WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer institute fact

  1. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  2. SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  3. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  4. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  5. Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information By the National Cancer Institute To many, cancer remains one of the most frightening ... cancer. It is important to separate fact from fiction. Some of the most common cancer myths not ...

  6. More Fact Sheets - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  7. More Fact Sheets - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  8. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  9. Pancreatic cancer stem cells: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwandin, Vikash J; Shay, Jerry W

    2009-04-01

    The terms cancer-initiating or cancer stem cells have been the subject of great interest in recent years. In this review we will use pancreatic cancer as an overall theme to draw parallels with historical findings to compare to recent reports of stem-like characteristics in pancreatic cancer. We will cover such topics as label-retaining cells (side-population), ABC transporter pumps, telomerase, quiescence, cell surface stem cell markers, and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Finally we will integrate the available findings into a pancreatic stem cell model that also includes metastatic disease.

  10. Systemic therapy of cancer: facts and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Čufer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic therapy of cancer had its first major expansion in the second half of the 20th century with the development of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Some cancers, like leukemias, lymphomas, osteosarcoma and testicular cancer became highly curable irrespective of anatomic size – stage of the disease. Other more common cancers, such as breast cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer became on a larger scale curable in the early stages of the disease while in the advanced stages of the disease long term remissions could be achieved by chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy.Conclusions: Cancer patients nowadays live longer and with a better quality of life. With mapping of the human genom, possibilities for determining and identifying the cancer genom became available at the turn of the last century. The era of molecular oncology which enables personalized treatment tailored to each patient and his tumor is now upon us. Molecular oncology makes it possible to identify the molecular targets and to develop therapy which targets them. In addition it gives us more knowledge about the prognostic as well as predictive markers. Good examples of effective targeted cancer therapy are treatment of GIST with imatinib and treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab. In both cases the target as well as the patients were precisely selected. Experience from various trastuzumab trials teach us that targeted therapy will also be the most effective in the early stages of cancer, when the burden of the disease is quite limited. Treatment of advanced cancer with targeted treatment so far mostly results in remissions but not cure. Numerous additional new targeted therapies are currently under development and by no doubt they will very soon allow us to facilitate the selection of proper treatment at proper time for proper patients. In contrast to empirical treatment approaches, a personalized one enables the best

  11. White Control and Minority Oppression. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    Salient facts about white control and minority oppression are provided for major areas such as the economy, health, housing, education, the media, government, and the census. Economic data on white control cover topics such as wealth, the stock exchange, businesses, banks, union control and membership, and others. Data per training to minority…

  12. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  13. Cancer Facts for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT)-friendly providers. An LGBT community center or group may be able to ... symptoms of testicular cancer. The take-away The LGBT communities have a higher incidence of many risk ...

  14. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  15. National Cancer Institute News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life among African-American cancer survivors. Study finds premature death rates diverge in the United States by race and ethnicity January 25, 2017 Premature death rates declined among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific ...

  16. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  17. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  18. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  19. 78 FR 19275 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel Tumor Immunology. Date: June 26-27, 2013. Time... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116...

  20. A fact database for toxicological data at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Makoto; Nakadate, Masahiro; Osada, Takaharu; Ishibe, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Satoru; Maekawa, Akihiko; Sofuni, Toshio; NAKATA, Yasuko; Kanoh, Naoko; Hashiba, Shigeko; Takenaka, Yusuke; Ishidate, Motoi

    1991-01-01

    The computerized fact database for the toxicity data of chemicals was constructed at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan (biological database, BL-DB). The BL-DB stores data on mutagenicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and other toxicological tests of chemicals that appeared in the scientific literature. The BL-DB includes information about chemical identification, test system, results of the assays, and a bibliography. The system consists of five modules: data colle...

  1. Evaluation of institutional cancer registries in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, L G; Roca, S; Rodríguez, M N; Stein, J; Izquierdo, J; Trujillo, A; Mora, M

    1999-09-01

    The four primary objectives of this descriptive study were to: 1) design a quality-measurement instrument for institutional cancer registries (ICRs), 2) evaluate the existing ICRs in Colombia with the designed instrument, 3) categorize the different registries according to their quality and prioritize efforts that will efficiently promote better registries with the limited resources available, and 4) determine the institution with the greatest likelihood of successfully establishing Colombia's second population-based cancer registry. In 1990 the National Cancer Institute of Colombia developed 13 institution-based cancer registries in different Colombian cities in order to promote the collection of data from a large group of cancer diagnostic and treatment centers. During the first half of 1997, this evaluation reviewed 12 registries; one of the original 13 no longer existed. All of the Colombian institutions (hospitals) that maintain institution-based cancer registries were included in the study. At each institution, a brief survey was administered to the hospital director, the registry coordinator, and the registrar (data manager). Researchers investigated the institutions by looking at six domains that are in standard use internationally. Within each domain, questions were developed and selected through the Delphi method. Each domain and each question were assigned weights through a consensus process. In most cases, two interviewers went to each site to collect the information. The university hospitals in Cali, Pereira, and Medellín had substantially higher scores, reflecting a good level of performance. Four of the 12 institutions had almost no cancer registry work going on. Five of the 12 hospital directors considered that the information provided by the cancer registries influenced their administrative decisions. Three of the registries had patient survival data. Four of the institutions allocated specific resources to operate their cancer registries; in the

  2. 78 FR 8155 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Immunology. ] Date: March 15, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Omnibus Cancer Biology...

  3. Towards the understanding of social reality in general theory of institutional facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Giraldo Chavarriaga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical interpretation of the general theory of institutional facts, which intents to comprehend, on the basis of a basic regulatory structure with functions assignments, how objective social reality is constructed. We discuss problems, approaches, and theoretical methods employed by Searle, in contrast to sociological constructivism, examining the issues of autoreferentiality of the concept of institutionality, the search for objectivity, the adoption of external realism, the concept of truth, the role of language, and intentionality in the theory. Finally, the author verifies if the theory in question complies with some of the features that a general theory of regulation should have, according to the criteria of René Thom.

  4. 75 FR 20370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ...@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  5. 76 FR 16431 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Lymphoma, Breast, Ovarian.... 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  6. 76 FR 50487 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI SPORE in Childhood ALL, Skin, Brain, Lung....395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed...

  7. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutritionists, and speech therapists. About half of throat cancers occur in the larynx (voice box). Because of the location of head and neck cancer, it often affects breathing, eating, drinking, voice, speaking, ...

  8. 77 FR 24969 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Breast, Prostate and... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  9. 77 FR 49450 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI REVIEW of P50 and R01 applications in Lung, Skin, Ovarian... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  10. 78 FR 41939 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Omnibus Review, Cancer Etiology/Genetics... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and...

  11. Applied difficulties of conditions for bail pending trial and institutional solutions-seeking interaction between "facts" and "rules"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yinghui; LEI Xiaozheng

    2007-01-01

    In the domain of bail pending trial in China, there is a deep-cutting tension in bail pending trial between the practical conditions in judicial practice and the legal conditions established by legal authorities. Based on the data and information collected, this article investigates the conditions of bail pending trial in the aspects of rules and facts, and looks for an institutional solution to reconstruct the system of bail pending trial that can realize the interaction between the facts and rules.

  12. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 78 FR 27408 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Methods for the Detection of Cancer Recurrence in Post-Therapy Breast Cancer Patients. Date: June 4, 2013... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  14. 75 FR 3239 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Basal-like Breast Cancer Assay. Date: March 10, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  15. 78 FR 28235 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Diagnostic Assay to Detect Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: June 13, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  16. 75 FR 16153 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network. Date: June...., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

  17. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  18. [Light, melatonin and internal cancers - recent facts and research perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, T C; Stevens, R G

    2002-05-01

    Visible light of sufficient intensity inhibits melatonin biosynthesis and numerous experimental studies suggest that melatonin may protect against cancer. From a public health point of view it is important to verify or falsify the hypothesis that artificial light - or even sunlight itself - suppresses melatonin production sufficiently to increase the risk of developing cancers of internal organs. Since humans are exposed universally, even small risk elevations could lead to numerous cases. Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to anthropogenic light-at-night in the course of shift work and first evaluations of natural light experiments in blind people and in residents of the Arctic are compatible with the possibility that light can influence - at least hormone- dependent - cancer developments via melatonin. To systematically investigate the effect of geographically different light intensities on melatonin production in man, a pan-European study is suggested. Further epidemiological investigations can contribute to the understanding of the patho-physiological relationships between light, melatonin and human biology.

  19. Intraoperative Imaging in Ovarian Cancer : Fact or Fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crane, Lucia M. A.; van Oosten, Marleen; Pleijhuis, Rick G.; Motekallemi, Arash; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging for cancer diagnosis and treatment is an evolving field of research that is on the verge of clinical implementation. As each tumor has its unique biologic profile, selection of the most promising targets is essential. In this review, we focus on target finding in

  20. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same breast is low. Yet, even if breast cancer does recur in the same breast, that does not reduce a woman's chances for a healthy recovery. As was already noted, the chance of survival is not affected by the choice of surgery. ...

  1. 75 FR 21002 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Panel, SPORE in Lymphoma and Breast Cancer. Date: June 15-16, 2010. Time: 5 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  2. 77 FR 26772 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... assistance, such as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify...

  3. 75 FR 16488 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes...

  4. 77 FR 15782 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes...

  5. 78 FR 26379 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Methodological Research for Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts. Date: June 25, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Small Grants Program for Cancer Epidemiology. Date: July...

  6. Level of FACT defines the transcriptional landscape and aggressive phenotype of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleyshman, Daria; Prendergast, Laura; Safina, Alfiya; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine; Commane, Mairead; Morgan, Kelsey; Attwood, Kristopher; Gurova, Katerina

    2017-03-28

    Although breast cancer (BrCa) may be detected at an early stage, there is a shortage of markers that predict tumor aggressiveness and a lack of targeted therapies. Histone chaperone FACT, expressed in a limited number of normal cells, is overexpressed in different types of cancer, including BrCa. Recently, we found that FACT expression in BrCa correlates with markers of aggressive BrCa, which prompted us to explore the consequences of FACT inhibition in BrCa cells with varying levels of FACT.FACT inhibition using a small molecule or shRNA caused reduced growth and viability of all BrCa cells tested. Phenotypic changes were more severe in "high- FACT" cells (death or growth arrest) than in "low-FACT" cells (decreased proliferation). Though inhibition had no effect on the rate of general transcription, expression of individual genes was changed in a cell-specific manner. Initially distinct transcriptional profiles of BrCa cells became similar upon equalizing FACT expression. In "high-FACT" cells, FACT supports expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, DNA replication, maintenance of an undifferentiated cell state and regulated by the activity of several proto-oncogenes. In "low-FACT" cells, the presence of FACT reduces expression of genes encoding enzymes of steroid metabolism that are characteristic of differentiated mammary epithelia.Thus, we propose that FACT is both a marker and a target of aggressive BrCa cells, whose inhibition results in the death of BrCa or convertion of them to a less aggressive subtype.

  7. [Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and obesity: hypothesis and facts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, I N; Efimova, O V; Suvorova, T S; Tov, N L

    2014-01-01

    THE PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Analyze the basic data on the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer (PC) and the modern mechanisms of this association. In the European Union and in Russia incidence of pancreatic diseases increases, such pancreatic cancer (PC) ranks 10th among cancer diseases. Obesity is a risk factor for not only of severe acute pancreatitis, but also PC at that independently of diabetes. In a meta-analysis the PC risk in obese increased by 47%, while the person with a central obesity have a higher PC risk compared to those with a peripheral type of obesity (odds ratio = 1,45, 95% CI: 1,02-2,07), but association between BMI and PC risk in this Japanese population may be different from that in Western populations, sometimes inversely. The link between obesity and PC is explained by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: was proved a direct correlation between the level of circulating C-peptide and PC, low levels of serum adiponektin and leptin increase the PC risk. There are also genetic risk factors for PC: a statistically significant interaction between IVS1-27777C> and IVS1-23525A>T genotypes of the FTO gene with obesity and the PC risk: AA genotype in patients with BMI < 25 kg/m2 reduced PC risk by 22%-28% (p < 0,0001), and with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was associated with 54%-60% increased PC risk (p < 0,0015). Lifestyle factors (smoking, consumption of saturated fats, etc.) increase the PC risk.

  8. Inter-institutional development of a poster-based cancer biology learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos-Selim, Cecile; Modzelewski, Ruth A; Steinman, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    There is a paucity of African-American Cancer researchers. To help address this, an educational collaboration was developed between a Comprehensive Cancer Center and a distant undergraduate biology department at a minority institution that sought to teach students introductory cancer biology while modeling research culture. A student-centered active learning curriculum was established that incorporated scientific poster presentations and simulated research exercises to foster learning of cancer biology. Students successfully mined primary literature for supportive data to test cancer-related hypotheses. Student feedback indicated that the poster project substantially enhanced depth of understanding of cancer biology and laid the groundwork for subsequent laboratory work. This inter-institutional collaboration modeled the research process while conveying facts and concepts about cancer.

  9. Applications of calixarenes in cancer chemotherapy: facts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ali Yousaf,1 Shafida Abd Hamid,1 Noraslinda M Bunnori,1 AA Ishola2 1Kulliyyah of Science, 2Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Malaysia Abstract: Research on the therapeutic applications of calixarene derivatives is an emerging area of interest. The anticancer activity of various functionalized calixarenes has been reported by several research groups. Due to their superior geometric shape, calixarenes can accommodate drug molecules by forming inclusion complexes. Controlled release of anticancer drugs by calixarenes might help in targeted chemotherapy. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of the calixarenes and their drug loading properties. The potential use of calixarenes in chemoradiotherapy is also highlighted in brief. Keywords: cancer, chemotherapy, calixarenes

  10. 75 FR 60132 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI...; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395..., Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September...

  11. 75 FR 71712 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI...; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395..., Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November...

  12. 77 FR 43098 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal NCI... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93....398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated:...

  13. 77 FR 58852 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; R13 Review Teleconference. Date: October 24..., Panel; Immunology. Date: December 6, 2012. Time: 7:45 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  14. 76 FR 64090 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ..., Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116....) Contact Person: Timothy C. Meeker, MD, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  15. 76 FR 576 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Emphasis Panel; SPORE in Mesothelioma, Lung, Breast and Ovarian Cancers. Date: February 2-3, 2011. Time: 8... Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Blood-based Methods for the Detection of Cancer Recurrence in Post... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings...

  16. 78 FR 78982 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact...

  17. 76 FR 41273 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ...: Gail J Bryant, MD, Medical Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  18. 77 FR 33476 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Emerging Technologies in... Emphasis Panel; Biopsy Instruments and Devices That Preserve Molecular Profiles and Alternative Biospecimen...

  19. 76 FR 26309 - National Cancer Institute; Notice Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...: Washington DC North Hilton Hotel, 620 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD 20877. Contact Person: Lalita D... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 7141, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  20. 76 FR 80375 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive M, 1750 Rockville Pike... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116...

  1. 78 FR 15023 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NHH,...

  2. 76 FR 37358 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... for Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts, Date: July 12, 2011, Time: 8 a,m, to 5 p,m Agenda: To review and... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Small Grants Program for Cancer Epidemiology. Date: July 21-22, 2011. Time...

  3. 77 FR 12600 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...: Bethesda Marriott Suites, 6711 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Ellen K Schwartz.... Place: Bethesda Marriott Suites, 6711 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Savvas C...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Research Infrastructure Support for HMOs....

  4. 78 FR 41072 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93..., Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: July 2, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  5. 78 FR 66370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93..., Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: October 30, 2013. Melanie J. Gray,...

  6. 77 FR 12318 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... outcome of the evaluation will provide information for consideration by an internal NCI committee that... Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93....398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  7. 77 FR 70170 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93..., Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 16, 2012. Melanie J. Gray,...

  8. Validity of the FACT Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) questionnaire for assessing disease-related symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, David; Butt, Zeeshan; Kindler, Hedy Lee; Fuchs, Charles S; Bray, Sarah; Barlev, Arie; Oglesby, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Evaluate reliability and validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) questionnaire and its derivative FACT Hepatobiliary Symptom Indexes (FHSI-18 and FHSI-8) in people with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Self-reported questionnaire data from a randomized controlled Phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of conatumumab (AMG 655), ganitumab (AMG 479) or placebo combined with gemcitabine were evaluated. The following were assessed: internal consistency, using Cronbach's α; discriminant validity, comparing baseline patient-reported outcomes (PRO) scores across Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) levels; and ability to detect change, comparing change from baseline PRO score at each cycle across PS and tumour response groups. The analysis included 96 patients. All scale scores demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α > 0.7) and discriminant validity. Baseline scores were significantly poorer among patients with PS = 1 versus patients with PS = 0 (e.g. difference in FACT-Hep total score -17.27; p FACT-Hep total score -24.29; p FACT-Hep total score -12.58; p = 0.004). Changes on the FHSI-18 and FHSI-8 scales were similar in magnitude whether ECOG improved or worsened. FACT-Hep detects change and is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

  9. 76 FR 31619 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ..., 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Hotel..., makridessc@mail.nih.gov , Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Development of... Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive...

  10. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Portable e-Technology Diet and Physical Activity Tools for Consumers. Date: April... Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Blvd.,...

  11. 78 FR 15021 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The outcome of the evaluation will provide information to internal... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396... Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 4, 2013. Melanie J. Gray, Program...

  12. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Hur, Min Hee; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-03-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  13. Basic Facts of Breast Cancer in Korea in 2014: The 10-Year Overall Survival Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Hwa; Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Oh, Se Jeong; Lee, Seeyoun; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lim, Woosung; Hur, Min Hee

    2017-03-01

    We, the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS), present the facts and the trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2014. Data on the total number of newly diagnosed patients was obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, other data were collected from the KBCS online registry database, and the overall survival data of patients were updated from Statistics Korea. A total of 21,484 female patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014. The crude incidence rate and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in female patients, including carcinoma in situ, were 83.4 cases and 63.9 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. The ASR showed an annual increase of 6.1% from 1999 to 2014; however, although the increase of the ASR had slowed since 2008, the incidence rate itself continuously increased. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathological features changed accordingly. While breast-conserving surgery was mainly performed, the proportion of total mastectomy was slightly increased. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased rapidly. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all stages of breast cancer patients were 91.2% and 84.8%, respectively. The overall survival rate of Korean patients with breast cancer was extremely high, compared with other developed countries. Thus, we consider that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past decade. A nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  14. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  15. 75 FR 54161 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... grant applications. Place: Doubletree Hotel Bethesda (Formerly Holiday Inn Select), 8120 Wisconsin..., Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116... applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...

  16. 78 FR 3901 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, ] 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8135, Bethesda, MD...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville...

  17. 78 FR 16272 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8131, Bethesda.... Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120...

  18. 77 FR 30297 - National Cancer Institute; Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Repair and Damage Signaling Networks. Date: June 6, 2012. Time: 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd...

  19. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; The Early Detection Research Network: Clinical...: Lalita D. Palekar, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of...

  20. 75 FR 11896 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated... Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute...: Adriana Stoica, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review & Logistics Branch, Division of...

  1. 78 FR 44136 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnership Scientific Progress Reports SUMMARY... Institutes of Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for...

  2. The development of a Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) questionnaire to assess dermatologic symptoms associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (FACT-EGFRI-18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lynne I; Berg, Sara R; Gandhi, Mona; Hlubocky, Fay J; Webster, Kimberly; Aneja, Monika; Cella, David; Lacouture, Mario E

    2013-04-01

    Dermatologic toxicities from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are common, disrupt health-related quality of life (HRQL), and lead to dose reduction or discontinuation of potentially life-saving cancer therapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-EGFRI was developed to measure HRQL among patients receiving EGFRIs. The FACT-EGFRI was developed through the triangulation approach using the established functional assessment of chronic illness therapy method of patient questionnaire construction. This included literature review, qualitative data collection and analysis, and quantitative survey data collection on candidate items to identify the most important items related to EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities according to patients receiving EGFRIs and expert clinicians. Twelve expert clinicians and 20 patients were interviewed for the initial questionnaire development. Dermatologic symptoms associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors endorsed as high priority by both patients and oncologist experts were selected. The final version includes 18 items which assess the physical, emotional, social, and functional impact that skin, nail, and hair toxicities have on patients' HRQL. The FACT-EGFRI-18 measures the severity of patient-reported EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities and effects on HRQL and was developed using qualitative data from patients and expert clinicians. Further validation is underway. The FACT-EGFRI-18 may be useful for clinicians and researchers to quantify dermatologic toxicities from the patient perspective in standard clinical care, evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reduce dermatologic toxicities, and to guide treatment decision making.

  3. 77 FR 19024 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel Career Development (K08). Date: May 15, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda... Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural, Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive... applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852...

  4. 78 FR 30933 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...: Robert Bird, Ph.D., Chief, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities... Person: Timothy C. Meeker, MD, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed...

  5. Prognostic value of histone chaperone FACT subunits expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Kristopher; Fleyshman, Daria; Prendergast, Laura; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Gurova, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the underlying reasons for tumor aggressiveness, such as why some tumors grow slowly and locally, while others rapidly progress to a lethal metastatic disease, is still limited. This is especially critical in breast cancer (BrCa) due to its high prevalence and also due to the possibility that it can be detected early. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressors have been identified and are used in the prognosis and treatment of BrCa. However, even with these markers, the outcome within BrCa subtypes is highly variable. Chromatin organization has long been acknowledged as a factor that plays an important role in tumor progression, but molecular mechanisms defining chromatin dynamics are largely missing. We have recently found that histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) is overexpressed in ~18-20% of BrCa cases. FACT is elevated upon transformation of mammary epithelial cells and is essential for viability of tumor cells. BrCa cells with high FACT have a more aggressive transcriptional program than those with low FACT cells. Based on this we propose that FACT may be a marker of aggressive BrCa. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize the pattern of FACT expression in BrCa in relation to other molecular and clinical prognostic markers. We developed and tested an assay for the detection and quantitation of protein levels of both FACT subunits, SSRP1, and SPT16, in clinical samples. We compared the value of mRNA and protein as potential markers of disease aggressiveness using a large cohort of patients (n=1092). We demonstrated that only SSRP1 immunohistochemical staining is a reliable indicator of FACT levels in tumor samples. High SSRP1 correlated with known markers of poor prognosis, such as negative hormone receptor status, presence of Her2, high-grade tumors, and tumors of later clinical stage. At the same time, no strong correlation between SSRP1 expression and survival was detected when all samples were analyzed

  6. 77 FR 56215 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Cancer Target Discovery and Development Network.... Contact Person: Adriana Stoica, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review & Logistics Branch... Person: Thomas A. Winters, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review & Logistics Branch, Division...

  7. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  8. Cancer Snapshots: Facts and statistics for each cancer type or topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapshots provide key information on disease incidence and mortality, NCI funding trends, relevant research activities, and recent scientific advances related to specific types of cancer and on special populations and scientific topics.

  9. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional Annotation of Cancer Genomes Principal Investigator: William C. Hahn, M.D., Ph.D. The comprehensive characterization of cancer genomes has and will continue to provide an increasingly complete catalog of genetic alterations in specific cancers. However, most epithelial cancers harbor hundreds of genetic alterations as a consequence of genomic instability. Therefore, the functional consequences of the majority of mutations remain unclear.

  10. Breast cancer in pregnancy: an institutional experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquisett, Abraham Hernández; Vicent, Carmen Herrero; Gregori, Joaquín Gavilá; Zotano, Ángel Guerrero; Porta, Vicente Guillem; Simón, Amparo Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 12 months of delivery. Nowadays PABC can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy with good outcomes for both the mother and the fetus. Recent studies suggest that prognosis of women diagnosed during postpartum seems to be worse. In order to gain a better understanding of the PABC, we reviewed our centre’s experience. Patients and methods We assessed the clinicopathological parameters, evolution, and outcome of patients treated in the Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Oncología of Valencia, Spain, from October 1990 to October 2013, and compared the results of patients diagnosed during pregnancy (group ‘A’) and patients diagnosed within one year of delivery (group ‘B’). Of 12,000 cases of breast cancer registered in our database, 35 cases of PABC were identified. We included 11 patients in group ‘A’ and 24 in group ‘B’. Results In our group the median age was 35 years (range 29–42), of which ten (28%) patients had family history (first grade) of breast cancer, four patients were BRCA 1 mutation carriers. Axillary node compromise was found in 19 patients (53.5%), 24 patients were stage II or III at diagnosis (68.5%), 22 (62.8%) were ER positive, and nine (25.7%) were HER-2 positive. In group A (n = 11), five patients diagnosed before 18th week decided that a therapeutic abortion be performed before treatment, two patients were treated during pregnancy, one with chemotherapy without treatment associated complications during delivery. Four women diagnosed after 28th week decided to delay the treatment until delivery. After a follow up of 172 months, the relapse free survival (RFS) was 69% at five years and 45% at ten years. Overall survival (OS) at five years was 90.8% and 74.2% at ten years for all patients. For group ‘A’ OS was higher

  11. Highlights from the 2013 national cancer research institute conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Cancer research is a multifaceted endeavour that incorporates not only a myriad of techniques and specialties but also encompasses a huge range of disease types. The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK partnership comprising 21 charity and government funders of cancer research along with the Association of British Pharmaceutical Industry. Each year, the NCRI hosts the largest cancer meeting in the UK; bringing together members of the UK cancer research community, research leaders from around the world, health professionals, service users, research funders, and industry to discuss the latest findings in cancer research from a wide range of disciplines. The 2013 NCRI Conference attracted over 1700 delegates and 150 speakers from 15 different countries. The conference programme covered a large range of topic areas including prevention, screening, model systems, the provision of information, survivorship, and end-of-life care. This conference report gives an overview of the plenary sessions at the conference as well as highlights from the parallel sessions.

  12. The Impact of the Institute for Science Education, Federal Republic of Germany: Some Facts and Critical Remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The Institute for Science Education in the Federal Republic of Germany is a research institute with a national goal of promoting science education. The institute develops curriculum materials for biology, physics, and chemistry courses and improves science instruction. Article comments on the history of the institute and its role in society. (RB)

  13. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway.

  14. 75 FR 79010 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Special Emphasis Panel. SPORE in Glioma, Head and Neck, Lymphoma, Myeloid Leukemia, and Myeloma. Date... Tumor Cells. Date: March 17-18, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract.... peguesj@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Small Grants...

  15. 78 FR 69858 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... following agenda topics will be discussed: Proposed organizational change: DEA, Biomedical Cloud Technology, Optimizing Big Data to Advance Research, and Advocate and Organizational Engagement. Dated: November 15, 2013... is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Director's Consumer...

  16. 78 FR 64222 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Career and Training Development. Date: December...). Contact Person: Robert Bird, Ph.D., Chief, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, (Formerly Holiday...

  17. 75 FR 10295 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington, DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike.... Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Gerald... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8101, Bethesda, MD...

  18. 76 FR 42718 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    .... Time: 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington/DC Rockville, Hotel and Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20582. Contact Person... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8113, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  19. 77 FR 14026 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Zhiqiang Zou... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8050A, MSC 8329, Bethesda, MD...

  20. 76 FR 5597 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...D, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room...

  1. 77 FR 4052 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive....m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville, 1750... Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116...

  2. 75 FR 3242 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    .... Place: Washington DC North Hilton Hotel, 620 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD 20877. Contact Person... Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 7147, Bethesda, MD 20892-8329, 301-496.... Time: 7:45 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton...

  3. 75 FR 57473 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ....m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Alexandria Old Town..., Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH... evaluate contract proposals. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli...

  4. 78 FR 38355 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Peter J... Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9606 Medical Center Drive, 7W514, MSC 9750, Bethesda, MD 20892... evaluate grant applications. Place: Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD...

  5. New Hires at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-one people joined the facility in November and December 2013. The National Cancer Institute welcomes… Emily Boward Emad Darvishi Shuo Gu Sanath Kumar Janaka Robert Kortum Yasmin Lachir Jinbian Liu Yang Liu Eric Ramirez Salazar Brett Shelley Li Xia Jaeho Yoon

  6. Cognitive complaints in cancer: the French version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog),normative data from healthy population French FACT-Cog normative data

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Morel, Nastassja; Eustache, Francis; Joly, Florence; Giffard, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cancer patients often report cognitive changes after chemotherapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses these changes. The aims of the present study were (1) to establish normative data, and (2) to compare the scores of patients and healthy controls to assess whether or not the questionnaire is able to discriminate between these populations. The normative sample included 213 healthy parti...

  7. Psychosocial staffing at National Comprehensive Cancer Network member institutions: data from leading cancer centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshields, Teresa; Kracen, Amanda; Nanna, Shannon; Kimbro, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is comprised of 25 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers and arguably could thus set the standard for optimal psychosocial staffing for cancer centers; therefore, information was sought from NCCN Member Institutions about their current staffing for psychosocial services. These findings are put into perspective given the limited existing literature and consensus reports. The NCCN Best Practices Committee surveyed member institutions about their staffing for psychosocial services. The survey was administered electronically in the winter of 2012. The survey was completed by 20 cancer centers. Across institutions, case managers and mental health therapists, typically social workers, were utilized most frequently to provide psychosocial services (67% of full-time-equivalents (FTEs)), with other psychosocial professionals also represented but less consistently. Most psychosocial services are institutionally funded (ranging from 64 to 100%), although additional sources of support include fee for service and grant funding. Training of psychosocial providers is unevenly distributed across responding sites, ranging from 92% of institutions having training programs for psychiatrists to 36% having training programs for mental health therapists. There was variability among the institutions in terms of patient volume, psychosocial services provided, and psychosocial staff employed. As accreditation standards are implemented that provide impetus for psychosocial services in oncology, it is hoped that greater clarity will develop concerning staffing for psychosocial services and uptake of these services by patients with cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Gastrointestinal Tumor Board: An Evolving Experience in Tehran Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Haddad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An

  9. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-09-08

    Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be

  10. Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics at the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology', National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: origins, events, facts, comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan'shina, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The titled institute is the only historical example in Ukraine of a scientific school maintaining research continuity for over 80 years already. Today, it seems appropriate to remember the origins, to reflect on where this longevity came from, and to take a look at numerous behind-the-scenes legends and fiction stories that have grown around the institute.

  11. Understanding and reducing obstacles in a collaboration between a minority institution and a cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; O'Connell, Mary; Löest, Helena; Anderson, Jennifer; Westcott, Rick

    2013-11-01

    Reducing the cancer incidence and mortality rates of underserved populations will require multidisciplinary efforts involving diverse teams of investigators. We describe a collaborative program between a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center and a minority-serving institution. The organizations worked together to discover institutional and cultural barriers and facilitators to productive collaboration.

  12. A Rasch and factor analysis of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Peter J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G has been validated few studies have explored the factor structure of the instrument, in particular using non-sample dependent measurement techniques, such as Rasch Models. Furthermore, few studies have explored the relationship between item fit to the Rasch Model and clinical utility. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensionality and measurement properties of the FACT-G with Rasch Models and Factor analysis. Methods A factor analysis and Rasch analysis (Partial Credit Model was carried out on the FACT-G completed by a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (n = 465. For the Rasch analysis item fit (infit mean squares ≥ 1.30, dimensionality and item invariance were assessed. The impact of removing misfitting items on the clinical utility of the subscales and FACT-G total scale was also assessed. Results The factor analysis demonstrated a four factor structure of the FACT-G which broadly corresponded to the four subscales of the instrument. Internal consistency for these four scales was very good (Cronbach's alpha 0.72 – 0.85. The Rasch analysis demonstrated that each of the subscales and the FACT-G total scale had misfitting items (infit means square ≥ 1.30. All these scales with the exception of the Social & Family Well-being Scale (SFWB were unidimensional. When misfitting items were removed, the effect sizes and the clinical utility of the instrument were maintained for the subscales and the total FACT-G scores. Conclusion The results of the traditional factor analysis and Rasch analysis of the FACT-G broadly agreed. Caution should be exercised when utilising the Social & Family Well-being scale and further work is required to determine whether this scale is best represented by two factors. Additionally, removing misfitting items from scales should be performed alongside an assessment of the impact on clinical utility.

