WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer index composite

  1. The Preoperative Composite Physiologic Index May Predict Mortality in Lung Cancer Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Fumika; Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Shiina, Takayuki; Asaka, Shiho; Miura, Kentaro; Yasuo, Masanori; Wada, Yosuke; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Hanaoka, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the preoperative pulmonary function parameters and prognostic indices that are indicative of nutritional and immunological status are associated with prognosis in lung cancer patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who have undergone surgery. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic determinants in these patients. The medical records of all patients with lung cancer associated with CPFE who had undergone surgery at Shinshu University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed to obtain clinical data, including the results of preoperative pulmonary function tests and laboratory examinations, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and survival. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that a high pathological stage of the lung cancer, a higher preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level, and a higher preoperative composite physiologic index (CPI) were associated with a high risk of death. Multivariate analysis showed that a high pathological stage of the lung cancer (HR: 1.579; p = 0.0305) and a higher preoperative CPI (HR: 1.034; p = 0.0174) were independently associated with a high risk of death. In contrast, the severity of fibrosis or emphysema on chest HRCT, the individual pulmonary function parameters, the prognostic nutritional index, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio were not associated with prognosis. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the log-rank test showed significant differences in survival between the high-CPI and the low-CPI group (p = 0.0234). The preoperative CPI may predict mortality and provide more powerful prognostic information than individual pulmonary function parameters in lung cancer patients with CPFE who have undergone surgery. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The German version of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC): translation, validation and minimal important difference estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbehr, Martin H; Bachmann, Lucas M; Poyet, Cedric; Hammerer, Peter; Steurer, Johann; Puhan, Milo A; Frei, Anja

    2018-02-20

    No official German translation exists for the 50-item Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and no minimal important difference (MID) has been established yet. The aim of the study was to translate and validate a German version of the EPIC with cultural adaptation to the different German speaking countries and to establish the MID. We translated and culturally adapted the EPIC into German. For validation, we included a consecutive subsample of 92 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy who participated the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Cohort. Baseline and follow-up assessments took place before and six weeks after prostatectomy in 2010 and 2011. We assessed the EPIC, EORTC QLQ-PR25, Feeling Thermometer, SF-36 and a global rating of health state change variable. We calculated the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and MID. For most EPIC domains and subscales, our a priori defined criteria for reliability were fulfilled (construct reliability: Cronbach's alpha 0.7-0.9; test-retest reliability: intraclass-correlation coefficient ≥ 0.7). Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between EPIC and EORTC QLQ-PR25 domains ranged from 0.14-0.79, and 0.06-0.5 and 0.08-0.72 for Feeling Thermometer and SF-36, respectively. We established MID values of 10, 4, 12, and 6 for the urinary, bowel, sexual and hormonal domain. The German version of the EPIC is reliable, responsive and valid to measure HRQL in prostate cancer patients and is now available in German language. With the suggested MID we provide interpretation to what extent changes in HRQL are clinically relevant for patients. Hence, study results are of interest beyond German speaking countries.

  3. Composite science and technology innovation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book reports the composite science and technology innovation index with the purpose, process, conception and, the method of evaluation. It also indicates the result of composite science and technology innovation index in 2010, which itemizes the result according to resource, activity network, environment and outcome. The last part records analysis of science and technology innovation in Korea and development plan with various analysis.

  4. Psychometric Assessment of the Chinese Version of the Abbreviated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) and the Clinical Practice Version (EPIC-CP) in Chinese Men With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Tse, Michael A; Ng, Chris N L; Chung, Edward K M; Fielding, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument was designed to assess a range of health-related quality-of-life issues specifically relevant to patients with prostate cancer. This study examined the validity and reliability of Chinese versions of the 26-item EPIC and of the 16-item EPIC for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) in Chinese patients with prostate cancer. A Chinese version of the 26-item EPIC and the 16-item EPIC-CP were self-completed by 252 Chinese patients with prostate cancer who were recruited from three community-based cancer service centers. Confirmatory factors analysis assessed the factor structures of the EPIC and the EPIC-CP. Internal consistency and construct and clinical validities of the factor structures were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original factor structure of both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP showed good fit to this sample. A correlated model was superior to a hierarchical model in both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP supporting the utility of the domain scores over the total scores. Cronbach α ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 for EPIC-26 and 0.44 to 0.67 for EPIC-CP. Construct validity was supported by correlations between EPIC-26/EPIC-CP and psychological distress measures. Clinical validity was supported by differentiation between patients with and without prostatectomy. These Chinese versions of the five-factor EPIC-26 and the EPIC-CP are valid and practical measures for assessing a range of health-related quality-of-life issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, highlighting their utility in assessing health-related quality of life for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Expanded Prostate cancer Index Composite questionnaire for health-related quality of life in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anota, Amélie; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Maingon, Philippe; Joly, Florence; Bosset, Jean-François; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Bittard, Hugues; Velten, Michel; Mercier, Mariette

    2016-12-06

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been positioned as one of the major endpoints in oncology. Thus, there is a need to validate cancer-site specific survey instruments. This study aimed to perform a transcultural adaptation of the 50-item Expanded Prostate cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire for HRQoL in prostate cancer patients and to validate the psychometric properties of the French-language version. The EPIC questionnaire measures urinary, bowel, sexual and hormonal domains. The first step, corresponding to transcultural adaptation of the original English version of the EPIC was performed according to the back translation technique. The second step, comprising the validation of the psychometric properties of the EPIC questionnaire, was performed in patients under treatment for localized prostate cancer (treatment group) and in patients cured of prostate cancer (cured group). The EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 prostate cancer module were also completed by patients to assess criterion validity. Two assessments were performed, i.e., before and at the end of treatment for the Treatment group, to assess sensitivity to change; and at 2 weeks' interval in the Cured group to assess test-retest reliability. Psychometric properties were explored according to classical test theory. The first step showed overall good acceptability and understanding of the questionnaire. In the second step, 215 patients were included from January 2012 to June 2014: 125 in the Treatment group, and 90 in the Cured group. All domains exhibited good internal consistency, except the bowel domain (Cronbach's α = 0.61). No floor effect was observed. Test-retest reliability assessed in the cured group was acceptable, expect for bowel function (intraclass coefficient = 0.68). Criterion validity was good for each domain and subscale. Construct validity was not demonstrated for the hormonal and bowel domains. Sensitivity to change was exhibited for 5/8 subscales and 2/4 summary

  7. Composite Index of Local Government Employees Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefmański Bartłomiej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a structure of a composite Index of Local Government Employees Satisfaction (ESI in Poland. The index provides a based on four sub-indices synthetic assessment of the level of employee satisfaction with the employment in local government offices. The sub-indices have been constructed using an exploratory factor analysis with the VARIMAX one. The ESI and sub-indices values have been normalized in the range of [0–100%], wherein higher ESI values indicate higher employee satisfaction. The proposed approach is used to assess the level of employee satisfaction with the employment in some local government units in the West Pomerania province. The analysis was based on the results of the measurements made in 2009–2010 by comparing the results of two groups of employees separated on the basis of a criterion of their place of employment.

  8. Body composition of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Davies, Peter S W

    2010-07-01

    Nutritional status, as represented by body composition, is an important consideration in the treatment of pediatric cancer patients because it is linked to poor outcomes. Little is known about how a child's body composition responds to cancer and treatment. We aimed to compare the body composition of children undergoing treatment of cancer with that of healthy controls and to compare body composition between children with hematologic malignancies and children with solid tumors. This cross-sectional study measured height, weight, body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat mass in 48 children undergoing treatment of cancer and blood-related disorders and in age-matched healthy controls. Patients with cancer had a significantly lower body cell mass index z score (body cell mass/height raised to the power of 2.5 for females and 3 for males) than did controls (P = 0.0001), and 45% of the patients with cancer were considered malnourished according to body cell mass. Subjects with cancer had a significantly higher percentage of body fat (P = 0.0001) and fat mass (P = 0.0001) than did controls; however, there was no significant difference in fat-free mass (P = 0.09). On the basis of percentage fat, 77% of subjects with cancer were considered obese. No difference in body composition was observed between cancer types. This study showed that children undergoing treatment of all types of cancer have a significantly lower body cell mass and a significantly higher fat mass than do healthy controls. Nutritional support is suggested for all children undergoing treatment of cancer.

  9. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  10. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  11. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  12. Conformity index for brain cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovska, Sonja; Tolevska, Cveta; Kraleva, Slavica; Petreska, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the level of conformity achieved by using 3D conformal radiotherapy for brain cancer patients. Conformity index is a helpful quantitative tool for assessing (evaluating) the quality of a treatment plan. Treatment plans made for ninety patients with brain tumor are worked on this paper. The patients are in supine position and immobilized with thermoplastic masks for the head. Computed tomography data sets with 5 mm scan thickness are used to create a 3D image. All structures of interest are contoured. In order to obtain an optimal dose distribution, treatment fields are fit around target volume with set-up margins of 7mm in each direction. The conformity index values are between 1.21 and 2.04. Value of 1.8 is exceeded in eighteen cases; nine of them are bigger than 1.9 and only three of them are above 2. The target volume for each of these extreme CI values is ideal covered (between 95% and 105% of the prescribed dose). The most acceptable conformity index value in this paper belongs to the plan with the lowest minimal dose (84.7%). It can be concluded that conformity index is necessary but not sufficient factor for assessing radiation treatment plan conformity. To be able to estimate the acceptability of some treatment plan in daily practice, additional information as minimal, maximal and mean dose into target volume, as well as health tissues coverage must be taken into account.(Author)

  13. Development of an Integrated Moisture Index for predicting species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Charles T. Scott; Martin E. Dale; Anantha Prasad

    1996-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used to develop an Integrated Moisture Index (IMI), which was used to predict species composition for Ohio forests. Several landscape features (a slope-aspect shading index, cumulative flow of water downslope, curvature of the landscape, and the water-holding capacity of the soil) were derived from elevation and soils...

  14. Obesity paradox in cancer: new insights provided by body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Pastore, Carla A; Orlandi, Silvana P; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2014-05-01

    Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), appears to have a paradoxical protective effect in several chronic diseases. We investigated the obesity paradox in cancer patients by using body composition. The study was an observational study of 175 cancer patients assessed before chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 or fat mass index (FMI; fat mass divided by the square of height) ≥5.2 (men) and ≥8.2 (women) measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) was defined as fat-free mass index (fat-free mass divided by the square of height) cancer patients only when obesity is defined by BMI. Patients with sarcopenic obesity had the poorest prognosis. Cancer patients with high mortality risk can be identified by a body-composition assessment.

  15. On the Additively Weighted Harary Index of Some Composite Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Khosravi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Harary index is defined as the sum of reciprocals of distances between all pairs of vertices of a connected graph. The additively weighted Harary index H A ( G is a modification of the Harary index in which the contributions of vertex pairs are weighted by the sum of their degrees. This new invariant was introduced in (Alizadeh, Iranmanesh and Došlić. Additively weighted Harary index of some composite graphs, Discrete Math, 2013 and they posed the following question: What is the behavior of H A ( G when G is a composite graph resulting for example by: splice, link, corona and rooted product? We investigate the additively weighted Harary index for these standard graph products. Then we obtain lower and upper bounds for some of them.

  16. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  17. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  18. A new plan quality index for nasopharyngeal cancer SIB IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Zhou, Y; Yan, H; Han, C; Xie, C

    2014-02-01

    A new plan quality index integrating dosimetric and radiobiological indices was proposed to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Ten NPC patients treated by SIB-IMRT were enrolled in the study. Custom software was developed to read dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves from the treatment planning system (TPS). A plan filtering matrix was introduced to filter plans that fail to satisfy treatment protocol. Target plan quality indices and organ at risk (OAR) plan quality indices were calculated for qualified plans. A unique composite plan quality index (CPQI) was proposed based on the relative weight of these indices to evaluate and compare competing plans. Plan ranking results were compared with detailed statistical analysis, radiation oncology quality system (ROQS) scoring results and physician's evaluation results to verify the accuracy of this new plan quality index. The average CPQI values for plans with OAR priority of low, normal, high, and PTV only were 0.22 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.077, 0.71 ± 0.062, and -0.21 ± 0.16, respectively. There were significant differences among these plan quality indices (One-way ANOVA test, p plans were selected. Plan filtering matrix was able to speed up the plan evaluation process. The new matrix plan quality index CPQI showed good consistence with physician ranking results. It is a promising index for NPC SIB-IMRT plan evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STATIN CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Metselaar, J.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising statin, and especially to the use of such compositions in the treatment of cancer or in the inhibition of cancer growth. More specifically, the invention relates to a method for targeting a statin to tumor tissue.

  20. Development of environmental consequence index (ECI) using fuzzy composite programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of environmental consequences of hazardous substances in chemical industries is a very difficult task owing to (i) diversity in the types of hazards and their effects, (ii) location, and (ii) uncertainty in input information. Several indices have been developed over the years to estimate the environmental consequences. In this paper, a critical literature review was done on the existing environmental indices to identify their applications and limitations. The existing indices lack in consideration of all environmental consequence factors such as material hazard factors, dispersion factors, environmental effects, and their uncertainty. A new methodology is proposed for the development of environmental consequence index (ECI), which can overcome the stated limitations. Moreover, the recently developed fuzzy composite programming (FCP) is used to take care of the uncertainty in estimation. ECI is applied to benzene extraction unit (BEU) of a petrochemical industry situated in eastern part of India. The ECI for all the eight sections of BEU are estimated and ranked. The results are compared with well-established indices such as Dow fire and explosion index, safety weight hazard index (SWeHI), and environmental accident index (EAI). The proposed ECI may outperform other indices based on its detailed consideration of the factors and performed equally to Dow F and E index, and EAI in most of the cases for the present application

  1. A composite stability index for dichotomous forecast of thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Middey, Anirban

    2012-12-01

    Thunderstorms are the perennial feature of Kolkata (22° 32' N, 88° 20' E), India during the premonsoon season (April-May). Precise forecast of these thunderstorms is essential to mitigate the associated catastrophe due to lightning flashes, strong wind gusts, torrential rain, and occasional hail and tornadoes. The present research provides a composite stability index for forecasting thunderstorms. The forecast quality detection parameters are computed with the available indices during the period from 1997 to 2006 to select the most relevant indices with threshold ranges for the prevalence of such thunderstorms. The analyses reveal that the lifted index (LI) within the range of -5 to -12 °C, convective inhibition energy (CIN) within the range of 0-150 J/kg and convective available potential energy (CAPE) within the ranges of 2,000 to 7,000 J/kg are the most pertinent indices for the prevalence thunderstorms over Kolkata during the premonsoon season. A composite stability index, thunderstorm prediction index (TPI) is formulated with LI, CIN, and CAPE. The statistical skill score analyses show that the accuracy in forecasting such thunderstorms with TPI is 99.67 % with lead time less than 12 h during training the index whereas the accuracies are 89.64 % with LI, 60 % with CIN and 49.8 % with CAPE. The performance diagram supports that TPI has better forecast skill than its individual components. The forecast with TPI is validated with the observation of the India Meteorological Department during the period from 2007 to 2009. The real-time forecast of thunderstorms with TPI is provided for the year 2010.

  2. Comparison of Behavior Between Islamic and Composite Index in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Stevani Adinda Nurul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze whether there is difference of behavior between Islamic index (Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) and Kuala Lumpur Shariah Index (KLSI)) as well as conventional index (Jakarta Composite Index (JCI) and Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI)) in Indonesia and Malaysia. This study use Vector Auto regression (VAR) or Vector Correction Model (VECM) to respectively as certain if co integration exists. Based on the results, it shows that there is no difference of behavior between I...

  3. Value at Risk on Composite Price Share Index Stock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviarina, A.

    2018-01-01

    The financial servicest authority was declared Let’s Save Campaign on n commemoration of the World Savings Day that falls on this day, October 31, 2016. The activity was greeted enthusiastically by Indonesia Stock Exchange by taking out the slogan Let’s Save The Stocks. Stock is a form of investment that is expected to benefit in the future despite has risks. Value at Risk (VaR) is a method that can measure how much the risk of a financial investment. Composite Stock Price Indeks is the stock price index used by Indonesia Stock Exchange as stock volatility benchmarks in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate Value at Risk (VaR) on closing price Composite Price Share Index Stock data on the period 20 September 2016 until 20 September 2017. Box-Pierce test results p value=0.9528 which is greater than a, that shows homoskedasticity. Value at Risk (VaR) with Variance Covariance Method is Rp.3.054.916,07 which means with 99% confindence interval someone who invests Rp.100.000.000,00 will get Rp.3.054.916,07 as a maximum loss.

  4. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-09-01

    Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results.

  5. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. Objective: We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Design: Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). Conclusion: The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results. PMID:23864539

  6. The correlation of vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer ultrasound with tumor malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of ultrasound vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer with tumor malignancy. Methods: A total of 140 patients with thyroid nodule who accepted surgical resection in our hospital between May 2013 and June 2016 were selected as the research subjects, the patients with malignant thyroid nodule were included in the malignant group of the research and patients with benign thyroid nodule were included in the benign group of research. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography was conducted before operation to determine vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI and vascularization flow index (VFI; tumor tissues were collected after operation to detect the expression of angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion-related molecules. Results: VI, FI and VFI levels of tumor tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group; VEGF, MK, Ang-2, IGF-II, Bcl-2, Livin, Wip1, S100A4, TCF, β-catenin and SATB1 protein expression in tumor tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group and positively correlated with VI, FI and VFI levels while CCNG2 and p27 protein expression were significantly lower than those of benign group and negatively correlated with VI, FI and VFI levels. Conclusion: Ultrasound vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer increase significantly and are closely related to the angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion.

