reported tumor growth and VM formation of gallbladder cancers through the contribution of the ephrin type a receptor 2 (EphA2/focal adhesion kinase (FAK/Paxillin signaling pathways. In this study, we further investigated the anti-VM activity of norcantharidin (NCTD as a VM inhibitor for gallbladder cancers and the underlying mechanisms. In vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the effects of NCTD on tumor growth, host survival, VM formation of GBC-SD nude mouse xenografts, and vasculogenic-like networks, malignant phenotypes i.e., proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of GBC-SD cells. Expression of VM signaling-related markers EphA2, FAK and Paxillin in vivo and in vitro were examined by immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that after treatment with NCTD, GBC-SD cells were unable to form VM structures when injecting into nude mouse, growth of the xenograft was inhibited and these observations were confirmed by facts that VM formation by three-dimensional (3-D matrix, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration of GBC-SD cells were affected; and survival time of the xenograft mice was prolonged. Furthermore, expression of EphA2, FAK and Paxillin proteins/mRNAs of the xenografts was downregulated. Thus, we concluded that NCTD has potential anti-VM activity against human gallbladder cancers; one of the underlying mechanisms may be via blocking the EphA2/FAK/Paxillin signaling pathway.

  10. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring......In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...

  11. Cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Dhanapal; T R Saraswathi; N Govind Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.

  12. Institutional Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  13. Osteoclast nuclei of myeloma patients show chromosome translocations specific for the myeloma cell clone: a new type of cancer-host partnership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Andersen, Thomas; Boissy, Patrice; Sondergaard, T E;

    2007-01-01

    study demonstrates that bone-resorbing osteoclasts from myeloma patients contain nuclei with translocated chromosomes of myeloma B-cell clone origin, in addition to nuclei without these translocations, by using combined FISH and immunohistochemistry on bone sections. These nuclei of malignant origin are...... proximity of myeloma cells. Similar hybrid cells were generated in myeloma cell-osteoclast co-cultures, as revealed by tracing myeloma nuclei using translocations, bromo-deoxyuridine, or the Y chromosome of male myeloma cells in female osteoclasts. These observations indicate that hybrid cells can originate......A major clinical manifestation of bone cancers is bone destruction. It is widely accepted that this destruction is not caused by the malignant cells themselves, but by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells of monocytic origin that are considered to be the only cells able to degrade bone. The present...

  14. Morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Castellino, Sharon M.; Geiger, Ann M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Goodman, Pam; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of specific cancer therapies, comorbid medical conditions, and host factors to mortality risk after pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is unclear. We assessed leading morbidities, overall and cause-specific mortality, and mortality risks among 2742 survivors of HL in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Excess absolute risk for leading causes of death and cumulative incidence and standardi...

  15. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  16. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.ca [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Oberije, Cary [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tsujino, Kayoko [Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Wiersma, Terry [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Moreno-Jimenez, Marta [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gy eonggi (Korea, Republic of); Marks, Lawrence B. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); De Petris, Luigi [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramella, Sara [Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); DeRuyck, Kim [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Dios, Núria Rodriguez [Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Warner, Andrew [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Palma, David A. [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  17. Comparing docetaxel with gemcitabine as second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A single institute randomized phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the backbone of treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC however second-line treatment options are controversial particularly in patients with borderline performance status (PS of 2. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and toxicity of weekly docetaxel versus gemcitabine in this clinical setting. Patients and methods: A total of 70 patients with advanced (stage IIIB, IV NSCLC entered this single institute study. Cases of this study had experienced disease progression after the first-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, with PS 0- 2 in “Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group” scale. They were randomly assigned by stratified blocks to receive docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (Arm A, n=34 or gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 (Arm B, n=36 days 1, 8 and 15, every three weeks, for up to six cycles. Primary end point was progression free survival (PFS and secondary end points were objective response rate, disease control rate, median overall survival (OS and toxicity. Dose modification was permitted upon clinician’s discretion for each individual patient. Results: Median of PFS was 2.02 months in arm A and 2.63 months in arm B (HR= 1.279; 95% CI: 0.710-2.304, P= 0.551. Although median OS for arm A was numerically greater (9.2 months than arm B (8.3 months it was statistically non-significant (HR= 1.384; 95% CI: 0.632 to 2.809, P= 0.59. Objective response was higher in Arm B than that in Arm A (P= 0.20 but disease control rates were statistically different in both arms (P= 0.034. Statistically significant differences in term of leukopenia was seen in arm B (P= 0.013. Conclusion: This study, with limited number of cases, indicates that in advanced NSCLC, weekly docetaxel and gemcitabine are reasonable second-line treatment options with statistically similar effectiveness in terms of PFS and median OS with manageable toxicities in patients with PS 0-2.

  18. Carotid blowout syndrome in pharyngeal cancer patients treated by hypofractionated stereotactic re-irradiation using CyberKnife: A multi-institutional matched-cohort analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Although reirradiation has attracted attention as a potential therapy for recurrent head and neck tumors with the advent of modern radiotherapy, severe rate toxicity such as carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) limits its potential. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of CBOS after hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and patients: We conducted a matched-pair design examination of pharyngeal cancer patients treated by CyberKnife reirradiation in four institutes. Twelve cases with CBOS were observed per 60 cases without CBOS cases. Prognostic factors for CBOS were analyzed and a risk classification model was constructed. Results: The median prescribed radiation dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions with CyberKnife SBRT after 60 Gy/30 fractions of previous radiotherapy. The median duration between reirradiation and CBOS onset was 5 months (range, 0–69 months). CBOS cases showed a median survival time of 5.5 months compared to 22.8 months for non-CBOS cases (1-year survival rate, 36% vs.72%; p = 0.003). Univariate analysis identified an angle of carotid invasion of >180°, the presence of ulceration, planning treatment volume, and irradiation to lymph node areas as statistically significant predisposing factors for CBOS. Only patients with carotid invasion of >180° developed CBOS (12/50, 24%), whereas no patient with tumor involvement less than a half semicircle around the carotid artery developed CBOS (0/22, 0%, p = 0.03). Multivariate Cox hazard model analysis revealed that the presence of ulceration and irradiation to lymph nodes were statistically significant predisposing factors. Thus, we constructed a CBOS risk classification system: CBOS index = (summation of risk factors; carotid invasion >180°, presence of ulceration, lymph node area irradiation). This system sufficiently separated the risk groups. Conclusion: The presence of ulceration and lymph node irradiation are risk factors of CBOS. The CBOS index

  19. Tick-Host Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogstraal, H.; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-01-01

    A review the various patterns of tick-host relationships are discussed in detail in order to answer the following questions : 1. How, when and where did host specificity of each parasite group evolve ? 2. How strict is specificity in each case ? 3. Why and under what circumstances does specificity break down ? The authors present several definitions which characterize the various degrees of parasitic specificity existing today between ticks and their hosts. Tick-host relationships are ...

  20. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council...

  1. Analysis of Sociodemographic parameters of patients admitted in a newly established palliative care center in a regional cancer institute of north-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Palliative care services are an indispensable part of a tertiary regional cancer care center. The oncologists should be made aware of the requirement of better relief of pain and other distressing symptoms to provide better quality of life to the patients suffering from advanced cancer.

  2. Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori CagA status and IL1B-31C>T genotypes: a host and environment interaction in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Camargo, M Constanza; Schneider, Barbara G; Sicinschi, Liviu A; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Correa, Pelayo; Cebrian, Mariano E

    2012-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) has been associated with a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. In contrast to most countries, available information on GC mortality trends showed a gradual increase in Mexico. Our aim was to explore potential interactions among dietary (chili pepper consumption), infectious (Helicobacter pylori) and genetic factors (IL1B-31 genotypes) on GC risk. The study was performed in three areas of Mexico, with different GC mortality rates. We included 158 GC patients and 317 clinical controls. Consumption of capsaicin (Cap), the pungent active substance of chili peppers, was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. H. pylori CagA status was assessed by ELISA, and IL1B-31 genotypes were determined by TaqMan assays and Pyrosequencing in DNA samples. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate potential interactions. Moderate to high Cap consumption synergistically increased GC risk in genetically susceptible individuals (IL1B-31C allele carriers) infected with the more virulent H. pylori (CagA+) strains. The combined presence of these factors might explain the absence of a decreasing trend for GC in Mexico. However, further research on gene-environment interactions is required to fully understand the factors determining GC patterns in susceptible populations, with the aim of recommending preventive measures for high risk individuals. PMID:22414649

  3. CSCAPES Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  4. Institutional Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    managerial respondents. This leads to another bias in the study of M&As: an managerial one. These critiques are an important step in pinpointing some of the problematic aspects in the field, which we suggest can be part remedied by institutional ethnography developed by Dorothy Smith and her colleagues. In...... institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it, and...... point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  5. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately a....... Practitioner/Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  6. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kenneth R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lally, Bryan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  7. Institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiaud, Sylvain; Locatelli, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of institutional economics has gained increasing prominence in recent years, because standard economic explanations can often not come to grips with major contemporary policy issues, such as economic reform in affluent, but dysfunctional economies, the transformation of the failed socialist command economies and the governance problems of the new industrial economies. Institutional economists point out that rule systems matter greatly to explaining these problems and that insti...

  8. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  9. 75 FR 42758 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda,...

  10. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of recurrent disease and assessment of prognosis. Clinical Radiology 2007; 62(1):28–34. [PubMed Abstract] Talmadge ... your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at ...

  11. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  12. Prostate Cancer: Sextant Localization at MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopic Imaging before Prostatectomy—Results of ACRIN Prospective Multi-institutional Clinicopathologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Coakley, Fergus V.; Wheeler, Thomas M; Cormack, Jean B.; Sotto, Christopher K.; Cho, Haesun; Kawashima, Akira; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Rosen, Mark; Gerst, Scott R.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incremental benefit of combined endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging, as compared with endorectal MR imaging alone, for sextant localization of peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer.

  13. Mycophenolate Mofetil and Cyclosporine in Reducing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Metastatic Kidney Cancer Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia

  14. Strategies for Biochemical and Pathologic Quality Assurance in a Large Multi-Institutional Biorepository; The Experience of the PROCURE Quebec Prostate Cancer Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Brimo, Fadi; Aprikian, Armen; Latour, Mathieu; Têtu, Bernard; Doueik, Alexandre; Scarlata, Eleonora; Hamel, Lucie; McKercher, Ginette; Saad, Fred; Lacombe, Louis; Carmel, Michel; Chevalier, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Well-characterized, high-quality fresh-frozen prostate tissue is required for prostate cancer research. As part of the PROCURE Prostate Cancer Biobank launched in 2007, four University Hospitals in Quebec joined to bank fresh frozen prostate tissues from radical prostatectomies (RP). As the biobank progressed towards allocation, the nature and quality of the tissues were determined. RP tissues were collected by standardized alternate mirror-image or biopsy-based targeted methods, and frozen f...

  15. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odusanya Olumuyiwa O; Ibrahim Nasiru A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cro...

  16. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic GVHD Staging in Severely Affected Patients: Organ and Global Scoring Correlate with Established Indicators of Disease Severity and Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, K.; Steinberg, S. M.; Grkovic, L; Pulanic, D.; Cowen, E.W.; Mitchell, S A; Williams, K. M.; Datiles, M B; Bishop, R.; Bassim, C.W.; Mays, J.W.; Edwards, D; Cole, K.; Avila, D.N.; Taylor, T.

    2013-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, 189 adult patients were enrolled on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) cross-sectional chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) natural history study. Patients were evaluated by multiple disease scales and outcome measures including the 2005 NIH Consensus Project cGVHD severity score. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the NIH scoring variables as determinants of disease severity in severely affected patients in order to standardize clinician evalu...

  17. Retsmedicinsk Institut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers

    1996-01-01

    Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er statsobd......Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er...... institut. De bygningsmæssige forhold er utidssvarende og medfører arbejdsmæssige og retssikkerhedsmæssige problemer, En snarlig udflytning er derfor nødvendig....

  18. Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000 until 2010 with the support from the National Cancer Institute, the Mouse Models for Human Cancer Consortium, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute workshops and conferences to advance the understanding and use of animal models in colorectal cancer research have been organized .