  13. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  14. Koch Institute Symposium on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adam; Joshi, Nikhil S; Szeto, Gregory L; Zhu, Eric; Eisen, Herman N; Irvine, Darrell J

    2013-10-01

    The 12(th) annual summer symposium of The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT was held in Cambridge, MA, on June 14(th), 1023. The symposium entitled "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy" focused on recent advances in preclinical research in basic immunology and biomedical engineering, and their clinical application in cancer therapies. The day-long gathering also provided a forum for discussion and potential collaborations between engineers and clinical investigators. The major topics presented include: (i) enhancement of adoptive cell therapy by engineering to improve the ability and functionality of T-cells against tumor cells; (ii) current therapies using protein and antibody therapeutics to modulate endogenous anti-tumor immunity; and (iii) new technologies to identify molecular targets and assess therapeutic efficacy, and devices to control and target drug delivery more effectively and efficiently.

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  16. Spatial analyses identify the geographic source of patients at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Chih; Kanarek, Norma; Fox, Michael G; Guseynova, Alla; Crow, Shirley; Piantadosi, Steven

    2010-02-01

    We examined the geographic distribution of patients to better understand the service area of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a designated National Cancer Institute (NCI) comprehensive cancer center located in an urban center. Like most NCI cancer centers, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center serves a population beyond city limits. Urban cancer centers are expected to serve their immediate neighborhoods and to address disparities in access to specialty care. Our purpose was to learn the extent and nature of the cancer center service area. Statistical clustering of patient residence in the continental United States was assessed for all patients and by gender, cancer site, and race using SaTScan. Primary clusters detected for all cases and demographically and tumor-defined subpopulations were centered at Baltimore City and consisted of adjacent counties in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York, and the District of Columbia. Primary clusters varied in size by race, gender, and cancer site. Spatial analysis can provide insights into the populations served by urban cancer centers, assess centers' performance relative to their communities, and aid in developing a cancer center business plan that recognizes strengths, regional utility, and referral patterns. Today, 62 NCI cancer centers serve a quarter of the U.S. population in their immediate communities. From the Baltimore experience, we might project that the population served by these centers is actually more extensive and varies by patient characteristics, cancer site, and probably cancer center services offered.

  17. The FACT-G7: a rapid version of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G) for monitoring symptoms and concerns in oncology practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, B; Pearman, T; Lis, C G; Beaumont, J L; Cella, D

    2013-04-01

    Health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) assessments in research and clinical oncology settings are increasingly important. HRQOL instruments need to be rapid and still maintain the ability to capture the most relevant patient issues in a valid and reliable manner. The current study develops and validates the FACT-G7, a rapid version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Oncology patients with advanced cancer (N = 533) from 11 diseases sites ranked the symptoms and concerns they viewed as 'the very most important' when undergoing cancer treatment, completed the FACT-G, and additional HRQOL measures. Oncology patients' scores were referenced across a general US population sample (N = 2000). We selected the highest priority cancer-related symptoms and concerns endorsed by patients for inclusion in the FACT-G7. Fatigue and ability to enjoy life were ranked the most highly. The results provide preliminary support for the FACT-G7's internal consistency reliability (α = 0.74) and validity as evidenced by moderate-to-strong relationships with expected criteria. The references for the general population are summarized. The FACT-G7 can be used to assess top-rated symptoms and concerns for a broad spectrum of advanced cancers in clinical practice and research.

  18. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  19. Comparison of the EORTC STO-22 and the FACT-Ga quality of life questionnaires for patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Aaron; Fu, Terence; Popovic, Marko; Chow, Edward; Cella, David; Wong, C Shun; Lam, Henry; Pulenzas, Natalie; Lechner, Breanne; Vuong, Sherlyn; Ganesh, Vithusha; Bottomley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This review compares the development, characteristics, validity, and reliability of two well-known quality of life (QOL) assessment tools used in patients with gastric cancer: the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach (EORTC QLQ-STO22) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Gastric (FACT-Ga). A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL (inception to April 2015) to identify studies that discussed the development, characteristics, validity and reliability of the EORTC QLQ-STO22 or the FACT-Ga. The QLQ-STO22 was developed with collaboration with patients, healthcare professionals and literature review and was mainly field tested in European countries. Conversely, items on the FACT-Ga were generated from interviews with patients and healthcare professionals concurrently in North America and Asia. While both modules involve a 7-day recall period and use Likert scales, the QLQ-STO22 and FACT-Ga differ in terms of QOL domain focus, quantity and presentation of items, response options, and scoring. However, both tools show good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change and construct validity. In addition, both questionnaires have been internationally validated within a large sample of patients undergoing a variety of treatments, thus demonstrating their cross-cultural applicability. The EORTC QLQ-STO22 and FACT-Ga are both valid and reliable tools with unique strengths and weaknesses. Selection between instruments should consider specific patient characteristics and goals of the study.

  20. Drug Facts

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  1. Drug Facts

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  2. Drug Facts

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  3. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  4. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  5. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  6. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  7. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  8. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Novel Oncogenes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread recurrent copy number alterations are observed across the majority of human cancers, yet the specific targets of such amplified or deleted regions remain undefined. Here, the CTD2 Center at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute took a systematic approach using cDNA overexpression screening to identify and validate oncogenes residing in such amplified regions. In representative examples, these experiments have identified the adaptor proteins CRKL, GAB2, FRS2 and the TLOC and SKIL proteins as novel amplified oncogenes.

  9. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  10. Prevalence of local recurrence of colorectal cancer at the Iranian Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omranipour, Ramesh; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah; Safavi, Farinaz

    2014-01-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made in the management of colorectal cancer in terms of neoadjuvant modalities, surgical techniques and adjuvant therapies, the recurrence of tumors remains an enigmatic complication in patients. A better understanding of colorectal cancer and of factors that lead to recurrence of disease can provide helpful information for designing more effective screening and surveillance methods. To investigate the factors that may lead to local recurrence of colorectal cancers. The current retrospective case study evaluated 617 patients admitted to the Iranian Cancer Institute (the largest referral cancer center in the country) from 1995 to 2009 with confirmed colorectal cancer. Patients with distant metastasis, or with pathology other than adenocarcinoma and no follow-up, were excluded (175 patients). The remainder (442) included 294 (66.5%) with rectal cancer and 148 (33.5%) with colon cancer. The median duration of follow-up was 26 months. The total rate of recurrence was 17.4%, comprising 19.6% and 16.3% recurrence rates in colon and rectal cancer, respectively. Recurrence of colorectal cancer was significantly correlated to tumor grade (p<0.008).

  11. 75 FR 11894 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    .... Agenda: Welcome, Overview of the Cancer Genome Atlas, Expert Panel on the Cancer Genome Atlas. Place..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology...

  12. Cancer Facts and Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activ- ity. CA Cancer J Clin . 2012;62(1):30-67. 113.  Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass ...

  13. CPTAC Establishes Formal Relationships with Two Academic Institutions in Taiwan - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has entered into memorandum of understandings (MOUs) with Chang Gung University and Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan.

  14. Breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain: fact, fiction, or abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Caraway, David L; Benyamin, Ramsin M

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of chronic non-cancer pain with opioid therapy has escalated in recent years, resulting in exploding therapeutic use and misuse of prescription opioids and multiple adverse drug events. Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain experienced by individuals who have relatively stable and adequately controlled baseline cancer pain. Further, the definition of breakthrough pain, prevalence, characteristics, implications, and treatment modalities have been extensively described for chronic cancer pain. However, the literature for breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain including its terminology, prevalence, relevance, characteristics, and treatments, have been poorly described and continue to be debated. The philosophy of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain raises multiple issues leading almost all patients to be on high dose long-acting opioids, followed by supplementing with short-acting drugs, instead of treating the patients with only short-acting drugs as required. Consequently, the subject of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain is looked at with suspicion due to the lack of evidence and inherent bias associated with its evaluation, followed by escalating use and abuse of opioids. Multiple issues related to the concept of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain evolve around extensive use, overuse, misuse, and abuse of opioids. In the era of eliminating opioids or significantly curtailing their use to only appropriate indications, the concept of breakthrough pain raises multiple questions without any scientific evidence. This review illustrates that there is no significant evidence for any type of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain based on available literature, methodology utilized, and response to opioids in chronic non-cancer pain. The advocacy for increased usage of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain dates back to the liberalization of laws governing opioid prescription for the treatment

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  16. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  17. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  18. Cancer immunotherapy out of the gate: the 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute International Immunotherapy Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontonoz, Matthew; Gee, Connie E

    2015-05-01

    The 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute (CRI) International Immunotherapy Symposium was held from October 5-8, 2014, in New York City. Titled "Cancer Immunotherapy: Out of the Gate," the symposium began with a Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium satellite meeting focused on issues in immunotherapy drug development, followed by five speaker sessions and a poster session devoted to basic and clinical cancer immunology research. The second annual William B. Coley lecture was delivered by Lieping Chen, one of the four recipients of the 2014 William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Tumor Immunology; the other three recipients were Gordon Freeman, Tasuku Honjo, and Arlene Sharpe. Prominent themes of the conference were the use of genomic technologies to identify neoantigens and the emergence of new immune modulatory molecules, beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, as new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy.

  19. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  20. Korean version of the functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT)-vanderbilt cystectomy index (VCI): translation and linguistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn Ey; Kim, Sung Han; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Seong Jin; Oh, Seung June; Cookson, Michael S; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2014-11-30

    To develop a Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Vanderbilt Cystectomy Index (VCI) from the original English version, with subsequent linguistic validation in Korean patients who underwent radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Translation and linguistic validation were carried out between January and May of 2013, which consisted of the following stages:(1) permission for translation;(2) forward translation;(3) reconciliation;(4) backward translation;(5) cognitive debriefing and(6) final proof-reading. During the forward translation phases,word as such as "bother","spend time", "support", "coping" and "concern" were adjusted to be more comprehensible to the target population. There conciled Korean version was accepted without certain objections because the original version and the backward translation were almost congruent except for minor differences in a subset of questions. The translation was tested using 5 Korean-speaking subjects. The subjects took an average of 8.2 minutes to complete the questionnaire, without difficulty and found the questionnaire clear and easy to understand. The panel discussed each of the issues raised by subjects and most terms were judged by the panel as to not require further changes because the overall comprehension levels were relatively high and because the translated terms were accurately rendered in the target languages. This report has demonstrated that despite translation difficulties, the linguistic validation of the FACT-VCI in the Korean language was successful. The next step is to assess the psychometric properties of the Korean version of FACT-VCI.

  1. Prognostic Factors and Recurrence in Breast Cancer: Experience at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Stankov, A.; J. E. Bargallo-Rocha; A. Ñamendys-Silva Silvio; Ramirez, M. T.; Stankova-Ninova, K.; Meneses-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic and predictive factors that relate to locoregional or distant recurrences in breast cancer patients who have been treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico. Multivariate, time-dependent Cox regression analyses indicate that the pN status (positive versus negative lymph node; P = 0.003; HR (hazard ratio), 3.47; CI (confidence interval), 1.52–7.91) and the pathological complete response of the patient to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (...

  2. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Resistance Mechanisms | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to targeted therapy is emerging as a bottleneck to achieving durable drug responses in cancer. The goal of the CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute is to identify mechanisms of resistance for both existing therapeutics as well as for emerging targets even prior to the identification of lead compounds. They aim to use this information to inform combinatorial treatments. In representative examples they have found that YAP1 leads to resistance after KRAS targeting and that PRKACA mediates resistance to HER2 therapy.

  3. Enrollment and Racial Disparities in National Cancer Institute Cancer Treatment Clinical Trials in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L.; Fortune-Britt, Alice G.; Rao, Shangbang; Tyree, Seth D.; Godley, Paul A.; Carpenter, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials provide access to innovative, quality cancer treatment. Simultaneously, broad access helps ensure trial inclusion of heterogeneous patient populations, which improves generalizability of findings and development of interventions that are effective for diverse populations. We provide updated data describing enrollment into cancer treatment trials in North Carolina. Methods For 1996 to 2009, person-level data regarding cancer clinical trial enrollment and cancer incidence were obtained from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Enrollment rates were estimated as the ratio of trial enrollment to cancer incidence for race, gender, and year for each county, Area Health Education Center (AHEC) region, and the state overall. Enrollment rates for common cancers are presented. Results From 1996 to 2009, North Carolina NCI treatment trial enrollment rate was 2.4% and 2.2% for whites and minorities, respectively. From 2007 to 2009, rates were 3.8% for white females, 3.5% for minority females, 1.3% for white men, and 1.0% for minority men, with greater enrollment among more urban populations (2.4%) than the most rural populations (1.5%). Limitations This study is limited to NCI-sponsored treatment trials in North Carolina. Policies governing collection of original data necessitate a delay in data availability. Conclusions Effort is needed to ensure trial access and enrollment among all North Carolina populations. Specifically, we identified racial and gender disparities, particularly for certain cancers (e.g., breast). Programs in North Carolina and across the nation can use the methods we employ to assess their success in broadening clinical trials enrollment for diverse populations. PMID:26763244

  4. Cognitive complaints in cancer: The French version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog), normative data from a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Morel, Nastassja; Eustache, Francis; Joly, Florence; Giffard, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients often report cognitive changes after chemotherapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses these changes. The aims of the present study were (1) to establish normative data, and (2) to compare the scores of patients and healthy controls to assess whether or not the questionnaire is able to discriminate between these populations. The normative sample included 213 healthy participants. The patient group included 63 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, who were compared to a subsample of 63 matched healthy controls. The questionnaire had good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas = .74-.91). The oldest patients had significantly more cognitive complaints (p < .001). Cognitive complaints were significantly related with Trail Making Test scores (p < .001). Furthermore, the FACT-Cog subscales correlated significantly with anxiety and depression. Patients had more complaints than matched controls on the subscales Perceived Cognitive Impairments (p = .01), Impact on Quality of Life (p = .001) and Perceived Cognitive Abilities (p = .027). The reference values from the healthy population reported here could be used for comparison with the values measured in French-speaking cancer patients. The values provide a benchmark against which clinicians can evaluate the impact of the disease and/or the treatments on cognitive complaints and help to improve quality of life by providing appropriate care.

  5. Malaria Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria in ... to determine definitively which species are involved. Other Facts Five times, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or ...

  6. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Facts Here you can find valuable information about organs ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  7. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish-brown ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  8. Liver Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  9. Consensus report of the national cancer institute clinical trials planning meeting on pancreas cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Philip A; Mooney, Margaret; Jaffe, Deborah; Eckhardt, Gail; Moore, Malcolm; Meropol, Neal; Emens, Leisha; O'Reilly, Eileen; Korc, Murray; Ellis, Lee; Benedetti, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, Mace; Willett, Christopher; Tempero, Margaret; Lowy, Andrew; Abbruzzese, James; Simeone, Diane; Hingorani, Sunil; Berlin, Jordan; Tepper, Joel

    2009-11-20

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality, despite significant improvements in diagnostic imaging and operative mortality rates. The 5-year survival rate remains less than 5% because of microscopic or gross metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. The Clinical Trials Planning Meeting in pancreatic cancer was convened by the National Cancer Institute's Gastrointestinal Cancer Steering Committee to discuss the integration of basic and clinical knowledge in the design of clinical trials in PDAC. Major emphasis was placed on the enhancement of research to identify and validate the relevant targets and molecular pathways in PDAC, cancer stem cells, and the microenvironment. Emphasis was also placed on developing rational combinations of targeted agents and the development of predictive biomarkers to assist selection of patient subsets. The development of preclinical tumor models that are better predictive of human PDAC must be supported with wider availability to the research community. Phase III clinical trials should be implemented only if there is a meaningful clinical signal of efficacy and safety in the phase II setting. The emphasis must therefore be on performing well-designed phase II studies with uniform sets of basic entry and evaluation criteria with survival as a primary endpoint. Patients with either metastatic or locally advanced PDAC must be studied separately.

  10. Postpartum remodeling, lactation, and breast cancer risk: summary of a National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Balkam, Jane J; Eliassen, A Heather; Hassiotou, Foteini; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Michels, Karin B; Palmer, Julie R; Schedin, Pepper; Stuebe, Alison M; Watson, Christine J; Sherman, Mark E

    2013-02-06

    The pregnancy-lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes.

  11. Travel Burden and Clinical Profile of Cancer Patients Admitted to the Cancer Institute of Iran in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Ardestani, Atefeh; Hadji, Maryam; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Kazemian, Ali; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah; Aghili, Mahdi; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-03-01

    Burden of cancer is increasing in developing countries, where healthcare infrastructures and resources are limited. Evaluating the pattern of care would provide evidence for planning and improvement of the situation. We studied the pattern of residential place and clinical information of cancer patients who were admitted to the Cancer Institute of Iran from January 1, to May 31, 2012. We studied 1,705 consecutive cancer patients admitted to the Cancer Institute in the study period. The most common cancers were breast (29.2%), colorectal (9.0%), stomach (8.3%), head & neck (8.0%) and esophageal (3.8%) cancers. Radiotherapy was the main treatment (52.1%) followed by chemotherapy (43.8%) and surgery (29.1%). We found that 60% of the patients presented in the loco-regional or advanced stages. About 35% of patients travelled from other provinces mainly from Mazandaran (13.4%), Lorestan (10.6%), Zanjan (7.8%) and Ghazvin (6.6%). On average, the cancer patients travelled about 455 kilometers to receive care in the cancer institute. We found more than 38% patients who were referred from other provinces had an early stage tumor. Establishment of comprehensive cancer centers in different geographical regions and implementation of a proper referral system for advanced cancer patients is needed to improve the patient outcomes and mitigate the burden of travel of patients for cancer care.

  12. Chemoirradiation for glioblastoma multiforme: the national cancer institute experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ho

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM is surgery followed by radiation (RT and temozolomide (TMZ. While there is variability in survival based on several established prognostic factors, the prognostic utility of other factors such as tumor size and location are not well established. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The charts of ninety two patients with GBM treated with RT at the National Cancer Institute (NCI between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Most patients received RT with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. Topographic locations were classified using preoperative imaging. Gross tumor volumes were contoured using treatment planning systems utilizing both pre-operative and post-operative MR imaging. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 18.7 months, the median overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS for all patients was 17.9 and 7.6 months. Patients with the smallest tumors had a median OS of 52.3 months compared to 16.3 months among patients with the largest tumors, P = 0.006. The patients who received bevacizumab after recurrence had a median OS of 23.3 months, compared to 16.3 months in patients who did not receive it, P = 0.0284. The median PFS and OS in patients with periventricular tumors was 5.7 and 17.5 months, versus 8.9 and 23.3 months in patients with non-periventricular tumors, P = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Survival in our cohort was comparable to the outcome of the defining EORTC-NCIC trial establishing the use of RT+TMZ. This study also identifies several potential prognostic factors that may be useful in stratifying patients.

  13. 78 FR 50068 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... 21701 and their Web site is: http://ncifrederick.cancer.gov/About/Atrf/Default.aspx . Directions/Parking... Laboratory for Cancer Research Strategic Plan; Proposed Organizational Change: Division of Extramural...

  14. Physical function metric over measure: An illustration with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron J; Schalet, Benjamin D; Rutsohn, Joshua; Jensen, Roxanne E; Cella, David

    2017-09-08

    Measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is becoming an integral component of quality improvement initiatives, clinical care, and research studies in cancer, including comparative effectiveness research. However, the number of PROs limits comparability across studies. Herein, the authors attempted to link the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Physical Well-Being (FACT-G PWB) subscale with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) calibrated item bank. The also sought to augment a subset of the conceptually most similar FACT-G PWB items with PROMIS PF items to improve the linking. Baseline data from 5506 participants in the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study were used to identify the optimal items for linking FACT-G PWB with PROMIS PF. A mixed methods approach identified the optimal items for creating the 5-item FACT/PROMIS-PF5 scale. Both the linked and augmented relationships were cross-validated using the follow-up MY-Health data. A 5-item FACT-G PWB item subset was found to be optimal for linking with PROMIS PF. In addition, a 2-item subset, including only items that were conceptually very similar to the PROMIS item bank content, were augmented with 3 PROMIS PF items. This new FACT/PROMIS-PF5 provided superior score recovery. The PROMIS PF metric allows for the evaluation of the extent to which similar questionnaires can be linked and therefore expressed on the same metric. These results allow for the aggregation of existing data and provide an optimal measure for future studies wishing to use the FACT yet also report on the PROMIS PF metric. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. 75 FR 42453 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    .... Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: The Future of Cancer Research: Accelerating Scientific Innovation. Place... language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below... Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research;...

  16. Complications in Neck Dissection 10 years ex-perience with 268 cases in the Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. OSKOUI

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available Immediate and late post operative complications or radical Neck Dissection were discussed. Preventive measures and the treatment of each were mentioned briefly. Our 10 years experience with complications or neck dissection in the Cancer Institute was presented.

  17. 78 FR 57400 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...: Biomedical Cloud Technology; Electronic Health Records; Advocate and Organizational Engagement; and Proposed Organizational Change: Division of Extramural Activities. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31,...

  18. 78 FR 19496 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; The National Cancer Institute (NCI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SmokefreeTXT Program Evaluation SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section... submitted ] to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the...

  19. Between prevention and therapy: Gio Batta Gori and the National Cancer Institute's Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme, 1974-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, David

    2012-10-01

    This paper explores the origins of the Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme (DNCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and its fate under its first director, Gio Batta Gori. The DNCP is used to explore the emergence of federal support for research on diet, nutrition and cancer following the 1971 Cancer Act, the complex relations between cancer prevention and therapeutics in the NCI during the 1970s, the broader politics around diet, nutrition and cancer during that decade, and their relations to Senator George McGovern's select committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. It also provides a window onto the debates and struggles over whether NCI research should be funded by contracts or grants, the nature of the patronage system within the federal cancer research agency, how a director, Gio Gori, lost patronage within that system and how a tightening of the budget for cancer research in the mid-to-late 1970s affected the DNCP.

  20. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  1. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  2. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  3. 78 FR 4422 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Prevention and Etiology. Date: February 27, 2013. Time: 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and...

  4. 78 FR 59362 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Boulevard, Gaithersburg, MD 20878. Contact Person: Caron A. Lyman, Ph.D., Chief, Research Programs Review... B: Exploratory Grants. Date: November 18, 2013. Time: 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research;...

  5. Facts about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Degeneration (AMD) > Facts About Age-Related Macular Degeneration Facts About Age-Related Macular Degeneration This information was ... an Eye Care Professional Last Reviewed: September 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis or abdomen (belly) Bloating in the abdomen Urinary urgency (needing to pee right away) Urinary frequency (having ... pelvis or abdomen (belly) Bloating in the abdomen Urinary urgency (needing to pee right away) Urinary frequency (having ...

  7. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown to participate in their development. These include lichen planus, an inflammatory disease of the oral soft ... at an uncontrolled rate, is unable to repair DNA damage within itself, or refuses to self destruct ...

  8. Validation of the FACT-B+4-UL questionnaire and exploration of its predictive value in women submitted to surgery for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Ortega, Juan Alfonso; Millán Gómez, Ana Pilar; Ribeiro González, Marisa; Martínez Piró, Pilar; Jiménez Anula, Juan; Sánchez Andújar, María Belén

    2017-06-21

    The early detection of upper limb complications is important in women operated on for breast cancer. The "FACT-B+4-UL" questionnaire, a specific variant of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) is available among others to measure the upper limb function. The Spanish version of the upper limb subscale of the FACT-B+4 was validated in a prospective cohort of 201 women operated on for breast cancer (factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were determined). Its predictive capacity of subsequent lymphoedema and other complications in the upper limb was explored using logistic regression. This subscale is unifactorial and has a great internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.87), its test-retest reliability and construct validity are strong (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.986; Pearson's R with "Quick DASH": 0.81) as is its sensitivity to change. It didn't predict the onset of lymphedema. Its predictive capacity for other upper limb complications is low. FACT-B+4-UL is useful in measuring upper limb disability in women surgically treated for breast cancer; but it does not predict the onset of lymphoedema and its predictive capacity for others complications in the upper limb is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of ... to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  11. Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets are available in both English and Spanish and can be downloaded for free. Currently available ... Antiviral Medications to Treat or Prevent Influenza (the Flu) PDF | Espanol PDF Apremilast (Otezla®) PDF | Espanol PDF ...

  12. Ferret facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This update functions to inform cooperators on the latest, most recent facts on the 1994 Montana Black-footed Ferret Reintroduction. This is a weekly update,...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved One Have a Drug Use Problem? Signs of Drug Use and Addiction How Does Drug Use Become Addiction? Addiction Risk ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  15. A clinicoepidemiological study of esophageal cancer patients at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumaya Ezzat; Hisham El Hossieny; Mohamed Abd Alla; Azza Nasr; Nagwan Anter; Ahmed Adel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the clinicoepidemiological characteristics of esopha-geal cancer patients, (2) analyze the prognostic factors determining treatment failure and survival, and (3) evaluate the results of various treatment modalities for locoregional and disseminated disease and their ef ect on disease-free survival and overal survival (OS). Methods Clinicoepidemiological retrospective data from 81 esophageal cancer patients treated at the Na-tional Cancer Institute of Cairo between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Results The study showed that patients with esophageal cancer commonly present with local y advanced disease (87.7% had T-stage 3 and 12.3% had T-stage 4). There was a significant correlation between surgery and survival; patients who received radical surgery and postoperative radiation had a better median survival than patients who received radical radiotherapy (20 months vs. 16 months, respectively; P = 0.04). There was also a significant statistical correlation between radical concomitant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and pal iative treatment. Patients who received radical NCRT had a better median survival than patients who received pal-liative radiotherapy (16 months vs. 10 months, respectively; P = 0.001). The median fol ow-up period for al patients was 7 months. The median OS of the whole group was 12 months. The OS after 1 and 2 years was 57.8% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion High-dose NCRT is an acceptable alternative for patients unfit for surgery or with inoperable disease. High-dose radiation is more ef ective than low-dose radiation in terms of local control, time to relapse, and OS. Further study using a larger series of patients and introducing new treatment protocols is necessary for a final evaluation.

  16. Mapping the FACT-P to the preference-based EQ-5D questionnaire in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaltsa, Konstantina; Longworth, Louise; Ivanescu, Cristina; Phung, De; Holmstrom, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To develop a mapping algorithm for estimating EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire values from the prostate cancer-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instrument Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) instrument. The EQ-5D questionnaire and FACT-P instrument data were collected for a subset of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. We compared three statistical techniques to estimate patients' EQ-5D questionnaire index scores determined by using the UK tariff: 1) generalized estimating equations, 2) two-part model combining logistic regression and generalized estimating equation, and 3) separate mapping algorithms for patients with poor health defined as a FACT-P score of 76 or less (group-specific model). Four different sets of explanatory variables were compared. The models were cross-validated by using a 10-fold in-sample cross-validation. Values for both instruments were available for 236 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The group-specific model including the FACT-P subscale scores and baseline variables had the best predictive performance with R(2) 0.718, root mean square error 0.162, and mean absolute error 0.117. The two-part model and the generalized estimating equation model including the FACT-P subdomain scores and baseline variables also had good predictive performance. The developed algorithms for mapping the FACT-P instrument to the EQ-5D questionnaire enable the estimation of preference-based health-related quality-of-life scores for use in cost-effectiveness analyses when directly elicited EQ-5D questionnaire data are missing. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development, characteristics and validity of the EORTC QLQ-PR25 and the FACT-P for assessment of quality of life in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dominic; Popovic, Marko; Chow, Edward; Cella, David; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Lam, Henry; Nguyen, Jasmine; Di Giovanni, Julia; Pulenzas, Natalie; Bedard, Gillian; Bottomley, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to compare and contrast the development, characteristics and validity of two widely used quality of life assessment tools in patients with prostate cancers: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-PR25) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACT-P). Both questionnaires present several strengths as well as some limitations in measuring the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Each tool may be selected accordingly based on study design and needs.

  18. Translation and validation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) Version 4 quality of life instrument into traditional Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A K L; Chang, C H; Tai, J W M; Eremenco, S; Liang, R; Lie, A K W; Fong, D Y T; Lau, C M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a culturally sensitive instrument to assess quality of life (QOL) of patients in international oncology clinical trials has been well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the traditional Chinese translation (TCHI) of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) Version 4. The FACT-BMT consists of the FACT-General and treatment-specific concerns of bone marrow transplantation. The Chinese translation follows the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) translation methodology. Bilingual teams from the United States and Hong Kong reviewed the translation to develop a provisional TCHI FACT-BMT, which was then pre-tested by interviewing 20 native Chinese-speaking BMT patients in Hong Kong. The pre-test results indicated good content coverage and overall comprehensibility. A refined translation, taking into account patient comments, was validated by 134 BMT patients in Hong Kong. The results indicated the high internal consistency of the TCHI FACT-BMT scales, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.71 (emotional well-being) to 0.92 (FACT-BMT total). The FACT-BMT also demonstrated good construct validity when correlated with SF-36 Health Survey scales. The QOL of Chinese BMT patients can now be evaluated using a well-validated international QOL instrument in their own language.

  19. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  20. 75 FR 26968 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... grant applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Innovative Technology Development. Date: June 23-24, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to... applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852...

  1. 76 FR 81952 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... 24-25, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton...., Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramual Activities, National Cancer... evaluate grant applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli...

  2. 76 FR 5595 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    .... Place: Lorien Hotel & Spa, 1600 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Contact Person: Marvin L. Salin, PhD... Clinical Automated Multiplex Affinity Capture Technology for Detecting Low Abundance Cancer-Related... proposals. Place: Lorien Hotel & Spa, 1600 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Contact Person: Marvin L...

  3. Snack, Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The American diet has undergone substantial changes, a fact that has negatively impacted the dental health of children. Primary prevention is the ideal method to address the current increased incidence of tooth decay. Educating kids, and their parents, about the qualities of snacks as well as the role of frequency of snacking could help to reduce…

  4. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  5. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to Navigation Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  6. Comparison of the FACT-C, EORTC QLQ-CR38, and QLQ-CR29 quality of life questionnaires for patients with colorectal cancer: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Vithusha; Agarwal, Arnav; Popovic, Marko; Cella, David; McDonald, Rachel; Vuong, Sherlyn; Lam, Henry; Rowbottom, Leigha; Chan, Stephanie; Barakat, Tasneem; DeAngelis, Carlo; Borean, Michael; Chow, Edward; Bottomley, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare the development, characteristics, validity, and reliability of three widely used quality of life (QOL) assessment tools used in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients: the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Colorectal Cancer Module (QLQ-CR38) and its successor, the QLQ-CR29. A literature search was conducted using Ovid EMBASE and EMBASE Classic (1996-2015 Week 39), Ovid MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE (1996 September Week 4 2015), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to August 2015) to identify studies that discussed the FACT-C, EORTC QLQ-CR38, and QLQ-CR29 including, but not limited to, their development, characteristics, validity, and reliability. The FACT-C consists of 36 items, presented on a 5-point Likert scale, in four domains of well-being (physical, emotional, social, and functional), and the Colorectal Cancer Subscale (CCS). The physical and social well-being scales showed reasonable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient > 60) in all studied populations. The EORTC QLQ-CR38 (38 items) and the QLQ-CR29 (29 items) are implemented in conjunction with the core QLQ-C30 (30 items); all are presented in 4-point Likert scales. Seven scales in the QLQ-CR38 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient > 0.70). In the QLQ-CR29, three scales had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of less than 0.70. The FACT-C, QLQ-CR38, and QLQ-CR29 have been extensively validated. However, analysis of their characteristics, validity, and reliability suggest differing suitability in assessing QOL in specific clinical situations.