  7. Composite Indexes Economic and Social Performance: Do they Provide Valuable Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasierowski Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the information content of the selected composite indexes, namely the Global Competitiveness Report Index, the Human Development Index, the Knowledge Economy Index, the Innovation Union Scoreboard, and the like. These indexes are examined from the viewpoint of country rankings. It is argued that these indexes provide highly similar information, which brings to question the usefulness of such a variety of approaches. This paper also explores the drawbacks of composite indexes, and questions whether these indexes can adequately serve as policy-setting mechanisms.

  8. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro...

  9. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  10. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  11. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  12. Leptin and Pathological Indexes in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Noori Alavicheh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and one of the factors threatening the health of women worldwide. Leptin is a 16 kD glycoprotein hormone produced predominantly by white adipose tissue. Leptin binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulation of metabolism. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes and progress leading to breast cancer initiation. The aim of this study was to identify if there is association between leptin and pathological indexes in patients with breast cancer Methods: 45women with breast cancer were enrolled. Serum leptin levels of patients were measured by the ELISA method. Pathological information such as stage of the breast cancer, Hormonal receptor (ER, PR and Her2 status in these patients were determined. Result: Results revealed that the patients who were in stage one and two, the mean serum leptin level was (34.18±21.22 ng/ml And patients who were in stage three and four, the mean serum leptin level was (32.21±21/93 ng/ml. Also the mean serum leptin levels in patients whose receptor status of ER, PR and HER2 positive were (35.90±23.55, 35.74±23.91and 37.02±24.25ng/ml, respectively. The Patients whose receptor status of ER, PR and HER2 negative were 26.64±13.13, 28.17±14.26and31.32±19.9ng/ml respectively. No significant association was found between leptin leveland stage of the breast cancer, hormonal receptor (ER, PR and Her2 status in Patients with Breast cancer(p>0.05. Conclusions: In this study, no association was found between serum leptin level and pathological indices in women with Breast cancer in Yasuj, Iran.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  14. Dataset on statistical analysis of editorial board composition of Hindawi journals indexed in Emerging sources citation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary I. Okagbue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the statistical analysis of the total, percentage and distribution of editorial board composition of 111 Hindawi journals indexed in Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI across the continents. The reliability of the data was shown using correlation, goodness-of-fit test, analysis of variance and statistical variability tests. Keywords: Hindawi, Bibliometrics, Data analysis, ESCI, Random, Smart campus, Web of science, Ranking analytics, Statistics

  15. Efficiency of composite tests in gastroentestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, M.; Jacobsen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of composite tests (liver scintigraphy, serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum carcinoembryonic antigen) in findings or excluding liver metastases preoperatively was evaluated in 185 surgical patients with high probability for gastrointestinal cancer, 142 with colorectal and 43 with gastric disorders. A pathoanatomic verification procedure showed liver metastases in 21 and 7 patients, respectively. For each test two cut-off levels were defined in accordance with the operational purpose of the test: either to diagnose metastases (no false-positive test results) or to exclude metastases (no false-negative test results). Generally, composite tests increased overall efficiency. In the colorectal group 39% of the patients were correctly classified by the combined, triple test; in the gastric group 94% were correctly classified. It is concluded that composite tests seem useful, and the operational approach described may be helpful in decision-making and test evaluation

  16. Body composition of children with cancer during treatment and in survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Elliott, Sarah A; Lockwood, Liane; Hallahan, Andrew; Davies, Peter Sw

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition as assessed with the use of body-composition measurements is a poorly understood short- and long-term complication of childhood cancer. We aimed to evaluate the body composition of 2 childhood cancer cohorts as follows: 1) children currently undergoing cancer treatment and 2) childhood cancer survivors. We also aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity and undernutrition between the cancer groups and investigate the impact of cancer type on body composition. Eighty-two children during the treatment of cancer and 53 childhood cancer survivors were involved in the study. Height, weight, body cell mass, percentage of fat, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index were assessed. Subjects were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The on-treatment group had a higher percentage of fat (P = 0.0001) and fat mass index (P = 0.0001) and a significantly lower body cell mass index (P = 0.0001) and fat-free mass index (P = 0.003) than did matched controls. The survivor group had a significantly higher percentage of fat (P = 0.03) and fat mass index (P = 0.04) and significantly lower body cell mass index (P = 0.0001) than did matched controls. The prevalence of undernutrition was high in both groups with 48% (95% CI: 36%, 60%) of the on-treatment group and 53% (95% CI: 40%, 66%) of the survivors considered undernourished. According to the percentage of fat cutoffs, significantly more on-treatment patients were obese (55%; 95% CI: 40%, 60%) than were survivors (26%; 95% CI: 14%, 38%) (P = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences in body composition between cancer types in either the on-treatment or the survivor group. Overnutrition and undernutrition are major concerns in the short and long term for children with cancer. Children treated for cancer have increased fat mass and decreased body cell mass, which are evident during treatment and in survivorship. This trial was registered at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au as ACTRN12614001279617

  17. Derivation and validation of a composite index of severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the DOSE Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rupert C; Donaldson, Gavin C; Chavannes, Niels H; Kida, Kozui; Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Harding, Samantha; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Price, David; Hyland, Michael E

    2009-12-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly recognized as a multicomponent disease with systemic consequences and effects on quality of life. Single measures such as lung function provide a limited reflection of how the disease affects patients. Composite measures have the potential to account for many of the facets of COPD. To derive and validate a multicomponent assessment tool of COPD severity that is applicable to all patients and health care settings. The index was derived using data from 375 patients with COPD in primary care. Regression analysis led to a model explaining 48% of the variance in health status as measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire with four components: dyspnea (D), airflow obstruction (O), smoking status (S), and exacerbation frequency (E). The DOSE Index was validated in cross-sectional and longitudinal samples in various health care settings in Holland, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The DOSE Index correlated with health status in all data sets. A high DOSE Index score (> or = 4) was associated with a greater risk of hospital admission (odds ratio, 8.3 [4.1-17]) or respiratory failure (odds ratio, 7.8 [3.4-18.3]). The index predicted exacerbations in the subsequent year (P Index is a simple, valid tool for assessing the severity of COPD. The index is related to a range of clinically important outcomes such as health care consumption and predicts future events.

  18. FORECASTING KUALA LUMPUR COMPOSITE INDEX: EVIDENCE OF THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND ARIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmana, Raditya; Solihin, Mahmud Iwan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use, compare, and analyze two forecasting technique: namelyAuto Regressive Integrated Moving Average(ARIMA) and Artificial NeuralNetwork(ANN) using Kuala Lumpur Composite Index(KLCI) in Malaysia. ArtificialNeural Network is used because of its popularity of capturing the volatility patterns innonlinear time series while ARIMA used since it is a standard method in the forecastingtool. Daily data of Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from 4 January 1999 to 26 September2005...

  19. Forecasting Kuala Lumpur Composite Index: Evidence of the Artificial Neural Network and Arima

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Iwan, Raditya Sukmana,

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use, compare, and analyze two forecasting technique: namely Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average(ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network(ANN) using Kuala Lumpur Composite Index(KLCI) in Malaysia. Artificial Neural Network is used because of its popularity of capturing the volatility patterns in nonlinear time series while ARIMA used since it is a standard method in the forecasting tool. Daily data of Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from 4 January 1999 to 26 Septembe...

  20. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  1. Method for selection of optimal road safety composite index with examples from DEA and TOPSIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosić, Miroslav; Pešić, Dalibor; Kukić, Dragoslav; Antić, Boris; Božović, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Concept of composite road safety index is a popular and relatively new concept among road safety experts around the world. As there is a constant need for comparison among different units (countries, municipalities, roads, etc.) there is need to choose an adequate method which will make comparison fair to all compared units. Usually comparisons using one specific indicator (parameter which describes safety or unsafety) can end up with totally different ranking of compared units which is quite complicated for decision maker to determine "real best performers". Need for composite road safety index is becoming dominant since road safety presents a complex system where more and more indicators are constantly being developed to describe it. Among wide variety of models and developed composite indexes, a decision maker can come to even bigger dilemma than choosing one adequate risk measure. As DEA and TOPSIS are well-known mathematical models and have recently been increasingly used for risk evaluation in road safety, we used efficiencies (composite indexes) obtained by different models, based on DEA and TOPSIS, to present PROMETHEE-RS model for selection of optimal method for composite index. Method for selection of optimal composite index is based on three parameters (average correlation, average rank variation and average cluster variation) inserted into a PROMETHEE MCDM method in order to choose the optimal one. The model is tested by comparing 27 police departments in Serbia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  3. Human Development Inequality Index and Cancer Pattern: a Global Distributive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Salman; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify associations of the human development inequality (HDI) index with incidence, mortality, and mortality to incidence ratios for eight common cancers among different countries. In this ecological study, data about incidence and mortality rates of cancers was obtained from the Global Cancer Project for 169 countries. HDI indices for the same countries was obtained from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) database. The concentration index was defined as the covariance between cumulative percentage of cancer indicators (incidence, mortality and mortality to incidence ratio) and the cumulative percentage of economic indicators (country economic rank). Results indicated that incidences of cancers of liver, cervix and esophagus were mainly concentrated in countries with a low HDI index while cancers of lung, breast, colorectum, prostate and stomach were concentrated mainly in countries with a high HDI index. The same pattern was observed for mortality from cancer except for prostate cancer that was more concentrated in countries with a low HDI index. Higher MIRs for all cancers were more concentrated in countries with a low HDI index. It was concluded that patterns of cancer occurrence correlate with care disparities at the country level.

  4. X-ray refractive index: A tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miceli, P.F.; Neumann, D.A.; Zabel, H.

    1986-01-01

    We present a novel and simple method to determine the average composition of multilayers and superlattices by measuring the x-ray refractive index. Since these modulated structures exhibit Bragg reflections at small angles, by using a triple axis x-ray spectrometer we have accurately determined the peak shifts due to refraction in GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As and Nb/Ta superlattices. Knowledge of the refractive index provides the average fractional composition of the periodic structure since the refractive index is a superposition of the refractive indices of the atomic constituents. We also present a critical discussion of the method and compare the values of the average fractional composition obtained in this manner to the values obtained from the lattice parameter change in the GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As superlattices due to the Al

  5. Clinical impact of ki-67 labeling index in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2013-01-01

    The ki-67 index is a marker of proliferation in malignant tumors. Studies from the period 2000 to 2012 on the prognostic and predictive value of ki-67 labeling index (LI) in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) are reviewed. Twenty-eight studies reported on the prognostic value of ki-67 index with various...

  6. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  7. A novel damage index for damage identification using guided waves with application in laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkamani, Shahab; Roy, Samit; Barkey, Mark E; Sazonov, Edward; Burkett, Susan; Kotru, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, an innovative time-domain damage index is introduced for the first time which is based on local statistical features of the waveform. This damage index is called the ‘normalized correlation moment’ (NCM) and is composed of the nth moment of the cross-correlation of the baseline and comparison waves. The performance of this novel damage index is compared for some synthetic signals with that of an existing damage index based on the Pearson correlation coefficient (signal difference coefficient, SDC). The proposed damage index is shown to have significant advantages over the SDC, including sensitivity to the attenuation of the signal and lower sensitivity to the signal’s noise level. Numerical simulations using Abaqus finite element (FE) software show that this novel damage index is not only capable of detecting the delamination type of damage, but also exhibits a good ability in the assessment of this type of damage in laminated composite structures. The NCM damage index is also validated using experimental data for identification of delamination in composites. (paper)

  8. Italian Mediterranean Index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Italian section of the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Pala, Valeria; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-03-15

    Colorectal cancer is among the commonest cancers worldwide. Dietary factors have been linked to colorectal cancer risk, however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between a priori dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk. We evaluated the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index, on the risk of colorectal cancer in the 45,275 participants of the Italian section of the EPIC study who completed a dietary questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer in relation to categories of Italian Mediterranean Index score were estimated by multivariate Cox models adjusted for known risk factors, on the whole cohort, on men and women and according to cancer subsite. During a mean follow-up of 11.28 years, 435 colorectal cancer cases were identified. The Italian Mediterranean Index was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35-0.71 for the highest category compared to the lowest, P-trend: 0.043). Results did not differ by sex. Highest Italian Mediterranean Index score was also significantly associated with reduced risks of any colon cancer (HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.81), distal colon cancer (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.75) and rectal cancer (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.81), but not of proximal colon cancer. These findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index) protects against colorectal cancer in general but not against cancer developing in the proximal colon. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  10. Creating a placental inflammatory composite index that has a high prognostic relevance to child morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zou, Lile; Zhao, Yanjun; Wu, Ting; Ye, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Selecting pathologic measures of placental inflammation that affect pregnancy and childhood health is largely empirical. We aimed to systematically select several core inflammation-related placental measures to construct a novel placental inflammatory evaluation criterion with a high prognostic relevance to child morbidity. We used data from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1976), a longitudinal birth cohort study that recruited women during pregnancy and followed the children until 7 years of age. Bootstrap resampling, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and receiver-operator curve were used to select placental pathologic measures that were closely related to child morbidity to form a placental inflammatory composite index. Twenty-six candidate placental inflammation-related measures were ranked based on their close association with adverse neonatal outcomes. The top five placental measures were: (i) neutrophilic infiltration in umbilical artery; (ii) placental weight-birthweight ratio; (iii) necrosis in decidua capsularis; (iv) bacterial colony in epithelium of amnion; and (v) opacity of membranes and fetal surface. Several composite indexes were constructed. A five-measure composite index that had the highest prognostic relevance was chosen. Compared with subjects without any of the five abnormal measures, those with any lesion ranging from 1 to 5 had a 1.2- to 4.6-fold risk of adverse child outcomes, respectively. Our composite index is simple, evidence-based, and has predictive value for child morbidity. It may be used as a novel placental inflammatory evaluation criterion. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  12. Composite magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis and cancer-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ping; Chen Hong-Min; Xie Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the preparation and applications of composite magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed and summarized, with a focus on cancer-related applications. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  13. The Functional Living Index-Cancer is a reliable and valid instrument in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Daniel Y T; Lee, Alvina H K; Tung, Stewart Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Chan, Y M; Goh, Cynthia R; Cheung, Y B

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the linguistic and psychometric properties of the Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC) in assessing the quality of life of Chinese cancer patients. The English FLIC was translated into Traditional Chinese by the standard forward-backward procedure. After cognitive debriefing, a Traditional Chinese FLIC was administered to 500 cancer patients in a major public hospital in Hong Kong. Of which, 200 were invited to complete the questionnaire in 2 weeks. To identify a scale structure appropriate to Chinese, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on two randomly split halves of the sample. We identified five scales of the Traditional Chinese FLIC which assess the physical, psychological, hardship, nausea and social aspects. These five scales and the overall scale demonstrated satisfactory fit and had the alpha coefficient ranged from 0.68 to 0.92. The intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.67 to 0.88. In addition, all FLIC scales were negatively associated with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and, also except for the psychological scale, had lower scores in patients who were treated by chemotherapy. The Traditional Chinese FLIC is an appropriate health indicator for Chinese cancer patients.

  14. Association of changes in fitness and body composition with cancer mortality in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peizhen; Sui, Xuemei; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2014-07-01

    Both baseline cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity predict the risk of cancer mortality. However, the effects of changes in these two factors over time have not been evaluated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition on cancer mortality. The cohort consisted of 13,930 men (initially cancer-free) with two or more medical examinations from 1974 to 2002. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a maximal treadmill exercise test, and body composition was expressed by body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition between the baseline and the last examination were classified into loss, stable, and gain groups. There were 386 deaths from cancer during an average of 12.5 yr of follow-up. After adjusting for possible confounders and BMI, change hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of cancer mortality were 0.74 (0.57-0.96) for stable fitness and 0.74 (0.56-0.98) for fitness gain. Inverse dose-response relationships were observed between changes in maximal METs and cancer mortality (P for linear trend = 0.05). Neither BMI change nor percent body fat change was associated with cancer mortality after adjusting for possible confounders and maximal METs change. In the joint analyses, men who became less fit had a higher risk of cancer mortality (P for linear trend = 0.03) compared with those who became more fit, regardless of BMI change levels. Being unfit or losing cardiorespiratory fitness over time was found to predict cancer mortality in men. Improving or maintaining adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness appears to be important for decreasing cancer mortality in men.

  15. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    incident pancreatic cancer cases from 1968-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: During 8,207,015 person-years of follow-up, 1,268 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. Childhood BMI z-scores at ages 7-13 years were......Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...... from 7-13 years is positively and linearly associated with adult pancreatic cancer; the higher the BMI, the higher the risk. Excess childhood BMI may be indicative of processes initiated early in life that lead to this cancer. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the burden of pancreatic...

  16. Influence of body composition profile on outcomes following colorectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, G; Currie, A C; Athanasiou, T; Johns, N; Anyamene, N; Glynne-Jones, R; Kennedy, R H; Fearon, K C H; Jenkins, J T

    2016-04-01

    Muscle depletion is characterized by reduced muscle mass (myopenia), and increased infiltration by intermuscular and intramuscular fat (myosteatosis). This study examined the role of particular body composition profiles as prognostic markers for patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curative resection. Patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgical resection between 2006 and 2011 were included. Lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) surface area and mean muscle attenuation (MA) were calculated by analysis of CT images. Reduced LSMI (myopenia), increased VAT (visceral obesity) and low MA (myosteatosis) were identified using predefined sex-specific skeletal muscle index values. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to determine the role of different body composition profiles on outcomes. Some 805 patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 47 (i.q.r. 24·9-65·6) months. Multivariable analysis identified myopenia as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1·53, 95 per cent c.i. 1·06 to 2·39; P = 0·041) and overall survival (HR 1·70, 1·25 to 2·31; P cancer survival for patients with colorectal cancer. Muscle depletion may represent a modifiable risk factor in patients with colorectal cancer and needs to be targeted as a relevant endpoint of health recommendations. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Refractive Index Tuning of Hybrid Materials for Highly Transmissive Luminescent Lanthanide Particle-Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Li, Cheng; Riman, Richard E; Watkins, James

    2018-03-14

    High-refractive-index ZrO 2 nanoparticles were used to tailor the refractive index of a polymer matrix to match that of luminescent lanthanide-ion-doped (La 0.92 Yb 0.075 Er 0.005 F 3 ) light-emitting particles, thereby reducing scattering losses to yield highly transparent emissive composites. Photopolymerization of blends of an amine-modified poly(ether acrylate) oligomer and tailored quantities of ZrO 2 nanoparticles yielded optically transparent composites with tailored refractive indices between 1.49 and 1.69. By matching the refractive index of the matrix to that of La 0.92 Yb 0.075 Er 0.005 F 3 , composites with high transmittance (>85%) and low haze from the visible to infrared regions, bright 1530 nm optical emissions were achieved at solids loadings of La 0.92 Yb 0.075 Er 0.005 F 3 , ranging from 5 to 30 vol %. These optical results suggest that a hybrid matrix approach is a versatile strategy for the fabrication of functional luminescent optical composites of high transparency.