  19. Unimagined Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment and...... methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current...

  20. Strategies for Biochemical and Pathologic Quality Assurance in a Large Multi-Institutional Biorepository; The Experience of the PROCURE Quebec Prostate Cancer Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprikian, Armen; Latour, Mathieu; Têtu, Bernard; Doueik, Alexandre; Scarlata, Eleonora; Hamel, Lucie; McKercher, Ginette; Saad, Fred; Lacombe, Louis; Carmel, Michel; Chevalier, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Well-characterized, high-quality fresh-frozen prostate tissue is required for prostate cancer research. As part of the PROCURE Prostate Cancer Biobank launched in 2007, four University Hospitals in Quebec joined to bank fresh frozen prostate tissues from radical prostatectomies (RP). As the biobank progressed towards allocation, the nature and quality of the tissues were determined. RP tissues were collected by standardized alternate mirror-image or biopsy-based targeted methods, and frozen for banking. Clinical/pathological parameters were captured. For quality control, two presumed benign and two presumed cancerous frozen, biobanked tissue blocks per case (10/site) were randomly selected during the five years of collection. In a consensus meeting, 4 pathologists blindly evaluated slides (n=160) and graded quality, Gleason score (GS), and size of cancer foci. The quality of tissue RNA (37/40 cases) was assessed using the RNA Integrity Number. The biobank included 1819 patients of mean age: 62.1 years; serum PSA: 8ng/ml; prostate weight: 47.8 g; GS: 7; and pathological stage: T2 in 64.5%, T3A in 25.5% and T3B in 10% of cases. Of the 157 evaluable slides, 79 and 78 had benign and cancer tissue, respectively. GS for the 37 cancer-positive cases were: 6 in 9, 7 in 18 and >7 in 10 and, in most instances, in concordance with final GS. In 40% of slides containing cancer, foci occupied ≥50% of block surface and 42% had a diameter ≥1 cm. Tissue was well preserved and consistently yielded RNA of very good quality with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) >7 for 97% of cases (mean=8.7±0.7) during the five-year collection period. This study confirms the high quality of randomly selected benign and cancerous fresh-frozen prostate tissues of the PROCURE Quebec Prostate Cancer Biobank. These results strengthen the uniqueness of this large prospective resource for prostate cancer research. PMID:24194978

  1. Web hosting for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Host your own website or blog with this unique guide If you'd like to make the leap from a hosted environment to a self-hosted service, this book is for you. You may be making the move from casual blogging to professional blogging. Or, you might already be self-hosting, but want a good guide to show you how to get more out of your plan. In simple, easy-to-understand language, this helpful book breaks down all the functions of web hosting for self-hosted users, from setting up new e-mail accounts to backing up and securing your site, analyzing server logs, choosing a platform to ins

  2. NPS Hosts Young Scientists, Engineers for Hands-on Internships

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2010-01-01

    NPS reaches beyond the gates surrounding the campus to connect with students in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. The various schools, departments and Institutes on campus host dozens of high school, undergraduate and graduate level students.

  3. Contagious cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  4. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  5. Training and mobility: a priority for the Organisation of the European Cancer Institutes. How a national mobility initiative could enhance EU cooperation in cancer research contributing to the development of an European Research Area: the example of The Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centers' Network "Alleanza Contro il Cancro".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Claudio; Albanese, Daniela; Belardelli, Filippo; d'Alessandro, Francesca; Giacomini, Mauro; Rondanina, Tania; Spagnoli, Luigi G

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that productivity gains, sustained economic growth and employment are largely determined by technological progress, innovation and human capital. The 2000 Lisbon strategy to make Europe a competitive knowledge-based economy by 2010 and, more specifically, the Barcelona objectives agreed upon in 2002 to increase R&D investment in the EU to approach 3% of GDP, ensuring that there are sufficient human resources for research, are a preliminary step in this direction. If we want to reach this goal we have to succeed in retaining the best researchers, creating the right environment where they can perform their activities and develop their careers. To this aim the Organization of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) has set up a working group on Education and Training with the mandate to encourage continuing education in cancer research and applications and to verify the feasibility to promote mobility programs inside the network and in association with industries. Until now only few OECI training programs have been launched and a full mobility program has not been developed yet due to limited budget resources. The Italian Network of Comprehensive Cancer Centers, Alleanza Contro il Cancro, has planned the launch of a mobility program awarding 70 annual fellowships over a period of 36 months. This program, which will be open to the world research community, could represent a first interaction through mobility among the members of the OECI network also involving industries. The program is a tangible approach to sustain the translational process needed for the development of an European Research Area in the field of cancer and its related biomedical disciplines, thus providing a practical answer to the 2005 renewed Lisbon Strategy. PMID:18564599

  6. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  7. Collaborators | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TARGET initiative is jointly managed within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) by the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab and the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP)Opens in a New Tab.

  8. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odusanya Olumuyiwa O

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages. Results Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86% believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.

  9. Long-term Follow-up Results of a Multi-institutional Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the long-term survival and toxicity of a multi-institutional phase 2 study of concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. Methods and Materials: Ten institutions from 8 Asian countries participated in the study. Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky stage IIB and 60 with stage IIIB) were treated with CCRT. Radiation therapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiation therapy and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2) were administered during the course of radiation therapy. Treatment results were evaluated by the rates of local control, overall survival, and late toxicities. Results: Median follow-up was 63.7 months, and the follow-up rate at 5 years was 98%. The 5-year local control and overall survival rates for all patients were 76.8% and 55.1%, respectively. The 5-year rates of major late toxicities of the rectum and bladder were 7.9% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: The long-term results have suggested that CCRT is safe and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. However, further efforts are needed to improve overall survival

  10. Long-term Follow-up Results of a Multi-institutional Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo, E-mail: s_kato@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Soochow (China); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Devi, C. R. Beena; Swee, Tang Tieng [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Umum Sarawak, Kuching (Malaysia); Calaguas, Miriam J.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s Medical Center, Quezon City, the Philippines (Philippines); Reyes, Rey H. de los [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Manila, the Philippines (Philippines); Cho, Chul-Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dung, To Anh [Department of Breast and Gynecology Radiotherapy, National Cancer Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Supriana, Nana [Department of Radiation Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta (Indonesia); Erawati, Dyah [Division of Radiotherapy, Dr Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya (Indonesia); Mizuno, Hideyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term survival and toxicity of a multi-institutional phase 2 study of concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. Methods and Materials: Ten institutions from 8 Asian countries participated in the study. Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky stage IIB and 60 with stage IIIB) were treated with CCRT. Radiation therapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiation therapy and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the course of radiation therapy. Treatment results were evaluated by the rates of local control, overall survival, and late toxicities. Results: Median follow-up was 63.7 months, and the follow-up rate at 5 years was 98%. The 5-year local control and overall survival rates for all patients were 76.8% and 55.1%, respectively. The 5-year rates of major late toxicities of the rectum and bladder were 7.9% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: The long-term results have suggested that CCRT is safe and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. However, further efforts are needed to improve overall survival.

  11. Contagious Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in ...

  12. Market institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Negassa, Asfaw; Torero, Maximo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two. However, more than ever before, emerging local and global patterns such as the modern food value-chain led by supermarkets...

  13. INSTITUTIONS MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    .

    1994-01-01

    Successful development policy entails an understanding of the dynamics of economic change if the policies pursued are to have the desired consequences. And a dynamic model of economic change entails as an integral part of that model analysis of the polity since it is the polity that specifies and enforces the formal rules. While we are still some distance from having such a model the structure that is evolving in the new institutional economics, even though incomplete, suggests radically diff...

  14. Measuring institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Farayi Gwenhamo; Johannes W. Fedderke; Raphael de Kadt

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a new dataset of indicators of political freedom, property rights and political instability for Zimbabwe for the period 1946 to 2005. The dataset is constructed by systematically coding the three concepts of political freedom, property rights and political instability along a multitude of dimensions. The lengthy time coverage of the dataset allows country-specific econometric analysis to evaluate generalizing propositions about the effects of political institutions on ec...

  15. Clinical outcome and dosimetric parameters of chemo-radiation including MRI guided adaptive brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators for cervical cancer patients: A single institution experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomden, C.N.; Leeuw, A.A. de; Roesink, J.M.; Tersteeg, R.J.; Moerland, M.A.; Witteveen, P.O.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Dorst, E.B. van; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate dosimetric parameters and clinical outcome for cervical cancer patients treated with chemo-radiation and MR-image guided adaptive brachytherapy (MR-IGABT) using tandem-ovoid applicators for intracavitary or combined intracavitary/interstitial approaches. METHOD: This retrospecti

  16. La radiothérapie du cancer de l'endomètre: expérience de l'institut national d'oncologie à propos de 52 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezouri, Imane; Berhili, Soufiane; Mouhajir, Nawal; Bellefqih, Sara; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Le cancer de l'endomètre est le cancer gynécologique le plus fréquent en occident. Il concerne principalement les femmes ménopausées. L'objectif de notre travail est de rapporter l'expérience du service de radiothérapie à l'Institut National d'Oncologie (INO) dans la prise en charge du cancer de l'endomètre. Nous avons analysé rétrospectivement 52 cas de cancer de l'endomètre traités dans le service de radiothérapie de l'INO entre 2007 à 2009. Les données collectées à partir des dossiers médicaux de nos patientes concernaient les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de ce cancer. La médiane d’âge des patientes était de 57 ans, 87% étaient ménopausées. Le délai moyen de consultation était de six mois. Le maitre symptôme était des métrorragies chez 51 patientes. Le diagnostic histologique a été porté sur un curetage biopsique de l'endomètre dans 51% des cas. L'examen anatomopathologique a montré un adénocarcinome endométrioïde dans 92% des cas. Après le bilan, 27% des patientes étaient stade I, 30% stade II, 20% stade III et 1% stade IVA selon la classification de la Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie Obstétrique (FIGO). Après la chirurgie, 51% des patientes ont reçu une radiothérapie externe. La dose délivrée était de 46 Gray (Gy). Une curiethérapie du fond vaginal a été délivrée chez toutes les patientes. Sur le plan évolutif, 83% des patientes étaient toujours suivies en situation de bon contrôle de leur maladie, 8% ont eu une récidive locorégionale et 4% avaient des métastases à distance. Ainsi, le cancer de l'endomètre est un cancer dont le traitement repose sur la chirurgie. La radiothérapie est le traitement adjuvant principal. PMID:27279969

  17. Cancer of the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1975-2013 Browse the Tables and Figures Access CSR Contents in PDF Generate Custom Reports About the ... Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/ , based on November 2015 SEER data ...

  18. Cancer of the Anus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1975-2013 Browse the Tables and Figures Access CSR Contents in PDF Generate Custom Reports About the ... Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/ , based on November 2015 SEER data ...

  19. Cancer of the Larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1975-2013 Browse the Tables and Figures Access CSR Contents in PDF Generate Custom Reports About the ... Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/ , based on November 2015 SEER data ...