  7. Cancer outcomes research in a rural area: a multi-institution partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Almon, Lyn; Bayakly, Rana; Butler, Susan; Crosby, Carol; DiIorio, Colleen; Ekwueme, Donatus; Fletcher, Diane; Fowler, John; Gillespie, Theresa; Glanz, Karen; Hall, Ingrid; Lee, Judith; Liff, Jonathan; Lipscomb, Joseph; Pollack, Lori A; Richardson, Lisa C; Roberts, Phillip; Steenland, Kyle; Ward, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Whereas, most cancer research data come from high-profile academic centers, little is known about the outcomes of cancer care in rural communities. We summarize the experience of building a multi-institution partnership to develop a cancer outcomes research infrastructure in Southwest Georgia (SWGA), a primarily rural 33-county area with over 700,000 residents. The partnership includes eight institutions: the Emory University in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Georgia Comprehensive Center Registry (the Registry), the Southwest Georgia Cancer Coalition (the Coalition), and the four community cancer centers located within the SWGA region. The practical application of the partnership model, its organizational structure, and lessons learned are presented using two specific examples: a study evaluating treatment decisions and quality of life among prostate cancer patients, and a study of treatment discontinuation among prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer patients. Our partnership model allowed us to (1) use the Coalition as a link between Atlanta-based researchers and local community; (2) collaborate with the area cancer centers on day-to-day study activities; (3) involve the Registry personnel and resources to identify eligible cancer cases and to perform data collection; and (4) raise community awareness and sense of study ownership through media announcements organized by the Coalition. All of the above activities were performed in consultation with the funding institution (CDC) and its project directors who oversee several other studies addressing similar research questions throughout the country. Our partnership model may provide a useful framework for cancer outcomes research projects in rural communities.

  8. Mapping FACT-P to EQ-5D in a large cross-sectional study of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, J; Hamberg, P; Ford, D; Price, P Wheatley; Spencer, M; Dass, R N

    2015-03-01

    To construct a model to predict preference-adjusted EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) health utilities for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) using the disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measure, functional assessment of cancer therapy-prostate (FACT-P). HRQoL data were collected from patients with mCRPC who were enrolled in an observational study conducted in 47 centers across six European Union countries. Utility values were generated using a UK-specific EQ-5D value set. The predictive validity of the five FACT-P subscales, patient demographics, comorbidities and prior chemotherapy was tested using ordinary least squares (OLS), median, Gamma and Tobit multivariate regression models. FACT-P and EQ-5D questionnaires were completed by 602 (86 %) patients. Mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 72.1 (7.9) years, mean time from diagnosis (SD) was 5.4 (4.4) years, and mean time since failure of androgen deprivation therapy (SD) was 1.0 (1.6) years. At study inclusion, 39 % of patients were chemotherapy-naïve, 37 % were undergoing chemotherapy, and 24 % were post-chemotherapy. Mean FACT-P and EQ-5D utility values were 104 and 0.66, respectively. OLS regression was the best-performing model, explaining 61.2 % of the observed EQ-5D variation. All FACT-P subscales were significantly predictive; the physical and functional well-being subscales had the highest explanatory value (coefficient 0.023 and 0.001, respectively, p < 0.0001). The other variables did not add additional explanatory value. The algorithm developed enables translation of cancer-specific HRQoL measures to preference-adjusted health status in patients with mCRPC. The function may be useful in calculating EQ-5D scores when EQ-5D data have not been gathered directly.

  9. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N; McClain, Kathleen M; Jones, Michael E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Blot, William J; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A Heather; Giles, Graham G; Gram, Inger T; Hankinson, Susan E; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kitahara, Cari M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A; Milne, Roger L; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R; Peeters, Petra H; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1360-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. International Library Manpower; Education and Placement in North America (ALA Preconference Institute. Detroit, Michigan; June 26-27, 1970). Education for Librarianship: Country Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Office for Library Education.

    Fact sheets on the general education system and education for librarianship are presented for 49 countries. The following countries are represented: Algeria, Australia, Austria, Burma, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Kuwait,…

  11. Overcoming barriers to cancer pain management: an institutional change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia Chih-Yi; Borneman, Tami; Ferrell, Betty; Piper, Barbara; Koczywas, Marianna; Choi, Kyong

    2007-10-01

    The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Pain Guidelines of 1994 recognized pain as a critical symptom that impacts quality of life (QOL). The barriers to optimum pain relief were classified into three categories: patient, professional, and system barriers. A prospective, longitudinal clinical trial is underway to test the effects of the "Passport to Comfort" innovative intervention on pain and fatigue management. This article reports on preintervention findings related to barriers to pain management. Cancer patients with a diagnosis of breast, lung, colon, or prostate cancer who reported a pain rating of >/=4 were accrued. Subjects completed questionnaires to assess subjective ratings of overall QOL, barriers to pain management, and pain knowledge at baseline and at one- and three-month evaluations. A chart audit was conducted at one month to document objective data related to pain management. The majority of subjects had moderate (4-6 on a 0-10 numeric rating scale) pain at the time of accrual. Patient barriers to pain management existed in attitudes and knowledge regarding addiction, tolerance, and not being able to control pain. Subjects who were currently receiving chemotherapy were reluctant to communicate their pain with health care professionals. Professional and system barriers were focused around screening, documentation, reassessment, and follow-up of pain. Lack of referrals to supportive care services for patients was also noted. Several well-described patient, professional, and system barriers continue to hinder efforts to provide optimal pain relief. Phase II of this initiative will attempt to eliminate these barriers using the "Passport" intervention to manage cancer pain.

  12. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, Youssef H., E-mail: youssefzaidan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnstone, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Terry, Colin [Methodist Research Institute, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod [CENTA Otolaryngology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Yeh, Alex [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3-88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4-6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  13. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rafael Corrêa; Reinert, Tomás; Campos, Franz; Peixoto, Fábio Affonso; de Andrade, Carlos Augusto; Castro, Thalita; Herchenhorn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) at a single reference institution. Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%), with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71%) patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2%) patients. In 50 patients (86%), sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%), hypothyroidism (43%), mucositis (33%) and diarrhea (29%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%), hypertension (12%), thrombocytopenia (7%), neutropenia (5%) and hand-foot syndrome (5%). Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  14. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corrêa Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS at a single reference institution. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Results: Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%, with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71% patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2% patients. In 50 patients (86%, sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%, hypothyroidism (43%, mucositis (33% and diarrhea (29%. Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%, hypertension (12%, thrombocytopenia (7%, neutropenia (5% and hand-foot syndrome (5%. Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Conclusion: Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS.

  15. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rafael Corrêa; Reinert, Tomás; Campos, Franz; Peixoto, Fábio Affonso; de Andrade, Carlos Augusto; Castro, Thalita; Herchenhorn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) at a single reference institution. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Results: Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%), with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71%) patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2%) patients. In 50 patients (86%), sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%), hypothyroidism (43%), mucositis (33%) and diarrhea (29%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%), hypertension (12%), thrombocytopenia (7%), neutropenia (5%) and hand-foot syndrome (5%). Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Conclusion: Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS. PMID:27564279

  16. [Management of breast cancers diagnosed at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 1995 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C R; Rabarijaona, L P; Rajemiarimoelisoa, C; Rasendramino, M; Migliani, R

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is a great problem of public health all over the world. In developed countries, breast cancer represents the most common cancer in females. Its incidence is also increasing in developing country. In Madagascar, no data is available to estimate the real incidence and prevalence rates of breast cancer. However, the data at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar can confirm the extent of the problem even if it is not at a national scale. The authors report the results of a retrospective study from histological examination at the Laboratory of pathological anatomy of the IPM, during 7 years. Among 2,337 cases of cancer, 16% (373) were breast cancer. Most of them were a female breast cancer (356 cases). The average age is 48 years old. 30% of the tumors were more than 2 cm in size, corresponding at least to the T2 stade from the International Union Against Cancer anatomoclinical classification. The current histological type is the infiltrating ductal carcinoma (80%), about 2/3 belong to the grade 3 of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histopronostical classification. Early diagnosis of the cancer is difficult because of the insufficiency of the sanitary infrastructure, particularly for cervical and breast cancers. A national policy for screening must be set up in order to decrease the rate of these invasive carcinomas. In the meantime, informing women and training all the medical staff is a priority. Recording all the data in Madagascar would be desirable.

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  18. Fact File

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA (CPC) celebrates its 90th anniversary in 2011. To help our readers gain a deeper insight of the CPC, ChinAfrica asked Li Wei, Associate Research Fellow with the Institute for Theory Studies of the Communist Youth League of China

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  20. 78 FR 2678 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The National Cancer Institute (NCI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... (OMB) for review and approval. Written comments and/or suggestions from the public and affected... comments in writing, request more information on the proposed project, or to obtain a copy of the data... developed (and is managed) by the ] National Cancer Institute (NCI) Tobacco Control Research Branch...

  1. Legal Facts and Dependence on Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almäng Jan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barry Smith has recently argued against John Searle’s thesis that institutional facts exist because they are represented as existing in a certain community. Smith argues that institutional facts can exist even though they are not represented as existing and that institutional facts can fail to obtain even though they are represented as obtaining. In this paper it is argued that Smith’s challenge can be met for a certain class of legal facts. I argue that in order to solve the problem posed by Smith, we must distinguish between three different kinds of institutional facts and between three different kinds of representation which sustain their existence.

  2. [Cervical cancers diagnosed at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 1992 to 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C R; Rabarijaona, L P; Soares, J L; Rasendramino, M; Pécarrère, J L; Khun, H; Huerre, M

    2003-01-01

    In Madagascar, the epidemiological data actualized concerning the cancer of the collus of uterus are not available because of the absence of register of cancer. The objective of this study is to achieve a first assessment of the problem, to complete the epidemiological knowledge, to point out the tool of precoce detection of the precancerous lesions, to propose the measures aiming to improve the management of the patients and to contribute to the institution of a register of cancer. This is a retrospective survey on the frequency of the cancer of the cervix observed from 1992 to 2002 about 23,908 withdrawals addressed to the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar for anatomopathological exam and 12,605 cervical smears for cytological exam. In pathological anatomy, 2,621 (63.4%) of 4,136 cases of diagnosed cancer, have been observed in women. 687 cases (26.2%) of them were localized in the collus. The 3/4 of the cancers of the cervix is invasive and the mean age is 48.2 years old at the time of diagnosis. The cytology detects only 74 cases of invasive cancer of which most don't have an histological confirmation. 274 pre-lesions of cervix cancer were diagnosed for this period, the majority lesions are cytological diagnosis. In spite of a non representative recruitment of the general population, and by the number of withdrawals considered, these results may represent indicators of the epidemiological situation and justify the institution of program to detect the precancerous lesions in a national scale.

  3. Multi-institutional Registry for Prostate Cancer Radiosurgery: An Observational Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra eFreeman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Title: Multi-institutional Registry for Prostate Cancer Radiosurgery: An Observational Clinical TrialAuthors: Debra Freeman, MD*; Gregg Dickerson, MD; Mark Perman, MDObjective: To report on the design, methodology and early outcome results of a multi-institutional registry study of prostate cancer radiosurgery.Methods: The Registry for Prostate Cancer Radiosurgery (RPCR was established in 2010 to further evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of prostate radiosurgery (SBRT for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer were asked to voluntarily participate in the Registry. Demographic, baseline medical and treatment-related data were collected and stored electronically in a HIPAA-compliant database, maintained by Advertek, Inc. Enrolled men were asked to complete short, multiple choice questionnaires regarding their bowel, bladder and sexual function. Patient-reported outcome forms were collected at baseline and at regular intervals (every 3-6 months following treatment. Serial PSA measurements were obtained at each visit and included in the collected data.Results: From July 2010 to July 2013, nearly 2000 men from 45 participating sites were enrolled in the registry. The majority (86% received radiosurgery as monotherapy. At 2 years follow-up, biochemical disease free survival was 92%. No Grade 3 late urinary toxicity was reported. One patient developed Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity (rectal bleeding. Erectile function was preserved in 80% of men <70 yeats old. Overall compliance with data entry was 64%.Conclusion: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an alternative option to conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer. The Registry for Prostate Cancer Radiosurgery represents the collective experience of multiple institutions, including community-based cancer centers, with outcome results in keeping with published, prospective trials of prostate SBRT.

  4. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  5. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Flores, Yvonne N; Pérez, Ruth; Rudolph, Samantha E; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3) and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million). False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  6. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, a single institution-based study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among all cancers of female genital tract in countries where effective cervical cancer screening program exists. As the world's population ages, remarkable increase in the total number of ovarian cancer cases are expected. This is preliminary epidemiological study to decide priorities in ovarian cancer research. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with primary epithelial ovarian cancer cases registered in J. K. Cancer Institute, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' age at diagnosis, clinical feature, parity of patients, tumor histological type, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, chemotherapy regimens, and overall survival data were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty-three cases of primary ovarian epithelial cancer were analyzed. Patients' mean age at diagnosis was 55.98 ± 9.24 (median = 55. Serous adenocarcinoma (49.69% was the most prevalent type of histopathology followed by endometroid (19.1%, mucinous (10.42% and clear cell (4.29%. Combination of taxane and platin was most commonly used first line regimen in newly diagnosed as well as in relapsed patients post 1 year. Survival was not significantly different in various histopathology (log-rank P = 0.7406, but advancing stage demonstrated gradually poor survival (log-rank P < 0.05 when compared with early stage disease. Conclusion: Research efforts should be in the direction to find early diagnostic and effective screening tools as well as better therapeutic approaches for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the International Work Group ( ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data ...

  8. Thyroid metastases from colorectal cancer: the Institut Gustave Roussy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Astrid; Leboulleux, Sophie; Boige, Valérie; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Dromain, Clarisse; Elias, Dominique; Ducreux, Michel; Malka, David

    2006-08-01

    The prevalence of thyroid metastases in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is unknown. We retrieved the records of all patients with CRC and pathologically proved thyroid metastasis for the period 1993-2004. Among 5,862 consecutive patients with CRC, 6 (0.1%) were diagnosed with thyroid metastases, a median of 61 months after the diagnosis of primary tumour, and a median of 19 months after the last surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation of other metastases (which were present in all cases). Signs and symptoms, when present (n=3), consisted of cervical pain, cervical adenopathy, goitre, dysphagia, and/or dysphonia. In other cases, the diagnosis was made by positron emission tomography scanning. Thyroidectomy was performed in the 5 patients with isolated thyroid metastases, with cervical lymph node dissection being required in all cases. The only patient treated conservatively because of concomitant liver and lung metastases developed life-threatening dyspnoea, which required emergent tracheal stenting. Median overall survival was 77 months, 58 months, and 12 months after the diagnosis of primary CRC, initial metastases, and thyroid metastasis, respectively. It is concluded that thyroid metastases are rare and occur late in the course of CRC. Thyroidectomy (with cervical lymph node dissection) may result in prevention or improvement of life-threatening symptoms and prolonged survival.

  9. Risk of Advanced Neoplasia Using the National Cancer Institute's Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperiale, Thomas F; Yu, Menggang; Monahan, Patrick O; Stump, Timothy E; Tabbey, Rebeka; Glowinski, Elizabeth; Ransohoff, David F

    2017-01-01

    There is no validated, discriminating, and easy-to-apply tool for estimating risk of colorectal neoplasia. We studied whether the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Risk Assessment Tool, which estimates future CRC risk, could estimate current risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia among average-risk persons. This cross-sectional study involved individuals age 50 to 80 years undergoing first-time screening colonoscopy. We measured medical and family history, lifestyle information, and physical measures and calculated each person's future CRC risk using the NCI tool's logistic regression equation. We related quintiles of future CRC risk to the current risk of advanced neoplasia (sessile serrated polyp or tubular adenoma ≥ 1 cm, a polyp with villous histology or high-grade dysplasia, or CRC). All statistical tests were two-sided. For 4457 (98.5%) with complete data (mean age = 57.2 years, SD = 6.6 years, 51.7% women), advanced neoplasia prevalence was 8.26%. Based on quintiles of five-year estimated absolute CRC risk, current risks of advanced neoplasia were 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3% to 3.3%), 4.8% (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), 6.4% (95% CI = 4.9% to 8.2%), 10.0% (95% CI = 8.1% to 12.1%), and 17.6% (95% CI = 15.5% to 20.6%; P < .001). For quintiles of estimated 10-year CRC risk, corresponding current risks for advanced neoplasia were 2.2% (95% CI = 1.4% to 3.5%), 4.8% (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), 6.5% (95% CI = 5.0% to 8.3%), 9.3% (95% CI = 7.5% to 11.4%), and 18.4% (95% CI = 15.9% to 21.1%; P < .001). Among persons with an estimated five-year CRC risk above the median, current risk for advanced neoplasia was 12.8%, compared with 3.7% among those below the median (relative risk = 3.4, 95 CI = 2.7 to 4.4). The NCI's Risk Assessment Tool, which estimates future CRC risk, may be used to estimate current risk for advanced neoplasia, making it potentially useful for tailoring and improving CRC

  10. [Male breast cancer: prognostic factors, diagnosis and treatment: a multi-institutional survey of 95 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, A-S; Boukerrou, M; Cutuli, B; Campion, L; Rousseau, E; Bussières, E; Raro, P; Classe, J-M

    2015-04-01

    The optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known because male breast cancer is a rare disease. It represents as little as 0.6% of all breast cancers and less than 1% of human cancers. The aim was to analyze the clinical, histological and therapeutic characteristics of 95 men cared for breast cancer between 2000 and 2010 in four hospitals, and determine predictors of poor prognosis to improve care of male breast cancer. This study is a multi-institutional survey, retrospective, involving four French institutions: Cancer Institute of the West (ICO), Reunion Island South hospital group, the hospital group of Dax, and the Bergonié Institute. All carcinomas in situ or invasive breast occurred in male patients were included. An analysis of clinical, histological and therapeutic features was performed. Statistical analysis of our study focused on the overall survival of patients and specific method of Kaplan-Meier, enabling search for predictors of poor prognosis. The mean age was 65 years. Thirty-seven percent of patients were overweight or obese. It was in 88% of cases of palpable tumor whose average size was 26.29mm. Ninety patients, none had a lesion palpable T0, 44% T1 tumors, 38% T2 tumors, 3% had a T3 tumors, and finally 10% T4 tumors. The histological type was the most common invasive ductal carcinoma (87%). He found a similar proportion of patients with or without lymph node involvement. N+ patients, capsular rupture was observed in 29% of cases. Receptor positivity was found, estrogen in 95% of cases and progesterone in 83% of cases. Additional irradiation was performed in 75% of patients and chemotherapy in 37% of patients. Overall survival was 79.2% at five years and 70.8% at ten years. Age, tumor size and histological capsular rupture are factors that significantly influence the overall survival and specific. Male breast cancer is a different pathology of breast cancer in women. The majority of recommendations suggest treating men who are diagnosed

  11. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  12. [Cancer in Madagascar. Experience of the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar from September 1992 to June 1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C; Pécarrère, J L; Roux, J F

    1998-01-01

    The Unit of the anatomo-pathology in the "Institut Pasteur de Madagascar" (IPM) examined in the period from September 1992 to June 1996 tissue specimens from 10,275 patients. Tumorous pathology presented 40% of the tissues and half of which were of malign etiology. 64% of the cancer diagnosed were in females. Cervical cancer was most frequently observed (17%), followed by breast cancer (16%). Cancer in the gastro-intestinal tract (15%) was most often located in the colon without sex difference. Stomach cancer occurring predominantly in males presented 25% of the total cases of cancer in the gastro-intestinal tract. Cancer of liver is rarely diagnosed despite the high prevalence of infection with hepatitis B virus. Skin cancer constituted 9% of the malign diagnosis and was mainly found in males. Children under 15 years old presented 7.4% of the total cases of malignancy with the haematopoietic tissues (30%) and the eyes (17%) as the most frequent topic locations. Due to a very low seroprevalence of the HIV in Madagascar, malign tumours associated to AIDS were only seen in a few rare cases. The review of cancer cases in the IPM may not be representative for the cancer epidemiology of Madagascar because of a general very low level of health care coverage, especially in the rural areas. Furthermore, a major part of the specimens originates from easily accessible organsystems, whereas other organs seem less investigated due to lack of appropriate available technique. Therefore, it is not feasible for the moment to establish a cancer register in Madagascar, although the Unit of Pathology in the IPM can offer a valid cancer diagnostical service.

  13. [Breast-conserving surgery without radiotherapy in the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumi, Fujio; Takahashi, Kaoru; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Tada, Keiichiro; Makita, Masujiro; Tada, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Masataka; Akiyama, Futoshi; Akiyama, Goi

    2002-11-01

    We began performing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 1986 to achieve complete resection of breast cancer and omit postoperative radiotherapy (RT) if serial and detailed pathologic examination of the resected specimen within a 5-mm width showed that the of margin was cancer free. At of the end of 1998, 1,233 sides of the breast had been conserved, of which 827 sides were shown to have cancer-free margins. As of the end of 2001, with a mean observation period of 79 months, ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was recognized on 46 sides (19 recurrences, 27 multiple cancers), for a recurrence rate 5.6% and an annual recurrence rate of 0.85%. This rate is slightly better than those reported by eminent institutions in the USA and Europe which all perform RT, confirming the accuracy and safety of our BCS.

  14. The Organization of European Cancer Institute Pathobiology Working Group and its support of European biobanking infrastructures for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegman, Peter H J; de Jong, Bas W D; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Today's translational cancer research increasingly depends on international multi-center studies. Biobanking infrastructure or comprehensive sample exchange platforms to enable networking of clinical cancer biobanks are instrumental to facilitate communication, uniform sample quality, and rules for exchange. The Organization of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Pathobiology Working Group supports European biobanking infrastructure by maintaining the OECI-TuBaFrost exchange platform and organizing regular meetings. This platform originated from a European Commission project and is updated with knowledge from ongoing and new biobanking projects. This overview describes how European biobanking projects that have a large impact on clinical biobanking, including EuroBoNeT, SPIDIA, and BBMRI, contribute to the update of the OECI-TuBaFrost exchange platform. Combining the results of these European projects enabled the creation of an open (upon valid registration only) catalogue view of cancer biobanks and their available samples to initiate research projects. In addition, closed environments supporting active projects could be developed together with the latest views on quality, access rules, ethics, and law. With these contributions, the OECI Pathobiology Working Group contributes to and stimulates a professional attitude within biobanks at the European comprehensive cancer centers. Improving the fundamentals of cancer sample exchange in Europe stimulates the performance of large multi-center studies, resulting in experiments with the desired statistical significance outcome. With this approach, future innovation in cancer patient care can be realized faster and more reliably.

  15. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  16. Chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced cancer: A pilot study in Institute of Oncology Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorescu, Alexandru C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives First objective was better understanding of the indications of chemotherapy in elderly with advanced cancer, tolerability and toxicity of chemotherapy in this age group. The second objective was to define current practice in chemotherapy for elderly people with advanced cancer for a selected group of patients treated in Institute of Oncology Bucharest (IOB). Materials and Methods The study makes a clinical analysis of medical records of 27 patients from the archive of Institute of Oncology Bucharest treated by the same doctor. Patients were selected according to: age ≥ 65 years, ECOG performance status 0–1, normal blood counts and blood biochemistry, histological confirmation of the diagnosis of cancer, patients should received at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. We extract characteristics of the patients to see if they were a homogeneous group of patients and to compare them with data from the literature. Overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan Meyer curve. Results 295 patients more then 65 years were treated in our site in 2 years 2011, 2012. 93 patients received chemotherapy and only 27 patients were enrolled in this study following inclusion criteria. Common sites of cancer were lung and breast. The most used cytostatics for lung cancer was gemcitabine and carboplatine and cyclophosphamide, metotrexat and 5 fluorouracil for breast cancer. Toxicity was mild with the prevalence of hematologic toxicity. Overall survival without taking into account the type of cancer was 27.7 month. Conclusions For selected patients, chemotherapy was well tolerated and appears to prolong survival regardless of the location of cancer. The relatively small number of elderly patients who received chemotherapy is probably due to lack of compliance to treatment, the increased number of co-morbidities and evaluation of performance status only by the ECOG index known not to be good enough to establish the indication of chemotherapy. PMID:27847881

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  18. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with risk of recurrence in women with early-stage breast cancer can be used to identify the most appropriate ... novel agents, technologies, and markers for better diagnosis, prognosis, screening, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer. Summer 2014 Issue: Volume 9 Number 2 Page ...

  19. Advanced Cancer Genomics Institute: Genetic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets in Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the Mcm3 gene locus in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) by David Goodrich. This analysis shows novel Mcm3 promoter sites that bind Rb. Fig. 3-5...4. Develop transplantable castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP) models of human and mouse prostate cancer lines in which androgen receptor

  20. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  1. [Radiotherapy for endometrial cancer: experience of the national institute of oncology with 52 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezouri, Imane; Berhili, Soufiane; Mouhajir, Nawal; Bellefqih, Sara; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in the Western world. It affects mainly postmenopausal women. The aim of our study is to report the experience of the radiotherapy department of the National Oncology Institute (INO) in the treatment of endometrial cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 52 cases of endometrial cancer treated in the INO radiotherapy department between 2007-2009. Data obtained from the patient medical records were related to the epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of this cancer. The median age of the patients was 57 years, 87% were postmenopausal. The median of consultation time was six months. The main symptom was metrorrhagia (51 patients). Histological diagnosis was based on biopsic curettage of uterine endometrium in 51% of the cases. Anatomo-pathological examination showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 92% of the cases. After the assessment, 27% of the patients were stage I, 30% stage II, 20% stage III and 1% stage IVA, according to the International Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage classification. After surgery, 51% of the patients received postoperative external radiotherapy. The delivered dose was 46 Gray (Gy). All patients received internal vaginal brachytherapy. From an evolutionary perspective, 83% of the patients had no recurrences during the follow-up period, 8% of patients had a local recurrence and 4% of patients had distant metastases. Therefore, surgery is the main treatment for endometrial cancer. Radiotherapy is the primary adjuvant treatment.

  2. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: consensus recommendations of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Planning Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melanie B; Jaffe, Deborah; Choti, Michael M; Belghiti, Jacques; Curley, Steven; Fong, Yuman; Gores, Gregory; Kerlan, Robert; Merle, Phillipe; O'Neil, Bert; Poon, Ronnie; Schwartz, Lawrence; Tepper, Joel; Yao, Francis; Haller, Daniel; Mooney, Margaret; Venook, Alan

    2010-09-01

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults and the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States is rising steadily because of the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection and other causes of hepatic cirrhosis. The majority of patients have underlying hepatic dysfunction, which complicates patient management and the search for safe and effective therapies. The Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) in HCC was convened by the National Cancer Institute's Gastrointestinal Cancer Steering Committee to identify the key knowledge gaps in HCC and define clinical research priorities. The CTPM structured its review according to current evidence-based treatment modalities in HCC and prioritized the recommendations on the basis of the patient populations representing the greatest unmet medical need.

  4. Pioneering the Transdisciplinary Team Science Approach: Lessons Learned from National Cancer Institute Grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on

  5. Predicting advanced neoplasia at colonoscopy in a diverse population with the National Cancer Institute colorectal cancer risk-assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladabaum, Uri; Patel, Ashley; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Sundaram, Vandana; Mitani, Aya; Desai, Manisha

    2016-09-01

    Tailoring screening to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk could improve screening effectiveness. Most CRCs arise from advanced neoplasia (AN) that dwells for years. To date, no available colorectal neoplasia risk score has been validated externally in a diverse population. The authors explored whether the National Cancer Institute (NCI) CRC risk-assessment tool, which was developed to predict future CRC risk, could predict current AN prevalence in a diverse population, thereby allowing its use in risk stratification for screening. This was a prospective examination of the relation between predicted 10-year CRC risk and the prevalence of AN, defined as advanced or multiple (≥3 adenomatous, ≥5 serrated) adenomatous or sessile serrated polyps, in individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Among 509 screenees (50% women; median age, 58 years; 61% white, 5% black, 10% Hispanic, and 24% Asian), 58 (11%) had AN. The prevalence of AN increased progressively from 6% in the lowest risk-score quintile to 17% in the highest risk-score quintile (P = .002). Risk-score distributions in individuals with versus without AN differed significantly (median, 1.38 [0.90-1.87] vs 1.02 [0.62-1.57], respectively; P = .003), with substantial overlap. The discriminatory accuracy of the tool was modest, with areas under the curve of 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.69) overall, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.49-0.70) for women, and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.73) for men. The results did not change substantively when the analysis was restricted to adenomatous lesions or to screening procedures without any additional incidental indication. The NCI CRC risk-assessment tool displays modest discriminatory accuracy in predicting AN at screening colonoscopy in a diverse population. This tool may aid shared decision-making in clinical practice. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2663-2670. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. Validity of the Japanese version of functional assessment of cancer therapy-gastric (FACT-Ga) and its sensitivity to ascites volume change: a retrospective analysis of Japanese clinical trial participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Sato, Maho; Kobayashi, Michiya; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Tsuburaya, Akira; Sakamoto, Junichi; Morita, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The functional assessment of cancer therapy-gastric (FACT-Ga) questionnaire was designed to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in patients with gastric cancer. We aimed to explore the reliability and validity of FACT-Ga in Japanese patients, and assess the sensitivity of the gastric cancer subscale for detecting changes in cancer-related variables over time. The Japanese version of FACT-Ga was used, and data were obtained from Japanese patients who participated in either of two clinical trials: treatment for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer with ascites (advanced-GC group), or adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection of gastric cancer (adjuvant group). Psychometric data including data used to determine reliability, internal consistency, and clinical validity were analyzed. Clinical validity was evaluated by comparing subscale scores for patients in the two groups, and by comparing subscale scores for patients with different performance status scores. Correlation between gastric cancer subscale scores and gastric cancer-related variables was also examined. In addition, sensitivity of the gastric cancer subscale to changes in ascites volume, abdominal girth, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was examined by evaluating their correlation in the advanced-GC group. We collected data on 156 patients (62 advanced-GC group patients and 94 adjuvant group patients). Response rates for the subscales were over 80 % at most time points for both the groups. Cronbach's coefficient alpha revealed good internal consistency for each subscale. At baseline, the adjuvant group had higher QOL scores than the advanced-GC group (P FACT-Ga is reliable and clinically valid for Japanese patients with gastric cancer. Detection of QOL changes that correlate with ascites volume changes suggests that it could be used more broadly; FACT-Ga scores could be used as an endpoint for patients with gastric cancer-related ascites.