  18. Impact of body composition on outcome in patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluche, Elise; Leobon, Sophie; Desport, Jean Claude; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Usseglio, Julie; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the impact of body composition on outcomes of patients with early breast cancer. Skeletal muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and muscle fat infiltration or inter-muscular adipose tissue areas (IMAT), obtained by computed tomography (CT), were assessed. A total of 119 female patients who had breast cancer were included in this retrospective study. The total skeletal muscle and fat tissue areas were evaluated in two adjacent axial slices obtained at the third lumbar vertebra by CT used for disease staging. The women were assigned to either a sarcopenia or non-sarcopenia group based on their skeletal muscle index (cut-off 41.0 cm 2 /m 2 ). They also were classified into high and low VAT/SAT ratio groups and assigned to either the high or low IMAT index group. The association of the body composition parameters and prognosis was statistically analyzed. Among the 119 evaluable patients, 58 were sarcopenic (48.8%), 55 (46.2%) had a high VAT/SAT ratio, and 62 (52.1%) had a high IMAT index. Median follow-up was 52.4 months. Multivariate analysis revealed sarcopenia and IMAT index as independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) and overall survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02, respectively). BMI was not significantly associated with disease-free survival, but a trend was observed (p = 0.09). Sarcopenia and IMAT index are independent prognostic factors in early breast cancer; therefore, assessing body composition could be a simple and useful approach to integrate into patient management.

  19. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Henrique A; Baracos, Vickie E; Dhillon, Navjot; Hong, David S; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2012-01-01

    Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI); body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT) images. A body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%); 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%), including 79% of patients with a BMIbody composition: 215 (71-358) (BMIcancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  20. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  1. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  2. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  3. Body mass index influences prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hitoshi; Kagawa, Makoto; Kawakami, Satoru; Numao, Noboru; Matsuoka, Yoh; Yokoyama, Minato; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yonese, Junji; Fukui, Iwao; Kihara, Kazunori

    2013-07-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men, and to compared the risk with that of Caucasian men. We retrospectively evaluated 3966 men with prostate-specific antigen levels from 2.5 to 19.9 ng/mL who underwent an initial extended prostate biopsy. Using logistic regression, odds ratios of each body mass index category for risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) were estimated after controlling for age, prostate-specific antigen, %free prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, digital rectal examination findings, family history of prostate cancer and the number of biopsy cores. Patients were divided into six categories according to their body mass index (kg/m(2) ) as follows: body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy, with an increased risk observed in men whose body mass index was ≥27.0 compared with the reference group. A significantly increased risk starting at body mass index ≥25.0 was found in high-grade disease. In contrast to our results, there has been no reported increase in the risk of prostate cancer at biopsy in Caucasians within the overweight range (body mass index of 25.0-29.9 based on World Health Organization classification). Japanese men within the overweight body mass index range who have an elevated prostate-specific antigen level also have a significant risk of harboring prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease. Overweight Japanese might be at greater prostate cancer risk at biopsy than overweight Caucasians. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown.We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria.Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index.Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  5. Prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative complications and long-term outcomes of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Deng, Jing-Yu; Ding, Xue-Wei; Ke, Bin; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Ru-Peng; Liang, Han

    2014-08-14

    To investigate the impact of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on the postoperative complications and long-term outcomes in gastric cancer patients undergoing total gastrectomy. The data for 386 patients with gastric cancer were extracted and analyzed between January 2003 and December 2008 in our center. The patients were divided into two groups according to the cutoff value of the PNI: those with a PNI ≥ 46 and those with a PNI gastric cancer patients.

  6. The development of a value based pricing index for new drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, Martha Susanna; Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, prices for cancer drugs have been under downward pressure where several governments have mandated price cuts of branded products. A better alternative to government mandated price cuts would be to estimate a final price based on drug performance, cost effectiveness and a country’s ability to pay. We developed a global pricing index for new cancer drugs in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that encompasses all of these attributes. Methods ...

  7. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. Objectives This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. ...

  8. Plasma-enhanced growth, composition, and refractive index of silicon oxy-nitride films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and refractive index measurements have been carried out on silicon oxy-nitride produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Nitrous oxide and ammonia were added to a constant flow of 2% silane in nitrogen, to produce oxy-nitride films with atomic...... nitrogen concentrations between 2 and 10 at. %. A simple atomic valence model is found to describe both the measured atomic concentrations and published material compositions for silicon oxy-nitride produced by PECVD. A relation between the Si–N bond concentration and the refractive index is found......-product. A model, that combine the chemical net reaction and the stoichiometric rules, is found to agree with measured deposition rates for given material compositions. Effects of annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated for the 400 °C– 1100 °C temperature range. It is observed that PECVD oxy...

  9. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2017-08-01

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  10. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  11. Composite Linear Models | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Stuart G. Baker The composite linear models software is a matrix approach to compute maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic standard errors for models for incomplete multinomial data. It implements the method described in Baker SG. Composite linear models for incomplete multinomial data. Statistics in Medicine 1994;13:609-622. The software includes a library of thirty

  12. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  13. Body Composition Early Identifies Cancer Patients With Radiotherapy at Risk for Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Liu, Wen-Shan; Chen, Lih-Mih; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2018-03-01

    The side effects of radiotherapy (RT) and the occurrence of comorbidity often result in appetite loss in patients, which leads to serious nutritional problems, significantly affecting the patients' treatment results and disease prognosis. We aimed to investigate changes in the body composition of patients with cancer from the time they received RT to three months after completion of RT. A total of 101 cancer patients who received RT, which included head or neck cancer, chest or breast cancer, and abdominal or pelvic cancer patients, were recruited. A longitudinal study design was adopted, in which the body composition analyzer In Body3.0 was used to obtain patient data at six different time points. The data were analyzed through generalized estimating equation. All patients with cancer had the lowest body mass index at the end of RT. For head or neck cancer patients, their total body water and muscle mass decreased significantly in the fourth week of RT and at the end of RT. For chest or breast cancer patients, their body fat mass changed significantly in the second and fourth weeks of RT (β = -0.57, P = 0.0233; β = -3.23, P = 0.0254). For abdominal or pelvic cancer patients, their total body weight and muscle mass decreased significantly in the second week of RT and at the end of RT (β = -1.07, P = 0.0248; β = -5.13, P = 0.0017; β = -1.37, P = 0.0245; β = -6.50, P = 0.0016); their body fat mass increased significantly in the third month after RT (β = 4.61, P = 0.0072). Body composition analysis can be used to promptly and effectively monitor changes in the nutritional status of patients with cancer during the cancer treatment period; changes in the body composition at different repetitions differ between patients with dissimilar cancers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The prostate health index selectively identifies clinically significant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Loeb (Stacy); M.G. Sanda (Martin G.); D.L. Broyles (Dennis L.); S.S. Shin (Sanghyuk S.); C.H. Bangma (Chris); J.T. Wei (John T.); A.W. Partin (Alan W.); G.G. Klee (George); K.M. Slawin (Kevin M.); L.S. Marks (Leonard S.); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); D.W. Chan (Daniel); L. Sokoll (Lori); A.B. Cruz (Amabelle B.); I.A. Mizrahi (Isaac A.); W.J. Catalona (William)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting

  15. Breast Cancer Mortality In Brazil: Correlation With Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality from breast cancer decreased in high-income countries, while countries with middle and low incomes as Brazil still has upward trend. However, large geographical variations among the federal units are observed in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of specific mortality from breast cancer in women over 20 years old years among different states of Brazil from 1996 to 2012.  Methods and Findings: Ecological study, using linear regression model for temporal analysis of specific mortality coefficient from malignant neoplasm of breast. We also checked the degree of its correlation with the HDI for the states of Brazil during the stated period. There was an increase in the specific mortality rate for malignant neoplasm of the breast in order of 33%, with range from 23.2 to 30.8 / 100,000 inhabitants. The states with the highest human development HDI in 2010, showed the largest specific mortality rates of breast cancer. Conclusion: Taking the trends of mortality from cancer an important role, this study confirms the need for improvements in mammography coverage, following radiological lesions suspected and access to appropriate therapy.

  16. Measuring the frailty index of multiple myeloma cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Bøgelund Hansen, Martin; Savic, Toma

    2016-01-01

    We report on a responsive web-based application that we have been developing for the cancer hospital in Vejle, Denmark. The application administers and handles systematic frailty scoring of patients with multiple myeloma and helps doctors make a more efficient and effective treatment choice. The ...

  17. Association of body composition with outcome of docetaxel chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weixin; Liu, Xiandong; Chaftari, Patrick; Cruz Carreras, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Carmen; Viets-Upchurch, Jayne; Merriman, Kelly; Tu, Shi-Ming; Dalal, Shalini; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel, a lipophilic drug, is indicated for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Most men with such disease would have had androgen-deprivation therapy, which decreases muscle and increases body fat. Obesity and body composition changes may influence the outcomes of docetaxel therapy. We conducted a retrospective review of 333 patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with docetaxel at a comprehensive cancer center between October 7, 2004 and December 31, 2012. Body composition parameters were measured based on the areas of muscle and adipose tissues in the visceral and subcutaneous compartments on CT images at L3-4 levels. Dose calculations, toxicity and adverse reaction profiles, and overall survival were analyzed. Obese patients were younger at the diagnosis of prostate cancer and had a shorter duration from diagnosis to docetaxel therapy. Analysis of body composition found that a high visceral fat-to-subcutaneous fat area ratio (VSR) was associated with poor prognosis but a high visceral fat-to-muscle area ratio (VMR) and high body mass index were associated with increased duration from starting docetaxel to death, allowing such men to catch up with patients with normal body mass index in overall survival from cancer diagnosis to death. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that age ≥65 years, high VSR, abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase, and >10% reduction of initial dosage were significant predictors of shorter time between starting docetaxel and death, and that high VMR, obesity, and weekly regimens were significant predictors of longer survival after docetaxel. Obese and overweight patients may benefit more from weekly docetaxel regimens using the reference dosage of 35 mg/m2 without empirical dosage reduction.

  18. Cancer-treating composition containing inductively-heatable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A cancer-treating composition including minute particles suspended in an aqueous solution in dosage form is described. This makes it possible to introduce into the interior of the cells of living tissue minute particles, with magnetic properties, which are inductively heated when subjected to a high frequency alternating electromagnetic field. Incorporating specific radioisotopes or tumor-specific antibodies bound to the particles increases selectivity and affinity of cancer cells for the particles. The particles may be used to deliver a chemotherapeutic agent primarily to the interior of the cancer cells by encapsulating the chemotherapeutic agent within the particles for release when the high frequency alternating electromagnetic field is applied. (author)

  19. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  20. Nutritional composition of the commonly consumed composite dishes for the Barbados National Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Harris, Rachel; Cao, Xia; Hennis, Anselm J M; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh

    2007-09-01

    To provide, for the first time, the calculated nutritional composition of 32 composite dishes commonly consumed in Barbados to enable dietary intake to be calculated from a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire developed specifically for this population to determine associations between diet and risk of prostate and breast cancer. Weighed recipes were collected in up to six different households for each of the 32 composite dishes. The average nutritional composition for these composite dishes was calculated using the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database. One hundred and fifty-two weighed recipes were collected for 32 composite dishes: five were fish based, two were ground beef dishes, two were chicken based, two were offal based, two were lamb dishes, one was pork based, three were rice based, three were commonly consumed home-made drinks, and the remaining were miscellaneous items. A total of 152 weighed recipes were collected and we provide, for the first time, nutritional composition data for 32 commonly consumed food and drink items in Barbados. Such data are essential for assessing nutrient intake and determining associations between diet and prostate and breast cancer in the Barbados National Cancer Study.

  1. Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Benqiang; Deng, Li

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and its morbidity and mortality rates are increasing due to alterations to human lifestyle and dietary habits. The relationship between human gut flora and colorectal cancer has attracted increasing attention. In the present study, a metabolic fingerprinting technique that combined pyrosequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to compare the differences in gut flora profiling and fecal metabolites between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the abundance and diversity of gut flora between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer (P>0.05) and the dominant bacterial phyla present in the gut of both groups included Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia . At the bacterial strain/genus level, significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of 18 species of bacteria (Pflora profiling and metabolite composition. These findings suggest that gut flora disorder results in the alteration of bacterial metabolism, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The results of the present study are useful as a foundation for further studies to elucidate a potential colorectal cancer diagnostic index and therapeutic targets.

  2. New composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potential and electroencephalographic parameters to optimize correlation with propofol effect site concentration - Comparison with bispectral index and solitary used fast extracting auditory evoked potential index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereecke, HEM; Vasquez, PM; Jensen, EW; Thas, O; Vandenbroecke, R; Mortier, EP; Struys, MMRF

    Background: This study investigates the accuracy of a composite index, the A-Line (R) auditory evoked potentials index version 1.6 (AAI(1.6); Danmeter A/S, Odense, Denmark), as a measure of cerebral anesthetic drug effect in a model for predicting a calculated effect site concentration of propofol

  3. Short-Term Prognostic Index for Breast Cancer: NPI or Lpi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Van Belle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer survival but is confounded by the number of nodes examined. We compare the performance of the log odds prognostic index (Lpi, using a ratio of the positive versus negative lymph nodes, with the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI for short-term breast cancer specific disease free survival. A total of 1818 operable breast cancer patients treated in the University Hospital of Leuven between 2000 and 2005 were included. The performance of the NPI and Lpi were compared on two levels: calibration and discrimination. The latter was evaluated using the concordance index (cindex, the number of patients in the extreme groups, and difference in event rates between these. The NPI had a significant higher cindex, but a significant lower percentage of patients in the extreme risk groups. After updating both indices, no significant differences between NPI and Lpi were noted.

  4. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  5. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Weighted Geometric Brownian Motion Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayo Willy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi is the main stock index of the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE. PSEi is computed using a weighted mean of the top 30 publicly traded companies in the Philippines, called component stocks. It provides a single value by which the performance of the Philippine stock market is measured. Unfortunately, these weights, which may vary for every trading day, are not disclosed by the PSE. In this paper, we propose a model of forecasting the PSEi by estimating the weights based on historical data and forecasting each component stock using Monte Carlo simulation based on a Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM assumption. The model performance is evaluated and its forecast compared is with the results using a direct GBM forecast of PSEi over different forecast periods. Results showed that the forecasts using WGBM will yield smaller error compared to direct GBM forecast of PSEi.

  6. The dynamic relationship between Bursa Malaysia composite index and macroeconomic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Rose, Farid Zamani Che; Rahman, Rosmanjawati Abd.

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates and analyzes the long run and short run relationships between Bursa Malaysia Composite index (KLCI) and nine macroeconomic variables in a VAR/VECM framework. After regression analysis seven out the nine macroeconomic variables are chosen for further analysis. The use of Johansen-Juselius Cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) technique indicate that there are long run relationships between the seven macroeconomic variables and KLCI. Meanwhile, Granger causality test shows that bidirectional relationship between KLCI and oil price. Furthermore, after 12 months the shock on KLCI are explained by innovations of the seven macroeconomic variables. This indicate the close relationship between macroeconomic variables and KLCI.

  7. Forecasting Jakarta composite index (IHSG) based on chen fuzzy time series and firefly clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, R. W.; Surarso, B.; Farikhin; Safarudin, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes the combination of Firefly Algorithm (FA) and Chen Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting. Most of the existing fuzzy forecasting methods based on fuzzy time series use the static length of intervals. Therefore, we apply an artificial intelligence, i.e., Firefly Algorithm (FA) to set non-stationary length of intervals for each cluster on Chen Method. The method is evaluated by applying on the Jakarta Composite Index (IHSG) and compare with classical Chen Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting. Its performance verified through simulation using Matlab.

  8. Frailty Index Developed From a Cancer-Specific Geriatric Assessment and the Association With Mortality Among Older Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, Emily J; Deal, Allison M; Chang, YunKyung; Williams, Grant R; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Muss, Hyman B; Sanoff, Hanna K; Lund, Jennifer L

    2017-07-01

    Background: An objective measure is needed to identify frail older adults with cancer who are at increased risk for poor health outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to develop a frailty index from a cancer-specific geriatric assessment (GA) and evaluate its ability to predict all-cause mortality among older adults with cancer. Patients and Methods: Using a unique and novel data set that brings together GA data with cancer-specific and long-term mortality data, we developed the Carolina Frailty Index (CFI) from a cancer-specific GA based on the principles of deficit accumulation. CFI scores (range, 0-1) were categorized as robust (0-0.2), pre-frail (0.2-0.35), and frail (>0.35). The primary outcome for evaluating predictive validity was all-cause mortality. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used to compare survival between frailty groups, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate associations. Results: In our sample of 546 older adults with cancer, the median age was 72 years, 72% were women, 85% were white, and 47% had a breast cancer diagnosis. Overall, 58% of patients were robust, 24% were pre-frail, and 18% were frail. The estimated 5-year survival rate was 72% in robust patients, 58% in pre-frail patients, and 34% in frail patients (log-rank test, P older adults with cancer, a finding that was independent of age, sex, cancer type and stage, and number of medical comorbidities. The CFI has the potential to become a tool that oncologists can use to objectively identify frailty in older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  9. Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanipour-Azgomi, S.; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Towhidi, Farhad; Jamehshorani, Saeid; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Methods: This study was an ecological study conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization. The correlation between standardized incidence rate (SIR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of prostate cancer with HDI and its components was assessed using SPSS Inc Version 18...