  20. IMRT credentialing for prospective trials using institutional virtual phantoms: results of a joint European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Radiological Physics Center project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) credentialing for a EORTC study was performed using an anthropomorphic head phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC; RPCPH). Institutions were retrospectively requested to irradiate their institutional phantom (INSTPH) using the same treatment plan in the framework of a Virtual Phantom Project (VPP) for IMRT credentialing. CT data set of the institutional phantom and measured 2D dose matrices were requested from centers and sent to a dedicated secure EORTC uploader. Data from the RPCPH and INSTPH were thereafter centrally analyzed and inter-compared by the QA team using commercially available software (RIT; ver.5.2; Colorado Springs, USA). Eighteen institutions participated to the VPP. The measurements of 6 (33%) institutions could not be analyzed centrally. All other centers passed both the VPP and the RPC ±7%/4 mm credentialing criteria. At the 5%/5 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing), 11(92%) as compared to 12 (100%) centers pass the credentialing process with RPCPH and INSTPH (p = 0.29), respectively. The corresponding pass rate for the 3%/3 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing) was 2 (17%) and 9 (75%; p = 0.01), respectively. IMRT dosimetry gamma evaluations in a single plane for a H&N prospective trial using the INSTPH measurements showed agreement at the gamma index criteria of ±5%/5 mm (90% of pixels passing) for a small number of VPP measurements. Using more stringent, criteria, the RPCPH and INSTPH comparison showed disagreement. More data is warranted and urgently required within the framework of prospective studies

  1. Pilot study investigating the prognostic significance of thymidine phosphorylase expression in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a single institution retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedeschi AL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anna Lisa Tedeschi,1 Zohreh Eslami,2 Evgenia Garoufalis,1 Ramy R Saleh,3 Atilla Omeroglu,2 Gulbeyaz Altinel,2 Maria Ait-Tihyaty,4 Bertrand Jean-Claude,4 Catalin Mihalcioiu1 1Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Medicine, McGill University, 4Cancer Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The thymidine phosphorylase (TP enzyme is expressed in higher levels in cancer tissue when compared with normal tissue. It is involved in the intratumoral activation of widely prescribed pyrimidine-derived antimetabolites such as 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine and capecitabine (Xeloda®. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical correlation between TP expression in tumor tissue and the clinical outcome of capecitabine-based therapy in patients with locally advanced (stage III or metastatic breast cancer (stage IV.Methods: The following variables were analyzed as potential determinants of benefit from a capecitabine-based therapy: TP expression, estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status, and Ki67 status. This was accomplished by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues from 18 patients with breast cancer treated with at least one cycle of capecitabine. Clinical outcome was measured as time to progression.Results: TP staining intensities in both the invasive and in situ components in patients with lobular and ductal carcinomas were reported. Higher levels of TP in the invasive component were expressed in ER-negative tumors when compared with ER-positive tumors (P<0.05. The ER-positive group expressing lower levels of TP had a median time to progression of 13 months compared with the ER-negative group expressing higher levels of TP which had a median time

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All ...

  4. What Asian Americans Should Know about Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B By the National Cancer Institute Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer among ... worldwide. It is the third leading cause of cancer death globally. Liver cancer is less common in the United States, ...

  5. Estimated additional lifetime risk of cancer attributable to diagnostic CT in a pediatric bone marrow transplant cohort: Experience at a single academic institution

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Chapman; Adam Alessio; Swanson, Jonathan O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of CT procedures in a cohort of bone marrow transplant patients and estimate the effective dose from each CT procedure as well as rough estimates of lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer (both incidence and mortality). Background: Pediatric patients who undergo bone marrow transplant benefit greatly from the diagnostic power of computed tomography, but due to the need for frequent imaging, these patients are repeatedly exposed to the carcinogenic poten...

  6. Outcomes of active surveillance for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer in the prospective, multi-institutional Canary PASS cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Lisa F.; Thompson, Ian M.; Boyer, Hilary D.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Dash, Atreya; Ellis, William J.; Fazli, Ladan; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Kunju, Priya; Lance, Raymond S.; McKenney, Jesse K.; Meng, Maxwell V.; Nicolas, Marlo M.; Sanda, Martin G.; Simko, Jeffry; So, Alan; Tretiakova, Maria S.; Troyer, Dean A.; True, Lawrence D.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Virgin, Jeff; Wagner, Andrew A.; Wei, John T.; Zheng, Yingye; Nelson, Peter S.; Lin, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance represents a strategy to address the overtreatment of prostate cancer, yet uncertainty regarding individual patient outcomes remains a concern. We evaluated outcomes in a prospective multi-center study of active surveillance. Methods We studied 905 men in the prospective Canary Prostate cancer Active Surveillance Study (PASS) enrolled between 2008 to 2013. We collected clinical data at study entry and at pre-specified intervals and determined associations with adverse reclassification defined as increased Gleason grade or greater cancer volume on follow-up biopsy. We also evaluated the relationships of clinical parameters with pathology findings in participants who underwent surgery after a period of active surveillance. Results During a median follow-up of 28 months, 24% of participants experienced adverse reclassification, of whom 53% underwent treatment while 31% continued active surveillance. Overall, 19% of participants received treatment, 68% with adverse reclassification while 32% opted for treatment without disease reclassification. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, percent of biopsy cores with cancer, BMI, and PSA density were associated with adverse reclassification (P = 0.01, 0.04, 0.04). Of 103 participants subsequently treated by radical prostatectomy, 34% had adverse pathology, defined as primary pattern 4–5 or non-organ confined disease, including two with positive lymph nodes, with no significant relationship between risk category at diagnosis and findings at surgery (P = 0.76). Conclusion Most men remain on active surveillance at five years without adverse reclassification or adverse pathology at surgery. However, clinical factors had only modest association with disease reclassification, supporting the need for approaches that improve prediction of this outcome. PMID:26327354

  7. Constraints on host choice: why do parasitic birds rarely exploit some common potential hosts?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, T.; Samaš, P.; Moskát, C.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Stokke, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2011), s. 508-518. ISSN 0021-8790 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antiparasite defence * co-evolution * host selection * interactive effects * parasite avoidance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.937, year: 2011

  8. Clinico-pathological spectrum of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumors (OMMMT) from a tertiary cancer institute: A series of 27 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Menon; Kedar Deodhar; Bharat Rekhi; Rahul Dhake; Sudeep Gupta; Jaya Ghosh; Amita Maheshwari; Umesh Mahantshetty; Shyam Shrivastva; Atul Budukh; Tongaonkar, Hemant B; Rajendra Kerkar

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-pathological characteristics of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumor (OMMMT) and assess the prognostic factors associated with treatment outcome and survival. Materials and methods: The pathology database was searched for primary ovarian carcinosarcoma diagnosed and/or managed at our institute from period of January 2004 to July 2010. The histological sections were reviewed, with emphasis on type and grade of epithelial and sarcomatous comp...

  9. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  10. The 13th Annual Meeting of the Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3); Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment, Columbus, Ohio; March 1–2, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Carson, William E.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Wei, Weizen; Kalinski, Pawel; Lotze, Michael T; June, Carl H.; Petros, William; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Olencki, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3) is a cancer immunotherapy network, established to promote biologic therapeutics in the Midwestern and Northeastern regions of The United States. The 13th Annual Meeting of the TrC3 was hosted by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center—Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and took place at The Blackwell Hotel and Conference Center in Columbus, OH on March 1–2, 2010 (http://www.osuccc.o...

  11. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention Lynch Syndrome, Genetics Home Reference, U.S. National Library of Medicine Cancer Genetic Services Directory, National Cancer Institute Find-A-Counselor, National ...

  12. 76 FR 50234 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. Date: October...

  13. 76 FR 7572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice.... Appendix 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental... Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERC) Research Translation,...

  14. 76 FR 80954 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. Date: January...

  15. 75 FR 55805 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. Date: September...

  16. 76 FR 50235 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. Date: October...

  17. 76 FR 71046 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... the Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee...

  18. 76 FR 79201 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. Date: January...

  19. 76 FR 72715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research... Committee: Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. Date: December 13... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Consortium of Prospective Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Collins, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fuller, Donald [Genesis Healthcare Partners, San Diego, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Katz, Alan [Flushing Radiation Oncology, Flushing, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the early and late health-related quality of life (QOL) outcomes among prostate cancer patients following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among 864 patients from phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Data from the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals up to 6 years. SBRT delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4 or 5 fractions. A short course of androgen deprivation therapy was given to 14% of patients. Results: Median follow-up was 3 years and 194 patients remained evaluable at 5 years. A transient decline in the urinary and bowel domains was observed within the first 3 months after SBRT which returned to baseline status or better within 6 months and remained so beyond 5 years. The same pattern was observed among patients with good versus poor baseline function and was independent of the degree of early toxicities. Sexual QOL decline was predominantly observed within the first 9 months, a pattern not altered by the use of androgen deprivation therapy or patient age. Conclusion: Long-term outcome demonstrates that prostate SBRT is well tolerated and has little lasting impact on health-related QOL. A transient and modest decline in urinary and bowel QOL during the first few months after SBRT quickly recovers to baseline levels. With a large number of patients evaluable up to 5 years following SBRT, it is unlikely that unexpected late adverse effects will manifest themselves.

  1. Two-week course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by delayed surgery for rectal cancer: A phase II multi-institutional clinical trial (KROG 11-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-week schedule of radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and materials: Eighty patients with rectal cancer located in the mid to low rectum, staged cT3-4N0-2M0, were prospectively enrolled. They underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy and delayed surgery 6–8 weeks after the completion of radiation therapy. A radiation dose of 33 Gy in 10 fractions was delivered to the pelvis for 2 weeks. One cycle of oral capecitabine was administered at a dose of 1650 mg/m2/day during radiotherapy. Tumor response and toxicity were the study endpoints. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number, (NCT01431599)). Results: All included patients underwent total mesorectal excisions including 12 cases of robot assisted surgery and 50 cases of laparoscopic surgery. Of the 80 patients, 27 (33.8%) achieved downstaging (ypT0-2N0) of a rectal tumor and 11 (13.8%) had a pathologically complete response (ypCR). Downstaging rates were 45% for T classification and 65% for N classification. Sphincter saving was achieved in 73 (91.3%) of the 80 patients. Of the 80 patients, 3 (3.8%) experienced grade 3 hematologic toxicity, and 2 (2.5%) had grade 3 postoperative complications such as ileus and wound dehiscence. There was no grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion: A two-week schedule of radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer patients showed low toxicity profiles and promising results in terms of tumor response

  2. Full-dose intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons in breast cancer. First report on late toxicity and cosmetic results from a single-institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussari, S.; Busana, L.; Vanoni, V.; Tomio, L. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento (Italy); Sala, W.S. della [Dept. of Radiology, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento (Italy); Eccher, C.; Zani, B. [Dept. of Surgery, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento (Italy); Menegotti, L. [Dept. of Health Physics, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: to investigate the feasibility of applying exclusive intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) after conservative surgery in limited-stage breast carcinoma and to evaluate late effects and cosmetic results after this new conservative treatment. Patients and methods: from October 2000 to November 2002, 47 consecutive patients with unifocal breast carcinoma up to a diameter of 2 cm received conservative surgery followed by IORT with electrons as the sole adjuvant local therapy. Three different dose levels were used: 20 Gy (seven patients), 22 Gy (20 patients), and 24 Gy (20 patients). Patients were evaluated using RTOG/EORTC scale to assess the incidence of late complications. During follow-up, a radiologic assessment with mammography and sonography was periodically performed and any breast-imaging alterations were reported. Results: after a follow-up ranging from 36 to 63 months (median, 48 months), 15 patients developed breast fibrosis (grade 2 in 14 patients, grade 3 in one patient), two patients presented with grade 3 skin changes, one patient developed a clinically relevant fat necrosis, and one patient showed breast edema and pain. Two patients developed contralateral breast cancer and one distant metastases; no local relapses occurred. Asymptomatic findings of fat necrosis were observed at mammography in twelve patients (25.5%), while an hypoechoic area was revealed by sonography in ten patients (21.5%). In four patients (8%), mammographic and sonographic findings suggested malignant lesions and required a rebiopsy to confirm the benign nature of the lesion. Conclusion: IORT in breast carcinoma is still an experimental treatment option for select patients with breast cancer and its application should be restricted to prospective trials. Although preliminary data on local control are encouraging, a longer follow-up is needed to confirm the efficacy of IORT in breast cancer and to exclude that severe late complications compromise the cosmetic results or

  3. Full-dose intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons in breast cancer. First report on late toxicity and cosmetic results from a single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to investigate the feasibility of applying exclusive intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) after conservative surgery in limited-stage breast carcinoma and to evaluate late effects and cosmetic results after this new conservative treatment. Patients and methods: from October 2000 to November 2002, 47 consecutive patients with unifocal breast carcinoma up to a diameter of 2 cm received conservative surgery followed by IORT with electrons as the sole adjuvant local therapy. Three different dose levels were used: 20 Gy (seven patients), 22 Gy (20 patients), and 24 Gy (20 patients). Patients were evaluated using RTOG/EORTC scale to assess the incidence of late complications. During follow-up, a radiologic assessment with mammography and sonography was periodically performed and any breast-imaging alterations were reported. Results: after a follow-up ranging from 36 to 63 months (median, 48 months), 15 patients developed breast fibrosis (grade 2 in 14 patients, grade 3 in one patient), two patients presented with grade 3 skin changes, one patient developed a clinically relevant fat necrosis, and one patient showed breast edema and pain. Two patients developed contralateral breast cancer and one distant metastases; no local relapses occurred. Asymptomatic findings of fat necrosis were observed at mammography in twelve patients (25.5%), while an hypoechoic area was revealed by sonography in ten patients (21.5%). In four patients (8%), mammographic and sonographic findings suggested malignant lesions and required a rebiopsy to confirm the benign nature of the lesion. Conclusion: IORT in breast carcinoma is still an experimental treatment option for select patients with breast cancer and its application should be restricted to prospective trials. Although preliminary data on local control are encouraging, a longer follow-up is needed to confirm the efficacy of IORT in breast cancer and to exclude that severe late complications compromise the cosmetic results or