  7. [Breast cancer care quality analysis of the National Institute of Oncology in Hungary according to the requirements of European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (EUSOMA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újhelyi, Mihály; Pukancsik, Dávid; Kelemen, Péter; Sávolt, Ákos; Gődény, Mária; Kovács, Eszter; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Bak, Mihály; Polgár, Csaba; Rubovszky, Gábor; Kásler, Miklós; Mátrai, Zoltán

    2016-10-01

    The European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists has created quality indicators for breast units to establish minimum standards and to ensure specialist multimodality care with the conscious aim of improving outcomes and decreasing breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to analyse the breast cancer care in the National Institute of Oncology according to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists requirements and in a large number of cases in order to present representative clinico-pathological data on the incidence of breast cancer in Hungary. According to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists uniformed criteria clinico-pathological data of multimodality treated breast cancer cases were retrospectively analysed between June 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. During the period of interest 906 patients underwent breast surgery for malignant or benign lesions. According to the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists quality indicators the breast cancer care of the National Institute of Oncology is eligible. The diagnostic modalities and multimodality care of breast cancer of the National Institute of Oncology breast unit meets the critical mass and minimum standards of the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists criteria. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(42), 1674-1682.

  8. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  9. Approaches for the Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention: lessons from the all-Ireland NCI cancer consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Isabel V; Williams, Makeda; Harford, Joe B

    2012-06-01

    The NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention (SCCP) has provided interdisciplinary training in cancer prevention and control to cancer health-care professionals, including nurses, physicians, and scientists, since 1986. It has trained over 1,200 participants, 256 of them from Ireland and Northern Ireland through two summer courses: a 4-week course on Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control (PP) and 1-week on Molecular Prevention (MP). This report is our attempt to measure achievements and level of satisfaction among alumni from the island of Ireland upon return to their home institution. A questionnaire was developed to assess this. Our analysis found statistically significant differences in the types of accomplishments reported among respondents of the MP and PP courses as well as statistically significant differences in their level of satisfaction. More data are needed to better explain the differences observed as well as level of resources available to alumni upon their return home.

  10. Oncologists' perspectives on concurrent palliative care in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Ahles, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand oncology clinicians' perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. This was a qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: (1) treating the whole patient, (2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, (3) “some patients just want to fight,” and (4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists' views on the complementary role of palliative care: (1) “refer early and often,” (2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals “hospice”; “Heme patients are different,” (3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, (4) palliative care “shares the load,” and (5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care.

  11. State Health Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Home State Health Facts Search State Health Facts: Choose Category - or - Choose Location Demographics and the ... Expansion Enrollment Featured State Data Resources Medicaid State Fact Sheets What percentage of people are covered by ...

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Difficulty of Importing Pattern-Based Concepts into the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Geller, James

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of biomedical ontologies is difficult. We have developed a pattern-based method for dealing with the problem of identifying missing concepts in the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). Specifically, we are mining patterns connecting NCIt concepts with concepts in other ontologies to identify candidate missing concepts. However, the final decision about a concept insertion is always up to a human ontology curator. In this paper, we are estimating the difficulty of this task for a domain expert by counting possible choices for a pattern-based insertion. We conclude that even with support of our mining algorithm, the insertion task is challenging.

  13. Characteristics of Incident Testicular Cancer in Lebanon - 1990-2015 Single Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tarek; Nasr, Fadi; Rassy, Elie El; Ibrahim, Toni; Jabbour, Hicham; Chahine, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that testicular cancer is a major health issue with its increasing incidence, very few studies have described its characteristics in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon. We report in this paper a retrospective pilot study of the characteristics of testicular cancer in Lebanon. The demographic, epidemiologic and survival characteristics of 178 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 at an oncology clinic affiliated to Hotel Dieu de France Hospital were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 32 ±10 years. The most prevalent testicular tumor was the germ cell type (GCT) (95.2%) of which non-seminomatous tumors (NST) were the commonest (64.7%). Most of our patients were diagnosed at an early stage. Lymph node spread affected most commonly the retroperitoneal region and distant visceral metastases occurred in 14.6%. All patients underwent orchiectomy with 67% receiving adjuvant treatment, mainly chemotherapy. After a median follow up of 2,248 days (75.9 months) 16 patients were reported dead. Two, five and ten-year overall survival rates were 96%, 94% and 89% respectively. The median overall survival rate was not reached. Despite being part of the developing world, demographic, epidemiologic and survival analyses of testicular cancer reported in our study are in line with those reported from developed countries and would allow us to extrapolate management plans from these populations.

  14. Male breast cancer: a report of 127 cases at a Moroccan institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijami Fouad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease representing less than 1% of all malignancies in men and only 1% of all incident breast cancers. Our study details clinico-pathological features, treatments and prognostic factors in a large Moroccan cohort. Findings One hundred and twenty-seven patients were collected from 1985 to 2007 at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco. Median age was 62 years and median time for consultation 28 months. The main clinical complaint was a mass beneath the areola in 93, 5% of the cases. Most patients have an advanced disease. Ninety-one percent of tumors were ductal carcinomas. Management consisted especially of radical mastectomy; followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonal therapy with or without chemotherapy. The median of follow-up was 30 months. The evolution has been characterized by local recurrence; in twenty two cases (17% of all patients. Metastasis occurred in 41 cases (32% of all patients. The site of metastasis was the bone in twenty cases; lung in twelve cases; liver in seven case; liver and skin in one case and pleura and skin in one case. Conclusion Male breast cancer has many similarities to breast cancer in women, but there are distinct features that should be appreciated. Future research for better understanding of this disease at national or international level are needed to improve the management and prognosis of male patients.

  15. Sexual outcomes after partial penectomy for penile cancer: results from a multi-institutional study

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    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Surgical treatment is inevitably mutilating. Considering the strong impact on patients′ sexual life we want to evaluate sexual function and satisfaction after partial penectomy. The patients in this study (n = 25 represented all those who attended our institutions and were diagnosed and treated for penile cancer from October 2011 to November 2013. All patients underwent partial penectomy and followed-up (mean: 14 months; range: 12-25. Sexual presurgical baseline was estimated using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction 15 (IIEF-15. Sexual outcomes of each patient were estimated considering four standardized and validated questionnaires. We analyzed the means and ranges of IIEF-15 including erectile function (IIEF-1-5 and -15, orgasmic function (IIEF-9 and -10, sexual desire (IIEF-11 and -12, intercourse satisfaction (IIEF-6-8, and overall satisfaction (IIEF-13 and -14. Then, we also used Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS and Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR to evaluate the sexual function and satisfaction of our patients. The final results showed that penile cancer leads to several sexual and psychosexual dysfunctions. Nevertheless, patients who undergo partial penectomy for penile cancer can maintain the sexual outcomes at levels slightly lower to those that existed in the period before surgery.

  16. Transoral resection of pharyngeal cancer: summary of a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, November 6-7, 2011, Arlington, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, David J; Ridge, John A; Brizel, David M; Holsinger, F Christopher; Haughey, Bruce H; O'Sullivan, Brian; Genden, Eric M; Beitler, Jonathan J; Weinstein, Gregory S; Quon, Harry; Chepeha, Douglas B; Ferris, Robert L; Weber, Randal S; Movsas, Benjamin; Waldron, John; Lowe, Val; Ramsey, Scott; Manola, Judith; Yueh, Bevan; Carey, Thomas E; Bekelman, Justin E; Konski, Andre A; Moore, Eric; Forastiere, Arlene; Schuller, David E; Lynn, Jean; Ullmann, Claudio Dansky

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances now permit resection of many pharyngeal tumors through the open mouth, an approach that can greatly reduce the morbidity of surgical exposure. These transoral techniques are being rapidly adopted by the surgical community and hold considerable promise. On November 6-7, 2011, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address how to further investigate the use of transoral surgery, both in the good prognosis human papillomavirus (HPV)-initiated oropharyngeal cancers, and in those with HPV-unrelated disease. The proceedings of this meeting are summarized.

  17. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weems William A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems – such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG – seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. Methods An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios – difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Results Thirty-one (31 individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31 individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and

  18. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies.

  19. Treatment Outcomes and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Report from Cancer Institute of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Safaee, Seyed Reza; Shahi, Farhad; Jahanzad, Issa; Zahedi, Ghazal; Mehdizadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have a more aggressive course and are associated with poorer prognosis in comparison with other subtypes of breast cancer. One of the most common subtypes of TNBC is basal-like. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological characteristics and clinical course of TNBC in Iranian women and compare them with other studies. Subjects and Methods: Between March 2009 and February 2011, patients with breast cancer in Cancer Institute of Iran were selected and then followed-up for 2 years. Paraffin-embedded tumor block of all TNBC patients were evaluated for CK5/6 and EGFR using IHC method. Results: Among 267 breast cancer patients, 60 cases with TNBC were identified (22.5%), 31 patients (51.7%) had basal-like and 29 patients (48.3%) had non-basal-like tumors. The median age of participants with TNBC was 49.6 years. Among our patients, 70% had positive lymph nodes.93.4% of all patients at the time of diagnosis were stage II or III and tumor size was at least 3 centimeters. No grade 1 TNBC was found in this study. During the follow-up period, there were 26 recurrences and 7 deaths. Conclusion: The percentage of basal-like subtype among Iranian women with TNBC was lower compared to other studies, while bone metastases, clinical stage, lymph node involvement and tumor size were higher. Clinicopathological findings in basal and non-basal-like subgroups were not different, but the probability of lymph node involvement was more common in patients who were EGFR positive. PMID:28286613

  20. Treatment Outcomes and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Report from Cancer Institute of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Safaee, Seyed Reza; Shahi, Farhad; Jahanzad, Issa; Zahedi, Ghazal; Mehdizadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have a more aggressive course and are associated with poorer prognosis in comparison with other subtypes of breast cancer. One of the most common subtypes of TNBC is basal-like. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological characteristics and clinical course of TNBC in Iranian women and compare them with other studies. Subjects and Methods: Between March 2009 and February 2011, patients with breast cancer in Cancer Institute of Iran were selected and then followed-up for 2 years. Paraffin-embedded tumor block of all TNBC patients were evaluated for CK5/6 and EGFR using IHC method. Results: Among 267 breast cancer patients, 60 cases with TNBC were identified (22.5%), 31 patients (51.7%) had basal-like and 29 patients (48.3%) had non-basal-like tumors. The median age of participants with TNBC was 49.6 years. Among our patients, 70% had positive lymph nodes.93.4% of all patients at the time of diagnosis were stage II or III and tumor size was at least 3 centimeters. No grade 1 TNBC was found in this study. During the follow-up period, there were 26 recurrences and 7 deaths. Conclusion: The percentage of basal-like subtype among Iranian women with TNBC was lower compared to other studies, while bone metastases, clinical stage, lymph node involvement and tumor size were higher. Clinicopathological findings in basal and non-basal-like subgroups were not different, but the probability of lymph node involvement was more common in patients who were EGFR positive.

  1. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Reliability analysis of the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Leukemia (FACT-Leu) scale based on multivariate generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiong; Yang, Zheng; Wu, Yang; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Meixia; Wan, Chonghua; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-05-04

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Leukemia (FACT-Leu) scale, a leukemia-specific instrument for determining the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with leukemia, had been developed and validated, but there have been no reports on the development of a simplified Chinese version of this scale. This is a new exploration to analyze the reliability of the HRQOL measurement using multivariate generalizability theory (MGT). This study aimed to develop a Chinese version of the FACT-Leu scale and evaluate its reliability using MGT to provide evidence to support the revision and improvement of this scale. The Chinese version of the FACT-Leu scale was developed by four steps: forward translation, backward translation, cultural adaptation and pilot-testing. The HRQOL was measured for eligible inpatients with leukemia using this scale to provide data. A single-facet multivariate Generalizability Study (G-study) design was demonstrated to estimate the variance-covariance components and then several Decision Studies (D-studies) with varying numbers of items were analyzed to obtain reliability coefficients and to understand how much the measurement reliability could be vary as the number of items in MGT changes. One-hundred and one eligible inpatients diagnosed with leukemia were recruited and completed the HRQOL measurement at the time of admission to the hospital. In the G-study, the variation component of the patient-item interaction was largest while the variation component of the item was the smallest for the four of five domains, except for the leukemia-specific (LEUS) domain. In the D-study, at the level of domain, the generalizability coefficients (G) and the indexes of dependability (Ф) for four of the five domains were approximately equal to or greater than 0.80 except for the Emotional Well-being (EWB) domain (>0.70 but FACT-Leu scale has good reliability as a whole based on the results of MGT and the implementation of MGT could lead to more

  3. Breast cancer mammographic diagnosis performance in a public health institution: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana M R B; Bittelbrunn, Fernando P; Rockenbach, Marcio A B C; May, Guilherme G; Vedolin, Leonardo M; Kruger, Marilia S; Soldatelli, Matheus D; Zwetsch, Guilherme; de Miranda, Gabriel T F; Teixeira, Saone I P; Arruda, Bruna S

    2017-10-04

    To evaluate the quality assurance of mammography results at a reference institution for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southern Brazil, based on the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) 5th edition recommendations for auditing purposes. Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study with 4502 patients (9668 mammographies)) who underwent at least one or both breast mammographies throughout 2013 at a regional public hospital, linked to a federal public university. The results were followed until 31 December 2014, including true positives (TPs), true negatives (TNs), false positives (FPs), false negatives (FNs), positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity, with a confidence interval of 95%. The study showed high quality assurance, particularly regarding sensitivity (90.22%) and specificity (92.31%). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 65.35%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 98.32%. The abnormal interpretation rate (recall rate) was 12.26%. The results are appropriate when compared to the values proposed by the BIRADS 5th edition. Additionally, the study provided self-reflection considering our radiological practice, which is essential for improvements and collaboration regarding breast cancer detection. It may stimulate better radiological practice performance and continuing education, despite possible infrastructure and facility limitations. • Accurate quality performance rates are possible despite financial and governmental limitations. • Low-income institutions should develop standardised teamwork to improve radiological practice. • Regular mammography audits may help to increase the quality of public health systems.

  4. De-Risking Immunotherapy: Report of a Consensus Workshop of the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Ira; Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J; Kalos, Michael D; Chen, Daniel S; Allison, James P; Drake, Charles G; Levitsky, Hy; Lonberg, Nils; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Fearon, Douglas T; Wherry, E John; Lowy, Israel; Vonderheide, Robert H; Hwu, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    With the recent FDA approvals of pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and a host of additional immunomodulatory agents entering clinical development each year, the field of cancer immunotherapy is changing rapidly. Strategies that can assist researchers in choosing the most promising drugs and drug combinations to move forward through clinical development are badly needed in order to reduce the likelihood of late-stage clinical trial failures. On October 5, 2014, the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute, a collaborative think tank composed of stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and patient interest groups, met to discuss strategies for de-risking immunotherapy development, with a focus on integrating preclinical and clinical studies, and conducting smarter early-phase trials, particularly for combination therapies. Several recommendations were made, including making better use of clinical data to inform preclinical research, obtaining adequate tissues for biomarker studies, and choosing appropriate clinical trial endpoints to identify promising drug candidates and combinations in nonrandomized early-phase trials.

  5. Advanced Cancer Genomics Institute: Genetic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets in Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    capabil ptome (RNA eq: exon us mber variati q and FAIR A-seq: miR me: bacteri terials from ic mice and ard operati apture micr A/RNA, link...entification D) and CR- isolate tumo nd quality c ple platform ression) optimize ervised sets aims in the number var ges, micr ll lines and xt-gen seq e...a ers will pe P-seq, micr ncluding the cancer pre signatures abilities of t The long-te researchers ft tumors in bioinformat . 1) ladder can

  6. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

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    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: a retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-09-14

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1(st) degree and 12% a 2(nd) degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC.

  8. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  9. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  10. Altered plasma apolipoprotein modifications in patients with pancreatic cancer: protein characterization and multi-institutional validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Honda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the more common human malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas has the worst prognosis. The poor outcome seems to be attributable to difficulty in early detection. METHODS: We compared the plasma protein profiles of 112 pancreatic cancer patients with those of 103 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (Cohort 1 using a newly developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (oMALDI QqTOF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS system. RESULTS: We found that hemi-truncated apolipoprotein AII dimer (ApoAII-2; 17252 m/z, unglycosylated apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII-0; 8766 m/z, and their summed value were significantly decreased in the pancreatic cancer patients [P = 1.36×10(-21, P = 4.35×10(-14, and P = 1.83×10(-24 (Mann-Whitney U-test; area-under-curve values of 0.877, 0.798, and 0.903, respectively]. The significance was further validated in a total of 1099 plasma/serum samples, consisting of 2 retrospective cohorts [Cohort 2 (n = 103 and Cohort 3 (n = 163] and a prospective cohort [Cohort 4 (n = 833] collected from 8 medical institutions in Japan and Germany. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed a robust quantitative MS profiling system and used it to validate alterations of modified apolipoproteins in multiple cohorts of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  11. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  12. Creating a “culture of research” in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-01-01

    Background The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute’s Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. Methods To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. Limitations The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important

  13. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study1,4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Romaguera, D.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Chan, D.S.; Romieu, I.; Freisling, H.; Ferrari, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dartois, L.; Li, K.; Tikk, K.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Redondo, M.L.; Agudo, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Crowe, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; May, A.; Wirfalt, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Hallmans, G.; Lund, E.; Weiderpass, E.; Parr, C.L.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We inves

  14. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Chan, Doris S. M.; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Tikk, Kaja; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Luisa Redondo, Maria; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Crowe, Francesca; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ros, Martine M.; May, Anne; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Goeran; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Parr, Christine L.; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. Objective: We inves

  15. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  16. Clinical Features of Male Breast Cancer: Experiences from Seven Institutions Over 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Hyung; Ha, Kyung Sun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Won, Hye Sung; An, Ho Jung; Lee, Guk Jin; Kang, Donghoon; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sarah; Byun, Jae Ho; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Soo; Park, Woo Chan; Jung, Sang Seol; Park, Il Young; Chung, Su-Mi; Woo, In Sook

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer treatment has progressed significantly over the past 20 years. However, knowledge regarding male breast cancer (MBC) is sparse because of its rarity. This study is an investigation of the clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MBC. Clinical records of 59 MBC patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 from seven institutions in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Over a 20-year period, MBC patients accounted for 0.98% among total breast cancer patients, and increased every 5 years. The median age of MBC patientswas 66 years (range, 24 to 87 years). Forty-three patients (73%) complained of a palpable breast mass initially. The median symptom duration was 5 months (range, 1 to 36 months). Mastectomy was performed in 96% of the patients. The most frequent histology was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (75%). Ninety-one percent of tumors (38/43) were estrogen receptor-positive, and 28% (11/40) showed epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression. After curative surgery, 42% of patients (19/45) received adjuvant chemotherapy; 77% (27/35) received hormone therapy. Five out of ten patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors did not receive adjuvant anti-HER-2 therapy, while two out of four patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors received palliative trastuzumab for recurrent and metastatic disease. Letrozole was used for one patient in the palliative setting. The median overall survival durations were 7.2 years (range, 0.6 to 17.0 years) in patients with localized disease and 2.9 years (range, 0.6 to 4.3 years) in those with recurrent or metastatic disease. Anti-HER-2 and hormonal therapy, except tamoxifen, have been underutilized in Korean MBC patients compared to female breast cancer patients. With the development of precision medicine, active treatment with targeted agents should be applied. Further investigation of the unique pathobiology of MBC is clinically warranted.

  17. Clinical Features of Male Breast Cancer: Experiences from Seven Institutions Over 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Hyung; Ha, Kyung Sun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Won, Hye Sung; An, Ho Jung; Lee, Guk Jin; Kang, Donghoon; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sarah; Byun, Jae Ho; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Soo; Park, Woo Chan; Jung, Sang Seol; Park, Il Young; Chung, Su-Mi; Woo, In Sook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer treatment has progressed significantly over the past 20 years. However, knowledge regarding male breast cancer (MBC) is sparse because of its rarity. This study is an investigation of the clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MBC. Materials and Methods Clinical records of 59 MBC patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 from seven institutions in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Results Over a 20-year period, MBC patients accounted for 0.98% among total breast cancer patients, and increased every 5 years. The median age of MBC patientswas 66 years (range, 24 to 87 years). Forty-three patients (73%) complained of a palpable breast mass initially. The median symptom duration was 5 months (range, 1 to 36 months). Mastectomy was performed in 96% of the patients. The most frequent histology was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (75%). Ninety-one percent of tumors (38/43) were estrogen receptor–positive, and 28% (11/40) showed epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression. After curative surgery, 42% of patients (19/45) received adjuvant chemotherapy; 77% (27/35) received hormone therapy. Five out of ten patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors did not receive adjuvant anti–HER-2 therapy, while two out of four patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors received palliative trastuzumab for recurrent and metastatic disease. Letrozole was used for one patient in the palliative setting. The median overall survival durations were 7.2 years (range, 0.6 to 17.0 years) in patients with localized disease and 2.9 years (range, 0.6 to 4.3 years) in those with recurrent or metastatic disease. Conclusion Anti–HER-2 and hormonal therapy, except tamoxifen, have been underutilized in Korean MBC patients compared to female breast cancer patients. With the development of precision medicine, active treatment with targeted agents should be applied. Further investigation of the unique pathobiology of MBC is clinically warranted

  18. Education and support needs in patients with head and neck cancer: A multi-institutional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Joe; Milross, Chris; Sundaresan, Puma; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Shepherd, Heather L; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morgan, Gary; Ashford, Bruce; Abdul-Razak, Muzib; Wong, Eva; Veness, Michael; Palme, Carsten E; Froggatt, Cate; Cohen, Ruben; Ekmejian, Rafael; Tay, Jessica; Roshan, David; Clark, Jonathan R

    2017-06-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) encompasses a diverse group of tumors, and thus providing appropriate and tailored information to patients before, during, and after treatment is a challenge. The objective of the current study was to characterize the experience and unmet needs of patients with HNC with regard to information and support provision. A 28-question, cross-sectional survey was completed by patients treated for HNC at 1 of 4 institutions in New South Wales, Australia (Chris O'Brien Lifehouse and Liverpool, Westmead, and Wollongong hospitals). It consisted of the adapted Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and questions assessing information quality, quantity, and format. A total of 597 patients responded. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 21-94 years) with 284 men and 313 women (1:1.1). The majority of patients reported information concerning the disease process (76%), prognosis (67%), and treatment (77%) was sufficient, and approximately 50% reporting having received little or no information regarding coping with stress and anxiety. A substantial percentage of patients reported receiving minimal information concerning psychosexual health (56%) or the availability of patient support groups (56%). The majority of patients preferred access to multiple modes of information delivery (72%), with the preferred modality being one-on-one meetings with a health educator (37%) followed by internet-based written information (19%). Patients with HNC are a diverse group, with complex educational and support needs. Patients appear to be given information regarding survivorship topics such as psychological well-being, patient support groups, and psychosexual health less frequently than information concerning disease and treatment. Verbal communication needs to be reinforced by accessible, well-constructed, written and multimedia resources appropriate to the patient's educational level. Cancer 2017;123:1949-1957. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017

  19. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area ​Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  20. Facts about Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Eye Health Information > Cataract > Facts About Cataract Facts About Cataract This information was developed by the ... citizen to get this type of cataract. In fact, people can have an age-related cataract in ...

  1. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español ( ... a woman needs 400 micrograms (mcg) every day. Facts About Folic Acid Download and print this fact ...

  2. Immunotherapy of head and neck cancer: Emerging clinical trials from a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Planning Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Julie E; Cohen, Ezra; Ferris, Robert L; Adelstein, David J; Brizel, David M; Ridge, John A; O'Sullivan, Brian; Burtness, Barbara A; Butterfield, Lisa H; Carson, William E; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Gajewski, Thomas F; Gillison, Maura L; Hodge, James W; Le, Quynh-Thu; Raben, David; Strome, Scott E; Lynn, Jean; Malik, Shakun

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. In addition, a separate committee was formed to develop integrative biomarkers for the clinical trials. The meeting started with an overview of key immune components and principles related to HNSCC, including immunosurveillance and immune escape. Four clinical trial concepts were developed at the meeting integrating different immunotherapies with existing standards of care. These designs were presented for implementation by the head and neck committees of the National Cancer Institute-funded National Clinical Trials Network. This article summarizes the proceedings of this Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, the purpose of which was to facilitate the rigorous development and design of randomized phase 2 and 3 immunotherapeutic trials in patients with HNSCC. Although reviews usually are published immediately after the meeting is held, this report is unique because there are now tangible clinical trial designs that have been funded and put into practice and the studies are being activated to accrual. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. Postoperative Survival Estimation of Gastric Cancer Patients in Cancer Institute of Tehran, Imam Khomeini Hospital and Its Relative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemnejad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gastric Cancer (GC is one of the most common causes of death in the world. The most important cause of high death rate related to GC is late diagnosis of the disease. The main treatment of gastric cancer in its primary stage of is surgery, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are supplementary treatments. There are some factors that affect survival after surgery. This study aimed to assess the survival of patients with GC under surgery and to determine the risk factors of this cancer. Materials & Methods: A total of 262 patients with GC under surgery were followed and included in the study from 21st of March 2003 to 21st of March 2007 in the cancer institute of Tehran, Imam Khomeini Hospital, . The staging of the disease before the surgery was based on CT-Scan and endosonography and after the surgery was based on the pathologic reports. The survival of the patients was determined by their periodical referrals and our telephone contacts with their relatives. The survival times were considered as the time from the diagnosis up to the death or the end of the study. The effect of the various risk factors including gender, age at diagnosis, tumor site, pathologic stage of the disease, type of treatment, metastases and relapse were evaluated. Kaplan-Miere approach was used to estimate survival and Log-rank test and proportional Cox model to evaluate the related factors. Data were analyzed using Spss16 statistical software. Results: 75.2% of patients were men and 34.4% cases of patients experienced death. The mean follow-up time was 19.317.4. The mean age at diagnosis was 5811.5 and survival mean and median were 49 and 27 months respectively. The one, three and five year survival of the patients were 0.85, 0.41 and 0.3 respectively. Gender, pathologic stage, age at diagnosis and weight-loss were significantly related to the survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of the cancer in primary stages causes

  4. Venous thromboembolism and nonsmall cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lisa K; Cheung, Matthew C; Ding, Keyue; Hasan, Baktiar; Seymour, Lesley; Le Maître, Aurélie; Leighl, Natasha B; Shepherd, Frances A

    2009-12-01

    Advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, to the authors' knowledge, the incidence of VTE in early NSCLC, predictors of VTE, and the prognostic significance of VTE in NSCLC have not been explored. Individual patient data from 3 National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group trials were analyzed (n = 1987 patients). Clinical Trial BR.10 was a randomized study of postoperative vinorelbine and cisplatin versus observation in patients with stage IB/II NSCLC (grading determined according to the TNM staging system). Clinical Trial BR.18 was a randomized study of paclitaxel and carboplatin with or without the metalloproteinase inhibitor BMS-275291 in patients with advanced NSCLC. BR.21 was a randomized study of erlotinib versus placebo in patients with previously treated NSCLC. The relations between VTE, treatment, concomitant medications, and patient characteristics were explored in univariate and multivariate analyses. Survival analysis was completed using Cox regression. The incidence of VTE ranged from 0% in patients with early stage NSCLC on the observation arm of BR.10 to 7.9% in patients with advanced NSCLC who received chemotherapy (BR.18). Patients with early stage NSCLC who received chemotherapy (BR.10) and patients with previously treated NSCLC who received erlotinib or placebo (BR.21) had a VTE incidence of approximately 3%. Factors that were found to be predictive of VTE included previous VTE (BR.18; P = .001) and obesity (BR.10; P = .03). In patients with advanced NSCLC, VTE was associated with shorter survival (BR.18: hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.26-2.07 [P = .0002]; BR.21: HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.57-3.04 [P obesity and a history of VTE. VTE was found to be prognostic in patients with advanced stage NSCLC. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  5. Qualification of National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Centers for Quantitative PET/CT Imaging in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Joshua S; Reddin, Janet S; Opanowski, Adam; Kinahan, Paul E; Siegel, Barry A; Shankar, Lalitha K; Karp, Joel S

    2017-07-01

    The National Cancer Institute developed the Centers for Quantitative Imaging Excellence (CQIE) initiative in 2010 to prequalify imaging facilities at all of the National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive and clinical cancer centers for oncology trials using advanced imaging techniques, including PET. Here we review the CQIE PET/CT scanner qualification process and results in detail. Methods: Over a period of approximately 5 y, sites were requested to submit a variety of phantoms, including uniform and American College of Radiology-approved phantoms, PET/CT images, and examples of clinical images. Submissions were divided into 3 distinct time periods: initial submission (T0) and 2 requalification submissions (T1 and T2). Images were analyzed using standardized procedures, and scanners received a pass or fail designation. Sites had the opportunity to submit new data for scanners that failed. Quantitative results were compared across scanners within a given time period and across time periods for a given scanner. Results: Data from 65 unique PET/CT scanners across 56 sites were submitted for CQIE T0 qualification; 64 scanners passed the qualification. Data from 44 (68%) of those 65 scanners were submitted for T2. From T0 to T2, the percentage of scanners passing the CQIE qualification on the first attempt rose from 38% for T1 to 67% for T2. The most common reasons for failure were SUV outside specifications, incomplete submission, and uniformity issues. Uniform phantom and American College of Radiology-approved phantom results between scanner manufacturers were similar. Conclusion: The results of the CQIE process showed that periodic requalification may decrease the frequency of deficient data submissions. The CQIE project also highlighted the concern within imaging facilities about the burden of maintaining different qualifications and accreditations. Finally, for quantitative imaging-based trials, further evaluation of the relationships between the level of

  6. Photodynamic Therapy in Gynecologic Malignancies: A Review of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Mayor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a treatment modality used in the management of solid tumor malignancies that employs the use of a photosensitizing agent, a light source and oxygen in order to illicit a direct cytotoxic effect. Its use in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat novel and has been used for palliative and curative intent. At the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the use of PDT in the management of gynecologic cancers began in the mid 1980s and since that time 35 patients have received PDT as a treatment for recurrent or metastatic cutaneous and vulvar, vaginal, anal, and cervical recurrences. In our experience, 85% patients with metastatic cutaneous lesions had a complete response. Twenty-seven percent of patients with metastatic vaginal, cervical or anal recurrences had a complete response to therapy with a median response time of 28 months. Side effects from the treatment included moderate to severe burning sensation, pain and edema at the treatment site requiring narcotic pain medication for symptom management in patients who underwent treatment to cutaneous lesions as well as lower genital tract recurrences. PDT should be considered an option in patients who are too frail to undergo the standard of care or decline the standard of care in lieu of a less invasive treatment modality.