  10. Thermoresponsive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, S; Ramanujan, R V

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis, characterization and property evaluation of drug-loaded polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) relevant to multimodal cancer therapy has been studied. The hyperthermia and controlled drug release characteristics of these particles was examined. Magnetite (Fe(3)O(4))-poly-n-(isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) composite MNPs were synthesized in a core-shell morphology by dispersion polymerization of n-(isopropylacrylamide) chains in the presence of a magnetite ferrofluid. These core-shell composite particles, with a core diameter of approximately 13nm, were loaded with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (dox), and the resulting composite nanoparticles (CNPs) exhibit thermoresponsive properties. The magnetic properties of the composite particles are close to those of the uncoated magnetic particles. In an alternating magnetic field (AMF), composite particles loaded with 4.15 wt.% dox exhibit excellent heating properties as well as simultaneous drug release. Drug release testing confirmed that release was much higher above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the CNP, with a release of up to 78.1% of bound dox in 29h. Controlled drug release testing of the particles reveals that the thermoresponsive property can act as an on/off switch by blocking drug release below the LCST. Our work suggests that these dox-loaded polymer-coated MNPs show excellent in vitro hyperthermia and drug release behavior, with the ability to release drugs in the presence of AMF, and the potential to act as agents for combined targeting, hyperthermia and controlled drug release treatment of cancer.

  11. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Martin E. Dale; Charles T. Scott; Anantha Prasad; Anantha Prasad

    1997-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used in conjunction with forest-plot data to develop an integrated moisture index (IMI), which was then used to predict forest productivity (site index) and species composition for forests in Ohio. In this region, typical of eastern hardwoods across the Midwest and southern Appalachians, topographic aspect and position...

  12. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (Pshort and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  13. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  14. Adult body mass index and risk of ovarian cancer by subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Suzanne C; Nagle, Christina M; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and ovarian cancer risk. However, questions remain as to whether this represents a causal effect, or holds for all histological subtypes. The lack of association observed for serous cancers may......, for instance, be due to disease-associated weight loss. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic markers as proxies for risk factors to overcome limitations of observational studies. We used MR to elucidate the relationship between BMI and ovarian cancer, hypothesizing that genetically predicted BMI would...... be associated with increased risk of non-high grade serous ovarian cancers (non-HGSC) but not HGSC. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 studies (14 047 cases, 23 003 controls) in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We constructed a weighted genetic risk score (GRS, partial F-statistic = 172), summing alleles...

  15. Piloting a generic cancer consumer quality index in six European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, A.; Roeling, M.P.; Heerink, J.; Sixma, H.; Presti, P.; Lombardo, C.; Harten, W. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accounting for patients’ perspective has become increasingly important. Based on the Consumer Quality Index method (founded on Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) a questionnaire was recently developed for Dutch cancer patients. As a next step, this study aimed to

  16. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  17. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Caron, Hubert N.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of

  18. Piloting a generic cancer consumer quality index in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anke; Roeling, Mark Patrick; Heerink, Jana; Sixma, Herman; Presti, Pietro; Lombardo, Claudio; van Harten, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accounting for patients' perspective has become increasingly important. Based on the Consumer Quality Index method (founded on Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) a questionnaire was recently developed for Dutch cancer patients. As a next step, this study aimed to

  19. Association between an inflammatory-nutritional index and nutritional status in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici Pastore, Carla; Paiva Orlandi, Silvana; González, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifatorial syndrome characterized by loss of body weight, fat and muscle, increasing morbidity and mortality. The use of an index accounting for both serum albumin and C Reactive Protein levels could make early identification of cachexia easier. To evaluate the variation of an inflammatory nutritional index related to nutritional status in cancer patients. Cross sectional study including patients with gastrointestinal and lung cancer of a public chemotherapy service in Brazil. Serum albumin and C Reactive Protein were measured and the nutritional status was defined by Subjective Global Assessment. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 9.2(TM). A total of 74 patients were evaluated, 58.1% of them were male, mean age 63.4 ± 11.9 years old. Gastrointestinal cancer was the most prevalent type (71.6%). Only 13.7% of the patients were well nourished and 21.9% were severely malnourished. C Reactive Protein significantly increased according to nutritional status decline (p=0.03). When the albumin from patients with systemic inflammation was evaluated, there was no significant variation in relation to nutritional status (p=0.06). The Inflammatory Nutritional Index significantly varied in relation to nutritional status independent of the systemic inflammation (p=0.02). Inflammatory Nutritional Index can be an adjuvant way for biochemical nutritional assessment and follow up in cancer patients with systemic inflammation. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  1. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  2. Nottingham Prognostic Index in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: a reliable prognostic tool?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, André; Ricardo, Sara; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Vítor; Amendoeira, Isabel; Vieira, Daniella; Cameselle-Teijeiro, Jorge; Schmitt, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    A breast cancer prognostic tool should ideally be applicable to all types of invasive breast lesions. A number of studies have shown histopathological grade to be an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer, adding prognostic power to nodal stage and tumour size. The Nottingham Prognostic Index has been shown to accurately predict patient outcome in stratified groups with a follow-up period of 15 years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Clinically, breast tumours that lack the expression of Oestrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) are identified as presenting a 'triple-negative' phenotype or as triple-negative breast cancers. These poor outcome tumours represent an easily recognisable prognostic group of breast cancer with aggressive behaviour that currently lack the benefit of available systemic therapy. There are conflicting results on the prevalence of lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients but it is currently accepted that triple-negative breast cancer does not metastasize to axillary nodes and bones as frequently as the non-triple-negative carcinomas, favouring instead, a preferentially haematogenous spread. Hypothetically, this particular tumour dissemination pattern would impair the reliability of using Nottingham Prognostic Index as a tool for triple-negative breast cancer prognostication. The present study tested the effectiveness of the Nottingham Prognostic Index in stratifying breast cancer patients of different subtypes with special emphasis in a triple-negative breast cancer patient subset versus non- triple-negative breast cancer. We demonstrated that besides the fact that TNBC disseminate to axillary lymph nodes as frequently as luminal or HER2 tumours, we also showed that TNBC are larger in size compared with other subtypes and almost all grade 3. Additionally, survival curves demonstrated that these prognostic factors are

  3. Fragmentation of Care after Surgical Discharge: Non-Index Readmission after Major Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaoyi; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Shara, Nawar M; Langan, Russell C; Hong, Young; Johnson, Lynt B; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite national emphasis on care coordination, little is known about how fragmentation affects cancer surgery outcomes. Our study examines a specific form of fragmentation in post-discharge care—readmission to a hospital different from the location of the operation—and evaluates its causes and consequences among patients readmitted after major cancer surgery. STUDY DESIGN We used the State Inpatient Database of California (2004 to 2011) to identify patients who had major cancer surgery and their subsequent readmissions. Logistic models were used to examine correlates of non-index readmissions and to assess associations between location of readmission and outcomes, measured by in-hospital mortality and repeated readmission. RESULTS Of 9,233 readmissions within 30 days of discharge after major cancer surgery, 20.0% occurred in non-index hospitals. Non-index readmissions were associated with emergency readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63; 95% CI, 2.26–3.06), rural residence (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61–2.04), and extensive procedures (eg hepatectomy vs proctectomy; OR = 2.77; CI, 2.08–3.70). Mortality was higher during non-index readmissions than index readmissions independent of patient, procedure, and hospital factors (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03–1.66), but was mitigated by adjusting for conditions present at readmission (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 0.98–1.58). Non-index readmission predicted higher odds of repeated readmission within 60 days of discharge from the first readmission (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02–1.32), independent of all covariates. CONCLUSIONS Non-index readmissions constitute a substantial proportion of all readmissions after major cancer surgery. They are associated with more repeated readmissions and can be caused by severe surgical complications and increased travel burden. Overcoming disadvantages of non-index readmissions represents an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients having major cancer surgery. PMID:27016905

  4. Novel immunological and nutritional-based prognostic index for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai-Yu; Xu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Shu-Ling; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Wu, Hui; Peng, Jian-Jun; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Guo, Pi; Hao, Yuan-Tao; He, Yu-Long

    2015-05-21

    To assess the prognostic significance of immunological and nutritional-based indices, including the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in gastric cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 632 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy between 1998 and 2008. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to compare the predictive ability of the indices, together with estimating the sensitivity, specificity and agreement rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for overall survival (OS). Propensity score analysis was performed to adjust variables to control for selection bias. Each index could predict OS in gastric cancer patients in univariate analysis, but only PNI had independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis before and after adjustment with propensity scoring (hazard ratio, 1.668; 95% confidence interval: 1.368-2.035). In subgroup analysis, a low PNI predicted a significantly shorter OS in patients with stage II-III disease (P = 0.019, P gastric cancer. Canton score can be a novel preoperative prognostic index in gastric cancer.

  5. Impact damage imaging in a curved composite panel with wavenumber index via Riesz transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan-Yu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2018-03-01

    The barely visible impact damages reduce the strength of composite structures significantly; however, they are difficult to be detected during regular visual inspection. A guided wave based damage imaging condition method is developed and applied on a curved composite panel, which is a part of an aileron from a retired Boeing C-17 Globemaster III. Ultrasonic guided waves are excited by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and then captured by a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The wavefield images are constructed by measuring the out-of-plane velocity point by point within interrogation region, and the anomalies at the damage area can be observed with naked eye. The discontinuities of material properties leads to the change of wavenumber while the wave propagating through the damaged area. These differences in wavenumber can be observed by deriving instantaneous wave vector via Riesz transform (RT), and then be shown and highlighted with the proposed imaging condition named wavenumber index (WI). RT can be introduced as a two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of Hilbert transform (HT) to derive instantaneous phases, amplitudes, orientations of a guided-wave field. WI employs the instantaneous wave vector and weighted instantaneous wave energy computed from the instantaneous amplitudes, yielding high sensitivity and sharp damage image with computational efficiency. The BVID of the composite structure becomes therefore "visible" with the developed technique.

  6. A PRESSURE ULCER AND FALL RATE QUALITY COMPOSITE INDEX FOR ACUTE CARE UNITS: A MEASURE DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. Objective The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index – the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Design Two-phase measure development study. Settings 5,144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors® during the year 2013. Methods The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. Results The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index = 100 − PUR − FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of

  7. Analysis of clinically relevant values of Ki-67 labeling index in Japanese breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kanou; Miyashita, Minoru; Amari, Masakazu; Tadano-Sato, Akiko; Takahashi, Yayoi; Watanabe, Mika; McNamara, Keely; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-05-01

    It has become important to standardize the methods of Ki-67 evaluation in breast cancer patients, especially those used in the interpretation and scoring of immunoreactivity. Therefore, in this study, we examined the Ki-67 immunoreactivity of breast cancer surgical specimens processed and stained in the same manner in one single Japanese institution by counting nuclear immunoreactivity in the same fashion. We examined 408 Japanese breast cancers with invasive ductal carcinoma and studied the correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and ER/HER2 status and histological grade of breast cancer. We also analyzed overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of these patients according to individual Ki-67 labeling index. There were statistically significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index between ER positive/HER2 negative and ER positive/HER2 positive, ER negative/HER2 positive or ER negative/HER2 negative, and ER positive/HER2 positive and ER negative/HER2 negative groups (all P < 0.001). There were also statistically significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index among each histological grade (P < 0.001, respectively). As for multivariate analyses, Ki-67 labeling index was strongly associated with OS (HR 39.12, P = 0.031) and DFS (HR 10.85, P = 0.011) in ER positive and HER2 negative breast cancer patients. In addition, a statistically significant difference was noted between classical luminal A group and "20 % luminal A" in DFS (P = 0.039) but not between classical luminal A group and "25 % luminal A" (P = 0.105). A significant positive correlation was detected between Ki-67 labeling index and ER/HER2 status and histological grades of the cases examined in our study. The suggested optimal cutoff point of Ki-67 labeling index is between 20 and 25 % in ER positive and HER2 negative breast cancer patients.

  8. The Association between Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Medical Care Cost of Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared comorbidity-related medical care cost associated with different types of cancer, by examining breast (N=287, colon (N=272, stomach (N=614, and lung (N=391 cancer patients undergoing surgery. Methods. Using medical benefits claims data, we calculated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI and total medical cost. The effect of comorbidity on the medical care cost was investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models and controlling for demographic characteristics and cancer stage. Results. The treatment costs incurred by stomach and colon cancer patients were 1.05- and 1.01-fold higher, respectively, in patients with higher CCI determined. For breast cancer, the highest costs were seen in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the increase in cost reduced as CCI increased. Colon cancer patients with diabetes mellitus and a CCI = 1 score had the highest medical costs. The lowest medical costs were incurred by lung cancer patients with COPD and a CCI = 2 score. Conclusion. The comorbidities had a major impact on the use of medical resources, with chronic comorbidities incurring the highest medical costs. The results indicate that comorbidities affect cancer outcomes and that they must be considered strategies mitigating cancer’s economic and social impact.

  9. Penerapan Metode Composite Performance Index (CPI Pada Pemilihan Hotel Di Kota Lubuklinggau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Anto Tri Susilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan kemajuan zaman, kemajuan teknologi informasi juga semakin berkembang pesat. Perkembangan teknologi informasi, memiliki dampak besar pada berbagai bidang kehidupan masyarakat baik dari segi sosial, ekonomi, pendidikan, pembangunan, dan pariwisata. Salah satu unsur penting yang mendukung sektor pariwisata adalah adanya hotel. Hotel sebagai sarana akomodasi umum sangat membantu wisatawan yang berkunjung dengan menyediakan layanan penginapan. Keragaman hotel sering membuat para wisatawan kesulitan dalam menentukan hotel yang akan dipilih sebagai tempat menginap. Sistem pendukung keputusan adalah model yang dibangun untuk memecahkan masalah terstruktur. Composite Performance Index (CPI adalah metode yang umum digunakan dalam proses pengambilan keputusan adalah. Metode CPI menggunakan pemecahan masalah dengan sistem Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM yang menentukan urutan atau prioritas dalam analisis multikriteria. Hasil akhir dari penelitian ini adalah terciptanya sistem pendukung keputusan yang menghasilkan informasi mengenai peringkat hotel yang dapat dijadikan tempat referensi untuk tetap memperhatikan beberapa kriteria, termasuk tarif kamar, jarak ke pusat kota, fasilitas dan layanan.

  10. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting Jakarta composite index using hybrid of fuzzy time series and support vector regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian Umbara, Rian; Tarwidi, Dede; Budi Setiawan, Erwin

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses the prediction of Jakarta Composite Index (JCI) in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The study is based on JCI historical data for 1286 days to predict the value of JCI one day ahead. This paper proposes predictions done in two stages., The first stage using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) to predict values of ten technical indicators, and the second stage using Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict the value of JCI one day ahead, resulting in a hybrid prediction model FTS-SVR. The performance of this combined prediction model is compared with the performance of the single stage prediction model using SVR only. Ten technical indicators are used as input for each model.

  12. Mendelian Randomization Study of Body Mass Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrift, Aaron P.; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: High body mass index (BMI) is consistently linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer for men, whereas the association is less clear for women. As risk estimates from observational studies may be biased and/or confounded, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study to estimate...... the causal association between BMI and colorectal cancer. Methods: We used data from 10,226 colorectal cancer cases and 10,286 controls of European ancestry. The Mendelian randomization analysis used a weighted genetic risk score, derived from 77 genome-wide association study–identified variants associated......, rather than overall obesity, is a more important risk factor for men requires further investigation. Impact: Overall, conventional epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a strong association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer....

  13. Socioeconomic and Environmental Performance: A Composite Index and Comparative Application to the USA and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanilio Rodolpho Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analytical framework to provide a measure of overall performance which involves both socioeconomic activities and environmental sustainability using a recent Index of well-being. The composite indicator, created by Medrano-B & Teixeira (2013, is associated with the so called “Magic Square”, a diagram stimulated by the work of Kaldor (1971. From this starting point, we introduce a set of four variables to measure their total impact on the sustainable development of regions. They are: human development index, per capita carbon dioxide, drinkable water and sanitation, and intensity of renewable energy measured as a fraction of the total generated energy. This formal approach is applied to the comparative performance of the USA and China from 2002 to 2012. As expected, environmental, socioeconomic and institutional indicators affect the level of welfare. This being the case, an important lesson to be learned is that careful regulation and policy actions, not just proposals, are required to implement a sustainable and acceptable quality of life. In this article we complete the argument by suggesting that a new paradigm is required to fulfill our desirable objectives, and get more out of our intellectual effort, capabilities and political influence.