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Consortium of Prospective Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the early and late health-related quality of life (QOL) outcomes among prostate cancer patients following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among 864 patients from phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Data from the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals up to 6 years. SBRT delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4 or 5 fractions. A short course of androgen deprivation therapy was given to 14% of patients. Results: Median follow-up was 3 years and 194 patients remained evaluable at 5 years. A transient decline in the urinary and bowel domains was observed within the first 3 months after SBRT which returned to baseline status or better within 6 months and remained so beyond 5 years. The same pattern was observed among patients with good versus poor baseline function and was independent of the degree of early toxicities. Sexual QOL decline was predominantly observed within the first 9 months, a pattern not altered by the use of androgen deprivation therapy or patient age. Conclusion: Long-term outcome demonstrates that prostate SBRT is well tolerated and has little lasting impact on health-related QOL. A transient and modest decline in urinary and bowel QOL during the first few months after SBRT quickly recovers to baseline levels. With a large number of patients evaluable up to 5 years following SBRT, it is unlikely that unexpected late adverse effects will manifest themselves

  5. Prediction of pathological and oncological outcomes based on extended prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate cancer receiving radical prostatectomy: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaki Fumio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of pathological outcomes prior to surgery remains a challenging problem for the appropriate surgical indication of prostate cancer. This study was performed to identify preoperative values predictive of pathological and oncological outcomes based on standardized extended prostate biopsies with core histological results diagrammed/mapped in patients receiving radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease. Methods In 124 patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (cT1c–cT3a without prior treatment, pathological outcomes on the surgical specimen including seminal vesicle involvement (SVI, positive surgical margin (PSM, and perineural invasion (PNI were studied in comparison with clinical parameters based on the results of 14-core prostate biopsies comprising sextant, laterally-directed sextant, and bilateral transition zone (TZ sampling. Results Concerning the association of pathological outcomes with oncological outcomes, patients with PSM and PNI on surgical specimens had poorer biochemical-progression-free survival than those without PSM (logrank p = 0.002 and PNI (p = 0.003; it was also poorer concerning SVI, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.120. Concerning the impact of clinical parameters on these pathological outcomes, positive TZ and multiple positive biopsy cores in the prostatic middle were independent values predictive of SVI with multivariate analyses (p = 0.020 and p = 0.025, respectively; both positive TZ and multiple positive prostatic middle biopsies were associated with larger tumor volume (p  Conclusions %positive cores and Gleason score in extended biopsies were independent values predictive of PSM and PNI in prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease, respectively, which were associated with poorer oncological outcomes. When

  6. Pilot study investigating the prognostic significance of thymidine phosphorylase expression in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a single institution retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tedeschi AL; Eslami Z; Garoufalis E; Saleh RR; Omeroglu A; Altinel G; Ait-Tihyaty M; Jean-Claude B; Mihalcioiu C

    2015-01-01

    Anna Lisa Tedeschi,1 Zohreh Eslami,2 Evgenia Garoufalis,1 Ramy R Saleh,3 Atilla Omeroglu,2 Gulbeyaz Altinel,2 Maria Ait-Tihyaty,4 Bertrand Jean-Claude,4 Catalin Mihalcioiu1 1Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Medicine, McGill University, 4Cancer Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, QC, C...

  7. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  8. Anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seen at a tertiary health institution in Brazil Lesões precursoras do câncer anal em pacientes HIV-positivos e HIV-negativos atendidos numa instituição de saúde terciária no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Tramujas da Costa e Silva; José Ribamar de Araújo; Rosilene Viana de Andrade; Celso Rômulo Barbosa Cabral; Felicidad Santos Gimenez; Adriana Gonçalves Daumas Pinheiro Guimarães; Ticiane Costa Martins; Lucília Rocha Lopes; Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) or anal cancer in patients attended at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas. Methods: 344 patients consecutively attended at the institution, in 2007/2008, were distributed in the following strata according to presence/abscense of at risk conditions for anal cancer: Group 1 _ HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (101); Group 2 _ HIV-positive females (49); Group 3 _ patients without any at risk con...

  9. [Cervix cancer and pregnancy. Experience of 5 years at the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital No. 3, C. M. La Raza from the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa Vargas, A; Padilla Cortez, M E; Bacelis Castaño, C

    1999-12-01

    Of the 300 clinical files of pregnant women, 22 were associated with cancer plus pregnancy in 5 years. Of them 7 were excluded in the work. 15 patients with CaCu and pregnancy were studied in the Gineco-Obstetric Hospital No. 3 C.M. La Raza of the IMSS México City in a period since 1st of January 1988 to 31st December of 1992. Early menarchia and sexual life, take an important roll in the mexican women as predisponent factors, multideliver and tobacco too. The colposcopy with manage cervix biopsy is the election method of diagnosis, with 99.5% of confiability. In the 15 patients, the estirpe was epidermoid cancer in all of them. The diagnosis of pregnancy age made in the first and third trimester of gestation. Only in 3 patients (20%) were founded visible lesion, this rename the necessity of make detection of CaCu during the pregnancy, because we will can found the cases in preinvader stages or early invader, that cure highly, like the cases seen in this work. Stages preinvader and early invaders during the pregnancy are highly curatives. We concluded that they have worst prognosis of survival, aggressivity and early relapse in patients with pregnancy stage by stage. The last because in the Historical Literature review about this topic, there was statistical relevance about pregnancy in the women with CaCu, using our work for reference. CaCu does change his prognosis associated with the pregnancy. PMID:10692806

  10. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  11. From Clinical Trials to the Front Line: Vinflunine for Treatment of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma at the National Cancer Institute of Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Gaetano; Della Pepa, Chiara; Cavaliere, Carla; Cecere, Sabrina C.; Di Napoli, Marilena; D'Aniello, Carmine; Crispo, Anna; Iovane, Gelsomina; Maiolino, Piera; Tramontano, Teresa; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Pisconti, Salvatore; Montella, Maurizio; Berretta, Massimiliano; Sorrentino, Domenico; Perdonà, Sisto; Pignata, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of Vinflunine, after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic or recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Urothelial Tract, TCCU, has been demonstrated in an international, randomized, phase III trial comparing Vinflunine plus Best Supportive Care, BSC, with BSC alone. On the basis of that study vinflunine has been approved by the European Medicine Association, EMA, for treatment of TCCU patients after failure of a platinum treatment. However, since data in clinical trials often differ from routine clinical practice due to unselected population and less strict monitoring, “real life” experiences are very helpful to verify the efficacy of a new therapy. Methods: This was a spontaneous, observational, retrospective study involving 43 patients with metastatic TCCU treated with vinflunine at our cancer center, data about demographics, disease characteristics, and previous treatments were collected and outcome and toxicities of vinflunine were analyzed. Results: 41 of 43 patients were eligible for RR analysis, the Overall RR was 12%, the Disease Control Rate was 29%; when including only patients treated in II line the DCR rose to 33%; the median PFS and the median OS were 2.2 and 6.9 months, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings were consistent with the outcome data emerged in the phase III randomized trial and in the other observational studies conducted all around Europe in the last 2–3 years. This experience supports the use of vinflunine in patients with advanced TTCU as effective and manageable antineoplastic drug. PMID:27199753

  12. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  13. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, F A; Hall, A R; Buckling, A; Scanlan, P D

    2015-05-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite host range on host resistance evolution is less well understood. In this study, we tested the impact of parasite host range on host resistance evolution. To do so, we used the host bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and a diverse suite of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage Φ2) with variable host ranges (defined here as the number of host genotypes that can be infected) as our experimental model organisms. Our results show that resistance evolution to coevolved phages occurred at a much lower rate than to ancestral phage (approximately 50% vs. 100%), but the host range of coevolved phages did not influence the likelihood of resistance evolution. We also show that the host range of both single parasites and populations of parasites does not affect the breadth of the resulting resistance range in a naïve host but that hosts that evolve resistance to single parasites are more likely to resist other (genetically) more closely related parasites as a correlated response. These findings have important implications for our understanding of resistance evolution in natural populations of bacteria and viruses and other host-parasite combinations with similar underlying infection genetics, as well as the development of phage therapy. PMID:25851735

  14. 骨转移前列腺癌的临床诊治研究报道%Clinical features and management of prostate cancer with bone metastases: the first report of our Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijian Shen; Honglin Xie; Chaojun Wang; Songliang Cai; Liping Xie; Suo Wang; Zhigen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment outcomes for bone metastatic prostate cancer. Methods: A retrospective study with a total of 128 prostate cancer (Pca) was performed from 2000 to 2005, in our institute. We analyzed the clinical features and outcomes of patients with bone metastases and the data and follow-up of 63 bone metastases was collected by one registrar. Cochran Armitage trend test was used for statistic analysis and a P-value of < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 73 (range 55 to 87) years. The PSA level was from 0.083 ng/mL to 6462 ng/mL. Bone metastases morbidity had good relationship with PSA level. With the mean follow up of 30 (range 6 to 72) months for 52/63 (82.5%) patients, 15 (28.8%) died from Pea with a mean survival of 21 months and 1 patient with PSA less than 4 ng/mL at the time died from cerebrovascular suddenness 6 months post-treatment. Conclusion: The early effect of endocrine treatment for bone metastases is obvious, and palliative prostatectomy is satisfactory and able to improve the quality of life rapidly for patients with obstructive symptoms.

  15. Redesigning Radiotherapy Quality Assurance: Opportunities to Develop an Efficient, Evidence-Based System to Support Clinical Trials—Report of the National Cancer Institute Work Group on Radiotherapy Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the context of national calls for reorganizing cancer clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a 2-day workshop to examine challenges and opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) in clinical trial design. Methods and Materials: Participants reviewed the current processes of clinical trial QA and noted the QA challenges presented by advanced technologies. The lessons learned from the radiotherapy QA programs of recent trials were discussed in detail. Four potential opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy QA were explored, including the use of normal tissue toxicity and tumor control metrics, biomarkers of radiation toxicity, new radiotherapy modalities such as proton beam therapy, and the international harmonization of clinical trial QA. Results: Four recommendations were made: (1) to develop a tiered (and more efficient) system for radiotherapy QA and tailor the intensity of QA to the clinical trial objectives (tiers include general credentialing, trial-specific credentialing, and individual case review); (2) to establish a case QA repository; (3) to develop an evidence base for clinical trial QA and introduce innovative prospective trial designs to evaluate radiotherapy QA in clinical trials; and (4) to explore the feasibility of consolidating clinical trial QA in the United States. Conclusion: Radiotherapy QA can affect clinical trial accrual, cost, outcomes, and generalizability. To achieve maximum benefit, QA programs must become more efficient and evidence-based.