  7. Radiation-Therapeutic Agent Clinical Trials: Leveraging Advantages of a National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Naoko; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Bernhard, Eric J; Zwiebel, James; Norman Coleman, C; Kunos, Charles A

    2016-10-01

    A number of oncology phase II radiochemotherapy trials with promising results have been conducted late in the overall experimental therapeutic agent development process. Accelerated development and approval of experimental therapeutic agents have stimulated further interest in much earlier radiation-agent studies to increase the likelihood of success in phase III trials. To sustain this interest, more forward-thinking preclinical radiobiology experimental designs are needed to improve discovery of promising radiochemotherapy plus agent combinations for clinical trial testing. These experimental designs should better inform next-step radiation-agent clinical trial dose, schedule, exposure, and therapeutic effect. Recognizing the need for a better strategy to develop preclinical data supporting radiation-agent phase I or II trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) and the NCI-Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch of the Radiation Research Program have partnered to promote earlier radiobiology studies of CTEP portfolio agents. In this Seminars in Radiation Oncology article, four key components of this effort are discussed. First, we outline steps for accessing CTEP agents for preclinical testing. Second, we propose radiobiology studies that facilitate transition from preclinical testing to early phase trial activation. Third, we navigate steps that walk through CTEP agent strategic development paths available for radiation-agent testing. Fourth, we highlight a new NCI-sponsored cooperative agreement grant supporting in vitro and in vivo radiation-CTEP agent testing that informs early phase trial designs. Throughout the article, we include contemporary examples of successful radiation-agent development initiatives.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy in Gynecologic Malignancies: A Review of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Paul C.; Lele, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality used in the management of solid tumor malignancies that employs the use of a photosensitizing agent, a light source and oxygen in order to illicit a direct cytotoxic effect. Its use in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat novel and has been used for palliative and curative intent. At the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the use of PDT in the management of gynecologic cancers began in the mid 1980s and since that time 35 patients have received PDT as a treatment for recurrent or metastatic cutaneous and vulvar, vaginal, anal, and cervical recurrences. In our experience, 85% patients with metastatic cutaneous lesions had a complete response. Twenty-seven percent of patients with metastatic vaginal, cervical or anal recurrences had a complete response to therapy with a median response time of 28 months. Side effects from the treatment included moderate to severe burning sensation, pain and edema at the treatment site requiring narcotic pain medication for symptom management in patients who underwent treatment to cutaneous lesions as well as lower genital tract recurrences. PDT should be considered an option in patients who are too frail to undergo the standard of care or decline the standard of care in lieu of a less invasive treatment modality. PMID:27669307

  9. National Cancer Institute-supported chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy trials: outcomes and lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majithia, Neil; Temkin, Sarah M.; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Beutler, Andreas S.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common and debilitating complications of cancer treatment. Due to a lack of effective management options for patients with CIPN, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a series of trials aimed at both prevention and treatment. A total of 15 such studies were approved, evaluating use of various neuro-modulatory agents which have shown benefit in other neuropathic pain states. Aside from duloxetine, none of the pharmacologic methods demonstrated therapeutic benefit for patients with CIPN. Despite these disappointing results, the series of trials revealed important lessons that have informed subsequent work. Some examples of this include the use of patient-reported symptom metrics, the elimination of traditional—yet unsubstantiated—practice approaches, and the discovery of molecular genetic predictors of neuropathy. Current inquiry is being guided by the results from these large-scale trials, and as such, stands better chance of identifying durable solutions for this treatment-limiting toxicity. PMID:26686859

  10. Accelerating cancer therapy development: the importance of combination strategies and collaboration. Summary of an Institute of Medicine workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Canetta, Renzo; Wagner, John A; Balogh, Erin P; Nass, Sharyl J; Boerner, Scott A; Hohneker, John

    2012-11-15

    Cancer cells contain multiple genetic changes in cell signaling pathways that drive abnormal cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Unfortunately, patients treated with single agents inhibiting only one of these pathways--even if showing an initial response--often develop resistance with subsequent relapse or progression of their cancer, typically via the activation of an alternative uninhibited pathway. Combination therapies offer the potential for inhibiting multiple targets and pathways simultaneously to more effectively kill cancer cells and prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance. However, there are many unique challenges to developing combination therapies, including devising and applying appropriate preclinical tests and clinical trial designs, prioritizing which combination therapies to test, avoiding overlapping toxicity of multiple agents, and overcoming legal, cultural, and regulatory barriers that impede collaboration among multiple companies, organizations, and/or institutions. More effective strategies to efficiently develop combination cancer therapies are urgently needed. Thus, the Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Forum recently convened a workshop with the goal of identifying barriers that may be impeding the development of combination investigational cancer therapies, as well as potential solutions to overcome those barriers, improve collaboration, and ultimately accelerate the development of promising combinations of investigational cancer therapies. ©2012 AACR.

  11. In vivo 31P MR spectral patterns and reproducibility in cancer patients studied in a multi-institutional trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Mendoza, F.; Payne, G.S.; Zakian, K.L.; Schwarz, A.J.; Stubbs, M.; Stoyanova, R.; Ballon, D.; Howe, F.A.; Koutcher, J.A.; Leach, M.O.; Griffiths, J.R.; Heerschap, A.; Glickson, J.D.; Nelson, S.J.; Evelhoch, J.L.; Charles, H.C.; Brown, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    The standardization and reproducibility of techniques required to acquire anatomically localized 31P MR spectra non-invasively while studying tumors in cancer patients in a multi-institutional group at 1.5 T are reported. This initial group of patients was studied from 1995 to 2000 to test the

  12. [Cancer incidence in a Cancer Care Unit of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Toluca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Villanueva, Angel; Chacón Sánchez, Jesús; Santillán Arreygue, Leopoldo; Sánchez González, Yolanda; Romero-Figueroa, María del Socorro

    2014-01-01

    In 2000, malignant tumors were responsible for 12% of nearly 56 million deaths that occurred in the world from all causes. To determine the incidence of cancer in a Cancer Care Unit of IMSS in Toluca, Mexico. Prospective cross-sectional study; we identified the primary tumor, age, family history of cancer, comorbidities, risk factors, and ECOG in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. We identified 446 cases, 66.1% were women. The age group of age 50 to 59 had the highest number of cases (98). The most common cancers in women are breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer, and in men, testicular, prostate, and colorectal cancer. The most common cancers in both sexes were breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, and testicular cancer.

  13. Quality Improvement in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program: The Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert D.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Eisenstein, Jana; Stallings, Holley; Hegedus, Patricia D.; Bryant, Donna M.; Kadlubek, Pam J.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007; it is a network of community-based hospitals funded by the NCI. Quality of care is an NCCCP priority, with participation in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) playing a fundamental role in quality assessment and quality improvement (QI) projects. Using QOPI methodology, performance on quality measures was analyzed two times per year over a 3-year period to enhance our implementation of quality standards at NCCCP hospitals. Methods: A data-sharing agreement allowed individual-practice QOPI data to be electronically sent to the NCI. Aggregated data with the other NCCCP QOPI participants were presented to the network via Webinars. The NCCCP Quality of Care Subcommittee selected areas in which to focus subsequent QI efforts, and high-performing practices shared voluntarily their QI best practices with the network. Results: QOPI results were compiled semiannually between fall 2010 and fall 2013. The network concentrated on measures with a quality score of ≤ 0.75 and planned voluntary group-wide QI interventions. We identified 13 measures in which the NCCCP fell at or below the designated quality score in fall 2010. After implementing a variety of QI initiatives, the network registered improvements in all parameters except one (use of treatment summaries). Conclusion: Using the NCCCP as a paradigm, QOPI metrics provide a useful platform for group-wide measurement of quality performance. In addition, these measurements can be used to assess the effectiveness of QI initiatives. PMID:25538082

  14. Analysis of 57 nonagenarian cancer patients treated by radical radiotherapy. A survey of eight institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ishikura, Satoshi [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Hospital East; Oguchi, Masahiko; Niibe, Hideo; Yorozu, Atsunori; Nakano, Kikuo; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Watanabe, Sadao; Teshima, Teruki

    1999-08-01

    As the human society grows more aged, it is considered important to elucidate factors essential in applying radical radiotherapy (RT) to the elderly, with ages as high as 90 years and greater. A retrospective survey was conducted for patients 90 years of age or older who received radiotherapy with radical intent in eight leading institutions in Japan from 1990 through 1995. Fifty-seven nonagenarian patients were studied. Their ages ranged up to 98 (median 91) and there was a strong female preponderance (M/F: 16/41). The distribution by site was as follows: head and neck, 16; skin and adnexae, 11; uterine cervix, 7; esophagus, 6. The prevailing histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma (34), followed by adenocarcinomas (8). The highest age at RT was 98 years [female, skin cancer, died of senility 2.5 years after treatment, with no evidence of disease (NED)] and the longest survivor is 102 years old (female, glottic cancer T2, age at RT 93, alive NED for 8 years, uses wheel-chair). The rate of completion of treatment was 75% (43/57), if the treatment field was limited to the gross primary tumor volume only and if the cumulative dose was above 80% of the tolerable adult dose. Familial escort was necessary for most of the patients in completing the day-to-day RT. Radiotherapy is feasible with radical intent even in the elderly, if the treatment field is limited to the gross primary tumor volume only, if the cumulative dose is above 80% of the tolerable adult dose and if familial support is adequate. (author)

  15. Tumor induction following intraoperative radiotherapy: Late results of the National Cancer Institute canine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.; Duray, P.; DeLuca, A.; Anderson, W.; Sindelar, W.; Kinsella, T. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy has been employed in human cancer research for over a decade. Since 1979, trials to assess the acute and late toxicity of IORT have been carried out at the National Cancer Institute in an adult dog model in an attempt to establish dose tolerance guidelines for a variety of organs. Of the 170 animals entered on 12 studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 148 dogs received IORT; 22 control animals received only surgery. Animals were sacrificed at designated intervals following IORT, usually at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 month intervals. 102 of 148 irradiated dogs were sacrificed less than 24 months; 46 dogs were followed greater than or equal to 24 months after IORT. To date, 34 of the 46 animals have been sacrificed; the 12 remaining animals are to be followed to 5 years. These 12 animals have minimum follow-up of 30 months. In the irradiated group followed for greater than or equal to 24 months, 10 tumors have arisen in 9 animals. One animal developed an incidental spontaneous breast carcinoma outside the IORT port, discovered only at scheduled post-mortem exam. The remaining nine tumors arose within IORT ports. Two tumors were benign neural tumors--a neuroma and a neurofibroma. One animal had a collision tumor comprised of grade I chondrosarcoma adjacent to grade III osteosarcoma arising in lumbar vertebrae. Two other grade III osteosarcomas, one grade III fibrosarcoma, and one grade III malignant fibrous histiocytoma arose in retroperitoneal/paravertebral sites. An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) arose within the irradiated urinary bladder of one animal. No sham irradiated controls nor IORT animals sacrificed less than 24 months have developed any spontaneous or radiation-induced tumors. The time range of diagnoses of tumors was 24-58 months. The IORT dose range associated with tumor development was 20-35 Gy.

  16. The preclinical new drug research program of the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discovery and development of anticancer drugs with clinical potential are the responsibility of the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute (NCI). Approximately 10,000 compounds/year are selectively acquired and screened against murine tumor models in order to discover new, active materials. The program required to accomplish this objective, as well as the subsequent tasks of formulation development and toxicology testing, is described. Since its inception in 1955, the preclinical new drug research program of the NCI has played a major role in the discovery and development of new agents which have been entered into clinical trial. The NCI has been responsible for the discovery of eight of the 16 commercially available drugs discovered since 1955. In addition, the NCI has played an important role in the clinical evaluation of all 16 of these New Drug Application (NDA)-approved drugs. During 1977-1982, the NCI filed Investigational New Drug Applications (INDA) for 33 cytotoxic agents. It was responsible for the discovery of the antitumor activity of 73% of these compounds. Most of the INDA compounds were acquired directly through NCI efforts. The DTP active acquisition program was responsible for obtaining 69% of these materials, with an additional 12% coming from the DTP intramural research program. Only 19% were received as voluntary submissions. The DTP active acquisition and screening effort is shown to have played even a larger role in identifying and obtaining those compounds which are currently in earlier stages of the NCI drug discovery and development process.

  17. Ensuring quality cancer care: a follow-up review of the Institute of Medicine's 10 recommendations for improving the quality of cancer care in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Tracy; Albright, Heidi W; Feeley, Thomas W; Walters, Ron; Burke, Thomas W; Aloia, Thomas; Bruera, Eduardo; Buzdar, Aman; Foxhall, Lewis; Hui, David; Summers, Barbara; Rodriguez, Alma; Dubois, Raymond; Shine, Kenneth I

    2012-05-15

    Responding to growing concerns regarding the safety, quality, and efficacy of cancer care in the United States, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences commissioned a comprehensive review of cancer care delivery in the US health care system in the late 1990s. The National Cancer Policy Board (NCPB), a 20-member board with broad representation, performed this review. In its review, the NCPB focused on the state of cancer care delivery at that time, its shortcomings, and ways to measure and improve the quality of cancer care. The NCPB described an ideal cancer care system in which patients would have equitable access to coordinated, guideline-based care and novel therapies throughout the course of their disease. In 1999, the IOM published the results of this review in its influential report, Ensuring Quality Cancer Care. The report outlined 10 recommendations, which, when implemented, would: 1) improve the quality of cancer care, 2) increase the current understanding of quality cancer care, and 3) reduce or eliminate access barriers to quality cancer care. Despite the fervor generated by this report, there are lingering doubts regarding the safety and quality of cancer care in the United States today. Increased awareness of medical errors and barriers to quality care, coupled with escalating health care costs, has prompted national efforts to reform the health care system. These efforts by health care providers and policymakers should bridge the gap between the ideal state described in Ensuring Quality Cancer Care and the current state of cancer care in the United States.

  18. Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Listen Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, shredded leaves and flowers from the marijuana plant. Marijuana can be rolled up and smoked ...

  19. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of ...

  20. Facts about Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information > Amblyopia > Facts About Amblyopia Facts About Amblyopia This information was developed by the National Eye ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Amblyopia Defined What is amblyopia? The brain and the ...

  1. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  2. Trauma Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Physical Trauma Fact Sheet Physical Trauma Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area ... of physical trauma. Credit: iStock. What is physical trauma? Physical trauma is a serious injury to the ...

  3. Diabetes Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes by losing weight. Related information Fitness and nutrition Heart disease and stroke Obesity and weight loss fact sheet Physical activity fact sheet Pregnancy The javascript used in this widget is not ...

  4. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Pancreas Facts The pancreas is a five to six inch ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the ... 2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care ...

  6. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  7. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. A Picture Really is Worth a Thousand Words: Public Engagement with the National Cancer Institute on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-03-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides pertinent information about cancer prevention, treatment, and research advancements that is considered objective and accurate. NCI's presence on social media is an example of a growing effort in promoting and facilitating audience engagement with evidence-based information about health and cancer. However, it is unknown what strategies are most effective for engaging audiences via this communication platform. To evaluate this important question, we analyzed data on posts, associated comments, and meta-data from official NCI Facebook page between July 2010 and February 2015 (end of data collection). Results show that audience engagement is associated with the format of cancer-related social media posts. Specifically, posts with photos received significantly more likes, comments, and shares than videos, links, and status updates. The findings have important implications for how social media can be more effectively utilized to promote public engagement with important public health issues.

  9. Institute of medicine recommendations for improving the quality of cancer care: what do they mean for the general internist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Wenger, Neil

    2014-10-01

    In order to evaluate and address the deficiencies in the U.S. cancer care system, particularly affecting the growing elderly population, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a panel representing oncology providers, surgeons, primary care providers, researchers, policy makers and patients. The Committee concluded that cancer care is on the brink of crisis and issued recommendations targeting all stakeholders involved in cancer care. General internists play a critical role in the care of cancer patients, from the time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship and end of life care. We review the IOM recommendations, highlight those that are particularly relevant to the general internist, and outline clinical, research and educational opportunities where general internists should take an expanded role.

  10. Report of chronic myeloid leukemia from Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Regional Cancer Center, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Pritanjali

    2013-07-01

    Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Regional Cancer Center was established in 1993. It's one of the main Health-Care Institution in the state of Bihar. The data of 205 patients was presented in the ICON meeting and 98% of patients were diagnosed in chronic phase. Complete hematological response was seen in 91% of patients in 3 months. A total of 197 (96%) patients were alive at the time of analysis of which 179 (87%) were still in chronic phase with hematological remission.

  11. An Institutional Retrospective Analysis of 93 Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer: Treatment Outcomes, Diagnosis-Specific Prognostic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors and indexes of a series of 93 patients with breast cancer and brain metastases (BM) in a single institution. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to the major prognostic indexes (RPA, BSBM, GPA scores) and breast cancer subtypes. Independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) were identified. The median OS values according to GPA 0–1, 1.5–2, 2.5–3 and 3.5–4, were 4.5, 9.5, 14.2 and 19.1 months, respect...

  12. Breast cancer in malaysia: are our women getting the right message? 10 year-experience in a single institution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Nur Aishah; Yip, Cheng Har; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Ng, C J; Farizah, H

    2007-01-01

    The message that health care providers caring for patients with breast cancer would like to put forth, is that, not only early detection is crucial but early treatment too is important in ensuring survival. This paper examines the pattern of presentation at a single institution over a 10-year period from 1995 to 2005. In Malaysia, education outreach programmes are ongoing, with contributions not only from the public sector, but also private enterprise. Articles on breast cancer in local newspapers and women magazines and television are quite commonplace. However are our women getting the right message? Now is an appropriate time to bring the stakeholders together to formulate a way to reach all women in Malaysia, not excluding the fact that we are from different races, different education levels and backgrounds requiring differing ways of delivering health promotion messages. To answer the question of why women present late, we prospectively studied 25 women who presented with locally advanced disease. A quantitative, quasi-qualitative study was embarked upon, as a prelude to a more detailed study. Reasons for presenting late were recorded. We also looked at the pattern of presentation of breast lumps in women to our breast clinic in UMMC and in the surgical clinic in Hospital Kota Bharu, in the smaller capital of the state of Kelantan, in 2003. There is hope for the future, the government being a socially responsible one is currently making efforts towards mammographic screening in Malaysia. However understanding of the disease, acceptance of medical treatment and providing resources is imperative to ensure that health behaviour exhibited by our women is not self-destructive but self-preserving. Women are an integral part of not only the nation's workforce but the lifeline of the family - hopefully in the next decade we will see great improvement in the survival of Malaysian women with breast cancer.

  13. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  14. Facts about Hib Disease. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about Hib Disease in young children, which may involve a bacterial meningitis causing mental retardation, hearing loss, partial blindness, speech disorders, partial paralysis, behavioral problems, or seizures. Stressed is prevention of Hib Disease through immunization. The question and answer format…

  15. Facts about Hib Disease. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about Hib Disease in young children, which may involve a bacterial meningitis causing mental retardation, hearing loss, partial blindness, speech disorders, partial paralysis, behavioral problems, or seizures. Stressed is prevention of Hib Disease through immunization. The question and answer format…

  16. Is psychological distress in people living with cancer related to the fact of diagnosis, current treatment or level of disability? Findings from a large Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Emily; Byles, Julie E; Gibson, Richard E; Rodgers, Bryan; Latz, Isabel K; Robinson, Ian A; Williamson, Anna B; Jorm, Louisa R

    2010-09-06

    To investigate whether the observed elevated levels of psychological distress in cancer survivors relate specifically to aspects of cancer diagnosis, to treatment or to disability. Self-reported questionnaire data on demographic, health and lifestyle factors and mental health from 89574 Australian men and women aged 45 years or older, sampled from the Medicare database for the 45 and Up Study from 1 February 2006 to 30 April 2008. Logistic regression was used to examine the risk of high levels of psychological distress in relation to cancer diagnosis and disability, adjusting for age, sex, income and education. High psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score > or = 22). Overall, 7.5% of participants had high levels of psychological distress. Among cancer survivors, the median time since diagnosis was 7.3 years. Compared with people without cancer, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for psychological distress were: 1.17 (1.09-1.26) in people reporting having had any cancer apart from non-melanoma skin cancer; 1.34 (1.08-1.67) in those with cancer diagnosed in the previous year; 1.53 (1.33-1.76) for those reporting treatment for cancer in the previous month and 1.11 (1.03-1.19) for those with cancer but without recent treatment. Using individuals with neither cancer nor disability as the reference group, the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for psychological distress was 6.51 (5.95-7.12) in those reporting significant disability but no cancer, 1.14(1.04-1.24) in those without disability but with cancer and 5.81(4.88-6.91) in those with both cancer and disability. The risk of psychological distress in individuals with cancer relates much more strongly to their level of disability than it does to the cancer diagnosis itself.

  17. The Broad Institute: Screening for Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines Using Small Molecules | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using cancer cell-line profiling, we established an ongoing resource to identify, as comprehensively as possible, the drug-targetable dependencies that specific genomic alterations impart on human cancers. We measured the sensitivity of hundreds of genetically characterized cancer cell lines to hundreds of small-molecule probes and drugs that have highly selective interactions with their targets, and that collectively modulate many distinct nodes in cancer cell circuitry.

  18. State-of-the-art prostate cancer treatment and research. A report from the Cancer Institute of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, R S; Kumar, P; Hait, W N; Weiss, R E

    2001-02-01

    Prostate cancer is a devastating disease that will be diagnosed in approximately 200,000 men in 2001. New methods for screening, prevention, and treatment are being developed. In addition, novel agents for the treatment of resistant prostate cancer are being developed in clinical trials. This review summarizes the recent efforts in diet, screening, novel systemic therapies, and alternative medicine for prostate cancer.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices of women for breast cancer in the educational institutions of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Samina; Qureshi, Warda; Mahmood, Saqib; Saleem, Afaf; Mahmud, Sumbal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence rates, pattern of presentation and survival rates vary worldwide. High incidence, advanced stage disease presentation and low survival rates have been reported from Pakistan. Lack of awareness and screening facilities along with poor socioeconomic status are the main causes. A survey based upon multiple choice questionnaires was conducted during an awareness campaign in women educational institutions of Lahore, to assess the baseline knowledge, attitude towards breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and source of information used by them. 1155 filled questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 12. The majority (83.7%) of the respondents were 10 and 31.5% had education. Only 27% had "good" while 14% had "poor" and 59% had "fair" knowledge scores about breast cancer. Television was the most commonly cited source of information but was associated with lower knowledge score. The knowledge scores and practice of BSE had a positive association with education level. The respondents had better knowledge of life time risk and association of early diagnosis with better chances of cure, but worse knowledge of risk factors as compared to women in educational institutions of other countries. Generally the respondents of present study had low level of knowledge of breast cancer. Properly designed awareness campaign on television and in educational institutions can be effective to raise the knowledge level, the best long term strategy for this purpose.

  20. Development and Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Dietary Screener Questionnaire Scoring Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frances E; Midthune, Douglas; Kahle, Lisa; Dodd, Kevin W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Methods for improving the utility of short dietary assessment instruments are needed.Objective: We sought to describe the development of the NHANES Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ) and its scoring algorithms and performance.Methods: The 19-item DSQ assesses intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, added sugars, dairy, fiber, and calcium. Two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the DSQ were administered in NHANES 2009-2010 to respondents aged 2-69 y (n = 7588). The DSQ frequency responses, coupled with sex- and age-specific portion size information, were regressed on intake from 24-h recalls by using the National Cancer Institute usual intake method to obtain scoring algorithms to estimate mean and prevalences of reaching 2 a priori threshold levels. The resulting scoring algorithms were applied to the DSQ and compared with intakes estimated with the 24-h recall data only. The stability of the derived scoring algorithms was evaluated in repeated sampling. Finally, scoring algorithms were applied to screener data, and these estimates were compared with those from multiple 24-h recalls in 3 external studies.Results: The DSQ and its scoring algorithms produced estimates of mean intake and prevalence that agreed closely with those from multiple 24-h recalls. The scoring algorithms were stable in repeated sampling. Differences in the means were algorithms is an advance in the use of screeners. However, because these algorithms may not be generalizable to all studies, a pilot study in the proposed study population is advisable. Although more precise instruments such as 24-h dietary recalls are recommended in most research, the NHANES DSQ provides a less burdensome alternative when time and resources are constrained and interest is in a limited set of dietary factors. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Meta-analysis provides evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the clinical significance of mean differences for the FACT-G, a cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine T King

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Madeleine T King1, David Cella2, David Osoba3, Martin Stockler4, David Eton5, Joanna Thompson6, Amy Eisenstein71Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group School of Psychology, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Illinois, USA; 3QOL Consulting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 5Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 6Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 7Center on Outcomes Research and Education (CORE, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare (ENH, Evanston, Illinois, USAAbstract: Our aim was to develop evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G, a cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instrument, from a range of clinically relevant anchors, incorporating expert judgment about clinical significance. Three clinicians with many years’ experience managing cancer patients and using HRQOL outcomes in clinical research reviewed 71 papers. Blinded to the FACT-G results, they considered the clinical anchors associated with each FACT-G mean difference, predicted which dimensions of HRQOL would be affected, and whether the effects would be trivial, small, moderate, or large. These size classes were defined in terms of clinical relevance. The experts’ judgments were then linked with FACT-G mean differences, and inverse-variance weighted mean differences were calculated for each size class. Small, medium, and large differences (95% confidence interval from 1,118 cross-sectional comparisons were as follows: physical well-being 1.9 (0.6–3.2, 4.1 (2.7–5.5, 8.7 (5.2–12; functional well-being 2.0 (0.5–3.5, 3.8 (2.0–5.5, 8.8 (4.3–13; emotional well-being 1.0 (0.1–2.6, 1.9 (0.3–3.5, no large differences; social well-being 0.7 (-0.7 to 2

  2. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... promising opportunities based on nanotechnology from academic research to the clinical environment; 4... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer...

  3. Prognostic Factors in Primary Vaginal Cancer: A Single Institute Experience and Review of Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prameela, Chelakkot G; Ravind, Rahul; Gurram, Bharath C; Sheejamol, V S; Dinesh, Makuny

    2016-01-01

    ... cancers.Medical records of all cases of primary vaginal cancers, presented to Department of Oncology, from 2004 to 2012, at a tertiary care center in southern India, were retrieved from electronic medical...

  4. Evaluation of different recall periods for the US National Cancer Institute's PRO-CTCAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Tito R; Dueck, Amylou C; Bennett, Antonia V; Mitchell, Sandra A; Reeve, Bryce B; Atkinson, Thomas M; Li, Yuelin; Castro, Kathleen M; Denicoff, Andrea; Rogak, Lauren J; Piekarz, Richard L; Cleeland, Charles S; Sloan, Jeff A; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    The US National Cancer Institute recently developed the PRO-CTCAE (Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). PRO-CTCAE is a library of questions for clinical trial participants to self-report symptomatic adverse events (e.g. nausea). The objective of this study is to inform evidence-based selection of a recall period when PRO-CTCAE is included in a trial. We evaluated differences between 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week recall periods, using daily reporting as the reference. English-speaking patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were enrolled at four US cancer centers and affiliated community clinics. Participants completed 27 PRO-CTCAE items electronically daily for 28 days, and then weekly over 4 weeks, using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week recall periods. For each recall period, mean differences, effect sizes, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate agreement between the maximum of daily ratings and the corresponding ratings obtained using longer recall periods (e.g. maximum of daily scores over 7 days vs 1-week recall). Analyses were repeated using the average of daily scores within each recall period rather than the maximum of daily scores. A total of 127 subjects completed questionnaires (57% male; median age: 57). The median of the 27 mean differences in scores on the PRO-CTCAE 5-point response scale comparing the maximum daily versus the longer recall period (and corresponding effect size) was -0.20 (-0.20) for 1-week recall, -0.36 (-0.31) for 2-week recall, -0.45 (-0.39) for 3-week recall, and -0.47 (-0.40) for 4-week recall. The median intraclass correlation across 27 items between the maximum of daily ratings and the corresponding longer recall ratings for 1-week recall was 0.70 (range: 0.54-0.82), for 2-week recall was 0.74 (range: 0.58-0.83), for 3-week recall was 0.72 (range: 0.61-0.84), and for 4-week recall was 0.72 (range: 0.64-0.86). Similar results were

  5. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Ayuso, Carmen; Egido, Jesus; Rojo, Federico; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. Aim To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81 diabetic patients diagnosed of colon cancer matched with 79 non-diabetic colon cancer patients. The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the growth of colon cancer xenografts was studied in mice. Results The incidence of DM in 1,137 patients with colorectal cancer was 16%. The diabetic colon cancer cases and non-diabetic colon cancer controls were well matched for demographic and clinical variables. The ECOG Scale Performance Status was higher (worse) in diabetics (ECOG ≥1, 29.1% of controls vs 46.9% of diabetics, p = 0.02), but no significant differences were observed in tumor grade, adjuvant therapy, tumor site, lymphovascular invasion, stage, recurrence, death or cancer-related death. Moreover, no differences in tumor variables were observed between patients treated or not with metformin. In the xenograft model, tumor growth and histopathological characteristics did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Conclusion Our findings point towards a mild or negligible effect of the diabetes environment on colon cancer behavior, once cancer has already developed. PMID:28253286

  6. A pilot study to assess the level of depression and the coping strategies adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitumoni Konwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer, the second most common cause of death, has become a major health problem. Depression is the most common psychological problem encountered in patients with cancer. The coping skills adopted may affect the mental health of patients. Therefore, this research is undertaken to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by the patients diagnosed with cancer. Materials and methods: A descriptive study to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl was carried out from April to May 2014 with 30 convenient samples. Depression was assessed by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith in 1983. Coping strategy adopted by patients were assessed by revised version of the Ways of Coping Checklist developed by Folkman and Lazarus in 1985. Results: Findings of the study showed that depression was universal to all the cancer patients. Majority of cancer patients (66.5% had moderate depression while 13.26% of the cancer patients had severe depression, and only 6.7% of them reported to have low depression. The most effective coping strategy adopted was reappraisal, followed by distancing. There is significant correlation between depression and reappraisal (r=-0.538, p<0.002, and also with depression and acceptance (r=-0.415, p<0.022 strategies. Conclusion: As depression is universal to all cancer patients, use of appropriate coping strategy is very essential to improve their quality of life. The recognition of coping strategies by health team may enable appropriate information and interventions to be provided at optimal times for each individual.

  7. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. Sometimes ... clear or white shiny rock (called a crystal). Meth powder can be eaten or snorted up the ...

  8. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  9. Facts for Feeding Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document compiles several fact sheets, in multiple languages, for mothers and parent educators providing information and answering questions concerning breastfeeding infants. The fact sheets are published in English, French, and Spanish, and cover the following topics: (1) "Recommended Practices To Improve Infant Nutrition during the…

  10. Accessibility and Barriers to Oncology Appointments at 40 National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers: Results of a Mystery Shopper Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Geoffrey S; Hutchins, Kathryn E; Johnston, Abby L; Thomas, Rishonda T; Tian, James; Kamal, Arif H

    2016-10-01

    Patients turn to National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated comprehensive cancer centers because of perceived better quality and more timely access to care. However, recent studies have found that patients at various institutions may struggle to gain access to an appointment or obtain consistent information from attendants. Our study employs a mystery shopper format to identify and quantify barriers faced by patients seeking to make a first consultation appointment across a homogenous sample of 40 NCI-designated comprehensive cancer centers. Five mystery shoppers used a standardized call script to inquire about first available appointment times and service offerings. When inquiring about a date for a first available appointment, 29% of callers were unable to secure an estimated date without registering into the center's database, 51% were able to secure an estimated date, and 20% were provided with an actual date. Of estimated or actual dates for a first available appointment, 74% were greater than 1 week away. There was no statistically significant variation between appointment availability across insurance type or US region. Our study highlights the difficulty of accessing information about appointment availability. Although not statistically significant, inquiries regarding first available appointments for Medicaid patients resulted in longer estimated or actual wait times than those for patients with private insurance, and Medicaid shoppers noted qualitative differences. Although our study was limited by small sample size and imperfect analytic methods, our results suggest the need for more efficient and accessible care for patients at our nation's top cancer centers.