  14. The concept of a composite perioperative quality index in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; McGillicuddy, John W; Bratton, Charles F; Lin, Angello; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2014-04-01

    Public reporting of patient and graft outcomes in a national registry and close Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services oversight has resulted in transplantation being a highly regulated surgical discipline. Despite this, transplantation surgery lacks comprehensive tracking and reporting of perioperative quality measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the association between a kidney transplantation centers' perioperative quality benchmarking and graft and patient outcomes. This was an analysis of 2011 aggregate data compiled from 2 national datasets that track outcomes from member hospitals and transplantation centers. The transplantation centers included in this study were composed of accredited US kidney transplantation centers that report data through the national registry and are associate members of the University HealthSystem Consortium. A total of 16,811 kidney transplantations were performed at 236 centers in the United States in 2011, of which 10,241 (61%) from 93 centers were included in the analysis. Of the 6 perioperative quality indicators, 3 benchmarked metrics were significantly associated with a kidney transplantation center's underperformance: mean ICU length of stay (C-statistic 0.731; p = 0.002), 30-day readmissions (C-statistic 0.697; p = 0.012) and in-hospital complications (C-statistic 0.785; p = 0.001). The composite quality index strongly correlated with inadequate center performance (C-statistic 0.854; p < 0.001, R(2) = 0.349). The centers in the lowest quartile of the quality index performed 2,400 kidney transplantations in 2011, which led to 2,640 more hospital days, 4,560 more ICU days, 120 more postoperative complications, and 144 more patients with 30-day readmissions, when compared with centers in the 3 higher-quality quartiles. An objective index of a transplantation center's quality of perioperative care is significantly associated with patient and graft survival. Copyright © 2014 American College of

  15. Measuring cervical cancer risk: development and validation of the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2009-12-01

    To develop and validate a risky sexual behavior index specific to cervical cancer research. Sexual behavior data on 428 women from the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) study were utilized. A weighting scheme for eight risky sexual behaviors was generated and validated in creating the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index. Cutpoints were then identified to classify women as having a low, medium, or high level of risky sexual behavior. Index scores ranged from 0 to 35, with women considered to have a low level of risky sexual behavior if their score was less than six (31.3% of sample), a medium level if their score was 6–10 (30.6%), or a high level if their score was 11 or greater (38.1%). A strong association was observed between the created categories and having a previous abnormal Pap smear test (p Sexual Behavior Index provides a tool for measuring risky sexual behavior level for cervical cancer research. Future studies are needed to validate this index in varied populations and test its use in the clinical setting.

  16. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  17. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  18. A combination of compositional index and genetic algorithm for predicting transmembrane helical segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Zaki

    Full Text Available Transmembrane helix (TMH topology prediction is becoming a focal problem in bioinformatics because the structure of TM proteins is difficult to determine using experimental methods. Therefore, methods that can computationally predict the topology of helical membrane proteins are highly desirable. In this paper we introduce TMHindex, a method for detecting TMH segments using only the amino acid sequence information. Each amino acid in a protein sequence is represented by a Compositional Index, which is deduced from a combination of the difference in amino acid occurrences in TMH and non-TMH segments in training protein sequences and the amino acid composition information. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm was employed to find the optimal threshold value for the separation of TMH segments from non-TMH segments. The method successfully predicted 376 out of the 378 TMH segments in a dataset consisting of 70 test protein sequences. The sensitivity and specificity for classifying each amino acid in every protein sequence in the dataset was 0.901 and 0.865, respectively. To assess the generality of TMHindex, we also tested the approach on another standard 73-protein 3D helix dataset. TMHindex correctly predicted 91.8% of proteins based on TM segments. The level of the accuracy achieved using TMHindex in comparison to other recent approaches for predicting the topology of TM proteins is a strong argument in favor of our proposed method.The datasets, software together with supplementary materials are available at: http://faculty.uaeu.ac.ae/nzaki/TMHindex.htm.

  19. Influence of Body Mass Index on Tumor Pathology and Survival in Uterine Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Kristensen, Anne; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Høgdall, Claus Kim

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on endometrial tumor pathology, stage and complication rate and to identify individual prognostic factors, such as BMI, in types I and II endometrial cancer. DESIGN: Register study included all Danish women who underwent surgery...... I and II endometrial cancer were retrieved. Kaplan-Meier plot was used to illustrate differences in survival in relation to BMI. Log-rank test was used to demonstrate difference between the curves. Cox regression hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of the effect of BMI on overall...

  20. Development of maintenance composite priority index for buildings in Palestine: A pilot case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Amjad; Awad, Riyad

    2017-11-01

    The current building maintenance practices in Palestine are not based on scientific systematic methods. Most of the municipalities use one criterion to define the maintenance priorities, which is the "worst-first" criterion. Therefore, the current practices in defining buildings maintenance plans are not dealing with the known phases that are generally followed, including those in establishing building inventories, building condition survey, detailed visual inspection, identification of the proper maintenance and rehabilitation measures, and setting priorities. Accordingly, the recent preparation of the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Manual for Palestinian municipalities is an important step to guide them towards preparing and implementing their O&M priority-based plans, considering scare resources. During the course of preparation of the Manual, the proposed procedures were applied at ten pilot municipalities. This study aims to explore the outcome of the implementation of the 2014/2015 O&M buildings maintenance priorities at these municipalities through the development of maintenance composite priority index (PI). The new proposed priority index is a scientific tool that will identify the priority of maintenance buildings through using a systematic procedure instead of first worst one. To achieve this, analyses of the outcome of a questionnaire designed to collect relevant information from these municipalities was conducted. The maintenance priority index for buildings is calculated considering different indicators among them building status (condition), classification and importance of the building, number of beneficiaries (users), safety aspects (severity level in the building), and people complaints. The main component of the PI is the building condition index (BCI) which forms about 40% of the total weight. The physical inspection, which is the main input for calculating the BCI, is conducted on two levels; the primary level, and the secondary level. The

  1. The development of a value based pricing index for new drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse; Lubbe, Martie S

    2011-06-01

    Worldwide, prices for cancer drugs have been under downward pressure where several governments have mandated price cuts of branded products. A better alternative to government mandated price cuts would be to estimate a final price based on drug performance, cost effectiveness and a country's ability to pay. We developed a global pricing index for new cancer drugs in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that encompasses all of these attributes. A pharmacoeconomic model was developed to simulate mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus a 'new drug' that improves survival by 1.4, 3 and 6months, respectively. Cost and utility data were obtained from cancer centres and oncology nurses (n=112) in Canada, Spain, India, South Africa and Malaysia. Multivariable analysis was then used to develop the pricing index, which considers survival benefit, per capita GDP and income dispersion (as measured by the Gini coefficient) as predictor variables. Higher survival benefits were associated with elevated drug prices, especially in higher income countries such as Canada. For Argentina with a per capita GDP of $15,000 and a Gini coefficient of 51, the index estimated that for a drug which provides a 4month survival benefit in mCRC, the value based price would be $US 630 per dose. In contrast, the same drug in a wealthier country like Norway (per capita GDP=$50,000) could command a price of $US 2,775 per dose. The application of this index to estimate a price based on cost effectiveness and the wealth of a nation would be important for opening dialogue between the key stakeholders and a better alternative to government mandated price cuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of a new composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potentials and electroencephalographic parameters with bispectral index (BIS) during moderate propofol sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzidiakos, D; Petersen, S; Baars, J; Herold, K; Rehberg, B

    2006-11-01

    Derived parameters of the electroencephalogram and auditory evoked potentials can be used to determine depth of anaesthesia and sedation. However, it is not known whether any parameter can identify the occurrence of awareness in individual patients. We have compared the performance of bispectral index and a new composite index derived from auditory evoked potentials and the electroencephalogram (AAI 1.61) in predicting consciousness, explicit and implicit memory during moderate sedation with propofol. Twenty-one patients with spinal anaesthesia received intraoperatively propofol at the age-corrected C(50) for loss of consciousness and were presented test words via headphones. Bispectral index and AAI 1.61 (auditory evoked potentials, AEP-Monitor2) were recorded in parallel as well as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation-score. Postoperatively, testing for explicit and implicit memory formation was performed. Bispectral index and AAI 1.61 correlated well with loss of consciousness defined by an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation-score of 2 (identical P(K) of 0.87), but did not allow a prediction of postoperative explicit or implicit recall. Both bispectral index and AAI may be indices of depth of sedation rather than indicators of memory formation, which persists during propofol sedation even after loss of consciousness.

  3. Assessment value of quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Xia Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the assessment value of the quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 58 patients with space-occupying pancreatic lesions were divided into 20 patients with pancreatic cancer and 38 patients with benign pancreatic lesions after pancreatic CT perfusion. Patients with pancreatic cancer received palliative surgery, and the cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected during operation. The differences in pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and serum tumor marker levels were compared between patients with pancreatic cancer and patients with benign pancreatic lesions, mRNA expression levels of malignant molecules in pancreatic cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were further determined, and the correlation between pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and malignant degree of pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results: CT perfusion scanning BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were lower than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions; serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels were higher than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions (P<0.05; mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue samples were higher than those in paracarcinoma tissue samples, and mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax were lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples (P<0.05; CT perfusion scanning parameters BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were negatively correlated with CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels in serum as well as mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue, and positively correlated with mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax in pancreatic cancer tissue (P<0.05. Conclusions: Pancreatic CT perfusion scanning is a reliable way to judge the malignant degree of pancreatic cancer and plays a

  4. Prognostic Significance of Modified Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer_ Comparison with Original ALI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Nambeom; Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) has been shown to predict overall survival (OS) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI) using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) beyond original ALI. L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR. Using chi-squared test determined maximum cut-offs for low ALI and low mALI, the prognostic values of low ALI and low mALI were tested using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Finally, deviance statistics was used to test whether the goodness of fit of the prognostic model is improved by adding mALI as an extra variable. Patients with low ALI (cut-off, 31.1, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high ALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 15.8 months; p ALI and low mALI (z = 0.000, p = 1.000) and between high ALI and high mALI (z = 0.330, p = 0.740). Multivariable analysis showed that low ALI was an independent prognostic factor for shorter OS (HR, 1.67, p = 0.004), along with advanced age (HR, 1.49, p = 0.045), extensive disease (HR, 2.27, p ALI using BMI. ALI is a simple and useful prognostic indicator in SCLC.

  5. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Soler

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice. Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding

  6. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Pascual, Juan C; Baños, Rosa; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively) responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice). Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS) consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the

  7. Comparison of cancer glucose utilization indexes by positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kyosan (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to diagnose various kinds of malignant tumors. Various indexes are calculated for evaluation of tumor glucose metabolism from FDG PET image. Some indexes need sequential multiple-time uptake data and arterial plasma FDG concentrations (dynamic study). But some indexes use only static image data to calculate. We calculated four kinds of indexes on each patient, and analyzed the correlation of each index with others. Previously untreated 35 patients (23 non-Hodgikin's lymphoma, 4 lung cancers, 2 epipharynx cancers and other 6 malignant tumors) were studied by FDG PET. In all patients, about 4 mCi (148 MBq) of FDG was injected intravenously in a fasting state, and a series of 2-min sequential scans was acquired for 60 min following injection. After sequential scans, 6-min scan was successively added for obtaining static image. The rate constants (k[sub 1]-k[sub 4]) calculated by non-linear least squares fitting routines, the slope of Patlak-Gjedde plot, differential absorption ratio (DAR) which represents tumor activity corrected by administrated dose per body weight, and tumor-to-normal soft-tissue contrast ratios (TCR) were calculated for each patient. The correlation of these indexes was analyzed statistically. Patlak-Gjedde plot seemed to be widely accepted for measuring tumor glucose metabolism, but it needs dynamic study data. DAR is a simple index easily calculated using static data. Our results showed that the slope of Patlak-Gjedde plot and DAR were closely correlated. It was suggested that the DAR could be used in place of Patlak-Gjedde plot. They also showed relatively well correlation with each other. Correlation between rate constant k[sub 3] and other indexes were from 0.67 to 0.43. It is acceptable result because rate constant K[sub 3] related the activity of hexokinase but other indexes may represent the overall glucose metabolism of the tumor tissue. (J.N.P.).

  8. Prognostic validation of the body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; Hornsby, Whitney E; Herndon, James E; Thomas, Samantha; Ready, Neal E; Granger, Catherine L; Valera, Lauren; Kenjale, Aarti A; Eves, Neil D; Jones, Lee W

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the prognostic utility of the body mass index, severity of airflow obstruction, measures of exertional dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred consecutive patients with inoperable NSCLC and performance status 0 to 3 completed pulmonary function testing, the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, a 6-minute walk test, and body mass index-the multidimensional 10-point BODE index. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality according to the BODE index with or without adjustment for traditional prognostic factors. Median follow-up was 31.5 months; 61 deaths (61%) were reported during this period. There was a significant univariate association between the BODE index score and mortality (adjusted p(trend) = 0.027). Compared with patients with a BODE index of 0, the adjusted hazard ratio for risk of death was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-2.55) for a BODE index of 1, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.45-3.25) for a BODE index of 2, and 2.44 (95% CI, 1.19-4.99) for a BODE index more than 2. The BODE index provided incremental prognostic information beyond that provided traditional markers of prognosis (adjusted p(trend) = 0.051). Every one-point increase in the BODE index, the risk of death increased by 25% (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.27-4.64). The BODE index is a strong independent predictor of survival in inoperable NSCLC beyond traditional risk factors. Use of this multidimensional tool may improve risk stratification and prognostication in NSCLC.

  9. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  12. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, p<0.01), WC (r=0.858, p<0.01) and body fat percentage (r=0.757, <0.01). Body fat percentage also showed to have a high correlation with BMI (r=0.757, p<0.01) and WC (r=0.693, p<0.01). Furthermore, overweight and obesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of

  13. Composite marginal quantile regression analysis for longitudinal adolescent body mass index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Hau; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2017-09-20

    Childhood and adolescenthood overweight or obesity, which may be quantified through the body mass index (BMI), is strongly associated with adult obesity and other health problems. Motivated by the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution (CABLE) study, we are interested in individual, family, and school factors associated with marginal quantiles of longitudinal adolescent BMI values. We propose a new method for composite marginal quantile regression analysis for longitudinal outcome data, which performs marginal quantile regressions at multiple quantile levels simultaneously. The proposed method extends the quantile regression coefficient modeling method introduced by Frumento and Bottai (Biometrics 2016; 72:74-84) to longitudinal data accounting suitably for the correlation structure in longitudinal observations. A goodness-of-fit test for the proposed modeling is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be much more efficient than the analysis without taking correlation into account and the analysis performing separate quantile regressions at different quantile levels. The application to the longitudinal adolescent BMI data from the CABLE study demonstrates the practical utility of our proposal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Construction of a Composite Hospital Admission Index Using the Aggregated Weights of Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hasliza Mat Desa; Abdul Aziz Jemain; Maznah Mat Kasim

    2015-01-01

    The issue of age difference in hospital admission should be given special attention since it affects the structure of hospital care and treatments. Patients of different age groups should be given different priority in service provision. Due to crucial time and limited resources, health care managers need to make wise decisions in identifying priorities in age of admission. This paper aimed to propose a construction of a daily composite hospital admission index (CHAI) as an indicator that captures relevant information about the overall performance of hospital admission over time. It involves five different age groups of total patients admitted to seven major public hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases for a period of three years, 2008 - 2010. The criteria weights were predetermined by aggregating the subjective weight based on rank ordered centroid (ROC) method and objective weight based on entropy - kernel method. The highest and lowest scores of CHAI were marked, while the groups of patients were prioritized according to the criteria weight ranking orders. (author)

  15. Development of a preliminary composite disease activity index in psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mumtaz, Aizad

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a preliminary composite psoriatic disease activity index (CPDAI) for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Five domains were assessed and specific instruments were employed for each domain to determine the extent of domain involvement and the effect of that involvement on quality of life\\/function. Disease activity for each domain was then graded from 0 to 3 giving a CPDAI range of 0-15. Patient and physician global disease activity measures were also recorded and an independent physician was asked to indicate if treatment change was required. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed. Factor, tree analysis and standardised response means were also calculated. RESULTS: Significant correlation was seen between CPDAI and both patient (r = 0.834) and physician (r = 0.825) global disease activity assessments (p = 0.01). Tree analysis revealed that 96.3% of patients had their treatment changed when CPDAI values were greater than 6; no patient had their treatment changed when CPDAI values were less than 5. CONCLUSION: CPDAI correlates well with patient and physician global disease activity assessments and is an effective tool that clearly distinguishes those who require a treatment change from those who do not.

  16. A FRAMEWORK FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM USING COMPOSITE PERFORMANCE INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Gauri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A public health program (PHP taken up by the government of a country refers to all organized measures to prevent disease and promote health among the population, by providing different planned cares/services to the people. Usually, the target population for different PHP are different. The basic requirement for success of a PHP is to ensure that all the planned cares/services are reached to each member of the target population. Therefore, the important performance measures for a PHP are the implementation status of all the planned cares/services under the PHP. However, management and monitoring of a PHP become quite difficult by interpreting separately the information contained in a large number of performance measures. Therefore, usually a metric, called composite performance index (CPI, is evaluated to understand the overall performance of a PHP. However, due a scaling operation involved in the CPI computation procedure, the CPI value does not reveal the true overall implementation status of a PHP and consequently, it is effective for management of a PHP. This paper presents a new approach for CPI computation, in which scaling/normalization of the performance variables is not required and therefore, it can be used for monitoring the true overall implementation status of a PHP in a region. A systematic approach for monitoring a PHP using the CPI values is proposed and applied for monitoring the maternal and child healthcare (MCH program. The results are found effective towards continuous improvement of implementation status.

  17. Development of modified release diltiazem HCl tablets using composite index to identify optimal formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Patel, M M; Amin, A F

    2003-05-01

    This article reports the preparation of tartaric acid treated ispaghula husk powder for the development of modified release tablets of diltiazem HCl by adopting direct compression technique and a 32 full factorial design. The modified ispaghula husk powder showed superior swelling and gelling as compared to untreated powder. Addition of compaction augmenting agent such as dicalcium phosphate was found to be essential for obtaining tablets with adequate crushing strength. In order to improve the crushing strength of diltiazem HCl tablets, to modulate drug release pattern, and to obtain similarity of dissolution profiles in distilled water and simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), modified guar gum was used along with modified ispaghula husk powder and tartaric acid. A novel composite index, which considers a positive or a negative deviation from an ideal value, was calculated considering percentage drug release in 60, 300, and 540 min as dependent variables for the selection of a most appropriate batch. Polynomial equation and contour plots are presented. The concept of similarity factor (f2) was used to prove similarity of dissolution in water and simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2).