  16. A Phase II Multi-institutional Trial of Chemoradiation Using Weekly Docetaxel and Erythropoietin for High-Risk Postoperative Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine efficacy and toxicities of postoperative concurrent chemoradiation using docetaxel in high-risk head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: High-risk patients were enrolled 2-8 weeks after surgery. Treatment included 60 Gy for 6 weeks with weekly docetaxel 25 mg/m2 and erythropoietin alpha 40,000 U for hemoglobin ≤12 g/dL. Primary endpoints included locoregional control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and patterns of failure (POF). Secondary endpoints were toxicity and quality of life. Results: Eighteen patients were enrolled (14 male, 4 female), aged 24-70 years (median, 55 years). Primary site included oropharynx = 7, oral cavity 8, hypopharynx = 1, and larynx = 2. Pathologic American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage was III = 3 patients, IV = 15 patients. High-risk eligibility included ≥2 positive lymph nodes = 13, extracapsular extension = 10, positive margins = 8 (11 patients with two or more risk factors). Docetaxel was reduced to 20 mg/m2/week after 5 patients had prolonged Grade 3 or higher mucositis. Overall, number of doses delivered was 2 of 6 = 1, 3 of 6 2, 4 of 6 = 2, 5 of 6 = 4, 6 of 6 = 9 patients. With median follow-up of 30 months (range, 5-66), 10 (56%) patients are alive and have no evidence of disease (NED); POF: three local recurrences (two with distant) and 1 distant only. One-year survival was 76%, median PFS and DFS had not been reached. Three-year LC was 82%. No Grade 3 or higher late toxicities were observed, although a few cases of prolonged mucositis and taste loss (>3 months) were seen, particularly at 25 mg/m2/week. Conclusion: Postoperative radiation therapy with weekly docetaxel 20 or 25 mg/m2/week for high-risk postoperative head and neck cancer caused intolerable mucosal toxicity, prompting early study termination. Further studies should consider 15 mg/m2. Actuarial 3-year LC is 82%, similar to cisplatin-based chemoradiation regimens. Distant metastasis remains an important issue requiring additional

  17. Prospective Multi-Institutional Study of Definitive Radiotherapy With High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Nonbulky (<4-cm) Stage I and II Uterine Cervical Cancer (JAROG0401/JROSG04-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a definitive radiotherapy protocol using high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a low cumulative dose schedule in nonbulky early-stage cervical cancer patients, we conducted a prospective multi-institutional study. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix, Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages Ib1, IIa, and IIb, tumor size 10 (α/β = 10) at point A. The primary endpoint was the 2-year pelvic disease progression-free (PDPF) rate. All patients received a radiotherapy quality assurance review. Results: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 60 eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-six patients were assessed with FIGO stage Ib1; 12 patients with stage IIa; and 12 patients with stage IIb. Median tumor diameter was 28 mm (range, 6–39 mm). Median overall treatment time was 43 days. Median follow-up was 49 months (range, 7–72 months). Seven patients developed recurrences: 3 patients had pelvic recurrences (2 central, 1 nodal), and 4 patients had distant metastases. The 2-year PDPF was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%–100%). The 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 90% (95% CI, 82%–98%) and 95% (95% CI, 89%–100%), respectively. The 2-year late complication rates (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer of Grade ≥1) were 18% (95% CI, 8%–28%) for large intestine/rectum, 4% (95% CI, 0%–8%) for small intestine, and 0% for bladder. No Grade ≥3 cases were observed for genitourinary/gastrointestinal late complications. Conclusions: These results suggest that definitive radiotherapy using HDR-ICBT with a low cumulative dose schedule (BED, 62 Gy10 at point A) can provide excellent local control without severe toxicity in nonbulky (<4-cm) early-stage cervical cancer.

  18. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  19. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles). A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily

  20. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in early stage oral tongue cancer – 15 year experience from a tertiary care institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Anshuma; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Oinam, Arun S; Sharma, Suresh Chander; Dhanireddy, Bhaswanth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine outcomes of interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in patients with early stage oral tongue cancer. Material and methods Ninety-two patients with stage I and II oral tongue cancer were treated with HDR-BT between 1999 and 2014: brachytherapy alone = 62 (67.4%), and combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy = 30 (32.6%). Median follow-up was 53.5 months. Patterns of failure, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control rates (LCR), and nodal control rates (NCR) were determined. Results 5-year OS, DFS, LCR, and NCR were 73.2%, 58.2%, 64.2%, and 83.8%, respectively. In total, 43 patients (46.7%) failed treatment: isolated local failures = 28 (30.4%), isolated nodal failures = 8 (8.7%), both local and regional failures = 7 (7.6%). While in T1 stage, 5 year LCR were significantly higher in brachytherapy alone group compared to combined EBRT and brachytherapy group (81.7% vs. 62.5%, p = 0.04), the isolated nodal failure rates were not significantly different among the two groups. For T2 stage, NCR were higher in combined EBRT and brachytherapy group compared to brachytherapy alone (92.9% vs. 74.3%). Acute mucositis (grade ≥ 2) was seen more in brachytherapy alone group compared to the combined modality group (87% vs. 66%), and this correlated significantly with the higher biological equivalent dose (BED) in the brachytherapy alone group. Conclusions Our study recommends treating patients with brachytherapy alone in T1 stage, and demonstrates the need for addressing nodal region either by neck dissection or nodal irradiation in T2 stage patients. Also, the study highlights the need for dose escalation (from the doses used in the study) in both T1 and T2 stage tumors when using interstitial brachytherapy either as sole modality or as a boost. PMID:26985198

  1. A Single-Institutional Experience of 15 Years of Treating T3 Laryngeal Cancer With Primary Radiotherapy, With or Without Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes, toxicity, quality of life, and voice quality of patients with T3 laryngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify subgroups of patients in whom the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy is necessary. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and November 2009, 170 consecutive patients with T3 tumor were treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Endpoints of the study were local control (LC), locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), late toxicity, quality of life, and voice handicap index. Results: After a median follow-up time of 32 months (range, 7–172), the 3-year actuarial rates of LC, LRC, DFS, and OS were 73%, 70%, 64%, and 61%, respectively, and the 5-year figures were 68%, 65%, 60%, and 49%, respectively. At last follow-up, 84 patients (49.5%) were still alive, 65 of them (77.3%) without local progression. Laryngectomy was performed in 16 patients, leaving 49 patients with anatomic organ preservation, corresponding to an actuarial laryngectomy-free survival of 58.3% at 3 years. The figures for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone were 76.8% and 53.5%, respectively (p = 0.001). Chemoradiotherapy was the only significant predictor for LC on multivariate analysis. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of late Grade ≥2 toxicity was 28.2%. Chemoradiotherapy, compared with radiotherapy alone, resulted in slight increase in late toxicity and slight deterioration of quality of life and voice-handicap-index scores. However, the differences were statistically not significant. Conclusion: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in T3 laryngeal cancer significantly improved LC and laryngectomy-free survival without statistically significant increases in late toxicity or deterioration of quality of life or voice handicap index.

  2. A Single-Institutional Experience of 15 Years of Treating T3 Laryngeal Cancer With Primary Radiotherapy, With or Without Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim, E-mail: a.al-mamgani@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tans, Lisa; Rooij, Peter van; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes, toxicity, quality of life, and voice quality of patients with T3 laryngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify subgroups of patients in whom the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy is necessary. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and November 2009, 170 consecutive patients with T3 tumor were treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Endpoints of the study were local control (LC), locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), late toxicity, quality of life, and voice handicap index. Results: After a median follow-up time of 32 months (range, 7-172), the 3-year actuarial rates of LC, LRC, DFS, and OS were 73%, 70%, 64%, and 61%, respectively, and the 5-year figures were 68%, 65%, 60%, and 49%, respectively. At last follow-up, 84 patients (49.5%) were still alive, 65 of them (77.3%) without local progression. Laryngectomy was performed in 16 patients, leaving 49 patients with anatomic organ preservation, corresponding to an actuarial laryngectomy-free survival of 58.3% at 3 years. The figures for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone were 76.8% and 53.5%, respectively (p = 0.001). Chemoradiotherapy was the only significant predictor for LC on multivariate analysis. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of late Grade {>=}2 toxicity was 28.2%. Chemoradiotherapy, compared with radiotherapy alone, resulted in slight increase in late toxicity and slight deterioration of quality of life and voice-handicap-index scores. However, the differences were statistically not significant. Conclusion: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in T3 laryngeal cancer significantly improved LC and laryngectomy-free survival without statistically significant increases in late toxicity or deterioration of quality of life or voice handicap index.

  3. Multi-institutional analysis of T3 subtypes and adjuvant radiotherapy effects in resected T3N0 non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Lee, Ik Jae; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of T3 subtypes and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with resected the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IIB T3N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). T3N0 NSCLC patients who underwent resection from January 1990 to October 2009 (n = 102) were enrolled and categorized into 6 subgroups according to the extent of invasion: parietal pleura chest wall invasion, mediastinal pleural invasion, diaphragm invasion, separated tumor nodules in the same lobe, endobronchial tumor <2 cm distal to the carina, and tumor-associated collapse. The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 55.3 months and 51.2 months, respectively. In postoperative T3N0M0 patients, the tumor size was a significant prognostic factor for survival (OS, p = 0.035 and DFS, p = 0.035, respectively). Patients with endobronchial tumors within 2 cm of the carina also showed better OS and DFS than those in the other T3 subtypes (p = 0.018 and p = 0.016, respectively). However, adjuvant radiotherapy did not cause any improvement in survival (OS, p = 0.518 and DFS, p = 0.463, respectively). Only patients with mediastinal pleural invasion (n = 25) demonstrated improved OS and DFS after adjuvant radiotherapy (n = 18) (p = 0.012 and p = 0.040, respectively). The T3N0 NSCLC subtype that showed the most favorable prognosis is the one with endobronchial tumors within 2 cm of the carina. Adjuvant radiotherapy is not effective in improving survival outcome in resected T3N0 NSCLC.

  4. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corn, Paul G., E-mail: pcorn@mdanderson.org [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Song, Danny Y. [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heath, Elisabeth; Maier, Jordan [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Meyn, Raymond [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); DePetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mathew, Paul, E-mail: pmathew@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles). A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily.

  5. Chronic adverse events and quality of life after radiochemotherapy in anal cancer patients. A single institution experience and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrian, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Bochum, Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Sauer, T.; Klemm, S.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Dinkel, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy; Schuster, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To report on chronic adverse events (CAE) and quality of life (QOL) after radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with anal cancer (AC). Patients and methods: Of 83 patients who had received RCT at our department between 1988 and 2011, 51 accepted the invitation to participate in this QOL study. CAE were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 4.0 and QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Results: CAE could be evaluated in 49 patients. There was a tendency toward a higher rate of grade 3 CAE in female patients, i.e. 18 out of 37 (49 %) vs. 2 out of 12 (17 %) male patients (p = 0.089). The most common grade 3 CAE were dyspareunia and vaginal symptoms (itching, burning and dryness) in 35 and 22 % of female patients, respectively, followed by stool incontinence in 13 % of all patients (6 out of 49). Both FACT-C and CAE information were available for 42 patients, allowing evaluation of the impact of CAE on QOL. The median total FACT-C score was 110 (40-132) out of a possible maximum of 136. The absence of grade 3 CAE (115 vs. 94, p = 0.001); an interval of {>=} 67 months after the end of the treatment (111 vs. 107, p = 0.010), no stool incontinence vs. grade 3 stool incontinence (111 vs. 74, p = 0.009), higher education (114 vs. 107, p = 0.013) and no dyspareunia vs. grade 3 dyspareunia (116 vs. 93, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a higher median FACT-C score. Conclusion: The majority of AC patients treated with RCT have acceptable overall QOL scores, which are comparable to those of the normal population. Patients with grade 3 CAE - particularly dyspareunia and fecal incontinence - have a poorer QOL compared to patients without CAE. In order to improve long-term QOL, future strategies might aim at a reduction in dose to the genitalia and more intensive patient support measures. (orig.)