  11. Comparison of Serum Selenium Levels in Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy People at a Cancer Institute in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast Cancer is one of the most important fatal cancers in women. The mean age of breast cancer in Iran is 48.8 years which is very lower than other countries. Selenium can play an important role in reduction of cancer in several ways, for example selenium increases immunity response and protects cells from oxidation of free radicals and also decreases carcinogenic metabolites. Breast cancer is one of the most important cancers in our country because its incidence is very high and the mean age of patients is very low. Different studies have shown the benefits of selenium in prevention of cancer and since many years selenium has been used as a dietary supplement in advanced countries. Several studies regarding relationship between selenium levels and breast cancer have been done in different countries. We therefore planned a study to evaluate serum selenium levels in breast cancer patients and compare them with a healthy control group. Methods: We selected 45 patients younger than 48 years old and 33 patients older than 48 years old who had not yet received any therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, etc for their cancer as a case group and 46 healthy people who were matched with the patients as a control group and included 23 persons younger and 23 persons older than 48 years old. From each participant, 5cc blood was derived and in several stages, serum selenium levels were evaluated using atomic absorption technology. Data about type of cancer, stage, grade, IHC and cigarette smoking were also collected. Results: The mean Se level was 161.20 μg/l (SD=46.27 μg/l in the patients and 189.13 μg/l (SD=48.75 μg/l in the control group that was statistically significant (P48 years old was 155.39 μg/l (SD=46.68 μg/l that was lower than the control groups. Difference in serum selenium levels between patients and controls in the older group was significant (P=0.007, but in the younger group, it was not statistically significant (P=0

  12. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanidi, Anouar; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Ortega, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population. Population-based case-control study. Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited. In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations. No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4-Q1=0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.92, P trend=0.03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4-Q1=0.60 (95% CI 0.39, 0.94, P trend=0.03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.42, 0.76, P trend adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.

  13. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney/Pancreas Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish- ... the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five to six inch gland located ...

  14. HRSA Data Fact Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Data Fact Sheets provide summary data about HRSA’s activities in each Congressional District, County, State,...

  15. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  16. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  17. Facts about Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  18. Facts about Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  19. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  20. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ctrl+c to copy Additional Drug Facts Other Articles of Interest NIDA Notes Prevention Program Reduces Substance Use By Participants' Friends Elevated Rates of Drug Abuse Continue for Second Year Nora's ...

  1. Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incorporate genomic results into medical care. Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on September 28, 2017 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook ...

  2. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  3. Facts about Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC’s Work Related Information UDC System Facts About Thalassemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Did You ... to death. What are the different types of thalassemia? When we talk about different “types” of thalassemia, ...

  4. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  5. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  6. Respirator Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have expiration dates that should be checked before purchase. Also, over time your mask can get old ... Respirator Fact Sheet [PDF - 706 KB] Follow NIOSH Facebook Flickr Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A- ...

  7. Facts You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... military veterans, particularly those deployed during the Gulf War, are approximately twice as likely to develop ALS. ... management interventions, riluzole and possibly other compounds and drugs under investigation. Facts You Should Know ALS is ...

  8. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  9. METACHRONOUS SECOND PRIMARY CANCERS: CLINICAL ANALYSES OF 506 CASES IN A SINGLE INSTITUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiang-qian; HAO Chun-yi; GAO Fei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the clinical features and prognosis of multiple primary cancers, in order to make improvement of diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A total of 506 patients with two primary cancers admitted from 1973 to 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: These cases accounted for 0.9% of all the hospitalized cases in the same period among which 126 were males, with the ratio of male to female 1:3. The median age at the onset of the first disease was 48 y (ranged from 24 to 77). The interval between the two cancers was longer in patients under 50 y and in males, but without statistical significance. The onset age of the two primary cancers was mainly centered around 40 to 60 y, while 70% of the second cancer occurred within 80 m after the first cancer but half of them occurred within five years. The interval between the two cancers played crucial role in affecting the prognosis (P<0.005). Conclusion: Fewer lethal cancers are involved in either the primary or the secondary malignancies. The interval between the two primaries contributes most to the prognoses.

  10. Preliminary results of robotic colorectal surgery at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Saad Zaghloul

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the outcomes of robotic colorectal cancer intervention in Egyptian patients. Our preliminary results suggest that robotic-assisted surgery for colorectal cancer can be carried out safely and according to oncological principles.

  11. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 2D AND 3D dose verification at The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital using EPIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnheer, Ben; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Tielenburg, Rene; Van Herk, Marcel; Vijlbrief, Ron; Stroom, Joep

    2010-11-01

    A review is given of the clinical use of EPID dosimetry in the Department of Radiation Oncology of The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital. All curative plans (almost all IMRT or VMAT) are verified with EPID dosimetry, mostly in vivo. The 2D approach for IMRT verification and the 3D method for VMAT verification are elucidated and their clinical implementation described. It has been shown that EPID dosimetry plays an important role in the total chain of verification procedures that are implemented in our department. It provides a safety net for advanced treatments such as IMRT and VMAT, as well as a full account of the dose delivered.

  13. [A rare cancer: cancers of the small intestine. 25 cases diagnosed at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar from 1992 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C R; Dina, T J N; Ravalisoa, A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective survey of cases of cancer of the small intestine observed in the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (IPM), in the Centre Hospitalier de Soavinandriana (CenHoSoa) and in the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo/Hôpital Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (CHUA/HJRA), has been undertaken with the goal to find out epidemiological and diagnostical particularities, as well as the therapeutic measures and their results. Only 25 cases have been found in 10 years (from 1992 to 2001). They represent 5.4% of the digestive cancers diagnosed by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. They concern 14 women and 11 men with a mean age of 36 years old at the time of diagnosis. The motive of hospitalization was an acute abdomen (peritonitis, perforation, occlusive syndrome, König's syndrome) in 64.3%, and a chronic abdominal pain often associated with abdominal mass in 35.7%. The duodenum is the predilection seat of the small bowel cancers (50%), followed by the ileum (25%) and the jejunum (10%). A diffuse shape has been observed in 15% of the cases. The most frequent histological type is the lymphoma (40%) followed by the adenocarcinoma (32%).

  14. Phase Angle of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis as Prognostic Factor in Palliative Care Patients at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Camargo, Dana A; Allende Pérez, Silvia R; Rivera Franco, Mónica M; Álvarez Licona, Nelson E; Urbalejo Ceniceros, Víctor I; Figueroa Baldenegro, Lilian E

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience symptoms of disease and treatment that contribute to distress such as weight loss, which is present in up to 85% of cancer patients. Palliative care in these patients focuses on care aimed at improving quality of life. Phase angle (PA) is obtained by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and is associated with cellular function. It is considered a reliable marker of malnutrition. A low PA may suggest deterioration of the cell membrane, which in palliative patients may result in a short-term survival. The aim of this study was to associate PA and survival in palliative patients of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico. We included 452 patients (women, 56.4%); the average PA was 4.0°. The most frequent disease was gastric cancer (39.2%). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.84. The average survival of patients with PA ≤ 4° was 86 days, while in the group with PA > 4°, it was 163 days (P > 0.0001). PA showed significant positive correlation with survival time and BMI. Our results corroborate the reliability of PA in Mexican population, as an indicator of survival in palliative care patients compared to the reported literature in other countries.

  15. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alvarez Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO. End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival.

  16. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S. Alvarez; Arias Fúnez, F.; Bueno Bravo, C.; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, R.; Sanz Mayayo, E.; Palacios, V. Hevia; Burgos Revilla, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO). End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. PMID:24693437

  17. In-vivo imaging results with ultrasound tomography: report on an ongoing study at the Karmanos Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Chandiwala-Mody, Priti; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Myc, Lukasz; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Lupinacci, Jessica; Ranger, Bryan; Szczepanski, Amy; West, Erik

    2010-03-01

    Our laboratory has focused on the development of ultrasound tomography (UST) for breast imaging. To that end we have been developing and testing a clinical prototype in the Karmanos Cancer Institute's (KCI) breast center. The development of our prototype has been guided by clinical feedback from data accumulated from over 300 patients recruited over the last 4 years. Our techniques generate whole breast reflection images as well as images of the acoustic parameters of sound speed and attenuation. The combination of these images reveals major breast anatomy, including fat, parenchyma, fibrous stroma and masses. Fusion imaging, utilizing thresholding, is shown to visualize mass characterization and facilitates separation of cancer from benign masses. These results indicate that operator-independent whole-breast imaging and the detection and characterization of cancerous breast masses are feasible using acoustic tomography techniques. Analyses of the prototype images suggests that we can detect the variety of mass attributes noted by current ultrasound-BIRADS criteria, such as mass shape, acoustic mass properties and architecture of the tumor environment. These attributes help quantify current BIRADS criteria (e.g. "shadowing" or high attenuation) and provide greater possibilities for defining a unique signature of cancer. The potential for UST to detect and characterize breast masses was quantified using UST measurements of 86 masses from the most recent cohort of patients imaged with the latest version of our prototype. Our preliminary results suggest that the development of a formal predictive model, in support of larger future trials, is warranted.

  18. Fact Finding Nuclear Energy; Fact Finding Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lako, P. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Blom, F.J.; Van Gemert, F. [Sociaal-Economische Raad SER, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Facts and figures on nuclear energy are presented to enable a discussion on the role of nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The following issues are presented: Nuclear technology, safety and security (including non-proliferation and protection against terrorism); Environmental aspects (including greenhouse gas emissions of the nuclear energy lifecycle); Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits); Policy issues (including sustainable development); Social acceptance of nuclear energy; Knowledge infrastructure for nuclear energy in the Netherlands; and Nuclear power in long term energy scenarios for the Netherlands and Europe. Using two long-term energy scenarios the report also presents a social impact analysis of an increasing share of nuclear power in the Dutch electricity supply. [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn feiten en gegevens over kernenergie verzameld op basis van bestaande inzichten en een veelheid aan literatuur (fact finding). Voor technologische expertise heeft ECN zich laten bijstaan door de Nucleair Research and consultancy Group (NRG). Op basis van de fact-finding studie bereidt de SER een advies voor over de rol van kernenergie in de toekomstige nationale elektriciteitsproductie. In de eerste acht hoofdstukken worden feiten en gegevens gepresenteerd over verschillende onderwerpen die bij kernenergie van belang zijn. In Hoofdstuk 2 wordt de kernenergietechnologie beschreven, inclusiefde veiligheid van kernenergie besproken, omdat die nauw met de technologie samenhangt. Hierbij gaat het om de technische veiligheid van de installaties, maar ook om beveiliging tegen misbruik van technologie en nucleair materiaal, waaronder beveiliging tegen terrorisme. De milieuaspecten door radioactiviteit en door emissies van kooldioxide die met het gebruik van kernenergie samenhangen

  19. 78 FR 27974 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Ways to enhance the quality, utility... business officials. The awards are administered by and the reports reviewed by the Office of Cancer...

  20. Facts in artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Bindhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  1. Energy Facts, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Energy Facts, organized by energy source, is a compilation of energy data providing a reference to a broad range of domestic and international energy data, for the general public as well as the technical community. This report is designed especially for the business person, government worker, or student who needs a quick reference to major facts about energy. Each table of statistics appears on the opposite page from a corresponding graphic. The graphic has a point of interest rather than a title across the top.

  2. Breast cancer in women aging 35 years old and younger: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute (NCI) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, A D; Helal, A M; Aly El-Din, N H; Solaiman, L L; Amin, A

    2017-02-01

    The aim is to identify the epidemiological and clinicopathological features associated with young breast cancer (BC) patients and to discuss factors affecting tumor recurrence and DFS. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on medical records from young females patients aged ≤35 years with pathologically confirmed primary breast cancer treated during 2008-2010 at NCI. Cases with non invasive cancer and non carcinoma histology are excluded. Of the 5408 cases diagnosed with breast cancer, 554 were young. Four hundred & fifty eight patients representing 9.2% were within our inclusion criteria. Almost half of the patients (45.9%) presented with stage III. Axillary nodes involvement was in 63.9%, 83.3% were grade 2. More than one quarter of tumors was hormone receptors negative (28.8%) & Her2 was over-expressed in 30%. Mastectomy was offered in 72% while conservative breast surgery in 26%, 69.2% received chemotherapy either adjuvant, neoadjuvant or both, 82.5% received adjuvant radiotherapy, 68.6% received hormonal therapy. Metastatic disease developed in 51.3%, with 31% having more than one site of metastases. After a median follow up period of 66 months, the median DFS of patients was 60 months. The median DFS was significantly shorter among patients with positive lymph nodes (P Breast cancer in young women is aggressive from the time of diagnosis. Our results provide baseline data of young BC in the Middle East & North Africa region; thus, contributing to future epidemiological and hospital-based researches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  4. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  5. Burns Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  6. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  7. Facts about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Down Syndrome Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... children with Down syndrome. View charts » What is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a condition in which a ...

  8. Trauma Facts for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  10. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cost References Español: Datos breves Facts about Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is one of the world’s most pressing public ... antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance in children and older adults are ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Books for Practitioners Professional Membership Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible ... Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About ...

  13. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  14. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About Vitamin C 1 Linda B. Bobroff and Isabel Valentín-Oquendo 2 FCS8702 Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has a ... maintain healthy body tissues and the immune system. Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... zone with Tough Mudder! Learn More: Take Ryan’s Challenge - 2017-03-d2sd.html Learn More Take Ryan’s ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  17. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  19. Diet myths and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure to check the serving size too. MYTH? Skipping breakfast makes you gain weight. FACT: Eating a healthy breakfast can help you manage your hunger later in the day and help ... that skipping the morning meal leads directly to weight gain. ...

  20. A Novel Cross-Disciplinary Multi-Institute Approach to Translational Cancer Research: Lessons Learned from Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar A. Patel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC, http://www.pcabc.upmc.edu is one of the first major project-based initiatives stemming from the Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance that was funded for four years by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The objective of this was to initiate a prototype biorepository and bioinformatics infrastructure with a robust data warehouse by developing a statewide data model (1 for bioinformatics and a repository of serum and tissue samples; (2 a data model for biomarker data storage; and (3 a public access website for disseminating research results and bioinformatics tools. The members of the Consortium cooperate closely, exploring the opportunity for sharing clinical, genomic and other bioinformatics data on patient samples in oncology, for the purpose of developing collaborative research programs across cancer research institutions in Pennsylvania. The Consortium’s intention was to establish a virtual repository of many clinical specimens residing in various centers across the state, in order to make them available for research. One of our primary goals was to facilitate the identification of cancer specific biomarkers and encourage collaborative research efforts among the participating centers.Methods: The PCABC has developed unique partnerships so that every region of the state can effectively contribute and participate. It includes over 80 individuals from 14 organizations, and plans to expand to partners outside the State. This has created a network of researchers, clinicians, bioinformaticians, cancer registrars, program directors, and executives from academic and community health systems, as well as external corporate partners - all working together to accomplish a common mission. The various sub-committees have developed a common IRB protocol template, common data elements for standardizing data collections for three organ sites, intellectual

  1. A Novel Cross-Disciplinary Multi-Institute Approach to Translational Cancer Research: Lessons Learned from Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashokkumar A.; Gilbertson, John R.; Showe, Louise C.; London, Jack W.; Ross, Eric; Ochs, Michael F.; Carver, Joseph; Lazarus, Andrea; Parwani, Anil V.; Dhir, Rajiv; Beck, J. Robert; Liebman, Michael; Garcia, Fernando U.; Prichard, Jeff; Wilkerson, Myra; Herberman, Ronald B.; Becich, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC, http://www.pcabc.upmc.edu) is one of the first major project-based initiatives stemming from the Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance that was funded for four years by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The objective of this was to initiate a prototype biorepository and bioinformatics infrastructure with a robust data warehouse by developing a statewide data model (1) for bioinformatics and a repository of serum and tissue samples; (2) a data model for biomarker data storage; and (3) a public access website for disseminating research results and bioinformatics tools. The members of the Consortium cooperate closely, exploring the opportunity for sharing clinical, genomic and other bioinformatics data on patient samples in oncology, for the purpose of developing collaborative research programs across cancer research institutions in Pennsylvania. The Consortium’s intention was to establish a virtual repository of many clinical specimens residing in various centers across the state, in order to make them available for research. One of our primary goals was to facilitate the identification of cancer-specific biomarkers and encourage collaborative research efforts among the participating centers. Methods: The PCABC has developed unique partnerships so that every region of the state can effectively contribute and participate. It includes over 80 individuals from 14 organizations, and plans to expand to partners outside the State. This has created a network of researchers, clinicians, bioinformaticians, cancer registrars, program directors, and executives from academic and community health systems, as well as external corporate partners - all working together to accomplish a common mission. The various sub-committees have developed a common IRB protocol template, common data elements for standardizing data collections for three organ sites, intellectual property

  2. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; Harten, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  3. Pelvic exenteration for recurrent or persistent cervical cancer: experience of five years at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Porcayo, M A; Zeichner-Gancz, I; del-Castillo, R A C Gomez; Beltrán-Ortega, A; Solorza-Luna, G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in Mexico and other developing countries. The purpose of our study was to assess the experience of a comprehensive national oncological reference center on pelvic exenteration for post-radiotherapy recurrent or persistent cervical cancer, describing the prognostic value of time to recurrence, procedure complications, and survival. Medical records from 42 patients with post-radiotherapy recurrent or persistent cervical cancer who underwent a pelvic exenteration with curative purposes from 1984 to 1989 were retrospectively reviewed. Histological diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma (32 patients), adenosquamous carcinoma (9 patients), and adenocarcinoma (1 patient). Average follow up was of 56.3 mo after the procedure and global survival at 5 yr was 65.8%. Survival for patients with early recurrence was 56.9% vs 78% for patients with late recurrence (p = 0.05). Complications were observed in 65.3% of the cases with a surgical mortality of 4.8%. Pelvic exenteration is a surgical procedure with high morbidity in spite of the recent medical advances. Pelvic exenteration should not be indicated with palliative purposes owing to the high rate of complications. Patients with tumor persistence or early recurrence have a worse prognosis. In well-selected cases, exenteration may provide a survival benefit.

  4. Mapping health-related quality of life scores from FACT-G, FAACT, and FACIT-F onto preference-based EQ-5D-5L utilities in non-small cell lung cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Michela; Borsoi, Ludovica; Cairns, John; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2017-09-25

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measurements from disease-specific tools cannot be directly used in economic evaluations. This study aimed to develop and validate mapping algorithms that predicted EuroQol 5-Dimensions 5-Levels (EQ-5D-5L) utilities from Functional Assessment of Anorexia-Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and their common component (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General-FACT-G) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer cachexia. Data were collected on five occasions over a 12-week period in two multicenter placebo-controlled trials. EQ-5D-5L utilities were calculated using both English and Dutch value sets. The study sample was divided into development and validation datasets according to patients' geographical residence. Generalized estimating equations were applied to five different sets of independent variables including overall, Trial Outcome Index (TOI), and individual subscales results. The best performing models were selected based on mean absolute error (MAE) and root-mean square error (RMSE). EQ-5D-5L and FAACT/FACIT-F results were available for 96 patients. The developed algorithms showed a good predictive performance, with acceptable MAE/RMSE and small differences between mean observed and predicted EQ-5D-5L utilities. In FACT-G models, Physical Well-Being had the highest explanatory value, while Emotional Well-Being did not significantly affect the EQ-5D-5L score; Anorexia-Cachexia and Fatigue subscales were highly statistically significant in FAACT and FACIT-F models, respectively, as well as the TOI scores. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status was included as covariate in all models. The developed algorithms enable the estimation of EQ-5D-5L utilities from three cancer-specific instruments when preference-based HRQoL data are missing.

  5. Stereotactic radiation therapy of brain metastases from colorectal cancer: A single institution cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paix, A; Antoni, D; Adeduntan, R; Noël, G

    2017-05-01

    The brain remains an uncommon site of colorectal cancer metastases. Due to the improvement of overall colorectal cancer patient survival, the incidence of brain metastases will likely rise. We report the efficacy and safety of hypofractionnated stereotactic radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, and its role in colorectal cancer brain metastasis management. Between June 2010 and December 2014, fifteen consecutive patients received hypofractionnated stereotactic radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery as first local therapy or following surgical removal for colorectal cancer brain metastases. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were brain progression free survival, in field control rates and safety. Median follow-up was 41 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: [8.9-73.1 months]), median overall survival was 8 months (95% CI [4.7-11.3 months]), and median brain progression-free survival was 5 months (95% CI [3.9-6.1 months]). Five in field recurrences were observed, which makes a control rate per metastases at 6 and 12 months of 77.8% (95% CI [74.34%-81.26%]), 51.9% (95% CI [44.21%-59.59%]) respectively. Over the 19 treatment sequences, five in field recurences were observed: 6, 12 and 18 months control rate per treatment sequence were 93.3% (95% CI [90.42%-96.18%]), 68.1% (95% CI [62.03%-74.17%]) and 45.4% (95% CI [36.14%-54.66%]) respectively. Immediate tolerance was good with no toxicity grade III or more. Long-term toxicity included two radionecrosis among which, one was symptomatic. The results of this retrospective analysis suggest that hypofractionnated stereotactic radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are effective and safe treatment modalities for single and multiple small brain metastases from colorectal cancer. However, results need to be confirmed by multicenter, collected data. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on ...

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download the ... Costs Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans ...

  8. Facts about Mumps for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendation: MMR About Mumps Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Mumps for Adults What is Mumps? Mumps ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Mumps can be prevented with a safe ...

  9. Facts about Rubella for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Rubella (German Measles) Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Rubella for Adults What is rubella? Rubella, ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Rubella can be prevented with a safe ...

  10. Facts about Measles for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Glance Adolescent Vaccination Recommendation: MMR About Measles Facts about Measles for Adults What is measles? Measles ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Measles can be prevented with a safe ...

  11. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in the United ... Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm Complications Types ...

  12. Local recurrence after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: a recursive partitioning analysis of multi-institutional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Chris R; Higgins, Kristin A; Peterson, Bercedis L; Chino, Junzo P; Marks, Lawrence B; D'Amico, Thomas A; Varlotto, John M

    2013-10-01

    To define subgroups at high risk of local recurrence (LR) after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer using a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). This Institutional Review Board-approved study included patients who underwent upfront surgery for I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer at Duke Cancer Institute (primary set) or at other participating institutions (validation set). The 2 data sets were analyzed separately and identically. Disease recurrence at the surgical margin, ipsilateral hilum, and/or mediastinum was considered an LR. Recursive partitioning was used to build regression trees for the prediction of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) from standard clinical and pathological factors. LRFS distributions were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The 1411 patients in the primary set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.81), and the 889 patients in the validation set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 76% (95% CI, 0.72-0.80). The RPA of the primary data set identified 3 terminal nodes based on stage and histology. These nodes and their 5-year LRFS rates were as follows: (1) stage I/adenocarcinoma, 87% (95% CI, 0.83-0.90); (2) stage I/squamous or large cell, 72% (95% CI, 0.65-0.79); and (3) stage II-IIIA, 62% (95% CI, 0.55-0.69). The validation RPA identified 3 terminal nodes based on lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and stage: (1) no LVI/stage IA, 82% (95% CI, 0.76-0.88); (2) no LVI/stage IB-IIIA, 73% (95% CI, 0.69-0.80); and (3) LVI, 58% (95% CI, 0.47-0.69). The risk of LR was similar in the primary and validation patient data sets. There was discordance between the 2 data sets regarding the clinical factors that best segregate patients into risk groups. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Membership Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Myths Common Terms Research Resources Research Grant Programs Pathway to Stop Diabetes Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Membership Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's ... new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Drive to Stop Diabetes Complications ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  20. Effect of Metformin Use on Survival in Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Chenwi M; Mahipal, Amit; Fulp, Jimmy; Chen, Lu; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies have demonstrated that metformin use in diabetic patients is associated with reduced cancer incidence and mortality. Here, we aimed to determine whether metformin use was associated with improved survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. All patients with diabetes who underwent resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 12/1/1986 and 4/30/2013 at our institution were categorized by metformin use. Survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meier method, with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression models. For analyses of our data and the only other published study, we used Meta-Analysis version 2.2. We identified 44 pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes who underwent resection of the primary tumor (19 with ongoing metformin use, 25 never used metformin). There were no significant differences in major clinical and demographic characteristics between metformin and non-metformin users. Metformin users had a better median survival than nonusers, but the difference was not statistically significant (35.3 versus 20.2 months; P = 0.3875). The estimated 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for non-metformin users were 42%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. Metformin users fared better with corresponding rates of 68%, 34%, and 34%, respectively. In our literature review, which included 111 patients from the two studies (46 metformin users and 65 non-users), overall hazard ratio was 0.668 (95% CI 0.397-1.125), with P = 0.129. Metformin use was associated with improved survival outcomes in patients with resected pancreatic cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant. The potential benefit of metformin should be investigated in adequately powered prospective studies.

  1. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staddon, J E R

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  2. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Staddon, J. E. R.

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  3. Positive impact of elastography in breast cancer diagnosis: an institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Elastography (ES) is a technique that, when associated with traditional B mode ultrasound (US), allows the degree of elasticity of tissue to be evaluated according to a color scale system. The aims of the study were to compare the diagnostic characteristics of two widely used techniques adopted in breast cancer screening; US and color Doppler (CD), with those of the same two techniques plus ES, and assessment of the same diagnostic characteristics when the three methods were applied to lesion...

  4. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    biomarkers to determine the presence of or progression to aggressive disease. ( Lead site: FHCRC) Milestone 2. Execute collaboration agreement with...panel of four-kallikrein plasma-based markers to determine the presence of or progression to clinically relevant prostate cancer. ( Lead site: FHCRC... Lead site: FHCRC) Milestone 10. Urine specimens identified for analysis. Due 12/30/2014 COMPLETED Milestone 11. PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG validation

  5. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: 30-Year Experience in a Single Institution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, Keiichi, E-mail: kjingu-jr@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Tanabe, Takaya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori; Umezawa, Rei; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Shimizu, Eiji; Abe, Keiko; Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with or without external beam radiotherapy ({+-} EBRT) for localized pancreatic cancer in the past three decades and to analyze prognostic factors by multivariate analysis. Methods and Materials: Records for 322 patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT in Tohoku University Hospital between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed. One hundred ninety-two patients who had no distant organ metastases or dissemination at the time of laparotomy were enrolled in the present study. Results: Eighty-three patients underwent gross total resection (R0: 48 patients, R1: 35 patients), and 109 patients underwent only biopsy or palliative resection. Fifty-five patients underwent adjuvant EBRT, and 124 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. The median doses of IORT and EBRT were 25 and 40 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 37.5 months. At the time of the analysis, 166 patients had disease recurrence, and 35 patients had local failure. The 2-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates were 71.0% and 16.9%, respectively. Comparison of the results for each decade showed that OS was significantly improved decade by decade (2-year: 25.0% vs. 18.8% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection (R0-1 vs. R2, hazard ratio = 1.97, p = 0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no, hazard ratio = 1.54, p = 0.028) had significant impacts on OS. Late gastrointestinal morbidity of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 4 or 5 was observed in four patients. Conclusion: Excellent local control for pancreatic cancer with few cases of severe late toxicity was achieved by using IORT. OS of patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT improved significantly decade by decade. Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection and adjuvant chemotherapy had significant impacts on OS.

  6. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  7. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  8. Prognostic relevance of DNA flow cytometry in breast cancer revisited: The 25-year experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, António E.; Pereira, Teresa; Silva, Giovani L.; André, Saudade

    2017-01-01

    The potential prognostic significance of DNA flow cytometric measurements (DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction) in breast cancer remains in dispute. Inconclusive data, primarily due to the lack of consistent standardization and quality control programs, have limited its translation into clinical practice. The aim of the present review, based on the 25-year experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon, is to assess the clinical relevance and application of DNA flow cytometry for the prognosis of breast cancer. Overall, data from Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon indicate that DNA flow cytometry provides significant prognostic information that is biologically relevant and clinically useful for the management of patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, this data has demonstrated the independent value of DNA aneuploidy as a prognostic indicator of poor clinical outcome in various subgroups of patients with early or locally advanced breast cancer at short- and long-term follow-up. Notably, aneuploidy identifies subsets of patients with grade (G)1 or G2 tumours who exhibit a poor clinical outcome. These patients may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, particularly those with luminal A and luminal B/human epidermal growth factor-2-negative endocrine-responsive breast cancer. In conclusion, data from Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon reinforces the clinical importance and utility of DNA flow cytometric analysis, particularly DNA ploidy, in the prognostic assessment and therapeutic planning for patients with breast cancer. PMID:28454358

  9. 75 FR 71134 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting..., Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 16, 2010. Jennifer S....

  10. How one institution overcame the challenges to start an MRI-based brachytherapy program for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Harkenrider

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Adaptive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based brachytherapy results in improved local control and decreased high-grade toxicities compared to historical controls. Incorporating MRI into the workflow of a department can be a major challenge when initiating an MRI-based brachytherapy program. This project aims to describe the goals, challenges, and solutions when initiating an MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy program at our institution. Material and methods : We describe the 6-month multi-disciplinary planning phase to initiate an MRI-based brachytherapy program. We describe the specific challenges that were encountered prior to treating our first patient. Results : We describe the solutions that were realized and executed to solve the challenges that we faced to establish our MRI-based brachytherapy program. We emphasize detailed coordination of care, planning, and communication to make the workflow feasible. We detail the imaging and radiation physics solutions to safely deliver MRI-based brachytherapy. The focus of these efforts is always on the delivery of optimal, state of the art patient care and treatment delivery within the context of our available institutional resources. Conclusions : Previous publications have supported a transition to MRI-based brachytherapy, and this can be safely and efficiently accomplished as described in this manuscript.

  11. Comparison between preoperative and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: An institutional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jun Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Chung, Hyuk Jun; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Jeong, Song Mi; Yoon, Sel Chul; Jang, Hong Seok [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    To evaluate the treatment outcomes of preoperative versus postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on locally advanced rectal cancer. Medical data of 114 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with CRT preoperatively (54 patients) or postoperatively (60 patients) from June 2003 to April 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or a precursor of 5-FU-based concurrent CRT (median, 50.4 Gy) and total mesorectal excision were conducted for all patients. The median follow-up duration was 43 months (range, 16 to 118 months). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary end points were overall survival (OS), locoregional control, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate. The 5-year DFS rate was 72.1% and 48.6% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT group, respectively (p = 0.05, the univariate analysis; p = 0.10, the multivariate analysis). The 5-year OS rate was not significantly different between the groups (76.2% vs. 69.0%, p = 0.23). The 5-year locoregional control rate was 85.2% and 84.7% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT groups (p = 0.98). The sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor showed significant difference between both groups (58.1% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.02). Pathologic tumor and nodal down-classification occurred after the preoperative CRT (53.7% and 77.8%, both p < 0.001). Acute and chronic toxicities were not significantly different between both groups (p = 0.10 and p = 0.62, respectively). The results confirm that preoperative CRT can be advantageous for improving down-classification rate and the sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor in rectal cancer.

  12. Cancer prevention information-seeking among Hispanic and non-Hispanic users of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service: trends in telephone and LiveHelp use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Sullivan, Helen W; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based strategies to enable, encourage, and support cancer prevention information seeking among Hispanic populations are needed. We examined cancer prevention information requests to the Cancer Information Service (CIS) via telephone (1-800-4-CANCER toll-free telephone information service) and LiveHelp (an instant messaging service provided in English only) from 2003 to 2006. We summarized differences in the communication channel utilized by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic) and, among Hispanic information seekers, the language used during the contact (English vs. Spanish). Utilization of LiveHelp was higher among non-Hispanic than Hispanic seekers of cancer prevention information. LiveHelp use for seeking cancer prevention information increased between 2003 and 2006 for both groups, but the increase was greater among non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Nearly half of Hispanics who sought cancer prevention information did so in Spanish. Because LiveHelp is not available in Spanish, the number of Spanish-only speakers who preferred to contact CIS via LiveHelp instead of telephone is unknown. When communicating cancer prevention information via multiple channels, it is important to consider differences in access to communication technologies and preferred communication channels among ethnic minority groups.