  18. Morbidly obese women with and without endometrial cancer: are there differences in measured physical fitness, body composition, or hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Susan C; Geffel, Dyanna L; Via, Jennifer; L Weltman, Arthur

    2012-03-01

    Exercise is potentially protective against cancer for obese women. The objectives were to examine differences in activity, body composition, and hormones in overweight/obese women with and without endometrial cancer. Women ≥ 50 years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2) scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled. Demographics, physical activity, and quality of life (QOL) data were collected. Body composition/fitness was evaluated using Air Displacement Plethysmography (BodPod) and a standardized treadmill. Adiponectin, androstenedione, leptin, estradiol, estrone, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin and glucose were measured. Thirty-eight women enrolled in this pilot study; 22 had endometrial cancer. Mean age was 58.3 years, mean BMI, fat weight and percent body fat were 41.3 kg/m(2), 55 kg and 51% respectively. Fitness levels were poor; 90% of women had peak oxygen uptakes below the 10th percentile of population normals yet 80% still rated their fitness level as equivalent to other women. Women with and without cancer did not differ in age, BMI, co-morbidities, energy expenditures, body composition, hormones or QOL although glucose levels were higher in women with cancer (119.5 vs. 90.7 mg/dl; p=0.049). Cancer subjects scored worse on every fitness measurement, reaching statistical significance for VO(2 peak) (15.0 vs. 17.9 ml/kg/min; p=0.033). Current exercisers had a lower BMI (p=0.039), decreased fat weight (p=0.024), decreased waist circumference (p=0.05) and improved vitality compared to non-exercisers. Physical fitness levels were abysmal in these morbidly obese subjects and worse for cancer patients. Exercise correlated with improved body composition and vitality. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Models for the prediction of the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils using their fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Borroto, Yisel; Piloto Rodriguez, Ramon; Goyos Perez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to obtain a physical-mathematical model that establishes a relationship between the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils and its composition of essential fatty acid. This model is based on experimental data obtained by the authors of the present work and an experimental data reported by different extracted authors of indexed databases. The adjustment of the coefficients of the model is based on the obtaining of residual minima in the capacity of prediction of the model. Starting from these results it is established a very useful tool for the determination of such an important parameter for the fuel diesel as it is the cetane index obtained from an analysis of chemical composition and not obtained from tests in engines banks, to save time and economic resources. (author)

  20. Monitoring changes in economy-wide energy efficiency: From energy-GDP ratio to composite efficiency index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1973 world oil crisis, monitoring trends in energy efficiency at the economy-wide level has been an important component of energy strategy in many countries. To support this effort, various energy efficiency-related indicators have been developed. We examine some classical indicators which are often found in national and international energy studies in the 1970s and 1980s. We then describe the recent developments in using the index decomposition analysis to give an economy-wide composite energy efficiency index based on a bottom-up approach. This composite index is superior to the classical indicators as an economy-wide energy efficiency measure and has lately been adopted by a growing number of countries for national energy efficiency trend monitoring

  1. Achieving superior band gap, refractive index and morphology in composite oxide thin film systems violating the Moss rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N K; Thakur, S; Tokas, R B

    2006-01-01

    The interrelation between energy gap and high frequency refractive index in semiconductors and dielectrics is manifested by an inverse law which is popularly known as the Moss rule. This semi-empirical relationship is based on the fundamental principle that in a dielectric medium all energy levels are scaled down by a factor of the square of the dielectric constant. Such a rule is obeyed by most pure semiconductors and dielectrics with a few rare violations in composite materials which display several interesting parametric and microstructural evolutions. The present results are based on some specific oxide composite thin films involving Gd 2 O 3 /SiO 2 and ZrO 2 /SiO 2 codeposited systems that have displayed a superior refractive index and energy gaps violating the semi-empirical Moss rule. Also, morphological supremacy is also distinctly noticed in these composites. The novel microstructural and polarizability properties of such composite systems were probed through multi-mode atomic force microscopy and phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry using refractive index modelling, autocorrelation and height-height correlation functional analyses. These binary composite thin films have shown their potential as well as the possibility of meeting expectations in satisfying the challenging optical coating requirements of the deep ultraviolet spectral region

  2. Body mass index and survival after breast cancer diagnosis in Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masaaki; Minami, Yuko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Fukamachi, Kayoko; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) may be an important factor affecting breast cancer outcome. Studies conducted mainly in Western countries have reported a relationship between higher BMI and a higher risk of all-cause death or breast cancer-specific death among women with breast cancer, but only a few studies have been reported in Japan so far. In the present prospective study, we investigated the associations between BMI and the risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific death among breast cancer patients overall and by menopausal status and hormone receptor status. The study included 653 breast cancer patients admitted to a single hospital in Japan, between 1997 and 2005. BMI was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The patients were completely followed up until December, 2008. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated according to quartile points of BMI categories, respectively: <21.2, ≥21.2 to <23.3 (reference), ≥23.3 to <25.8 and ≥25.8 kg/m 2 . During the follow-up period, 136 all-cause and 108 breast cancer-specific deaths were observed. After adjustment for clinical and confounding factors, higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (HR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.01–6.78 for BMI ≥25.8 vs. ≥21.2 to <23.3 kg/m 2 ) among premenopausal patients. According to hormonal receptor status, BMI ≥25.8 kg/m 2 was associated with breast cancer-specific death (HR = 4.95; 95% CI: 1.05–23.35) and BMI <21.2 kg/m 2 was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.09–7.77) and breast cancer-specific death (HR = 7.23; 95% CI: 1.57–33.34) among patients with ER + or PgR + tumors. Analysis by hormonal receptor status also showed a positive association between BMI and mortality risk among patients with ER + or PgR + tumors and with BMI ≥21.2 kg/m 2 (p for trend: 0.020 and 0.031 for all-cause and breast cancer-specific death, respectively). Our results suggest that both higher BMI and lower BMI are associated

  3. Assessment of sarcopenia and changes in body composition after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and associations with clinical outcomes in oesophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Connie; Goh, Vicky; Davies, Andrew; Gossage, James; Mitchell-Hay, Rosalind; Hynes, Orla; Maisey, Nick; Ross, Paul; Gaya, Andrew; Landau, David B; Cook, Gary J; Griffin, Nyree; Mason, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia and changes in body composition following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may affect clinical outcome. We assessed the associations between CT body composition changes following NAC and outcomes in oesophageal cancer. A total of 35 patients who received NAC followed by oesophagectomy, and underwent CT assessment pre- and post-NAC were included. Fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), subcutaneous fat to muscle ratio (FMR) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VA/SA) were derived from CT. Changes in FM, FFM, FMR, VA/SA and sarcopenia were correlated to chemotherapy dose reductions, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), circumferential resection margin (CRM), pathological chemotherapy response, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Nine (26 %) patients were sarcopenic before NAC and this increased to 15 (43 %) after NAC. Average weight loss was 3.7 % ± 6.4 (SD) in comparison to FM index (-1.2 ± 4.2), FFM index (-4.6 ± 6.8), FMR (-1.2 ± 24.3) and VA/SA (-62.3 ± 12.7). Changes in FM index (p = 0.022), FMR (p = 0.028), VA/SA (p = 0.024) and weight (p = 0.007) were significant univariable factors for CRM status. There was no significant association between changes in body composition and survival. Loss of FM, differential loss of VA/SA and skeletal muscle were associated with risk of CRM positivity. • Changes in CT body composition occur after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer. • Sarcopenia was more prevalent after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. • Fat mass, fat-free mass and weight decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. • Changes in body composition were associated with CRM positivity. • Changes in body composition did not affect perioperative complications and survival.

  4. Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer and Relationships with the Human Development Index across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Sepehri, Zahra; Shamlou, Reza; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the standardized incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer and its relationship with the human development index (HDI) across the world in 2012. This ecologic study was conducted for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its components. Data for SIR and SMR for every country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between SIR and SMR and HDI. Statistical significance was assumed at <0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 22.0, SPSS Inc.). Countries with the highest SIR of colorectal cancer in the world in 2012, were Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Hungary and countries with the highest SMR were Hungary, Croatia and Slovakia. The correlation between SIR of colorectal cancer and the HDI was 0.712 (P≤0.001), with life expectancy at birth 0.513 (P≤0.001), with mean years of schooling 0.641 (P≤0.001) and with level of income per each person of the population 0.514 (P=0.013). In addition, the correlation between SMR of colorectal cancer and the HDI was 0.628 (P≤0.001), with life expectancy at birth 0.469 (P≤0.001), with mean years of schooling 0.592 (P≤0.001) and with level of income per each person of the population 0.378 (P=0.013). The highest SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer was in the WHO Europe region. There was a positive correlation between HDI and SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer.

  5. Sleep duration and cancer risk: time to use a "sleep-years" index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    With a focus on melatonin, a recent paper in the Journal investigated the hypothesis that endometrial cancer might be associated with the duration, and ultimately, amount of sleep. The authors found that "[s]elf-reported sleep duration may not adequately represent melatonin levels." The authors also concluded that there was "weak evidence of an association between sleep duration and endometrial cancer risk." Overall, these are interesting observations because primarily experimental and mechanistic research from many angles supports the study's notion that inappropriate sleep may be a determinant of cancer risk. To find out whether this is so in man, rather than assigning study individuals to fixed or average "baseline sleep categories" i.e., ≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 h of habitual sleep in the present study, the accumulated amount of sleep over decades should be reconstructed in retrospective or constructed in prospective studies. To achieve this end, future epidemiological studies may want to use a sleep-years index [SYI]. This simple exposure parameter promises to be a sensible, feasible, and affordable way to approximate cumulative time spent at sleep in critical time windows over many years which we should expect to be relevant for the development of cancer. The SYI could be tested and used in observational studies which promise to be comparable and can be merged. This commentary provides roots of the index and explains why and how it should be used and how it could be interpreted in rigorous studies of biologically plausible links between sleep, on the one hand, and the development of internal cancers, on the other. This commentary also points out limitations of interpreting the SYI. It is emphasized that, where possible, the SYI should be assessed independently of (a) other sleep facets--such as quality--and of (b) known or suspected cancer risk factors. The respective contribution of (a) and (b) to risk must then be assessed during the analyses. Overall, the

  6. Global Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates According to the Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Ayubi, Erfan; Gholamaliee, Behzad; Pishkuhi, Mahin Ahmadi; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Sani, Mohadeseh; Hanis, Shiva Mansouri

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of death, especially in developed countries. The human development index (HDI) and its dimensions seem correlated with incidence and mortality rates of PC. This study aimed to assess the association of the specific components of HDI (life expectancy at birth, education, gross national income per 1000 capita, health, and living standards) with burden indicators of PC worldwide. Information of the incidence and mortality rates of PC was obtained from the GLOBOCAN cancer project in year 2012 and data about the HDI 2013 were obtained from the World Bank database. The correlation between incidence, mortality rates, and the HDI parameters were assessed using STATA software. A significant inequality of PC incidence rates was observed according to concentration indexes=0.25 with 95% CI (0.22, 0.34) and a negative mortality concentration index of -0.04 with 95% CI (-0.09, 0.01) was observed. A positive significant correlation was detected between the incidence rates of PC and the HDI and its dimensions including life expectancy at birth, education, income, urbanization level and obesity. However, there was a negative significant correlation between the standardized mortality rates and the life expectancy, income and HDI.

  7. The effect of exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Cartmel, Brenda; Harrigan, Maura; Fiellin, Martha; Capozza, Scott; Zhou, Yang; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Gross, Cary P; Hershman, Dawn; Ligibel, Jennifer; Schmitz, Kathryn; Li, Fang-Yong; Sanft, Tara; Irwin, Melinda L

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 months of aerobic and resistance exercise versus usual care on changes in body composition in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The Hormones and Physical Exercise study enrolled 121 breast cancer survivors and randomized them to either supervised twice-weekly resistance exercise training and 150 min/wk of aerobic exercise (N = 61) or a usual care (N = 60) group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were conducted at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months to assess changes in body mass index, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density. At 12 months, the exercise group relative to the usual care group had a significant increase in lean body mass (0.32 vs. -0.88 kg, P = 0.03), a decrease in percent body fat (-1.4% vs. 0.48%, P = 0.03), and a decrease in body mass index (-0.73 vs. 0.17 kg/m 2 , P = 0.03). Change in bone mineral density was not significantly different between groups at 12 months (0.001 vs. -0.006 g/cm 2 , P = 0.37). A combined resistance and aerobic exercise intervention improved body composition in breast cancer survivors taking AIs. Exercise interventions may help to mitigate the negative side effects of AIs and improve health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index predicts prognosis of laryngopharyngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuya; Takenaka, Yukinori; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Oya, Ryohei; Kitamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko

    2017-12-01

    To examine the ability of comorbidity indices to predict the prognosis of laryngopharyngeal cancer and their association with treatment modalities. This retrospective study included 198 patients with laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, and oropharyngeal cancers. The effect of comorbidity indices on overall survival between surgery and (chemo)-radiation therapy ((C)RT) groups was analyzed. The cumulative incidence rates for cancer mortality and other mortalities according to the age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACCI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were compared. Univariate survival analyses showed a significant association between the ACCI and overall survival in the (C)RT group, but not in the surgery group. The association between the CCI and overall survival was not significant in either group. In multivariate analyses, a high ACCI score was an independent prognostic factor in the (C)RT group (HR 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.49), but not in the surgery group (HR 1.39, 95%CI 0.27-5.43). The higher ACCI group had increased mortality from other causes compared with the lower ACCI group (5-year cumulative incidence, 8.5% and 17.8%, respectively, p = .003). The ACCI was a better prognostic factor than the CCI. Surgery may be more beneficial than radiation for patients with a high ACCI.

  9. Development of a composite soil degradation assessment index for cocoa agroecosystems in southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenrele Adeniyi, Sunday; de Clercq, Willem Petrus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa agroecosystems are a major land-use type in the tropical rainforest belt of West Africa, reportedly associated with several ecological changes, including soil degradation. This study aims to develop a composite soil degradation assessment index (CSDI) for determining the degradation level of cocoa soils under smallholder agroecosystems of southwestern Nigeria. Plots where natural forests have been converted to cocoa agroecosystems of ages 1-10, 11-40, and 41-80 years, respectively representing young cocoa plantations (YCPs), mature cocoa plantations (MCPs), and senescent cocoa plantations (SCPs), were identified to represent the biological cycle of the cocoa tree. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm in each plot and analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Factor analysis of soil data revealed four major interacting soil degradation processes: decline in soil nutrients, loss of soil organic matter, increase in soil acidity, and the breakdown of soil textural characteristics over time. These processes were represented by eight soil properties (extractable zinc, silt, soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus, total porosity, pH, and clay content). These soil properties were subjected to forward stepwise discriminant analysis (STEPDA), and the result showed that four soil properties (extractable zinc, cation exchange capacity, SOM, and clay content) are the most useful in separating the studied soils into YCP, MCP, and SCP. In this way, we have sufficiently eliminated redundancy in the final selection of soil degradation indicators. Based on these four soil parameters, a CSDI was developed and used to classify selected cocoa soils into three different classes of degradation. The results revealed that 65 % of the selected cocoa farms are moderately degraded, while 18 % have a high degradation status. The numerical value of the CSDI as an objective index of soil degradation

  10. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  11. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29–49 years at baseline (1991–1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  12. Use of the Charlson Combined Comorbidity Index To Predict Postradiotherapy Quality of Life for Prostate Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Levitt, Seymour; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sten; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of pretreatment comorbidity on late health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after patients have undergone combined radiotherapy for prostate cancer, including high-dose rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire survey of 158 patients 5 years or more after completion of therapy were used from consecutively accrued subjects treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution, with no signs of disease at the time of questionnaire completion. HRQoL scores were compared with the Charlson combined comorbidity index (CCI), using analysis of covariance and multivariate regression models together with pretreatment factors including tumor stage, tumor grade, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, neoadjuvant hormonal treatment, diabetes status, cardiovascular status, and age and Charlson score as separate variables or the composite CCI. Results: An inverse correlation between the two HRQoL domains, long-term global health (QL) and physical function (PF) scores, and the CCI score was observed, indicating an impact of comorbidity in these function areas. Selected pretreatment factors poorly explained the variation in functional HRQoL in the multivariate models; however, a statistically significant impact was found for the CCI (with QL and PF scores) and the presence of diabetes (with QL and emotional function). Cognitive function and social function were not statistically significantly predicted by any of the pretreatment factors. Conclusions: The CCI proved to be valid in this context, but it seems useful mainly in predicting long-term QL and PF scores. Of the other variables investigated, diabetes had more impact than cardiovascular morbidity on HRQoL outcomes in prostate cancer.

  13. Use of the Charlson Combined Comorbidity Index To Predict Postradiotherapy Quality of Life for Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wahlgren@telia.com [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Levitt, Seymour [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Kowalski, Jan [Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Sten; Brandberg, Yvonne [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact of pretreatment comorbidity on late health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after patients have undergone combined radiotherapy for prostate cancer, including high-dose rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire survey of 158 patients 5 years or more after completion of therapy were used from consecutively accrued subjects treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution, with no signs of disease at the time of questionnaire completion. HRQoL scores were compared with the Charlson combined comorbidity index (CCI), using analysis of covariance and multivariate regression models together with pretreatment factors including tumor stage, tumor grade, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, neoadjuvant hormonal treatment, diabetes status, cardiovascular status, and age and Charlson score as separate variables or the composite CCI. Results: An inverse correlation between the two HRQoL domains, long-term global health (QL) and physical function (PF) scores, and the CCI score was observed, indicating an impact of comorbidity in these function areas. Selected pretreatment factors poorly explained the variation in functional HRQoL in the multivariate models; however, a statistically significant impact was found for the CCI (with QL and PF scores) and the presence of diabetes (with QL and emotional function). Cognitive function and social function were not statistically significantly predicted by any of the pretreatment factors. Conclusions: The CCI proved to be valid in this context, but it seems useful mainly in predicting long-term QL and PF scores. Of the other variables investigated, diabetes had more impact than cardiovascular morbidity on HRQoL outcomes in prostate cancer.