  6. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for 239 esophageal cancers: a single institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study on early and locally advanced esophageal cancer was conducted to evaluate locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. We assessed all patients with esophageal cancer of stages I-IV treated with definitive radiotherapy from June 2000 to March 2014. Between 2000 and 2011, ENI was used for all cases excluding high age cases. After Feb 2011, a prospective study about IFRT was started, and therefore IFRT was used since then for all cases. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was nedaplatin (80 mg/m2 at D1 and D29) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 at D1-4 and D29-32). Of the 239 consecutive patients assessed (120 ENI vs. 119 IFRT), 59 patients (24.7 %) had stage IV disease and all patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 34.0 months. There were differences in 3-year local control (44.8 % vs. 55.5 %, p = 0.039), distant control (53.8 % vs. 69.9 %, p = 0.021) and overall survival (34.8 % vs. 51.6 %, p = 0.087) rates between ENI vs. IFRT, respectively. Patients treated with IFRT (8 %) demonstrated a significantly lower risk (p = 0.047) of high grade late toxicities than with ENI (16 %). IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures (27.5 % in ENI and 13.4 % in IFRT). Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Both tendencies of improved loco-regional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate favored the IFRT arm over the ENI arm in this study

  7. Chronic adverse events and quality of life after radiochemotherapy in anal cancer patients. A single institution experience and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on chronic adverse events (CAE) and quality of life (QOL) after radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with anal cancer (AC). Patients and methods: Of 83 patients who had received RCT at our department between 1988 and 2011, 51 accepted the invitation to participate in this QOL study. CAE were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 4.0 and QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Results: CAE could be evaluated in 49 patients. There was a tendency toward a higher rate of grade 3 CAE in female patients, i.e. 18 out of 37 (49 %) vs. 2 out of 12 (17 %) male patients (p = 0.089). The most common grade 3 CAE were dyspareunia and vaginal symptoms (itching, burning and dryness) in 35 and 22 % of female patients, respectively, followed by stool incontinence in 13 % of all patients (6 out of 49). Both FACT-C and CAE information were available for 42 patients, allowing evaluation of the impact of CAE on QOL. The median total FACT-C score was 110 (40-132) out of a possible maximum of 136. The absence of grade 3 CAE (115 vs. 94, p = 0.001); an interval of ≥ 67 months after the end of the treatment (111 vs. 107, p = 0.010), no stool incontinence vs. grade 3 stool incontinence (111 vs. 74, p = 0.009), higher education (114 vs. 107, p = 0.013) and no dyspareunia vs. grade 3 dyspareunia (116 vs. 93, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a higher median FACT-C score. Conclusion: The majority of AC patients treated with RCT have acceptable overall QOL scores, which are comparable to those of the normal population. Patients with grade 3 CAE - particularly dyspareunia and fecal incontinence - have a poorer QOL compared to patients without CAE. In order to improve long-term QOL, future strategies might aim at a reduction in dose to the genitalia and more intensive patient support measures. (orig.)

  8. Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Ellyn D.; Lange, C.; Covacci, A.; Tompkins, L S; Falkow, S

    1997-01-01

    Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to cultured gastric epithelial cells is associated with several cellular events, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 145-kDa host protein; the reorganization of the host cell actin and associated cellular proteins, like vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, adjacent to the attached bacterial cell; and the subsequent release of the cytokine, interleukin 8 (IL-8). H. pylori isolated from patients with ulcer disease and gastric cancer contain a DNA inser...

  9. Comparison of sensitivity of screening mammography with that of screening ultrasonography for detection of noninvasive ductal breast cancer at our institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January 2005 to October 2007, 53 women were diagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from our program. We examined the sensitivity of mammography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US) using individual initial report written independently on the same day. Category 3 or higher judgement was considered as a true positive. The sensitivities of MMG and US were 71.7% (38/53) and 81.1% (43/53), respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. When the results were analyzed in terms of patient age, women who were 49 or younger had a MMG sensitivity of 75.0% (21/28) and a US sensitivity of 82.1% (23/28), whereas women who were 50 or older had a MMG sensitivity of 68.0% (17/25) and a US sensitivity of 80% (20/25), none of these differences being statistically significant. Thus US was proved to have a DCIS detection rate similar to that of MMG. Among the 53 patients with proven DCIS, 29 (54.7%) presented positive findings on both MMG and US, 9 (17.0%) only on MMG, and 14 (26.4%) only on US. Five of the 14 US-positive patients showed punctate high echoes, suggesting the usefulness of US for detection of calcification. In 52 (98%) of the patients, either MMG, US, or both gave positive results for detection of DCIS. Therefore we conclude that MMG and US compensate each other for breast cancer screening. (author)

  10. Treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radiosensitizer: report of a pilot study from the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight patients with Stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma were treated with combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy employing a unique protocol. Four cycles of cyclophosphamide and hexamethylmelamine alternated with four cycles of concurrent cisplatin, whole abdominal radiotherapy, and intraperitoneal misonidazole. The entire treatment program lasted six months. Clinical complete responses were seen in 50% of the patients with an overall response rate of 61%. Pathologic complete response (PCR) confirmed at second look surgery occurred in 18% of the group (5 patients). Median survival of the entire group was 15.2 months with all PCR's alive NED. This outcome was no different than our previous experience with combination chemotherapy alone. Toxicities seen included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. However, these side effects were manageable. Two non-tumor deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining drug and radiation therapy concurrently in the treatment of ovarian cancer; further research is needed to explore different sequencing and dose levels that could improve the outcome

  11. The predictive value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in patients with cervical cancer who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery: a single-institute study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT could affect the levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag. This study evaluates the predictive value of pre- and posttreatment SCC-Ag levels in patients with cervical cancer who were treated with NACT followed by radical surgery.A total of 286 patients with Stage IB1-IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix who were treated with NACT followed by radical hysterectomy were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship between SCC-Ag levels, the clinicopathologic parameters, the response to NACT and the three-year survival rate was investigated.The levels of SCC-Ag were elevated (>3.5 ng/mL in 43.8% of patients before NACT, and 13.0% of patients after NACT. Pre- and posttreatment levels of SCC-Ag correlated with the response to NACT (P = 0.010, and P3.5 ng/mL (P3.5 ng/mL indicated a poor response to NACT and a higher risk of lymph node metastases. Elevated posttreatment levels of SCC-Ag were correlated with poor DFS and OS.

  12. Comprehensive genetic testing identifies targetable genomic alterations in most patients with non-small cell lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, single institute investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Brian M.; Patton, Kathryn Alexa; Villaflor, Victoria M.; Hoffman, Philip C.; Hensing, Thomas; Hogarth, D. Kyle; Malik, Renuka; MacMahon, Heber; Mueller, Jeffrey; Simon, Cassie A.; Vigneswaran, Wickii T.; Wigfield, Christopher H.; Ferguson, Mark K.; Husain, Aliya N.; Vokes, Everett E.; Salgia, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews extensive genetic analysis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in order to: describe how targetable mutation genes interrelate with the genes identified as variants of unknown significance; assess the percentage of patients with a potentially targetable genetic alterations; evaluate the percentage of patients who had concurrent alterations, previously considered to be mutually exclusive; and characterize the molecular subset of KRAS. Thoracic Oncology Research Program Databases at the University of Chicago provided patient demographics, pathology, and results of genetic testing. 364 patients including 289 adenocarcinoma underwent genotype testing by various platforms such as FoundationOne, Caris Molecular Intelligence, and Response Genetics Inc. For the entire adenocarcinoma cohort, 25% of patients were African Americans; 90% of KRAS mutations were detected in smokers, including current and former smokers; 46% of EGFR and 61% of ALK alterations were detected in never smokers. 99.4% of patients, whose samples were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS), had genetic alterations identified with an average of 10.8 alterations/tumor throughout different tumor subtypes. However, mutations were not mutually exclusive. NGS in this study identified potentially targetable genetic alterations in the majority of patients tested, detected concurrent alterations and provided information on variants of unknown significance at this time but potentially targetable in the future. PMID:26934441

  13. The current status of the treatment for T4 maxillary sinus cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status in Japan of the treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the T4 maxillary sinus (MS-SCC) and its use to plan clinical trials in the future. The data for 128 patients with previously untreated MS-SCC were obtained from 28 institutions from 2006 to 2007. Of the 128 patients, 118 patients with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 118 patients, 73 patients had T4a disease, and 45 with T4b. Thirty-nine patients (33.1%) were treated with total maxillectomy, 25 (21.2%) with partial maxillectomy, 22 patients (18.6%) with RADPLAT, 19 patients (16.1%) with IV-CRT, and 13 patients (11.0%) with others. The 5-year overall survival rate and local control rate for 118 patients were 49.8% and 48.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with T4aN0M0 and T4bN0M0 were 67.5% and 29.8%, respectively. This study was retrospective, but we could understand the tendency of treatment choice and treatment results. It will be useful information to plan clinical trials in the future. (author)

  14. Rectal Toxicity After Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of Outcomes of Prospective Studies Conducted at the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Study goals were to characterize gastrointestinal effects of proton therapy (PT) in a large cohort of patients treated for prostate cancer, identify factors associated with rectal bleeding (RB), and compare RB between patients receiving investigational protocols versus those in outcome-tracking protocols. Methods and Materials: A total of 1285 consecutive patients were treated with PT between August 2006 and May 2010. Potential pre-existing clinical and treatment-related risk factors for rectal toxicity were recorded. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to score toxicity. Results: Transient RB was the predominant grade 2 or higher (GR2+) toxicity after PT, accounting for 95% of gastrointestinal events. GR1 RB occurred in 217 patients (16.9%), GR2 RB in 187 patients (14.5%), and GR3 in 11 (0.9%) patients. There were no GR4 or GR5 events. Univariate analyses showed correlations between GR2+ RB and anticoagulation therapy (P=.008) and rectal and rectal wall dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, anticoagulation therapy (P=.0034), relative volume of rectum receiving 75 Gy (V75; P=.0102), and relative rectal wall V75 (P=.0017) were significant predictors for G2+ RB. Patients treated with investigational protocols had toxicity rates similar to those receiving outcome-tracking protocols. Conclusions: PT was associated with a low rate of GR2+ gastrointestinal toxicity, predominantly transient RB, which was highly correlated with anticoagulation and rectal DVH parameters. Techniques that limit rectal exposure should be used when possible

  15. Role of {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. Experience of the National Cancer Institute of Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, M.R.; Chiti, A.; Seregni, E.; Bombardieri, E. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Division

    2000-03-01

    45 patients with neuroendocrine tumours (22 neuroblastomas, 10 phaeochromocytomas, 3 paragangliomas, 6 medullary thyroid carcinomas and 4 carcinoids) underwent {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy. All patients, with the exception of 5 phaeochromocytoma cases with nonoperable disease, had previously been treated with conventional therapies. Patients had a previous diagnostic scintigraphy with {sup 131}I-MIBG (activity 20-44.4 MBq) or with {sup 123}I-MIBG (activity 74-222 MBq). All treatments were repeated at not less than 4-weekly intervals. The neuroblastoma patients were divided into two groups: the first included 14 patients with advanced metastatic disease not responding to previous treatments; the second included 8 patients with documented residual neuroblastoma tissue that could not be surgically removed after first-line therapy. In neuroblastoma patients with advanced disease resistant to previous therapies 2 out of 14 showed a partial response, 9 stable disease and 3 progression of cancer. In neuroblastoma patients with residual disease (7 evaluable out of 8) it was obtained 3 partial responses; a stable response was observed in 3 patients. The result of MIBG therapy in the group of phaechromocytoma patients (9 evaluable out of 10) consisted of 3 partial responses, 5 stable disease and 1 progression. Evaluation of the response carried out on the basis of the biochemical parameters increased the responses and MIBG therapy showed good effectiveness in controlling the functional symptoms. In the group of paraganglioma patients it was observed 1 complete, 1 partial and 1 stable response. In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma a partial response was observed in 1 patient with mediastinal metastases and 2 disease stabilizations were seen in another 2 patients. On the basis of personal experience it can be concluded that {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy is effective and also well tolerated.

  16. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Promising Treatment Option for the Boost of Oropharyngeal Cancers Not Suitable for Brachytherapy: A Single-Institutional Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim, E-mail: a.al-mamgani@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tans, Lisa; Teguh, David N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Peter van [Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zwijnenburg, Ellen M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the outcome and toxicity of frameless stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a treatment option for boosting primary oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) in patients who not suitable for the standard brachytherapy boost (BTB). Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 51 patients with Stage I to IV biopsy-proven OPC who were not suitable for BTB received boosts by means of SBRT (3 times 5.5 Gy, prescribed to the 80% isodose line), after 46 Gy of IMRT to the primary tumor and neck (when indicated). Endpoints of the study were local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and acute and late toxicity. Results: After a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 6-65 months), the 2-year actuarial rates of LC, DFS, and OS were 86%, 80%, and 82%, respectively, and the 3-year rates were 70%, 66%, and 54%, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated, as there were no treatment breaks and no Grade 4 or 5 toxicity reported, either acute or chronic. The overall 2-year cumulative incidence of Grade {>=}2 late toxicity was 28%. Of the patients with 2 years with no evidence of disease (n = 20), only 1 patient was still feeding tube dependent and 2 patients had Grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusions: According to our knowledge, this study is the first report of patients with primary OPC who received boosts by means of SBRT. Patients with OPC who are not suitable for the standard BTB can safely and effectively receive boosts by SBRT. With this radiation technique, an excellent outcome was achieved. Furthermore, the SBRT boost did not have a negative impact regarding acute and late side effects.