  13. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more likely to pursue risk-reduction procedures and implant-based strategies, whereas older women had a higher propensity for abdominal-based autologous reconstruction. In addition, preferential reconstructive strategies correlate with age-dependent archetypical features of the breast (higher profile implants in younger patients; autologous reconstruction on affected side mimicking natural ptosis, and contralateral mastopexy in older patients). These trends seem to be consistent with each increasing year of age. Age-related preferences and expectations, age-dependent body habitus and breast shape, and lifetime risk play a role in the choices pursued for mastectomy and reconstruction.

  14. An Institutional Retrospective Analysis of 93 Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer: Treatment Outcomes, Diagnosis-Specific Prognostic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prognostic factors and indexes of a series of 93 patients with breast cancer and brain metastases (BM in a single institution. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to the major prognostic indexes (RPA, BSBM, GPA scores and breast cancer subtypes. Independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS were identified. The median OS values according to GPA 0–1, 1.5–2, 2.5–3 and 3.5–4, were 4.5, 9.5, 14.2 and 19.1 months, respectively (p < 0.0001 and according to genetic subtypes, they were 5, 14.2, 16.5 and 17.1 months for basal-like, luminal A and B and HER, respectively (p = 0.04. Using multivariate analysis, we established a new grading system using the six factors that were identified as indicators of longer survival: age under 60 (p = 0.001, high KPS (p = 0.007, primary tumor control (p = 0.05, low number of extracranial metastases and BM (p = 0.01 and 0.0002, respectively and triple negative subtype (p = 0.002. Three groups with significantly different median survival times were identified: 4.1, 9.5 and 26.3 months, respectively (p < 0.0001. Our new grading system shows that prognostic indexes could be improved by using more levels of classification and confirms the strength of biological prognostic factors.

  15. Arteriosclerosis: facts and fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C; Fishbein, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Arterial vascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Every physician learns about the pathology of these diseases in medical school. All pathologists evaluate arterial disease in surgical pathology and/or autopsy specimens. All clinicians encounter patients with clinical manifestations of these diseases. With such a common and clinically-important group of entities one would think there would be a general understanding of the "known" information that exists. That is, physicians and scientists should be able to separate what is fact and what is fancy. This review article is intended to generate thought in this regard.

  16. Monitoring blazars with FACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannheim, Karl [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The FACT collaboration operates an imaging air-Cherenkov telescope on La Palma optimized for monitoring bright blazars. Recently, the collaboration reported a technological breakthrough. For the first time, avalanche photo diodes operated in Geiger mode have been employed in the camera. The low power consumption, high quantum efficiency, and high reliability of the novel semi-conductor based camera is the key to robotic operation needed for monitoring. Moreover, linearity permits observations even during moon light. Analysis of gamma-ray lightcurves of blazars holds the key to understand particle acceleration and its relation to the central engine.

  17. Chernobyl: the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-08-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  18. Insulation fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Electricity bills, oil bills, gas bills - all homeowners pay for one or more of these utilities, and wish they paid less. Often many of us do not really know how to control or reduce our utility bills. We resign ourselves to high bills because we think that is the price we have to pay for a comfortable home. We encourage our children to turn off the lights and appliances, but may not recognize the benefits of insulating the attic. This publication provides facts relative to home insulation. It discusses where to insulate, what products to use, the decision making process, installation options, and sources of additional information.

  19. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Jacqueline C.; Kim, Irene A.; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Tan, Marietta; Fan, Katherine Y.; Lake, Spencer T.; Zaboli, David; Messing, Barbara P.; Ulmer, Karen; Harrer, Karen B.; Gold, Dorothy; Ryniak, Keri L.; Zinreich, Eva S.; Tang, Mei; Levine, Marshall A.; Blanco, Ray G.; Saunders, John R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients. PMID:23118755

  20. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.

  1. Morbidity analysis in minimally invasive esophagectomy for oesophageal cancer versus conventional over the last 10 years, a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been an increasing inclination towards minimally invasive esophagectomies (MIEs at our institute recently for resectable oesophageal cancer. Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to report peri-operative and long-term procedure specific outcomes of the two groups and analyse their changing pattern at our institute. Methods: All adult patients with a diagnosis of oesophageal cancer managed at our institute from 2005 to 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded through our hospital information system. The cohort of esophagectomies was allocated into two groups, conventional open esophagectomy (OE or total laparoscopic MIE; hybrid esophagectomies were taken as a separate group. The short-term outcome measures are an operative time in minutes, length of hospital and Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay in days, post-operative complications and 30 days in-hospital mortality. Complications are graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Long-term outcomes are long-term procedure related complications over a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Trends were analysed by visually inspecting the graphic plots for mean number of events in each group each year. Results: Our results showed no difference in mortality, length of hospital and ICU stays and incidence of major complications between three groups on uni- and multi-variate analysis (P > 0.05. The operative time was significantly longer in MIE group (odds ratio [OR]: 1.66, confidence interval [CI]: 2.4–11.5. The incidence of long-term complication was low for MIE (OR: 1.0, CI: 133–1.017. However, all post-operative surgical outcomes trended to improve in both groups over the course of this study and stayed better for MIE group except for the operative time. Conclusion: MIE has overall comparable surgical outcomes to its conventional counterpart. Furthermore, the peri-operative outcomes tend to

  2. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    2016-01-01

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and pa

  3. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    2016-01-01

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and pa

  4. Skin Sparing Mastectomy and Immediate Breast Reconstruction (SSMIR for early breast cancer: Eight years single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Jean

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin Sparing Mastectomy (SSM and immediate breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular as an effective treatment for patients with breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of skin sparing mastectomy in early breast cancer at a single population-based institution. Methods Records of ninety-five consecutive patients with operable breast cancer who had skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstructions between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. Patient and tumor characteristic, type of reconstruction, postoperative complications, aesthetic results and incidence of recurrence were analyzed. Results Mean age of the patients was 51.6(range 33–72 years. The AJCC pathologic stages were 0 (n = 51, 53.7%, I (n = 20, 21.1%, and II (n = 2, 2.1%. Twenty of the patients had recurrent disease (21.1%. The immediate breast reconstructions were performed with autologus tissue including latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in 63 (66.3% patients and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap in 4 (4.2% patients. Implants were used in 28 (29.4% patients. The average hospital stay was 7.7 days. Flap complication occurred in seven (10.4% patients resulting in four (6% re-operations and there were no delay in accomplishing postoperative adjuvant therapy. At a median follow-up of 69 months (range 48 to 144, local recurrence was seen in one patient (1.1% and systemic recurrence was seen in two patients (2.1%. Conclusion Skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for early breast cancer is associated with low morbidity and low rate of local recurrence.

  5. Seal Out Tooth Decay: A Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Seal Out Tooth Decay A Fact Sheet for Parents What are dental ... important reason for getting sealants is to avoid tooth decay. • Fluoride in toothpaste and in drinking water protects ...

  6. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  7. The National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies Program: Improving Access to Resource-Appropriate Technologies for Cancer Detection, Diagnosis, Monitoring, and Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Rao; Gwede, Michael; Tandon, Pushpa; Sorg, Brian S.; Ossandon, Miguel R.; Agrawal, Lokesh; Pai, Vinay; Baker, Houston; Lash, Tiffani Bailey

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) technologies have proved valuable in cancer detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in the developed world, and have shown promise in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) as well. Despite this promise, the unique design constraints presented in low-resource settings, coupled with the variety of country-specific regulatory and institutional dynamics, have made it difficult for investigators to translate successful POC cancer interventions to the LMIC markets. In response to this need, the National Cancer Institute has partnered with the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering to create the National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies (ACTs) program. This program seeks to simplify the pathway to market by funding multidisciplinary investigative teams to adapt and validate the existing technologies for cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment in LMIC settings. The various projects under ACTs range from microfluidic cancer diagnostic tools to novel treatment devices, each geared for successful clinical adaptation to LMIC settings. Via progression through this program, each POC innovation will be uniquely leveraged for successful clinical translation to LMICs in a way not before seen in this arena. PMID:27730015

  8. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgical Options for Locally-advanced Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abo Elmagd Salem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can downstage the size of the tumor, thus allowing some patients with advanced disease with the option of conservative breast surgery. Our study aims to investigate the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: Fifty-six patients had locally advanced breast cancer. Ten patients (18% were stage IIB, 32 (57% were stage IIIA, 9 (16% were stage IIIB, and 5 (9% were stage IIIC. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy comprised of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil followed by surgery (15 patients with breast conservative surgery,11 with skin sparing mastectomy and latesmus dorsi reconstruction, and 30 patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy and then followed by radiotherapy, 50 Gy with conventional fractionation. Results: Clinical down staging was obtained in 49 (87.5% patients: 5 (9% had complete clinical response, 44 (78.5% had partial response, 6 (10.7% had stable disease, and 1 (1.8% had progressive disease. The primary tumor could not be palpated after chemotherapy in 7 (12.5% of 56 patients who presented with a palpable mass. Median follow-up was 47.5 months. The factors that correlated positively with locoregional recurrence on univariate analysis included hormonal receptor status and surgical margin status. On multivariate analysis, surgical margin status was the only independent significant factor for locoregional recurrence-free survival. In univariate analysis for distant relapse free survival, factors that correlated positively included disease stage and hormonal receptor status. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor stage and hormonal receptor status were independent significant factors that correlated with distant relapse-free survival. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was effective in clinical down staging and should be considered for patients with advanced breast cancer. It improved operability and enhanced

  9. Can we expand active surveillance criteria to include biopsy Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer? A multi-institutional study of 2,323 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Briganti, A.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Salomon, L.; Freschi, M.; Mirvald, C.; Poel, H.G. van der; Jenkins, A.; Ost, P.; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Giannarini, G.; Bergh, R.C. van den

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the expandability of active surveillance (AS) to Gleason score 3+4 cancers by assessing the unfavorable disease risk in a large multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis including 2,323 patients with localized Gleason score 3+4 prosta

  10. The costs of breast cancer in a Mexican public health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Alejandro Gómez-Rico

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jacobo Alejandro Gómez-Rico1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde1, Consuelo Rubio-Poo21Universidad Autónoma Metropolitano–Xochimilco (UAM-X, Departments: Biological Systems and Healthcare, Biological and Health Sciences Division (DCBS; 2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, Faculty of Professional Studies-Zaragoza (FES-ZaragozaAbstract: Breast cancer (BC is the second leading cause of death as a result of neoplasia in Mexico. This study aimed to identify the direct and indirect costs of treating female outpatients diagnosed with BC at a Mexican public hospital. A cross-sectional, observational, analytical study was conducted. A total of 506 medical records were analyzed and 102 were included in the cost analysis. The micro-costing process was used to estimate treatment costs. A 17-item questionnaire was used to obtain information on direct and indirect costs. Of the 102 women with BC included in the study, 92.2% (94 were at Stage II, and only 7.8% at Stage I. Total direct costs over six months for the 82 women who had modified radical mastectomy (MRM surgury were US$733,821.15. Total direct costs for the 15 patients with conservative surgery (CS were US$138,190.39. We found that the total economic burden in the study population was much higher for patients with MRM than for patients with CS.Keywords: breast cancer, Mexican women, direct and indirect costs

  11. Outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer: a single institution study of 209 patients in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Saito; Yasuo Kitamura; Shuichi Komatsubara; Yasuo Matsumoto; Tadashi Sugita; Noboru Hara

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the outcomes for Asian populations with locally advanced/clinical stage Ⅲ prostate cancer (Pca)treated with currently prevailing modalities. Methods: We reviewed the record of 209 patients with clinical stage Ⅲ Pca, who were treated at Niigata Cancer Center Hospital between 1992 and 2003. Treatment options included hormone therapy-combined radical prostatectomy (RP+HT), hormone therapy-combined external beam irradiation (EBRT+HT) and primary hormone therapy (PHT). Results: The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 80.3%and 46.1% in all cohorts, respectively. The survival rates were 87.3% and 66.5% in the RP+HT group, 94.9% and 70.0% in the EBRT+HT group and 66.1% and 17.2% in the PHT group, respectively. A significant survival advantage was found in the EBRT+HT group compared with that in the PHT group (P < 0.0001). Also, the RP+HT group had better survival than the PHT group (P = 0.0107). The 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates for all cases were 92.5% and 80.0%, respectively. They were 93.8% and 71.4% in the RP+HT group, 96.6% and 93.6% in the EBRT+HT group and 88.6% and 62.3% in the PHT group, respectively. A survival advantage was found in the EBRT+HT group compared with the PHT group (P = 0.029). No significant difference was found in disease-specific survival between the EBRT+HT and RP+HT groups or between the RP+HT and PHT groups. Conclusion: Although our findings indicate that radiotherapy plus HT has a survival advantage in this stage of Pca, we recommend therapies that take into account the patients' social and medical conditions for Asian men with clinical stage Ⅲ PCa.

  12. Key Facts about Higher Education in Washington. 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Key Facts about Higher Education in Washington" provides vital data to chart higher education's progress and challenges. First published in 2002 by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, this annual report highlights "Key Facts" about Washington's postsecondary institutions--including faculty, students,…

  13. Proposal of new classification for stage III colon cancer based on the lymph node ratio: analysis of 4,172 patients from multi-institutional database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kiichi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Tomiki, Yuichi; Goto, Michitoshi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively examined the optimal lymph node ratio (LNR) cutoff value and attempted to construct a new classification using the LNR in stage III colon cancer. The clinical and pathological data of 4,172 patients with histologically proven lymph node metastasis who underwent curative surgery for primary colon cancer at multiple institutions between 1995 and 2004 were derived from the multi-institutional database of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR). We determined independent prognostic factors and constructed a new classification using these factors. Finally, we compared the discriminatory ability between the new classification and the TNM seventh edition (TNM 7th) classification. The optimal LNR cutoff value was 0.18. Multivariate analysis revealed that year of surgery, age, gender, histological type, TNM 7th T category, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, TNM 7th N category, and LNR were found to be significant independent prognostic factors. We attempted to construct a new classification based on the combination of TNM 7th T category and LNR. As a result, the cancer-specific survivals were well stratified (P TNM 7th classification with respect to both a better fit and lower complexity. The optimal LNR cutoff value that was found using the Japanese multi-institutional database and the new classification using LNR are considered to be extremely significant. Therefore, these findings strongly support the application of LNR in the stage classification in stage III colon cancer.

  14. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  15. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  16. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  17. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  18. Hypofractionated Dose Escalated 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Outcomes from a Mono-Institutional Phase II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesco; Arcangeli, Stefano; Pignatelli, Antonietta; Castagna, Roberta; Portaluri, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    Based on a radiobiological assumption of a low alpha/beta (α/β) ratio for prostate cancer, hypofractionated radiotherapy has increasingly gained traction in the clinical practice and recent guidelines have confirmed the non-inferiority of this approach. Nevertheless, the largest studies that have used hypofractionation so far, employed image-guided radiation therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (IGRT/IMRT) facilities that might have overcome the radiobiological advantages, which remain to be fully confirmed. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility of a hypofractionated schedule delivered with 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy to prostate and seminal vesicles in combination with hormonal therapy. The study included 97 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa), irrespective of risk class, treated with a schedule of 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (4 fractions of 3.1 Gy each per week). According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) prognostic classification, patients were divided into a favourable group (19%), intermediate group (41%) and unfavourable group (40%). Early and late toxicities were scored using the radiation toxicity grading/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) criteria. Additionally, the international prostate symptom index (IPSS) for benign prostate hypertrophy was used to evaluate obstructive urinary symptoms. Biochemical outcome was reported according to the Phoenix definition for biochemical failure. Hormonal therapy (HT) was administrated in 92% of patients. After a median follow-up of 39 months (range=25-52), maximum ≥G2 late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities occurred in 8% and 11% patients, respectively. The corresponding figures for acute toxicities were 24% and 15%. Patients with higher IPSS score before enrolment had significantly worse urinary function after treatment. Only 2% of patients died from PCa. Biochemical non-evidence of disease

  19. ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership: An Oncology Social Work Response to the 2008 Institute of Medicine Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis-Green, Shirley; Jones, Barbara; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Altilio, Terry A; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-09-01

    ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership was a multi-year National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded grant for the development and implementation of an innovative educational program for oncology social workers. The program's curriculum focused upon six core competencies of psychosocial-spiritual support necessary to meet the standard of care recommended by the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report: Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. The curriculum was delivered through a collaborative partnership between the City of Hope National Medical Center and the two leading professional organizations devoted exclusively to representing oncology social workers--the Association of Oncology Social Work and the Association of Pediatric Oncology Social Workers. Initial findings support the feasibility and acceptability of this tailored leadership skills-building program for participating oncology social workers.

  20. The costs of breast cancer in a Mexican public health institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Jacobo Alejandro; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Cárdenas-Elizalde, Rosario; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of death as a result of neoplasia in Mexico. This study aimed to identify the direct and indirect costs of treating female outpatients diagnosed with BC at a Mexican public hospital. A cross-sectional, observational, analytical study was conducted. A total of 506 medical records were analyzed and 102 were included in the cost analysis. The micro-costing process was used to estimate treatment costs. A 17-item questionnaire was used to obtain information on direct and indirect costs. Of the 102 women with BC included in the study, 92.2% (94) were at Stage II, and only 7.8% at Stage I. Total direct costs over six months for the 82 women who had modified radical mastectomy (MRM) surgury were US$733,821.15. Total direct costs for the 15 patients with conservative surgery (CS) were US$138,190.39. We found that the total economic burden in the study population was much higher for patients with MRM than for patients with CS. PMID:22312199

  1. Lifestyle and cancer prevention in female employees at a health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Eugenia Canaval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the relationship between lifestyle for prevention of cervix and breast cancer and perceptual cognitive factors from the Pender model in working women. Materials and methods: Correlation and cross-sectional study with a random sample of 143 working women. The Lifestyle index is the total score of 5 variables: Papanicolau test, breast self-exam, physical activity, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. Results: The mean age for the sample was 44.4 + 6.2; 87% of the women had higher education and 85% were working in health care services. A total of 89% of the women had unhealthy lifestyles because of the lack of regular physical activity, not having a Papanicolau test according to the norm, not practicing breast self-exams, and having an altered body mass index. There was significant correlation between lifestyle and occupation, and also with self-efficacy perception for breast self-examination. Conclusion: The lifestyles for most of the women sampled were unhealthy. Recommendations: It is also recommend conducting culturally sensitive healthcare campaigns in addition to setting up flexible attention schedules for women.

  2. Lifestyle and cancer prevention in female employees at a health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Eugenia Canaval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the relationship between lifestyle for prevention of cervix and breast cancer and perceptual cognitive factors from the Pender model in working women.Materials and methods: Correlation and cross-sectional study with a random sample of 143 working women. The Lifestyle index is the total score of 5 variables: Papanicolau test, breast self-exam, physical activity, body mass index, and cigarette smoking.Results: The mean age for the sample was 44.4 + 6.2; 87% of the women had higher education and 85% were working in health care services. A total of 89% of the women had unhealthy lifestyles because of the lack of regular physical activity, not having a Papanicolau test according to the norm, not practicing breast self-exams, and having an altered body mass index. There was significant correlation between lifestyle and occupation, and also with self-efficacy perception for breast self-examination.Conclusion: The lifestyles for most of the women sampled were unhealthy.Recommendations: It is recommend the reorientation of health services based on health promotion, which permit planning and executing health care, health education and nursing care programs specifically for working women. It is also recommend conducting culturally sensitive.

  3. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: A Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Nace

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to evaluate our experience using yttrium-90 (90Y resin microsphere hepatic radioembolization as salvage therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. Methods. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with unresectable mCRC who were treated with 90Y after failing first and second line systemic chemotherapy. Demographics, treatment dose, biochemical and radiographic response, toxicities, and survival were examined. Results. Fifty-one patients underwent 90Y treatments of which 69% were male. All patients had previously undergone extensive chemotherapy, 31% had undergone previous liver-directed therapy and 24% had a prior liver resection. Using RECIST criteria, either stable disease or a partial response was seen in 77% of patients. Overall median survival from the time of first 90Y treatment was 10.2 months (95% CI = 7.5–13.0. The absence of extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y was associated with an improved survival, median survival of 17.0 months (95% CI = 6.4–27.6, compared to those with extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y, 6.7 months (95% CI = 2.7–10.6 Conclusion: 90Y therapy is a safe locoregional therapy that provides an important therapeutic option to patients who have failed first and second line chemotherapy and have adequate liver function and performance status.

  4. Pazopanib in metastatic renal cancer: a “real-world” experience at National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chiara Cecere

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pazopanib is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor, currently approved for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC and soft tissue sarcoma. The present study analyzed the outcomes of pazopanib in first-line treatment of mRCC, in a single Italian cancer center. In the light of the retrospective, observational nature and the unselected population, our experience can be defined a real-world study. The medical records of 38 mRCC patients treated with front-line pazopanib were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The progression free survival (PFS and the overall survival (OS were the primary endpoints, while secondary objectives included Objective Response Rate (ORR, Disease Control Rate (DCR, and treatment tolerability. Pazopanib achieved a median PFS (mPFS of 12.7 months (95% CI, 6.9-18.5 months. The median OS (mOS was 26.2 months (95% CI, 12.6-39.9 months; the observed ORR and DCR were 30.3% and 72.7%, respectively, with a median duration of response of 11 weeks. mPFS appeared not to be influenced by number of co-morbidities (3, gender, Fuhrman grade and age. Conversely, the ORR and the DCR positively affect the mPFS (HR=0.05 [95% CI, 0.05-055], p=0.01; HR=0.10 [95% CI, 0.02-0.43], p=0.002 respectively. A worse outcome was associated with a lower mPFS in patients with liver metastases (p= 0.2 and with a high tumor burden (number of metastatic sites 6 (p= 0.08. Worst OS was observed in patients age >70 years old (HR=6.91 [95% CI, 1.49-31.91], p=0.01. The treatment was well tolerated: no grade 4 adverse events, nor discontinuation due to toxicities was reported. Grade 3 hypertension affected positively the OS reaching the statistical significance (HR=0.22 [95% CI, 0.05-0.8], p=0.03 and thyroid dysfunction (hypo and hyperthyroidism seems to correlate with better outcome in terms of a longer mPFS (HR=0.12 [95% CI, 0.02-0.78], p=0.02. Our results are consistent with those reported in prospective phase III trials and the published retrospective

  5. Liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at the Liver Cancer Institute of Fudan University, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; HE Yi-feng; YANG Guo-huan; SONG Kang; YUAN Zhou; WANG Yu-qi; TANG Zhao-you; FAN Jia; WU Zhi-quan; QIU Shuang-jian; HUANG Xiao-wu; YU Yao; WANG Zheng; SUN Jian; XIAO Yong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Selection of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains controversial. Since there is a trend to expand the transplant criteria for HCC patients, we reviewed the data of patients with HCC who had received OLT at our institute to determine their survival and prognostic factors.Methods A total of 67 patients with HCC who had undergone OLT from April 2001 through December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Selection OLT candidates with HCC was dependent on the anatomical characteristics and/or the severity of underlying liver cirrhosis. The 67 patients were followed up for more than 6 months after transplantation. Their survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to reveal the factors affecting the survival rate.Results No perioperative death occurred in this series. The 1- and 2-year cumulative survival rates were 90.0% and 65.6%, and the disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.5% and 62.5% respectively. Univariate analysis revealed the tumor size, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), serum alpha-fetoprotein level, bilobular distribution of tumors, pTNM stage and histological differentiation were statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed tumor size and PVTT were independent and statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P=0.005 and 0.010, respectively). In this series, all but 2 received systemic chemotherapy, among them 13 had tumor recurrence within 8 months after OLT.Conclusions OLT is indicated for patients with HCC, even for some patients with end-stage liver disease who may survive longer without tumor recurrence. Adjuvant chemotherapy may decrease the recurrence of HCC after OLT.

  6. Pazopanib in Metastatic Renal Cancer: A “Real-World” Experience at National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Sabrina C.; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Della Pepa, Chiara; Di Napoli, Marilena; Crispo, Anna; Iovane, Gelsomina; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Domenico; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Maiolino, Piera; Muto, Paolo; Perdonà, Sisto; Berretta, Massimiliano; Pignata, Sandro; Facchini, Gaetano; D'Aniello, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Pazopanib is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor, currently approved for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and soft tissue sarcoma. The present study analyzed the outcomes of pazopanib in first-line treatment of mRCC, in a single Italian cancer center. In the light of the retrospective, observational nature and the unselected population, our experience can be defined a “real-world” study. The medical records of 38 mRCC patients treated with front-line pazopanib were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The progression free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) were the primary endpoints, while secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and treatment tolerability. Pazopanib achieved a median PFS (mPFS) of 12.7 months (95% CI, 6.9–18.5 months). The median OS (mOS) was 26.2 months (95% CI, 12.6–39.9 months); the observed ORR and DCR were 30.3 and 72.7%, respectively, with a median duration of response of 11 weeks. mPFS appeared not to be influenced by number of co-morbidities (< 3 vs. ≥3), gender, Fuhrman grade and age. Conversely, the ORR and the DCR positively affect the mPFS (HR = 0.05 [95% CI, 0.05–0.55], p = 0.01; HR = 0.10 [95% CI, 0.02–0.43], p = 0.002, respectively). A worse outcome was associated with a lower mPFS in patients with liver metastases (p = 0.2) and with a high tumor burden (number of metastatic sites < 6 vs. ≥6) (p = 0.08). Worst OS was observed in patients aged ≥70 years old (HR = 6.91 [95% CI, 1.49–31.91], p = 0.01). The treatment was well-tolerated: no grade 4 adverse events, nor discontinuation due to toxicities was reported. Grade 3 hypertension affected positively the OS reaching the statistical significance (HR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.05–0.8], p = 0.03). Thyroid dysfunction (hypo and hyperthyroidism) seems to correlate with better outcome in terms of a longer mPFS (HR = 0.12 [95% CI, 0.02–0.78], p = 0.02). Our results are consistent with those reported in

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... without Alzheimer's — a rate twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, ... COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and ...

  8. Facts about Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Sickle Cell Disease Language: English (US) Españ ... usually a milder form of SCD. Infographic: 5 Facts You Should Know About Sickle Cell Disease Did ...

  9. Higher Education in Michigan: Overcoming Challenges to Expand Access. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of important facts from "Higher Education in Michigan: Overcoming Challenges to Expand Access," which examines access to postsecondary degrees and institutions in underserved regions of Michigan. [For the full report, see ED501512.

  10. FACTS technology for open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Summary of the present state of the art on the key technological developments in the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) area, addressing in particular the open access aspects of networks and the scope for the application of FACTS devices therein. Contains the approved terms of reference. Definition of FACTS includes conventional devices such as phase shifting transformers, series capacitors and HVDC links for completeness and the possibility of combining them with FACTS devices to improve HVAC transmission system flexibility and control. (author)

  11. Facts, values, and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susan

    2017-03-01

    At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism. An editorial in Nature called for scientists to engage directly with citizens in debates over climate change and genome editing, noting that "the ethical issues can be critically dependent on the science, for example, in understanding where the boundaries between non-heritable and heritable genome modifications might be." We're here to help. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  12. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Back Pain Fact Sheet You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Low Back Pain Fact Sheet What ... reduction among workers using lumbar support belts, many companies that have ... training and ergonomic awareness programs. The reported injury reduction ...

  13. CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the national Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.; Albanes, Demetrius; Altshuler, David; Berglund, Gran; Buring, Julie; Calle, Eugenia E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Cox, David G.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Linseisen, Jakob; Lund, Eiliv; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polym

  14. Web services-based access to local clinical trial databases: a standards initiative of the Association of American Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Douglas C; Evans, Richard M; Afrin, Lawrence B; DeTeresa, Richard M; Ko, Dave; Mitchell, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Electronic discovery of the clinical trials being performed at a specific research center is a challenging task, which presently requires manual review of the center's locally maintained databases or web pages of protocol listings. Near real-time automated discovery of available trials would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical trial searching, and would facilitate the development of new services for information providers and consumers. Automated discovery efforts to date have been hindered by issues such as disparate database schemas, vocabularies, and insufficient standards for easy intersystem exchange of high-level data, but adequate infrastructure now exists that make possible the development of applications for near real-time automated discovery of trials. This paper describes the current state (design and implementation) of the Web Services Specification for Publication and Discovery of Clinical Trials as developed by the Technology Task Force of the Association of American Cancer Institutes. The paper then briefly discusses a prototype web service-based application that implements the specification. Directions for evolution of this specification are also discussed.

  15. Monitoring of people and workers exposure to the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in an Italian national cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomba Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper reports the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (emf measurements carried out in the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute (NCI. Several devices, used in diagnostics and in medical cures, can represent sources of emf for the workers and for the public subjected to the treatments. The aim is to evaluate their exposition, in order to assess the compliance with the law. Methods The investigations have been carried out in the departments of: intensive care, physiotherapy, MR presstherapy and in the surgical rooms. The measurements have been performed using broad band probes in the frequency ranges 5 Hz÷30 kHz and 100 kHz-3 GHz. Results The variability of the magnetic induction (B(μT levels is between 0,05 μT and 80 μT. The statistical distribution shows that most of the measurements are in the range 0,05 Conclusion The measurement of the emf levels in the NCI is recommended because of the presence of the oncological patients; their long stay near the equipments and their day-long exposure represent additional risk factors for which a prudent avoidance strategy have to de adopted.

  16. Pediatric cancer pathology review from a single institution: Neuropathology expert opinion is essential for accurate diagnosis of pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabi, Zeina; Boulos, Fouad; Santiago, Teresa; Jenkins, Jesse; Abboud, Miguel; Muwakkit, Samar; Tarek, Nidale; Zaatari, Ghazi; Jeha, Sima; El-Solh, Hassan; Saab, Raya

    2017-07-04

    Second pathology review has been reported to improve accuracy in oncologic diagnoses, including pediatric malignancies. We assessed the impact of second review on the diagnosis of pediatric malignancies at a tertiary care referral center in Beirut, Lebanon. Pathology reports of patients treated at the Children's Cancer Institute in Lebanon were retrospectively reviewed for the period 2008-2016 and compared with same samples' diagnoses at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Diagnostic disagreements were divided into major, minor, and none based on their effect on diagnosis and/or patient management. Second review was requested for 171 cases, accounting for 19% of all cases during that period. Second opinion was mostly requested for brain tumors (62% of all brain tumor cases) and neuroblastoma for NMYC testing (65% of all neuroblastoma), while hematologic malignancies had the fewest referrals (3% of all hematologic cases). Major disagreements in second review occurred in 20 cases (12% of total), and minor disagreements in 21 cases (12% of total). The largest proportion of major disagreements (71%) occurred in pediatric brain tumors, and novel molecular tests contributed to the diagnosis in 55% of these cases. The availability of a specialized pediatric neuropathologist and a basic panel of relevant molecular testing are essential for appropriate diagnosis of pediatric brain tumors. Centers that do not have the available infrastructure in place can benefit greatly from second review referrals for this challenging subset of tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. FEW FACTS ABOUT PHYTOESTROGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens mainly belongs to phenolic group of compounds known as flavonoids. Foods which are having highest phytoestrogen content include nuts, oil seeds, soy products, cereals, legumes etc. The highest concentrations of isoflavonoes are found in soybean products. In recent years soya food preparations are widely used for many of their beneficial effects like, as a good substitute for protein and as it is claimed to have cholesterol lowering effects. But there are controversial reports regarding their health benefits. Excessive consumption these phytoestrogens may cause decrease in male infertility and reproductive capability by causing alterations in the hypothalamo-pitutory-gonadal axis. Phytoestrogens have been indicated for centuries in the treatments of menstrual and menopausal problems in women. So phytoestrogens may be beneficial in healthy females. Females with breast cancer should be aware of potential risks of using phytoestrogen rich soya products. So be moderate with the consumption of soya products.