  14. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data Asia for assessment the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We use of correlation bivariate method for assessment the correlation between ASIR and ASMR with HDI and its components. A total of 121 099 kidney cancer cases were recorded in Asian countries in 2012.Overall, 80 080 cases (66.12%) were males. Sex ratio was 1.95. The three countries with the highest number of new patients were china (66 466 cases), Japan (16 830 cases), India(9658 cases), respectively. Positive correlation were seen between HDI and ASIR of kidney cancer 0.655 ( P = 0.001), and HDI and ASMR of kidney cancer 0.285 ( P = 0.055). A positive relationship between ASIR and the HDI was seen. The relationship is due to risk factors in countries with high development such as older age, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and diet. However, ASMR showed no significant relationship with HDI.

  15. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Value of the prognostic nutritional index in advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyi; Wang, Donghai; Mei, Ying; Jin, Hailong; Zhu, Kankai; Liu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Jiren

    2017-03-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is a useful parameter indicating the immune and nutritional status of cancer patients; this study investigated the prognostic value of the PNI in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 117 advanced gastric cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria for preoperative chemotherapy and underwent surgical resection from July 2004 to December 2011. The patients were divided into PNI-high (PNI ≥ 45) and PNI-low (PNI  0.05). Cox regression analysis indicated that yield pathologic T (ypT), yield pathologic N (ypN) stage, and prechemotherapy PNI were independent prognostic factors (ypT: HR = 2.914, 95% CI = 1.312-6.470, P = 0.009; ypN: HR = 4.909, 95% CI = 1.764-13.660, P = 0.003; prechemotherapy PNI: HR = 1.963, 95% CI = 1.101-3.499, P = 0.022). The prechemotherapy PNI is a useful predictor of the long-term outcome of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in body weight and metabolic indexes in overweight breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized trial of low-fat vs. reduced carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Stopeck, Alison T; Bea, Jennifer W; Cussler, Ellen; Nardi, Emily; Frey, Georgette; Thompson, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Overweight status is common among women breast cancer survivors and places them at greater risk for metabolic disorders, cardiovascular morbidity, and breast cancer recurrence than nonoverweight survivors. Efforts to promote weight control in this population are needed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet counseling on weight loss, body composition, and changes in metabolic indexes in overweight postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Survivors (n = 40) were randomized to receive dietitian counseling for a low-fat or a reduced carbohydrate diet for 6 mo. Weight and metabolic measures, including glucose, insulin, HbA1c, HOMA, lipids, hsCRP, as well as blood pressure were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 wk. Dietary intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 24 and 76 g/day, respectively. Weight loss averaged 6.1 (± 4.8 kg) at 24 wk and was not significantly different by diet group; loss of lean mass was also demonstrated. All subjects demonstrated improvements in total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and significant reductions in HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA. Triglycerides levels were significantly reduced only in the low-carbohydrate diet group (-31.1 ± 36.6; P = 0.01). Significant improvements in weight and metabolic indexes can be demonstrated among overweight breast cancer survivors adherent to either a carbohydrate- or fat-restricted diet.

  18. Serum antioxidant capacity, biochemical profile and body composition of breast cancer survivors in a randomized Mediterranean dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Grosomanidis, D; Massara, P; Kostara, C; Papandreou, P; Ntountaniotis, D; Xepapadakis, G

    2017-06-20

    Increasing evidence suggests that Mediterranean Diet (MD) is correlated with reduced risk of breast cancer (BC) and cancer mortality, since it modifies patients' serum antioxidant capacity, body composition and biochemical parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention based on MD has a beneficial effect on these factors. In this intervention study, seventy female BC survivors were randomly assigned to (1) the intervention group (personalized dietary intervention based on MD) and (2) the control group (received the updated American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention and ad libitum diet). Both groups were assessed twice [beginning, end of study (after 6 months)] regarding their anthropometric and biochemical parameters, serum vitamin C, vitamin A, a-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels, dietary intake and adherence to MD. An additional intermediate analysis was conducted on participants' body composition and biochemical profile. Concerning the intervention group, body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference, body mass index as well as HDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased (P body weight, body fat mass and serum total cholesterol rose (P body composition, adherence to MD and glycemic profile of postmenopausal BC survivors.

  19. Index-Based Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Guinter, Mark; Zheng, Jiali; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the United States. Various a priori dietary patterns that take into account diet complexity have been associated with CRC risk. This systematic review augments the evidence for an association between CRC risk and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and provides new evidence for a novel Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII). Human studies published in English after 31 December 2008 were reviewed. Five case-control studies and 7 prospective cohort studies conducted in the United States and Europe were identified. Five of the studies examined the MDS, 4 examined the HEI, and 4 examined the DII. Comparing highest to lowest score groups, higher MDSs were associated with an 8–54% lower CRC risk, and higher HEI scores were associated with a 20–56% lower CRC risk. More proinflammatory diet scores were associated with a 12–65% higher CRC risk compared with more anti-inflammatory diets in studies that used the DII. The results reported by sex suggested similar associations for men and women. This review builds upon the evidence supporting the association between higher overall diet quality and lower risk of CRC. Increasing scores of MDS and HEI and anti-inflammatory DII scores are characterized by high intake of plant-based foods and low intake of animal products. Future studies in more diverse populations and with consistent scoring calculations are recommended. PMID:26567200

  20. Prognostic significance of the PC10 index for patients with stage II and III oesophageal cancer treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Shinji; Irie, Toshiyuki; Nozawa, Kumiko; Nakajima, Kotaro [Hitachi General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Takahashi, Atsushi [Hitachi General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Watanabe, Teruo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Tanaka, Naomi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1999-07-01

    The monoclonal antibody PC10 is used for immunohistochemical staining of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The percentage of PC10-positive cancer cells is defined as the PC10 index. We evaluated the relationship between the PC10 index in pretreatment endoscopic biopsies and the prognoses of 47 patients with Stage II-III oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy. The patients with a PC10 index >40% had significantly poorer prognoses than the other patients (p=0.0007). Proportional hazards model analysis indicated that only the PC10 index was a prognostic factor (p=0.0009). The patient group of complete responders showed significantly lower PC10 indices compared to patients with a partial response or no change (p=0.049). The PC10 index can be a good predictive indicator of the prognosis in patients with Stage II-III oesophageal cancer treated with radiotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Psychometric testing of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale in an Iranian sample of family caregivers to newly diagnosed breast cancer women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjari, Sedigheh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2012-02-01

    To translate and test the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale. Research across many countries has determined quality of life of cancer patients, but few attempts have been made to measure the quality of life of family caregivers of patients with breast cancer. The Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale was developed for this purpose, but until now, it has not been translated into or tested in the Persian language. Methodological research design. After standard translation, the 35-item Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale was administered to 166 Iranian family caregivers of patients with breast cancer. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using LISREL to test the scale's construct validity. Further, the internal consistency and convergent validity of the instrument were tested. For convergent validity, four instruments were used in the study: sense of coherence scale, spirituality perspective scale, health index and brief religious coping scale. The confirmatory factor analysis resulted in the same four-factor structure as the original, though, with somewhat different item loadings. The Persian version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scales had satisfactory internal consistency (0·72-0·90). Tests of convergent validity showed that all hypotheses were confirmed. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis additionally confirmed the convergent validity between the total Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer score and sense of coherence (β = 0·34), negative religious coping (β = -0·21), education (β = 0·24) and the more severe stage of breast cancer (β = 0·23), in total explaining 41% of the variance. The Persian version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale could be a reliable and valid measure in Iranian family caregivers of patients with breast cancer. The Persian version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale is simple to

  2. Nutritional Status of Children in Bangladesh:Measuring Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Raza, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current analysis is to see the factors responsible for malnutrition in children (under-5 years) in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. In this study binary logistic model is applied to 1831 observations of urban and 3427 observations of rural areas. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) is constructed and used as an indicator of malnutrition. It is estimated that malnutrition in rural children is much higher than in urban children. The results have shown...

  3. The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini,Claudio; Bottaro,Martim; Dennehy,Carolyn; Rae,Logan; Shields,Edgar; Kirk,David; Hackney,Anthony

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism have been reported in the majority of patients undergoing cancer treatment, and these are usually characterized by progressive change in body composition. The effects of aerobic exercise programs to combat the cancer and cancer treatment-related side effects, which include the negative changes in body composition, have been extensively reported in the literature. However, few resistance exercise intervention studies have hypothesized that breast ca...

  4. Integrative Analysis of Cancer Diagnosis Studies with Composite Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Summary In cancer diagnosis studies, high-throughput gene profiling has been extensively conducted, searching for genes whose expressions may serve as markers. Data generated from such studies have the “large d, small n” feature, with the number of genes profiled much larger than the sample size. Penalization has been extensively adopted for simultaneous estimation and marker selection. Because of small sample sizes, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets can be unsatisfactory. A cost-effective remedy is to conduct integrative analysis of multiple heterogeneous datasets. In this article, we investigate composite penalization methods for estimation and marker selection in integrative analysis. The proposed methods use the minimax concave penalty (MCP) as the outer penalty. Under the homogeneity model, the ridge penalty is adopted as the inner penalty. Under the heterogeneity model, the Lasso penalty and MCP are adopted as the inner penalty. Effective computational algorithms based on coordinate descent are developed. Numerical studies, including simulation and analysis of practical cancer datasets, show satisfactory performance of the proposed methods. PMID:24578589

  5. Associations of Body Mass Index and Physical Activity With Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Rezende, Fabiana Faria; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Mauad, Edmundo Carvalho; Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Syrjänen, Kari Juhani; Schover, Leslie R

    2016-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common and distressing consequence of breast cancer (BC) treatment. In the present study, we investigated the sexual functioning of BC patients and its association with women's personal characteristics and cancer treatments. In this cross-sectional study, sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and its breast module BR-23. Of the 235 participants approached, 216 participants were included in the study. Of these, 63 patients reported no sexual activity in the last month and thus were analyzed only in relation to the sexual desire domain of FSFI. A total of 154 (71.3 %) patients were classified with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). From those patients reporting sexual activity in the last month, 63.3 % (97 out of 153) were classified with sexual dysfunction. Using hierarchical logistic regression, the variance explained (change in R 2 ) by the addition of body mass index (BMI) and mild to moderate physical activity in the prediction models of sexual dysfunction and HSDD were 6.8 and 7.2 %, respectively. Age, BMI, and physical activity were independently associated with sexual dysfunction and HSDD. Additionally, BC patients with sexual dysfunction reported lower scores on global HRQOL, role functioning, and fatigue. Based on our findings, BC survivors should be encouraged to practice regular physical activity and to lose weight in order to avoid sexual dysfunction. However, future clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, G M; Park, Y; Subar, A F; Schap, T E; Reedy, J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis considers combinations of food intake and may offer a better measure to assess diet-cancer associations than examining individual foods or nutrients. Although tobacco exposure is the major risk factor for lung cancer, few studies have examined whether dietary patterns, based on preexisting dietary guidelines, influence lung cancer risk. After controlling for smoking, we examined associations between four diet quality indices-Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-and lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP (National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed in 460 770 participants. Over a median of 10.5 years of follow-up, 9272 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Comparing highest to lowest quintiles, HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were as follows: HEI-2010=0.83 (0.77-0.89), AHEI-2010=0.86 (0.80-0.92), aMED=0.85 (0.79-0.91) and DASH=0.84 (0.78-0.90). Among the individual components of the dietary indices, higher consumption of whole grains and fruits was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk for several of the diet indices. Total index score analyses stratified by smoking status showed inverse associations with lung cancer for former smokers; however, only HEI-2010 was inversely associated in current smokers and no index score was inversely associated among never smokers. Although smoking is the factor most strongly associated with lung cancer, this study adds to a growing body of evidence that diet may have a modest role in reducing lung cancer risk, especially among former smokers.

  7. The Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Survival and Identifies Aggressiveness of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Chang, Hye Jung; Suh, Jungho; Ahn, Jin; Shin, Jeong; Hur, Joon-Young; Kim, Gou Young; Lee, Sookyung; Park, Sora; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status has been associated with long-term outcomes in cancer patients. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is calculated by serum albumin concentration and absolute lymphocyte count, and it may be a surrogate biomarker for nutritional status and possibly predicts overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer. We evaluated the value of the PNI as a predictor for disease-free survival (DFS) in addition to OS in a cohort of 314 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgical resection. There were 77 patients in PNI-low group (PNI ≤ 47.3) and 237 patients in PNI-high group (PNI > 47.3). With a median follow-up of 36.5 mo, 5-yr DFS rates in PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 63.5% and 83.6% and 5-yr OS rates in PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 63.5% and 88.4%, respectively (DFS, P < 0.0001; OS, P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, the only predictors for DFS were PNI, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, and perineural invasion, whereas the only predictors for OS were PNI, age, TNM stage, and perineural invasion. In addition, the PNI was independent of various inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the PNI is an independent prognostic factor for both DFS and OS, and provides additional prognostic information beyond pathologic parameters.

  8. Global Incidence and Mortality Rates of Stomach Cancer and the Human Development Index: an Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Soheylizad, Mokhtar; Khazaei, Somayeh; Biderafsh, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer (SC) is the second leading cause of cancer death with the rate of 10.4% in the world. The correlation between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and human development index (HDI) has not been globally determined. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and HDI in various regions. In this global ecological study, we used the data about the incidence and mortality rate of SC and HDI from the global cancer project and the United Nations Development Programme database, respectively. In 2012, SCs were estimated to have affected a total of 951,594 individuals (crude rate: 13.5 per 100,000 individuals) with a male/female ratio of 1.97, and caused 723,073 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 10.2 per 100,000 individuals). There was a positive correlation between the HDI and both incidence (r=0.28, countries with high and very high HDI is remarkable which should be the top priority of interventions for global health policymakers. In addition, health programs should be provided to reduce the burden of this disease in the regions with high incidence and mortality rates of SC.

  9. Effects of smoking and body mass index on the exposure of fentanyl in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuip, Evelien J M; Oldenmenger, Wendy H; Thijs-Visser, Martine F; de Bruijn, Peter; Oosten, Astrid W; Oomen-de Hoop, Esther; Koolen, Stijn L W; Van der Rijt, Carin C D; Mathijssen, Ron H J

    2018-01-01

    The transdermal fentanyl patch is widely used to treat cancer-related pain despite its wide inter- and intrapatient variability in pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether smoking and body size (i.e. body mass index) influence fentanyl exposure in patients with cancer. These are factors that typically change during treatment and disease trajectories. We performed an explorative cohort study in patients with cancer using transdermal fentanyl patches (Durogesic®), by taking a blood sample for pharmacokinetic analysis one day after applying a patch in patients with a stable fentanyl dose. A total of 88 patients were evaluable. Although no statistically significant difference was found, the plasma concentrations of non-smokers was 28% (95% CI [-14%; +89-%]) higher than those of smokers normalizing for a dose of 25μg/min. Patients with a low BMI ( 25 kg/m2). A wider variation in fentanyl plasma concentrations was found in this study than anticipated. Due to this variation, studies in larger patient cohorts are needed to further investigate the effect of smoking on plasma concentration of fentanyl and thereby clarify the clinical significance of our findings.

  10. A new clinically applicable age-specific comorbidity index for preoperative risk assessment of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Antonsen, Sofie Leisby

    2016-01-01

    Cancer Database between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012. The study population was divided into a development cohort (n=2020) and a validation cohort (n=1975). Age-stratified multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify comorbidities significantly impacting five-year overall....... CONCLUSION: This new age-specific comorbidity index based on self-reported information is a significant predictor of overall and cancer-specific survival in ovarian cancer. It can be used to quickly identify those ovarian cancer patients requiring special attention in terms of preoperative optimization...

  11. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BCCI and the BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  12. Prognostic Significance of Modified Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer_ Comparison with Original ALI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Kim

    Full Text Available Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR] has been shown to predict overall survival (OS in small cell lung cancer (SCLC. CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2 beyond original ALI.L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR. Using chi-squared test determined maximum cut-offs for low ALI and low mALI, the prognostic values of low ALI and low mALI were tested using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Finally, deviance statistics was used to test whether the goodness of fit of the prognostic model is improved by adding mALI as an extra variable.Patients with low ALI (cut-off, 31.1, n = 94 had shorter OS than patients with high ALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 15.8 months; p < 0.001, and patients with low mALI (cut-off 67.7, n = 94 had shorter OS than patients with high mALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 16.5 months; p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in estimates of median survival time between low ALI and low mALI (z = 0.000, p = 1.000 and between high ALI and high mALI (z = 0.330, p = 0.740. Multivariable analysis showed that low ALI was an independent prognostic factor for shorter OS (HR, 1.67, p = 0.004, along with advanced age (HR, 1.49, p = 0.045, extensive disease (HR, 2.27, p < 0.001, supportive care only (HR, 7.86, p < 0.001, and elevated LDH (HR, 1.45, p = 0.037. Furthermore, goodness of fit of this prognostic model was not significantly increased by adding mALI as an extra variable (LR difference = 2.220, p = 0.136.The present study confirms mALI using CT-determined L3MI has no additional prognostic value beyond original ALI using BMI. ALI

  13. Diet index-based and empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Harper, Gregory; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Ryczak, Karen; Escobar, Gladys; Mauger, David T; Hartman, Terryl J

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have derived patterns by measuring compliance with preestablished dietary guidance or empirical methods, such as principal components analysis (PCA). Our objective was to examine colorectal cancer risk associated with patterns identified by both methods. The study included 431 incident colorectal cancer cases (225 men, 206 women) and 726 healthy controls (330 men, 396 women) participating in a population-based, case-control study. PCA identified sex-specific dietary patterns and the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05) assessed adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. A fruits and vegetables pattern and a meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern were identified among men and women; a third pattern (alcohol and sweetened beverages) was identified in men. The fruits and vegetables pattern was inversely associated with risk among men [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.21-0.69 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile] and women (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.19-0.65). The meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern was positively associated with risk in women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.08-4.50) and there was a suggestion of a positive association among men (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 0.84-2.90; P-trend = 0.070). Men and women with greater HEI-05 scores had a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99; OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.24-0.77, respectively). Following the Dietary Guidelines or a dietary pattern lower in meat, potatoes, high fat, and refined foods and higher in fruits and vegetables may reduce colorectal cancer risk.