  17. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  18. The diet-microbiota-metabolite axis regulates the host physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Takahashi, Daisuke; Hase, Koji

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and cancer. Food ingredients are considered a major determinant of gut microbial composition, as exemplified by high-fat diet-induced dysbiosis that can affect host physiology. Accumulating studies show that microbial metabolites are key regulators of the intestinal epithelial barrier and gut immunity. In particular, short-chain fatty acids produced by bacterial fermentation of indigestible polysaccharides have profound impacts on host physiology beyond the gut. In this review, we describe the influences of the diet-microbiota-metabolite axis on host physiology, and especially on the immune and metabolic systems. PMID:26970281

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  20. Clinico-pathological spectrum of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumors (OMMMT from a tertiary cancer institute: A series of 27 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-pathological characteristics of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumor (OMMMT and assess the prognostic factors associated with treatment outcome and survival. Materials and methods: The pathology database was searched for primary ovarian carcinosarcoma diagnosed and/or managed at our institute from period of January 2004 to July 2010. The histological sections were reviewed, with emphasis on type and grade of epithelial and sarcomatous components. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for clinical details and follow up. Results: A total of 27 cases of primary ovarian carcinosarcoma were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years. Fourteen patients had advanced stage (stage III and IV at presentation. Cytoreductive surgery was done in 18 cases, and 7 had received upfront chemotherapy. Histologically, 10 cases had epithelial predominance (> 50% epithelial component and 11 had sarcoma predominance. The most frequent epithelial component was endometroid type, and most common sarcoma component was rhabdomyosarcomatous. Hyaline droplets within sarcomatous stroma were seen prominently in 15 cases. Three cases showed germ cell /yolk sac-like areas. Eighteen cases had follow up with a median of 15 months (4-40 months. The recurrence-free survival in advanced stage and sarcoma predominant was 10.5 months in comparison to 13 months in early stage and epithelial predominant OMMMT. Conclusion: Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma is a rare biphasic malignancy with variable proportions of epithelial and spindle elements. Presence of hyaline droplets within spindle sarcoma in a biopsy from ovarian mass should alert the pathologists regarding MMMT. Advanced stage, suboptimal cytoreduction, and sarcoma predominant tumors are likely to have a worse outcome in ovarian MMMT.

  1. High Metallicity LGRB Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J F; Levesque, E M; Kewley, L J; Tanvir, N R; Levan, A J; Patel, S K; Misra, K; Huang, K -H; Reichart, D E; Nysewander, M; Schady, P

    2015-01-01

    We present our imaging and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of two dark long bursts with anomalously high metallicities, LGRB 051022 and LGRB 020819B, which in conjunction with another LGRB event with an optical afterglow comprise the three LGRBs with high metallicity host galaxies in the Graham & Fruchter (2013) sample. In Graham & Fruchter (2013), we showed that LGRBs exhibit a strong and apparently intrinsic preference for low metallicity environments (12+log(O/H) < 8.4 in the KK04 scale) in spite of these three cases with abundances of about solar and above. These exceptions however are consistent with the general star-forming galaxy population of comparable brightness & redshift. This is surprising: even among a preselected sample of high metallicity LGRBs, were the metal aversion to remain in effect for these objects, we would expect their metallicity to still be lower than the typical metallicity for the galaxies at that luminosity and redshift. Therefore we deduce that it...

  2. Oncolytic Activities of Host Defense Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Steinstraesser

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer continues to be a leading source of morbidity and mortality worldwide in spite of progress in oncolytic therapies. In addition, the incidence of cancers affecting the breast, kidney, prostate and skin among others continue to rise. Chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used in cancer treatment but have the serious drawback of nonspecific toxicity because these agents target any rapidly dividing cell without discriminating between healthy and malignant cells. In addition, many neoplasms eventually become resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to selection for multidrug-resistant variants. The limitations associated with existing chemotherapeutic drugs have stimulated the search for new oncolytic therapies. Host defense peptides (HDPs may represent a novel family of oncolytic agents that can avoid the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy because they exhibit selective cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of malignant human cells, including multi-drug-resistant neoplastic cells. Oncolytic activity by HDPs is usually via necrosis due to cell membrane lysis, but some HDPs can trigger apoptosis in cancer cells via mitochondrial membrane disruption. In addition, certain HDPs are anti-angiogenic which may inhibit cancer progression. This paper reviews oncolytic HDP studies in order to address the suitability of selected HDPs as oncolytic therapies.

  3. IPv6 host fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Nerakis, Eleftherios

    2006-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis explores ways of using probe packets to identify the type and version of OS that is run by a remote IPv6 host. Such a probing technique can be effective because developers of different OSes often interpret the guidance provided by the RFCs slightly differently, and consequently their network protocol stack implementation may generate responses bearing unique markers to certain probing packets. The key challenge is to find suit...

  4. Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its first annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2004. During this period, fourteen PNNL scientists hosted sixteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the sixteen participants, fourteen were graduate students; one was transitioning to graduate school; and one was a university faculty member.

  5. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Villarroel; Kortine Annina Kleinheinz; Vanessa Isabell Jurtz; Henrike Zschach; Ole Lund; Morten Nielsen; Mette Voldby Larsen

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPh...

  6. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, wher...

  7. Center for Cancer Genomics | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) was established to unify the National Cancer Institute's activities in cancer genomics, with the goal of advancing genomics research and translating findings into the clinic to improve the precise diagnosis and treatment of cancers. In addition to promoting genomic sequencing approach

  8. Do Institutions or Culture Determine the Level of Social Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2014-01-01

    Do institutions or culture determine levels of social trust in society? If quality of institutions determines levels of social trust, migrants from countries with lower-quality institutions should enhance their level of social trust in countries with higher-quality institutions. If, on the other...... hand, the migrants’ level of social trust is determined by their culture, it should not be affected by a different institutional setting. Furthermore, culturally diverse immigrant groups should have different levels of social trust in the same host country. Analysing migration from several non......-western countries to Denmark, this paper demonstrates that institutions rather than culture matter for social trust....

  9. Prospective Multi-Institutional Study of Definitive Radiotherapy With High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Nonbulky (<4-cm) Stage I and II Uterine Cervical Cancer (JAROG0401/JROSG04-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toita, Takafumi, E-mail: b983255@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Radiology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tsukuba (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a definitive radiotherapy protocol using high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a low cumulative dose schedule in nonbulky early-stage cervical cancer patients, we conducted a prospective multi-institutional study. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix, Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages Ib1, IIa, and IIb, tumor size <40 mm in diameter (assessed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging), and no pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The treatment protocol consisted of whole-pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 20 Gy/10 fractions, pelvic EBRT with midline block of 30 Gy/15 fractions, and HDR-ICBT of 24 Gy/4 fractions (at point A). The cumulative biologically effective dose (BED) was 62 Gy{sub 10} ({alpha}/{beta} = 10) at point A. The primary endpoint was the 2-year pelvic disease progression-free (PDPF) rate. All patients received a radiotherapy quality assurance review. Results: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 60 eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-six patients were assessed with FIGO stage Ib1; 12 patients with stage IIa; and 12 patients with stage IIb. Median tumor diameter was 28 mm (range, 6-39 mm). Median overall treatment time was 43 days. Median follow-up was 49 months (range, 7-72 months). Seven patients developed recurrences: 3 patients had pelvic recurrences (2 central, 1 nodal), and 4 patients had distant metastases. The 2-year PDPF was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-100%). The 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 90% (95% CI, 82%-98%) and 95% (95% CI, 89%-100%), respectively. The 2-year late complication rates (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer of Grade {>=}1) were 18% (95% CI, 8%-28%) for large intestine/rectum, 4% (95% CI, 0%-8%) for small intestine, and 0% for bladder. No Grade {>=}3 cases were

  10. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  11. Panorama epidemiológico de la mortalidad por cáncer en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: 1991-1995 Epidemiologic panorama of cancer mortality in the Mexican Institute of Social Security: 1991-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE SALMERÓN-CASTRO

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de la mortalidad global por cáncer, así como la mortalidad específica para las principales neoplasias malignas en población adulta derechohabiente (DH del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Material y métodos. A partir de los registros oficiales de defunción y de la información sobre la población para los años 1991-1995, se estimaron las tasas anuales de mortalidad global y específica para las 10 principales neoplasias malignas por sexo, en mayores de 20 años. Asimismo, se estimaron las tendencias nacionales y estatales para las principales neoplasias malignas para cada sexo por medio de regresión de Poisson. Se calcularon las diferencias de tasas de mortalidad específica para las dos principales neoplasias por sexo restando las tasas estatales a su respectiva tasa nacional en 1995. Resultados. La mortalidad global por cáncer en los hombres se incrementó de 76.2 en 1991, a 94.8 por 100 000 DH en 1995; entre las mujeres, ésta se incrementó de 85.6 a 105.8 por 100 000 DH, representando un incremento de 24.4 y de 24% en hombres y mujeres, respectivamente, durante el periodo de estudio. Entre los hombres las neoplasias de riñón, leucemia, páncreas, próstata y pulmón; y entre mujeres las de colon, mama, páncreas, leucemias e hígado, mostraron los incrementos más significativos. Conclusiones. En el IMSS es impostergable la conformación de un registro poblacional de cáncer que permita una mejor vigilancia epidemiológica de las neoplasias y una evaluación permanente del impacto de programas específicos para la prevención y control de este padecimiento en las instituciones.Objective. This paper describes the global cancer mortality and the specific mortality patterns for the main neoplasms among adult members of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Material and methods. Using official death certificates and information about the population of the IMSS members during

  12. Thrombospondin-1 silencing down-regulates integrin expression levels in human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells with BRAFV600E: new insights in the host tissue adaptation and homeostasis of tumor microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    CarmeloNucera; PeterM.Sadow; JackLawler

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is characterized by pleomorphic cells, has a poor prognosis, is highly devastating disease, and is not curable. No reliable biomarkers of metastatic potential, helpful for early diagnosis of ATC and therapeutic response have been found yet. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) plays a fundamental role in cancer progression by regulating cell stromal cross talk in the tumor microenvironment. Goals: Our goal was to understand whether TSP-1 could...

  13. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the mos...

  14. Entrepreneurs, institutional entrepreneurship and institutional change

    OpenAIRE

    Koene, B.A.S.; Ansari, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of entrepreneurship research and institutional theory has begun to attract increasing scholarly attention. While much recent research has studied "institutional entrepreneurs" credited with creating new or transforming existing institutions to support their projects, less attention has been paid to the institutions that constitute the menus from which choices are made, and delineate resources for entrepreneurial or other agentic activities. While models of institutionalizatio...