  18. Comparison of the epidemiologic features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer between public and private institutions: a survey by the Brazilian Society of Urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Cesar Nardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer at public and private institutions in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,082 physicians affiliated to the Sao Paulo Section of the Brazilian Society of Urology were invited to participate in this cross-sectional, web-based survey. Between September 2004 and September 2005, participating urologists entered data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in their practice. Data on patients attended at public institutions were analyzed and compared with those patients attended at private practice. RESULTS: One hundred and ten society members contributed with data from 1915 patients, 1026 (53.6% of whom from public institutions. When compared with patients attended at private institutions, those attended at public institutions were older and more likely to be black, had higher serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, had a higher probability of being diagnosed with metastatic disease, but were less likely to undergo prostatectomy (all P < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, age, biopsy Gleason score, and being attended at a public institution were independently associated with metastatic disease upon diagnosis. The significant predictors of nonsurgical treatment were age, black race, and higher serum levels of PSA. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide registry provides valuable information regarding patient demographics, clinical features, and patterns of care. The results of this study suggest that significant disparities exist for patients with prostate cancer attended at different health-care systems. The relative contribution of biological versus socioeconomic features remains uncertain.

  19. Strain: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Ramsay's well known textbook "Folding and Fracturing of Rocks" - ... and the 30th anniversary of the rejection of a rather less well known paper entitled "Strain: Fact or Fiction?" submitted by Renée Panozzo to the Journal of Structural Geology. The gist of the paper was simple and straight forward: it was argued that not every fabric that can be observed in deformed rocks is necessarily a measure of the amount of strain the rock incurred. A distinction was made between a general "fabric", i.e., the traceable geometry of grain boundaries, for example, and a so-called "strain fabric", i.e., the model geometry that would result from homogeneously straining an initially isotropic fabric and that would exhibit at least orthorhombic symmetry. To verify if a given fabric was indeed a strain fabric it was therefore suggested to use the SURFOR method (published by Panozzo) and to carry out a so-called strain test, i.e., a check of symmetry, before interpreting the results of a fabric analysis in terms of strain. The problem with the paper was that it was very obviously written out of frustration. The frustration came form having reviewed a number of manuscripts which tried to use the then novel SURFOR method for strain analysis without first checking if the the fabric was a indeed a "strain fabric" or not, and then blaming the SURFOR method for producing ambiguous results. As a result, the paper was not exactly well balanced and carefully thought out. It was considered "interesting but not scholarly" by one of the reviewers and down-right offensive by the second. To tell the truth, however, the paper was not formally rejected. The editor Sue Treagus strongly encouraged Panozzo to revise the paper, ... and 30 years later, I will follow her advise and offer a revised paper as a tribute to John Ramsay. To quote from the original manuscript: "We should be a little more impressed that strain works so well, and less

  20. Association between the age and the development of colorectal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ueno, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Fumio; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Tomita, Naohiro; Matsubara, Nagahide; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the incidence of colorectal cancer among familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients by phenotype using the latest modalities. We collected data on 303 patients who underwent surgery for FAP at one of 23 institutions between 2000 and 2012. The incidence of colorectal cancer was investigated by phenotype. Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 115 (38.0 %) of the 303 patients. Overall, colorectal cancer with the attenuated, sparse, and profuse phenotypes was diagnosed at 30, 31, and 28 years of age, respectively, in 10 % of the patients and at 59, 48, and 41 years of age, respectively, in 50 % of the patients (P = 0.013). The patients with colorectal cancer were older than those without colorectal cancer for all phenotypes. The optimal cut-off age for predicting the development of colorectal cancer in the attenuated, sparse, and profuse phenotypes was 46, 31, and 27 years, respectively. Patients with profuse and sparse phenotypes should undergo prophylactic proctocolectomy before their mid-to-late 20 s. On the other hand, the timing and type of surgery for patients with attenuated FAP (AFAP) should be decided individually with reference to the colonoscopic findings.

  1. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology.

  2. Breast Cancer in Elderly Caucasian Women-An Institution-Based Study of Correlation between Breast Cancer Prognostic Markers, TNM Stage, and Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orucevic, Amila; Curzon, Matthew; Curzon, Christina; Heidel, Robert E; McLoughlin, James M; Panella, Timothy; Bell, John

    2015-07-31

    There is still a paucity of data on how breast cancer (BC) biology influences outcomes in elderly patients. We evaluated whether ER/PR/HER2 subtype and TNM stage of invasive BC had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 232 elderly Caucasian female patients (≥70 year old (y/o)) from our institution over a ten-year interval (January 1998-July 2008). Five ER/PR/HER2 BC subtypes classified per 2011 St. Gallen International Expert Consensus recommendations were further subclassified into three subtypes (traditionally considered "favorable" subtype-ER+/PR+/HER2-, and traditionally considered "unfavorable" BC subtypes: HER2+ and triple negative). OS was measured comparing these categories using Kaplan Meier curves and Cox regression analysis, when controlled for TNM stage. The majority of our patients (178/232 = 76.8%) were of the "favorable" BC subtype; 23.2% patients were with "unfavorable" subtype (HER2+ = 12% (28/232) and triple negative = 11.2% (26/232)). Although a trend for better OS was noted in HER2+ patients (68%) vs. 56% in ER+/PR+ HER2- or 58% in triple negative patients, "favorable" BC subtype was not significantly predictive of better OS (p = 0.285). TNM stage was predictive of OS (p < 0.001). These results are similar to our published studies on Caucasian BC patients of all ages in which ER/PR/HER2 status was not predictive of OS, irrespective of classification system used.

  3. Getting the Facts: Cancer-Related Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and childcare. Often, family members or friends are happy to help because it is something concrete they ... those touched by this disease. LRF is the nation’s largest lymphoma-focused voluntary health organization devoted exclusively ...

  4. Cancer Facts for Lesbians and Bisexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT)-friendly providers. An LGBT community center or group may be able to ... regular health check-ups. The take-away The LGBT communities have a higher incidence of many risk ...

  5. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer M Fouad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate

  6. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Khorshid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

  7. Robotic vs laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer: a retrospective comparative mono-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchi, Fabio; Indennitate, Giampiero; Trallori, Giacomo; Ortolani, Manuela; Paoli, Beatrice; Macrì, Giuseppe; Lami, Gabriele; Mallardi, Beatrice; Badii, Benedetta; Staderini, Fabio; Qirici, Etleva; Taddei, Antonio; Ringressi, Maria Novella; Messerini, Luca; Novelli, Luca; Bagnoli, Siro; Bonanomi, Andrea; Foppa, Caterina; Skalamera, Ileana; Fiorenza, Giulia; Perigli, Giuliano

    2016-09-20

    Robotic surgery has been developed with the aim of improving surgical quality and overcoming the limitations of conventional laparoscopy in the performance of complex mini-invasive procedures. The present study was designed to compare robotic and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Between June 2008 and September 2015, 41 laparoscopic and 30 robotic distal gastrectomies were performed by a single surgeon at the same institution. Clinicopathological characteristics of the patients, surgical performance, postoperative morbidity/mortality and pathologic data were prospectively collected and compared between the laparoscopic and robotic groups by the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test, as indicated. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the two groups. Mean tumor size was larger in the laparoscopic than in the robotic patients (5.3 ± 0.5 cm and 3.0 ± 0.4 cm, respectively; P = 0.02). However, tumor stage distribution was similar between the two groups. The mean number of dissected lymph nodes was higher in the robotic than in the laparoscopic patients (39.1 ± 3.7 and 30.5 ± 2.0, respectively; P = 0.02). The mean operative time was 262.6 ± 8.6 min in the laparoscopic group and 312.6 ± 15.7 min in the robotic group (P < 0.001). The incidences of surgery-related and surgery-unrelated complications were similar in the laparoscopic and in the robotic patients. There were no significant differences in short-term clinical outcomes between the two groups. Within the limitation of a small-sized, non-randomized analysis, our study confirms that robotic distal gastrectomy is a feasible and safe surgical procedure. When compared with conventional laparoscopy, robotic surgery shows evident benefits in the performance of lymphadenectomy with a higher number of retrieved and examined lymph nodes.

  8. The single institutional outcome of postoperative radiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Chun; Kim, Yeon Si; Oh, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Dong Soo; Song, Jin Ho; Kang, Jin Hyung; Park, Jae Ki [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study was conducted to observe the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in single institution. From 2002 to 2013, 78 patients diagnosed with NSCLC after curative resection were treated with radiotherapy alone (RT, n = 48) or concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT, n = 30). The indications of adjuvant radiation therapy were N2 node positive (n = 31), close or involved resection margin (n = 28), or gross residual disease due to incomplete resection (n = 19). The median radiation dose was 57.6 Gy (range, 29.9 to 66 Gy). Median survival time was 33.7 months (range, 4.4 to 140.3 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 49.5% (RT 46% vs. CCRT 55.2%; p = 0.731). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 45.5% (RT 39.4% vs. CCRT 55.3%; p = 0.130). The 3-year local control rate was 68.1% (RT 64.4% vs. CCRT 77.7%; p = 0.165). The 3-year DMFS rate was 56.1% (RT 52.6% vs. CCRT 61.7%; p = 0.314). In multivariate analysis, age > or =66 years and pathologic stage III were significant poor prognostic factors for OS. Treatment failure occurred in 40 patients. Four patients had radiologically confirmed grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. In NSCLC, adjuvant RT or CCRT after curative surgery is a safe and feasible modality of treatment. OS gain was seen in patients less than 66 years. Postoperative CCRT showed a propensity of achieving better local control and improved disease-free survival compared to RT alone according to our data.

  9. National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts ...

  10. Danish Translation and Linguistic Validation of the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæksted, Christina; Nissen, Aase; Pappot, Helle

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) is the basis for standardized clinician-based grading and reporting of adverse events in cancer clinical trials. The U.S. National Cancer Institute has developed the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the CTCAE (PRO-CTCAE) to i......CONTEXT: The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) is the basis for standardized clinician-based grading and reporting of adverse events in cancer clinical trials. The U.S. National Cancer Institute has developed the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the CTCAE (PRO...

  11. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  12. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  13. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Director Organization Reports & Publications Español The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds ... Landscape Social Media Videos Image Gallery Fact Sheets Human Genome Project Clinical Studies Genomic Careers DNA Day Calendar ...

  14. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  15. Influence of a National Cancer Institute transdisciplinary research and training initiative on trainees' transdisciplinary research competencies and scholarly productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Feng, Annie; Oh, April; Hall, Kara L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Stokols, Daniel; Okamoto, Janet; Perna, Frank M; Moser, Richard; Nebeling, Linda

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been burgeoning interest and investment in large transdisciplinary (TD) team science initiatives that aim to address complex societal problems. Despite this trend, TD training opportunities in the health sciences remain limited, and evaluations of these opportunities are even more uncommon due to funding constraints. We had the unique opportunity to conduct an exploratory study to examine the potential outcomes and impacts of TD training in a National Cancer Institute-supported initiative for TD research and training-the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer I (TREC I) initiative. This study used a retrospective mixed-methods approach leveraging secondary analysis of existing data sources to learn about TREC trainees' experiences with TREC training, TD research competencies, changes in scholarly productivity, and the associations among these domains. Results indicated that, on average, TREC trainees were satisfied with their TREC mentoring experiences and believed that TREC training processes were effective, in general. Participation in TREC training was associated with TD research competencies, including TD research orientation, positive general attitude toward TD training, development of scientific skills for TD research, and intrapersonal/interpersonal competencies for collaboration. There was also a significant increase in trainees' scholarly productivity from before to after starting in TREC training, as indicated by average annual number of publications and presentations and average number of coauthors per publication. Perceived effectiveness of TREC training was positively correlated with change in average annual number of research presentations from before to after starting in TREC training (r = 0.65, p < 0.05, N = 12), as well as TD research orientation (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), general attitude toward TD training (0.39, p < 0.05), scientific skills for TD research (r = 0

  16. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  17. Long-Term Survival and Local Relapse Following Surgery Without Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Upper Rectal Cancer: An International Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Simon, Ng Siu Man; Law, Wai Lun; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shan, Hester Cheung Yui; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Choi, Gyu-Seog

    2016-05-01

    Controversy remains regarding whether preoperative chemoradiation protocol should be applied uniformly to all rectal cancer patients regardless of tumor height. This pooled analysis was designed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiation can be safely omitted in higher rectal cancer.An international consortium of 7 institutions was established. A review of the database that was collected from January 2004 to May 2008 identified a series of 2102 patients with stage II/III rectal or sigmoid cancer (control arm) without concurrent chemoradiation. Data regarding patient demographics, recurrence pattern, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. The primary end point was the 5-year local recurrence rate.The local relapse rate of the sigmoid colon cancer (SC) and upper rectal cancer (UR) cohorts was significantly lower than that of the mid/low rectal cancer group (M-LR), with 5-year estimates of 2.5% for the SC group, 3.5% for the UR group, and 11.1% for the M-LR group, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that tumor depth, nodal metastasis, venous invasion, and lower tumor level were strongly associated with local recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate of local failure was 90.6%, 92.5%, and 94.4% for tumors located within 5, 7, and 9 cm from the anal verge, respectively.Routine use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II/III rectal tumors located more than 8 to 9 cm above the anal verge would be excessive. The integration of a more individualized approach focused on systemic control is warranted to improve survival in patients with upper rectal cancer.

  18. Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meningococcal Disease Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults What is meningococcal ... risks associated with the vaccines. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, and ...

  19. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download ... spending. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, one ... physician I am a researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia ...

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full ... in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family and friends provided 18. ...

  3. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Health THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Kim, diagnosed in 1986 People with a chronic disease may neglect their general health and wellness, research shows. Dental care is no exception. A tendency to focus ...

  4. Industrial Stormwater Fact Sheet Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheets for the industrial sectors regulated by the MSGP. Each describes the types of facilities included in the sector, typical pollutants associated with the sector, and types of stormwater control measures used to minimize pollutant discharge.

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... irrevocable disability occurs. LEARN ABOUT OUR COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State ... news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with Alzheimer's as well ...

  7. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  8. Four FACTs Spiritual Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca-Pitts, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Four FACTs Spiritual Assessment Tool combines the Four Fs and the FACT Spiritual Assessment Tool of LaRocca-Pitts into a single tool. The Four FACTs Tool is specifically designed for beginning students, but can also meet the needs of professional chaplains. Though designed for use in an acute care setting, it can be easily adapted for other settings. The Four FACTs Tool is easy to learn and to use and it gathers and evaluates relevant clinical information that can then be used to develop a plan of care. In its shortened form, as ACT, it informs how the chaplain can be fully present with patients and their families, especially in a time of crisis.

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease ... the latest news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with ...

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  11. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  12. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  13. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  14. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  15. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  16. Evolution as Fact and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1981-01-01

    This essay by a Harvard evolutionist presents viewpoints concerning the creationists' arguments against evolutionary biology. Semantics regarding "facts" and "theory" of evolution are examined, examples are cited of creationist argument, and arguments for evolution are presented. (CS)

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every state across the ... c)(3) organization. Copyright © 2017 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, one ... physician I am a researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia ...

  19. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  1. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials View All Content Definition & Facts for Constipation What is Constipation? Constipation is a condition in which you typically ... to prevent or relieve constipation. How common is constipation? Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal ( ...

  2. Contouring variations and the role of atlas in non-small cell lung cancer radiation therapy: Analysis of a multi-institutional preclinical trial planning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Chen, Wenzhou; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring; Olsen, Lindsey A; Beatty, Ronald E; Maxim, Peter G; Ritter, Timothy; Sohn, Jason W; Higgins, Jane; Galvin, James M; Xiao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To quantify variations in target and normal structure contouring and evaluate dosimetric impact of these variations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. To study whether providing an atlas can reduce potential variation. Three NSCLC cases were distributed sequentially to multiple institutions for contouring and radiation therapy planning. No segmentation atlas was provided for the first 2 cases (Case 1 and Case 2). Contours were collected from submitted plans and consensus contour sets were generated. The volume variation among institution contours and the deviation of them from consensus contours were analyzed. The dose-volume histograms for individual institution plans were recalculated using consensus contours to quantify the dosimetric changes. An atlas containing targets and critical structures was constructed and was made available when the third case (Case 3) was distributed for planning. The contouring variability in the submitted plans of Case 3 was compared with that in first 2 cases. Planning target volume (PTV) showed large variation among institutions. The PTV coverage in institutions' plans decreased dramatically when reevaluated using the consensus PTV contour. The PTV contouring consistency did not show improvement with atlas use in Case 3. For normal structures, lung contours presented very good agreement, while the brachial plexus showed the largest variation. The consistency of esophagus and heart contouring improved significantly (t test; P atlas improved the contour agreement for esophagus and heart, but not for the PTV in this study. Quality assurance of contouring is essential for a successful multi-institutional clinical trial. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inside Knowledge about Gynecologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 women die from a gynecologic cancer. Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer Campaign CDC’s Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign raises ...

  4. Breast cancer screening in an era of personalized regimens: a conceptual model and National Cancer Institute initiative for risk-based and preference-based approaches at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Sprague, Brian L; Barlow, William E; Haas, Jennifer S; Tosteson, Anna N A; D Schnall, Mitchell; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L; Conant, Emily F

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women's health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for "overdiagnosis," and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a "1-size-fits-all" guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women's risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Chronic adverse events and quality of life after radiochemotherapy in anal cancer patients. A single institution experience and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrian, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Bochum, Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Sauer, T.; Klemm, S.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Dinkel, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy; Schuster, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To report on chronic adverse events (CAE) and quality of life (QOL) after radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with anal cancer (AC). Patients and methods: Of 83 patients who had received RCT at our department between 1988 and 2011, 51 accepted the invitation to participate in this QOL study. CAE were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 4.0 and QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Results: CAE could be evaluated in 49 patients. There was a tendency toward a higher rate of grade 3 CAE in female patients, i.e. 18 out of 37 (49 %) vs. 2 out of 12 (17 %) male patients (p = 0.089). The most common grade 3 CAE were dyspareunia and vaginal symptoms (itching, burning and dryness) in 35 and 22 % of female patients, respectively, followed by stool incontinence in 13 % of all patients (6 out of 49). Both FACT-C and CAE information were available for 42 patients, allowing evaluation of the impact of CAE on QOL. The median total FACT-C score was 110 (40-132) out of a possible maximum of 136. The absence of grade 3 CAE (115 vs. 94, p = 0.001); an interval of {>=} 67 months after the end of the treatment (111 vs. 107, p = 0.010), no stool incontinence vs. grade 3 stool incontinence (111 vs. 74, p = 0.009), higher education (114 vs. 107, p = 0.013) and no dyspareunia vs. grade 3 dyspareunia (116 vs. 93, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a higher median FACT-C score. Conclusion: The majority of AC patients treated with RCT have acceptable overall QOL scores, which are comparable to those of the normal population. Patients with grade 3 CAE - particularly dyspareunia and fecal incontinence - have a poorer QOL compared to patients without CAE. In order to improve long-term QOL, future strategies might aim at a reduction in dose to the genitalia and more intensive patient support measures. (orig.)

  6. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; Arellano-Galindo, José; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Ortíz-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ortíz-Fernández, Antonio; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count 100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population. PMID:25922837

  7. "US-JAPAN CONFERENCE: INFLAMMATION, DIABETES AND CANCER" held at the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Lin, Ren-Jang; Jove, Richard

    2011-12-01

    The conference was held to facilitate research collaborations between US and Japan scientists, and to commemorate the rich history of the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope (COH) research contributed by many Japanese doctors. Most noticeable is Dr. Ryojun Kinoshita, an internationally renowned oncologist who built the first research team at the campus of COH Medical Center in 1952. The conference received enthusiastic support from Junichi Ihara, Consul General of Japan, Los Angeles. During the two day conference, seven scientists from Japan, six scientists from Southern California, and six scientists from COH presented various aspects of cancer and diabetes research which included nuclear receptor regulation, DNA base and chromatin modifications, cancer glycosylation, circadian clock, cell polarity, tumorigenesis, micro and small RNA therapies, genomics, epigenetics, and signaling.

  8. Intakes of dietary iron and heme-iron and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Cross, Amanda J; Park, Yikyung; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Rohan, Thomas E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intakes of dietary iron and, in particular, heme iron may increase breast cancer risk because of the prooxidant properties of iron. However, few studies have examined the association of iron and heme-iron intakes with breast cancer risk. Objective: We assessed the association of intakes of dietary iron and heme iron with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Design: We used data from the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study to assess intakes of total dietary iron, iron from meat, iron from red meat, and heme iron in relation to breast cancer risk in 116,674 postmenopausal women who completed a detailed questionnaire regarding meat preparation methods and degrees of doneness. During 6.5 y of follow-up, 3396 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: After adjustment for covariates, HRs for the highest compared with the lowest quintiles of intakes of total iron, iron from meat, iron from red meat, and heme iron were all close to unity, and there were no increasing trends with increasing intakes. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of heme-iron intake was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14; P for trend = 0.97). In addition, no associations were seen when iron variables were stratified by possible effect modifiers or hormone receptor status. Conclusion: The results of this large cohort study do not support an association between iron or heme-iron intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:20962158

  9. Intakes of dietary iron and heme-iron and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Cross, Amanda J; Park, Yikyung; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Rohan, Thomas E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-12-01

    Intakes of dietary iron and, in particular, heme iron may increase breast cancer risk because of the prooxidant properties of iron. However, few studies have examined the association of iron and heme-iron intakes with breast cancer risk. We assessed the association of intakes of dietary iron and heme iron with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We used data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study to assess intakes of total dietary iron, iron from meat, iron from red meat, and heme iron in relation to breast cancer risk in 116,674 postmenopausal women who completed a detailed questionnaire regarding meat preparation methods and degrees of doneness. During 6.5 y of follow-up, 3396 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. After adjustment for covariates, HRs for the highest compared with the lowest quintiles of intakes of total iron, iron from meat, iron from red meat, and heme iron were all close to unity, and there were no increasing trends with increasing intakes. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of heme-iron intake was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14; P for trend = 0.97). In addition, no associations were seen when iron variables were stratified by possible effect modifiers or hormone receptor status. The results of this large cohort study do not support an association between iron or heme-iron intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  10. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  11. Summary and Recommendations from the National Cancer Institute's Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, S.P.; Bajorin, D.F.; Dinney, C.P.; Efstathiou, J.A.; Groshen, S.; Hahn, N.M.; Hansel, D.; Kwiatkowski, D.; O'Donnell, M.; Rosenberg, J.; Svatek, R.; Abrams, J.S.; Al-Ahmadie, H.; Apolo, A.B.; Bellmunt, J.; Callahan, M.; Cha, E.K.; Drake, C.; Jarow, J.; Kamat, A.; Kim, W.; Knowles, M.; Mann, B.; Marchionni, L.; McConkey, D.; McShane, L.; Ramirez, N.; Sharabi, A.; Sharpe, A.H.; Solit, D.; Tangen, C.M.; Amiri, A.T.; Allen, E. Van; West, P.J.; Witjes, J.A.; Quale, D.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The NCI Bladder Cancer Task Force convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) Workshop focused on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC). Meeting attendees included a broad and multi-disciplinary group of clinical and research stakeholders and included leaders from

  12. Identifying and Creating the Next Generation of Community-Based Cancer Prevention Studies: Summary of a National Cancer Institute Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Pearson, Deborah C; Kramer, Barnett S; Ford, Leslie G; Lippman, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    In late 2015, the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention convened cancer prevention research experts and stakeholders to discuss the current state of cancer prevention research, identify key prevention research priorities for the NCI, and identify studies that could be conducted within the NCI Community Oncology Research Program. Goals included identifying cancer prevention research opportunities offering the highest return on investment, exploring the concept of precision prevention and what is needed to advance this area of research, and identifying possible targets for prevention. Four study populations were considered for cancer prevention research: healthy people, those at increased risk for a specific cancer, people with preneoplastic lesions, and children, adolescents, and young adults. Priorities that emerged include screening (e.g., surveillance intervals, tomosynthesis vs. digital mammography), a pre-cancer genome atlas (PreTCGA), HPV vaccines, immunoprevention of noninfectious origins, and overdiagnosis. Challenges exist, as the priority list is ambitious and potentially expensive. Clinical trials need to be carefully designed to include and maximize prospective tissue collection. Exploring existing cofunding mechanisms will likely be necessary. Finally, relationships with a new generation of physician specialists will need to be cultivated to reach the target populations. Cancer Prev Res; 10(2); 99-107. ©2016 AACR.

  13. Impact of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 on prostate cancer aggressiveness: Lessons from a contemporary single institution radical prostatectomy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Koloff

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of TP5 and suggest that criteria for tertiary pattern reporting in prostate cancer should be standardized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of tertiary patterns in prognostic models.

  14. Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer, Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 and Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3: Experience of a Referral Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegler, Efraim; Segev, Yakir; Mackuli, Lena; Auslender, Ron; Shiner, Mayan; Lavie, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    ...: human papillomavirus (HPV) induced or non-HPV induced. To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with vulvar or vaginal cancer and vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN3, VAIN3...

  15. Quick Facts about Young Voters: 2006. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2006-01-01

    This year's elections follow a presidential election that witnessed the highest level of national youth voter participation in over a decade, and a voter turnout rate among 18 to 29 year olds of 47 percent, up 9 percentage points over 2000. This fact sheet reports the characteristics of young voters nationally, including estimates of the number of…

  16. Environmental dose in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer;Dosis ambiental en el Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres U, C. L.; Avila A, O. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Medina V, L. A.; Buenfil B, A. E.; Brandan S, M. E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Trujillo Z, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Seccion XVI, 14080 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The dosimeters TLD-100 and TLD-900 were used to know the levels of environmental dose in areas of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The dosimeters calibration was carried out in the Metrology Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The radioisotopes used in the studied areas are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs with gamma energies between 93 and 662 KeV. Dosimeters were placed during five months in the diagnostic, injection, waiting and PET rooms as well as hot room, waste room, enclosed corridors to patient rooms treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs and witness dosimeters to know the bottom. The values found vary between 0.3 and 70 major times that those of bottom. The maximum doses were measured in the waste room and in the enclosed corridor to the patient rooms with cervical uterine cancer treated with {sup 137}Cs. (Author)

  17. Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Lin, Yong; Bandera, Elisa V; Jacques, Paul F; Parekh, Niyati

    2015-02-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates associations between healthful behaviors consistent with WCRF/AICR cancer prevention guidelines and obesity-related cancer risk, as a third of cancers are estimated to be preventable. The study sample consisted of adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (n = 2,983). From 1991 to 2008, 480 incident doctor-diagnosed obesity-related cancers were identified. Data on diet, measured by a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity, collected in 1991 was used to construct a 7-component score based on recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, foods that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcohol, and food preservation, processing, and preparation. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between the computed score, its components, and subcomponents in relation to obesity-related cancer risk. The overall score was not associated with obesity-related cancer risk after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, energy, and preexisting conditions (HR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.86-1.02). When score components were evaluated separately, for every unit increment in the alcohol score, there was 29 % lower risk of obesity-related cancers (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.51-0.99) and 49-71 % reduced risk of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Every unit increment in the subcomponent score for non-starchy plant foods (fruits, vegetables, and legumes) among participants who consume starchy vegetables was associated with 66 % reduced risk of colorectal cancer (HR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.22-0.88). Lower alcohol consumption and a plant-based diet consistent with the cancer prevention guidelines were associated with reduced risk of obesity-related cancers in this population.

  18. Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Lin, Yong; Bandera, Elisa V.; Jacques, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This prospective cohort study evaluates associations between healthful behaviors consistent with WCRF/AICR cancer prevention guidelines and obesity-related cancer risk, as a third of cancers are estimated to be preventable. Methods The study sample consisted of adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (n = 2,983). From 1991 to 2008, 480 incident doctor-diagnosed obesity-related cancers were identified. Data on diet, measured by a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity, collected in 1991 was used to construct a 7-component score based on recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, foods that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcohol, and food preservation, processing, and preparation. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between the computed score, its components, and subcomponents in relation to obesity-related cancer risk. Results The overall score was not associated with obesity-related cancer risk after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, energy, and preexisting conditions (HR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.86–1.02). When score components were evaluated separately, for every unit increment in the alcohol score, there was 29 % lower risk of obesity-related cancers (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.51–0.99) and 49–71 % reduced risk of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Every unit increment in the subcomponent score for non-starchy plant foods (fruits, vegetables, and legumes) among participants who consume starchy vegetables was associated with 66 % reduced risk of colorectal cancer (HR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.22–0.88). Conclusions Lower alcohol consumption and a plant-based diet consistent with the cancer prevention guidelines were associated with reduced risk of obesity-related cancers in this population. PMID:25559553

  19. Summary and Recommendations from the National Cancer Institute's Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Seth P; Bajorin, Dean F; Dinney, Colin P; Efstathiou, Jason A; Groshen, Susan; Hahn, Noah M; Hansel, Donna; Kwiatkowski, David; O'Donnell, Michael; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Svatek, Robert; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Apolo, Andrea B; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Callahan, Margaret; Cha, Eugene K; Drake, Charles; Jarow, Jonathan; Kamat, Ashish; Kim, William; Knowles, Margaret; Mann, Bhupinder; Marchionni, Luigi; McConkey, David; McShane, Lisa; Ramirez, Nilsa; Sharabi, Andrew; Sharpe, Arlene H; Solit, David; Tangen, Catherine M; Amiri, Abdul Tawab; Van Allen, Eliezer; West, Pamela J; Witjes, J A; Quale, Diane Zipursky

    2016-04-27

    The NCI Bladder Cancer Task Force convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) Workshop focused on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC). Meeting attendees included a broad and multi-disciplinary group of clinical and research stakeholders and included leaders from NCI, FDA, National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), advocacy and the pharmaceutical and biotech industry. The meeting goals and objectives were to: 1) create a collaborative environment in which the greater bladder research community can pursue future optimally designed novel clinical trials focused on the theme of molecular targeted and immune-based therapies in NMIBC; 2) frame the clinical and translational questions that are of highest priority; and 3) develop two clinical trial designs focusing on immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Despite successful development and implementation of large Phase II and Phase III trials in bladder and upper urinary tract cancers, there are no active and accruing trials in the NMIBC space within the NCTN. Disappointingly, there has been only one new FDA approved drug (Valrubicin) in any bladder cancer disease state since 1998. Although genomic-based data for bladder cancer are increasingly available, translating these discoveries into practice changing treatment is still to come. Recently, major efforts in defining the genomic characteristics of NMIBC have been achieved. Aligned with these data is the growing number of targeted therapy agents approved and/or in development in other organ site cancers and the multiple similarities of bladder cancer with molecular subtypes in these other cancers. Additionally, although bladder cancer is one of the more immunogenic tumors, some tumors have the ability to attenuate or eliminate host immune responses. Two trial concepts emerged from the meeting including a window of opportunity trial (Phase 0) testing an FGFR3 inhibitor and a second multi-arm multi-stage trial testing combinations

  20. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.