  15. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca

    -, č. 3 (2011), s. 1421-1431. ISSN 1945-0524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammation * tumor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  16. Institutional Priority for Diversity at Christian Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Collins, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This evaluative study explored the relationship between institutional priority for diversity and minority enrollment at four schools within the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities, a consortium of Christian institutions. This institutional evaluation utilized public resources in order to gather descriptive data on minority enrollment…

  17. Molecular biology in lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, I.; Biroš, Erik

    Poland: Institute of Nuclear Physics, 2002. s. 32. [NATO advanced research workshop. 23.06.2002-27.06.2002, Krakow - Poland] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : cancer Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Detection of BRAF V600 Mutations in Melanoma: Evaluation of Concordance between the Cobas® 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test and the Methods Used in French National Cancer Institute (INCa) Platforms in a Real-Life Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourah, Samia; Denis, Marc G.; Narducci, Fabienne Escande; Solassol, Jérôme; Merlin, Jean-Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Emile, Jean-François; Heller, Remy; Souvignet, Claude; Bergougnoux, Loïc; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Vemurafenib is approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma in patients with BRAF V600 mutation. In pivotal clinical trials, BRAF testing has always been done with the approved cobas 4800 BRAF test. In routine practice, several methods are available and are used according to the laboratories usual procedures. A national, multicenter, non-interventional study was conducted with prospective and consecutive collection of tumor samples. A parallel evaluation was performed in routine practice between the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 mutation test and home brew methods (HBMs) of 12 national laboratories, labelled and funded by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). For 420 melanoma samples tested, the cobas method versus HBM showed a high concordance (93.3%; kappa = 0.86) in BRAF V600 genotyping with similar mutation rates (34.0% versus 35.7%, respectively). Overall, 97.4% and 98.6% of samples gave valid results using the cobas and HBM, respectively. Of the 185 samples strictly fulfilling the cobas guidelines, the concordance rate was even higher (95.7%; kappa = 0.91; 95%CI [0.85; 0.97]). Out of the 420 samples tested, 28 (6.7%) showed discordance between HBM and cobas. This prospective study shows a high concordance rate between the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 test and home brew methods in the routine detection of BRAF V600E mutations. PMID:25789737

  19. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell; Zschach, Henrike; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k) is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2]. PMID:27153081

  20. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  1. Institute Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann; Steadman, Jackie; Little, Sally; Underwood, Debra; Blackman, Mack; Simonds, Judy

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the MSFC working group on Institutes in 1995 on the structure, organization and business arrangements of Institutes at a time when the agency was considering establishing science institutes. Thirteen institutes, ten science centers associated with the state of Georgia, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and IIT Research Institute (IITRI), and general data on failed institutes were utilized to form this report. The report covers the working group's findings on institute mission, structure, director, board of directors/advisors, the working environment, research arrangements, intellectual property rights, business management, institute funding, and metrics.

  2. Role of locoregional radiation therapy in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after preoperative chemotherapy and mastectomy. The Institut Curie-Hopital Rene-Huguenin experience; Role de l'irradiation locoregionale adjuvante en l'absence d'envahissement ganglionnaire apres chimiotherapie neo-adjuvante, mastectomie totale et lymphadenectomie axillaire pour un cancer du sein. Experience de l'hopital Rene-Huguenin-institut Curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scodan, R. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Curie-hopital Rene-Huguenin, 35, rue Dailly, 92210 Saint-Cloud (France); Centre d' oncologie Saint-Vincent, CHP Saint-Gregoire, avenue Saint-Vincent, 35760 Saint-Gregoire (France); Bruant, S.; Stevens, D. [Departement de biostatistiques, institut Curie-hopital Rene-Huguenin, 35, rue Dailly, 92210 Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, J.; Bollet, M.A.; Daveau, C.; De la Lande, B.; Labib, A. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Curie-hopital Rene-Huguenin, 35, rue Dailly, 92210 Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, F. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut Curie-hopital Rene-Huguenin, 35, rue Dailly, 92210 Saint-Cloud (France)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose. - neo-adjuvant chemotherapy generally induces significant changes in the pathological extent of disease and challenges the standard indications of adjuvant post-mastectomy radiation therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of post-mastectomy radiation therapy in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and materials. - Among 1054 breast cancer patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 patients had pN0 status after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The impact of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival was evaluated by multivariate analysis including known prognostic factors. Results. - Among 134 eligible patients, 78 patients (58.2%) received post-mastectomy radiation therapy, and 56 patients (41.8%) did not. With a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival rates were 96.2% and 77.2% with post-mastectomy radiation therapy and 86.8% and 87.7% without radiation therapy, respectively (no significant difference). In multivariate analysis, there was a trend towards poorer overall survival among patients who did not have a pathologically complete primary tumour response after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 6.65; 95% CI, 0.82-54.12; P = 0.076). Post-mastectomy radiation therapy had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09-1.61; P = 0.18) or overall survival (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 0.71-6; P = 0.18). There was a trend towards poorer overall survival among patients who did not have pathologically complete in-breast tumour response after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 6.65; 95% CI, 0.82-54.12; P = 0.076). Conclusions. - This retrospective study showed no increase in the

  3. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldufsky J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Joe Goldufsky,1 Shanthi Sivendran,3 Sara Harcharik,4 Michael Pan,4 Sebastian Bernardo,4 Richard H Stern,5 Philip Friedlander,4 Carl E Ruby,1,2 Yvonne Saenger,4 Howard L Kaufman1,2 Departments of 1Immunology & Microbiology and 2Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago IL, USA 3Hematology/Oncology Medical Specialists, Lancaster General Health, Lancaster, PA, USA, and Departments of 4Medical Oncology and 5Radiology, Tisch Cancer Institute, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers. Keywords: cancer, gene therapy, oncolytic therapy, virus, treatment

  4. 75 FR 30410 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Dynamics of Host... Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN-12, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  5. How the devil facial tumor disease escapes host immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-08-01

    The devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is a contagious cancer that has recently emerged among Tasmanian devils, rapidly decimating the population. We have recently discovered that DFTD cells lose the expression MHC molecules on the cell surface, explaining how this tumor avoids recognition by host CD8(+) T cells. PMID:24083079

  6. How the devil facial tumor disease escapes host immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is a contagious cancer that has recently emerged among Tasmanian devils, rapidly decimating the population. We have recently discovered that DFTD cells lose the expression MHC molecules on the cell surface, explaining how this tumor avoids recognition by host CD8+ T cells.

  7. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the most significant element that constitutes the visual identity of an institution. While forming architectural and interior architectural planning of institutions, establishing places that will clearly reşect the corporate identity is gaining importance. In the perception of visual identity of institutions, planning elements such as; colour, texture, material and form are more significant than others.

  8. Role of microRNAs in insect host-microorganism interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SassanAsgari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have appeared as important regulators of various biological processes including development, cancer, immunity and host-microorganism interactions. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the differential expression of host miRNAs upon infection by various microorganisms and the involvement of microorganism-encoded miRNAs in host manipulation. Some of these alterations could be part of a host response to an infection to limit replication and dissemination of the microorganism or, conversely, due to manipulation of the host miRNA pathway by the microorganism to facilitate its replication. Insights into the role of miRNAs in host defence responses and host manipulation by microorganisms will enable a better understanding of host-microorganism interactions.

  9. Participants in a medical applications meeting hosted by CERN Head of Medical Applications S. Myers with J. E. Celis, Chairman of the Policy Committee, European Cancer Organisation, President, European Association for Cancer Research and Prof. JM. Gago, President of Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP) and Former Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education of Portugal of the XVII Governo. Were also participating: CERN Life Science Adviser M. Dosanjh with U. Ringborg R. Lewensohn, A. Brahme, R. Moeckli, O. Jäkel and S. Pieck.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    Participants in a medical applications meeting hosted by CERN Head of Medical Applications S. Myers with J. E. Celis, Chairman of the Policy Committee, European Cancer Organisation, President, European Association for Cancer Research and Prof. JM. Gago, President of Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP) and Former Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education of Portugal of the XVII Governo. Were also participating: CERN Life Science Adviser M. Dosanjh with U. Ringborg R. Lewensohn, A. Brahme, R. Moeckli, O. Jäkel and S. Pieck.

  10. Dose-Fractionation Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Deduced From Radiotherapy Outcomes of 5,969 Patients in Seven International Institutional Datasets: α/β = 1.4 (0.9–2.2) Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There are reports of a high sensitivity of prostate cancer to radiotherapy dose fractionation, and this has prompted several trials of hypofractionation schedules. It remains unclear whether hypofractionation will provide a significant therapeutic benefit in the treatment of prostate cancer, and whether there are different fractionation sensitivities for different stages of disease. In order to address this, multiple primary datasets have been collected for analysis. Methods and Materials: Seven datasets were assembled from institutions worldwide. A total of 5969 patients were treated using external beams with or without androgen deprivation (AD). Standard fractionation (1.8–2.0 Gy per fraction) was used for 40% of the patients, and hypofractionation (2.5–6.7 Gy per fraction) for the remainder. The overall treatment time ranged from 1 to 8 weeks. Low-risk patients comprised 23% of the total, intermediate-risk 44%, and high-risk 33%. Direct analysis of the primary data for tumor control at 5 years was undertaken, using the Phoenix criterion of biochemical relapse–free survival, in order to calculate values in the linear-quadratic equation of k (natural log of the effective target cell number), α (dose-response slope using very low doses per fraction), and the ratio α/β that characterizes dose-fractionation sensitivity. Results: There was no significant difference between the α/β value for the three risk groups, and the value of α/β for the pooled data was 1.4 (95% CI = 0.9–2.2) Gy. Androgen deprivation improved the bNED outcome index by about 5% for all risk groups, but did not affect the α/β value. Conclusions: The overall α/β value was consistently low, unaffected by AD deprivation, and lower than the appropriate values for late normal-tissue morbidity. Hence the fractionation sensitivity differential (tumor/normal tissue) favors the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules for all risk groups, which is also very beneficial

  11. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  12. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  13. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zhang, Zhe [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T.; DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Song, Daniel Y., E-mail: dsong2@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  14. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  15. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  16. Cancer immunotherapy with surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orita,Kunzo

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in the immunological surveillance system, an understanding of the role of host immunity has become essential to the management of carcinogenesis, tumor proliferation, recurrence and metastasis. Although it is important to continue chemical and surgical treatment of cancer, support of the anti-tumor immune system of the host should also be considered. Long term remission has been reported in leukemia by treating with BCG after chemotherapy whereas surgical treatment is usually more effective in preventing cancer recurrence in digestive organ cancer. The first step is extirpating the tumor as thoroughly as possible and the second step is chemo-immunotherapy. Cancer immunity, however weak, constitutes the basis for other treatments in selectively attacking cancer cells remaining after surgery, chemotherapy or irradiation. Immunotherapy should thus not replace chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but these methods should be employed in combination to attain more favorable results.

  17. Prognostic Significance of NPM1 Mutations in the Absence of FLT3–Internal Tandem Duplication in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A SWOG and UK National Cancer Research Institute/Medical Research Council Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostronoff, Fabiana; Othus, Megan; Lazenby, Michelle; Estey, Elihu; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Evans, Anna; Godwin, John; Gilkes, Amanda; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Burnett, Alan; List, Alan F.; Fang, Min; Oehler, Vivian G.; Petersdorf, Stephen H.; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Radich, Jerald P.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Meshinchi, Soheil; Stirewalt, Derek L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring NPM1 mutations without FLT3–internal tandem duplications (ITDs; NPM1-positive/FLT3-ITD–negative genotype) are classified as better risk; however, it remains uncertain whether this favorable classification can be applied to older patients with AML with this genotype. Therefore, we examined the impact of age on the prognostic significance of NPM1-positive/FLT3-ITD–negative status in older patients with AML. Patients and Methods Patients with AML age ≥ 55 years treated with intensive chemotherapy as part of Southwest Oncology Gorup (SWOG) and UK National Cancer Research Institute/Medical Research Council (NCRI/MRC) trials were evaluated. A comprehensive analysis first examined 156 patients treated in SWOG trials. Validation analyses then examined 1,258 patients treated in MRC/NCRI trials. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine the impact of age on the prognostic significance of NPM1 mutations, FLT3-ITDs, and the NPM1-positive/FLT3-ITD–negative genotype. Results Patients with AML age 55 to 65 years with NPM1-positive/FLT3-ITD–negative genotype treated in SWOG trials had a significantly improved 2-year overall survival (OS) as compared with those without this genotype (70% v 32%; P 65 years with this genotype (70% v 27%; P 65 years was marginal (27% v 16%; P = .33). In multivariable analysis, NPM1-positive/FLT3-ITD–negative genotype remained independently associated with an improved OS in patients age 55 to 65 years (P = .002) but not in those age > 65 years (P = .82). These results were confirmed in validation analyses examining the NCRI/MRC patients. Conclusion NPM1-positive/FLT3-ITD–negative genotype remains a relatively favorable prognostic factor for patients with AML age 55 to 65 years but not in those age > 65 years. PMID:25713434

  18. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well as...... change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore and...

  19. Reflects the coat protein variability of apple mosaic virus host preference?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grimová, L.; Winkowska, L.; Ryšánek, P.; Svoboda, P.; Petrzik, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2013), s. 119-125. ISSN 0920-8569 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Positive selection tests * capsid protein * algae host Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2013

  20. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.