  14. Novel use of bioelectric impedence technique to detect alterations in body composition in advanced small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Ansari, A; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Khilnani, G C; Guleria, R

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequent in lung cancer and is measured using various tools, including the novel bioelectric impedance technique for measuring body composition. However, the validation of this technique for assessing body composition in advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is untested. Forty-one treatment naïve patients (all males) and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated by anthropometric measurements of skinfold thicknesses and body composition parameters such as body fat%, fat mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and total body water (TBW). The mean (SD) age of the patient group was 55.7 (7.5) years, median pack-years was 20 (range, 0-80), and mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 152.6 (153.7) days. Median Karnofsky Performance Scale was 70 (range, 50-90). Majority of our patients (68.3%) were Stage IV followed by Stage III (31.7%). The percentage of patients with low, normal, and high body mass index (BMI) was 31.7%, 61%, and 7.3%, respectively. All components of body composition, i.e., body fat%, FFM, and TBW were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. However, the body composition in patients and controls with normal BMI was similar. The phenomenon of sarcopenia as a cause of cancer cachexia may explain these findings, whereas the combination of loss of body fat and lean body mass may lead to weight loss and reduced BMI. Our results indicate that body composition is markedly altered in Indian patients with advanced SCLC. The impact of these parameters on clinically relevant outcomes needs further evaluation.

  15. The alterations of serum FGF-21 levels, metabolic and body composition in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Murat; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Demir, Leyla; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Yildiz, Yasar; Gumus, Zehra; Kara, Mete; Salman, Tarik; Varol, Umut; Taskaynatan, Halil; Oflazoglu, Utku; Bayoglu, Vedat; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay

    2017-01-01

    In early breast cancer patients, the effects of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors) on plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), lipid levels and body composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between FGF-21 and body composition as well as the effects of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors on plasma lipid levels, FGF-21, and body composition. A total of 72 patients were treated with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors due to their menopausal status after adjuvant radiotherapy. Each patient was followed-up over a period of 1 year. Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile, glucose and FGF-21 levels were evaluated. We recorded the type of hormonal therapy, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid profile, and FGF-21 levels both at the beginning and after 12 months. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum FGF-21 levels after 12 months of adjuvant endocrine therapy (46 ± 19.21 pg/ml vs. 30.99 ± 13.81 pg/ml, pbody water (pbody composition, glucose, lipid profile and FGF-21 were similar in tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor groups. A positive correlation was found between basal weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and serum FGF-21 levels; however, the correlation was maintained only for the fat-free mass at the 12th month. As part of the present study, we suggest that both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors can reduce FGF-21 levels independently of body compositions, and these drugs can provide antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic and cardio-protective effects. We also recommend that serum FGF-21 level can be utilized as a tumor biomarker in early-stage breast cancer and for monitoring purposes. FGF-21 levels may help physicians estimate prognosis, too. Further studies with larger populations may shed light on the role of FGF-21 in breast cancer.

  16. Assessment of sarcopenia and changes in body composition after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and associations with clinical outcomes in oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Connie [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Singapore (Singapore); Imaging 2, Level 1, Lambeth Wing, St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Davies, Andrew; Gossage, James; Mason, Robert [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Mitchell-Hay, Rosalind; Griffin, Nyree [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hynes, Orla [Department of Dietetics, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Maisey, Nick; Ross, Paul; Gaya, Andrew [Department of Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Department of Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Sarcopenia and changes in body composition following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may affect clinical outcome. We assessed the associations between CT body composition changes following NAC and outcomes in oesophageal cancer. A total of 35 patients who received NAC followed by oesophagectomy, and underwent CT assessment pre- and post-NAC were included. Fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), subcutaneous fat to muscle ratio (FMR) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VA/SA) were derived from CT. Changes in FM, FFM, FMR, VA/SA and sarcopenia were correlated to chemotherapy dose reductions, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), circumferential resection margin (CRM), pathological chemotherapy response, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Nine (26 %) patients were sarcopenic before NAC and this increased to 15 (43 %) after NAC. Average weight loss was 3.7 % ± 6.4 (SD) in comparison to FM index (-1.2 ± 4.2), FFM index (-4.6 ± 6.8), FMR (-1.2 ± 24.3) and VA/SA (-62.3 ± 12.7). Changes in FM index (p = 0.022), FMR (p = 0.028), VA/SA (p = 0.024) and weight (p = 0.007) were significant univariable factors for CRM status. There was no significant association between changes in body composition and survival. Loss of FM, differential loss of VA/SA and skeletal muscle were associated with risk of CRM positivity. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of sarcopenia and changes in body composition after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and associations with clinical outcomes in oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Connie; Goh, Vicky; Davies, Andrew; Gossage, James; Mason, Robert; Mitchell-Hay, Rosalind; Griffin, Nyree; Hynes, Orla; Maisey, Nick; Ross, Paul; Gaya, Andrew; Landau, David B.; Cook, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia and changes in body composition following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may affect clinical outcome. We assessed the associations between CT body composition changes following NAC and outcomes in oesophageal cancer. A total of 35 patients who received NAC followed by oesophagectomy, and underwent CT assessment pre- and post-NAC were included. Fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), subcutaneous fat to muscle ratio (FMR) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VA/SA) were derived from CT. Changes in FM, FFM, FMR, VA/SA and sarcopenia were correlated to chemotherapy dose reductions, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), circumferential resection margin (CRM), pathological chemotherapy response, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Nine (26 %) patients were sarcopenic before NAC and this increased to 15 (43 %) after NAC. Average weight loss was 3.7 % ± 6.4 (SD) in comparison to FM index (-1.2 ± 4.2), FFM index (-4.6 ± 6.8), FMR (-1.2 ± 24.3) and VA/SA (-62.3 ± 12.7). Changes in FM index (p = 0.022), FMR (p = 0.028), VA/SA (p = 0.024) and weight (p = 0.007) were significant univariable factors for CRM status. There was no significant association between changes in body composition and survival. Loss of FM, differential loss of VA/SA and skeletal muscle were associated with risk of CRM positivity. (orig.)

  18. A novel environmental exposure index and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingjun; Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Liu, Fengqiong; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Lin, Lisong; Qiu, Yu; Cai, Lin

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the collective effect of environmental factors and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND). A hospital-based case-control study, including 319 oral cancer patients and 994 frequency-matched controls, was conducted in Fujian, China. We raised a weighed environmental exposure index according to nine significant environmental factors obtained from multivariable logistic regression model. And then, the index was classified into three categories according to the tertiles of controls (2.43). Multiplicative and additive interactions were evaluated between environmental exposure index and family cancer history. Our results showed that environmental exposure index was associated with an increased risk of oral cancer especially for those with family cancer history. Compared to subjects with low environmental exposure index and without family cancer history, those with high index and family cancer history showed the highest magnitude of OR in oral cancer risk (OR 10.40, 95% CI 5.46-19.80). Moreover, there was a multiplicative interaction between environmental exposure index and family cancer history for the risk of oral cancer (P oral cancer among NSND and may interact with family cancer history. Further studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI, the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, Z Index (ZIND, the Soil Moisture Index (SMI with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI, the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI, the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  20. Influence of body composition on survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Sperry, Steven M; Anderson, Carryn M; Pagedar, Nitin A

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence has suggested links between obesity and outcomes for various types of cancer. This study investigates the impact that body composition has on survival in patients with head and neck cancer. Data prospectively collected from 578 patients were analyzed using Cox regression models to determine independent associations that pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and 3-month weight change have on observed survival. Higher BMIs were associated with better survival (p < .001). Five-year rates ranged from 33.8% for underweight to 75.3% for overweight/obese patients. Patients with stable weight had the highest 5-year rate (72.6%; p = .019), whereas patients who gained ≥5% had worse survival (45.8%) than those who lost ≥5% (65.8%). BMI independently predicted survival, whereas weight change was not an independent predictor. This demonstrated association between BMI and survival provides useful information when offering prognoses and investigating optimal treatments © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E261-E267, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Factors influencing conformity index in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Sinead M

    2010-01-01

    The radiotherapy conformity index (CI) is a useful tool to quantitatively assess the quality of radiotherapy treatment plans, and represents the relationship between isodose distributions and target volume. A conformity index of unity implies high planning target volume (PTV) coverage and minimal unnecessary irradiation of surrounding tissues. We performed this analysis to describe the CI for lung cancer 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and to identify clinical and technical determinants of CI, as it is not known which factors are associated with good quality 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. Radiotherapy treatment plans from a database of 52 patients with inoperable Stage 1 to 3b lung cancer, on a hypofractionated 3DCRT trial were evaluated. A CI was calculated for all plans using the definition of the ICRU 62:CI = (TV\\/PTV), which is the quotient of the treated volume (TV) and the PTV. Data on patient, tumor, and planning variables, which could influence CI, were recorded and analyzed. Mean CI was 2.01 (range = 1.06-3.8). On univariate analysis, PTV (p = 0.023), number of beams (p = 0.036), medial vs. lateral tumor location (p = 0.016), and increasing tumor stage (p = 0.041) were associated with improved conformity. On multiple regression analysis, factors found to be associated with CI included central vs. peripheral tumor location (p = 0.041) and PTV size (p = 0.058). The term 3DCRT is used routinely in the literature, without any indication of the degree of conformality. We recommend routine reporting of conformity indices. Conformity indices may be affected by both planning variables and tumor factors.

  2. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin; Wang, Huixia Judy; Liang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  3. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin

    2017-11-03

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  4. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. Methods This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their...

  5. Prognostic classification index in Iranian colorectal cancer patients: Survival tree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saki Malehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic index for separating homogenous subgroups in colorectal cancer (CRC patients based on clinicopathological characteristics using survival tree analysis. Methods: The current study was conducted at the Research Center of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Shahid Beheshti Medical University in Tehran, between January 2004 and January 2009. A total of 739 patients who already have been diagnosed with CRC based on pathologic report were enrolled. The data included demographic and clinical-pathological characteristic of patients. Tree-structured survival analysis based on a recursive partitioning algorithm was implemented to evaluate prognostic factors. The probability curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method, and the hazard ratio was estimated as an interest effect size. Result: There were 526 males (71.2% of these patients. The mean survival time (from diagnosis time was 42.46± (3.4. Survival tree identified three variables as main prognostic factors and based on their four prognostic subgroups was constructed. The log-rank test showed good separation of survival curves. Patients with Stage I-IIIA and treated with surgery as the first treatment showed low risk (median = 34 months whereas patients with stage IIIB, IV, and more than 68 years have the worse survival outcome (median = 9.5 months. Conclusion: Constructing the prognostic classification index via survival tree can aid the researchers to assess interaction between clinical variables and determining the cumulative effect of these variables on survival outcome.

  6. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings: After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  7. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  8. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of this study was to examine BMI in a large cohort of long-term CCSs and relate this to the BMI at diagnosis, age, sex, tumor type, treatment, and endocrine defects. All patients treated for childhood cancer at the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 who had survived for at least 5 years were eligible for inclusion. For 893 CCSs with a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, the BMI at the late effects outpatient clinic was compared with the BMI for the general Dutch population. For girls, an increased prevalence of obesity was found. Risk factors for developing a high BMI at follow-up were a younger age and a high BMI at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiotherapy. A significantly increased prevalence of severe underweight was found in all adult subgroups except for females aged 26 to 45 years. An association was found between a low BMI at diagnosis and a low BMI at follow-up. No treatment-related variables could be related to changes in BMI. The BMI at diagnosis is one of the most important predictors for the BMI at follow-up, and this suggests an important genetic or environmental cause. Adult CCSs are at high risk for developing severe underweight at follow-up. Future studies should focus on the causes and clinical consequences of underweight. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  10. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  11. [Relevance and validity of a new French composite index to measure poverty on a geographical level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, B; Viel, J F

    2001-02-01

    A number of disease conditions are influenced by deprivation. Geographical measurement of deprivation can provide an independent contribution to individual measures by accounting for the social context. Such a geographical approach, based on deprivation indices, is classical in Great Britain but scarcely used in France. The objective of this work was to build and validate an index readily usable in French municipalities and cantons. Socioeconomic data (unemployment, occupations, housing specifications, income, etc.) were derived from the 1990 census of municipalities and cantons in the Doubs departement. A new index was built by principal components analysis on the municipality data. The validity of the new index was checked and tested for correlations with British deprivation indices. Principal components analysis on municipality data identified four components (explaining 76% of the variance). Only the first component (CP1 explaining 42% of the variance) was retained. Content validity (wide choice of potential deprivation items, correlation between items and CP1: 0.52 to 0.96) and construct validity (CP1 socially relevant; Cronbach's alpha=0.91; correlation between CP1 and three out of four British indices ranging from 0.73 to 0.88) were sufficient. Analysis on canton data supported that on municipality data. The validation of the new index being satisfactory, the user will have to make a choice. The new index, CP1, is closer to the local background and was derived from data from a French departement. It is therefore better adapted to more descriptive approaches such as health care planning. To examine the relationship between deprivation and health with a more etiological approach, the British indices (anteriority, international comparisons) would be more appropriate, but CP1, once validated in various health problem situations, should be most useful for French studies.

  12. Disease prevalence and the index of detectability: a survey of studies of lung cancer detection by chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Harold L.

    2000-04-01

    A survey of 12 studies of lung cancer detection with cancer prevalence ranging from 0.9 to 476 cancers per 1000 showed that the unit-slope index of detectability, d', decreased from a high value of 3.9 at low prevalence to 1.4 at high prevalence. A proposed explanation is that the readers are operating on an ROC curve with a slope that is less than unity approximating 0.6. On such a curve, a shift to more stringent criteria that occurs with decreasing prevalence in order to minimize false positives, would result in a increased unity- slope d'.

  13. Explaining the Obesity Paradox: The Association between Body Composition and Colorectal Cancer Survival (C-SCANS Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caan, Bette J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Alexeeff, Stacey; Xiao, Jingjie; Weltzien, Erin; Feliciano, Elizabeth Cespedes; Castillo, Adrienne L; Quesenberry, Charles P; Kwan, Marilyn L; Prado, Carla M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Body composition may partially explain the U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer survival. Methods: Muscle and adiposity at colorectal cancer diagnosis and survival were examined in a retrospective cohort using Kaplan-Meier curves, multivariable Cox regression, and restricted cubic splines in 3,262 early-stage (I-III) male (50%) and female (50%) patients. Sarcopenia was defined using optimal stratification and sex- and BMI-specific cut points. High adiposity was defined as the highest tertile of sex-specific total adipose tissue (TAT). Primary outcomes were overall mortality and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (CRCsM). Results: Slightly over 42% patients were sarcopenic. During 5.8 years of follow-up, 788 deaths occurred, including 433 from colorectal cancer. Sarcopenic patients had a 27% [HR, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.48] higher risk of overall mortality than those who were not sarcopenic. Females with both low muscle and high adiposity had a 64% higher risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05-2.57) than females with adequate muscle and lower adiposity. The lowest risk of overall mortality was seen in patients with a BMI between 25 and cancer, and should, along with adiposity be a standard oncological marker. Impact: Our findings suggest a biologic explanation for the obesity paradox in colorectal cancer and refute the notion that the association between overweight and lower mortality is due solely to methodologic biases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1008-15. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Method for palliation of pain in human bone cancer using therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients. 5 figs

  15. Optical and non-optical characterization of Nb2O5-SiO2 compositional graded-index layers and rugate structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitel, Robert; Stenzel, Olaf; Wilbrandt, Steffen; Gaebler, Dieter; Janicki, Vesna; Kaiser, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of graded-index layers and rugate structures was performed by coevaporation of silicon dioxide as the low index material and niobium pentoxide as the high index material. To obtain information about the composition depth profile of the films, we used cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to supplement deposition rate data recorded by two independent crystal quartz monitors during film preparation. The concentration depth profile was transformed to a refractive index profile using the effective medium approximation. The thus obtained refractive index profiles turned out to represent efficient initial approximations for re-engineering purposes

  16. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...

  17. APPLICATION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL INDEX CARD MATCH TYPE IN IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING RESULTS ON COMPOSITION AND COMPOSITION FUNCTIONS OF FUNCTIONS INVERS IN MAN 1 MATARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrir Syahrir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of student response in learning mathematics caused by passive of student in process of learning progress so that student consider mathematics subject is difficult subject to be understood. The research is Classroom Action Research (PTK using 2 cycles, then the purpose of this research is how the implementation of cooperative learning type of index card match in improving student learning outcomes on the subject matter of composition function and inverse function in MAN 1 Mataram. While the results of the analysis in the study showed that there is in cycle I obtained classical completeness 78.79% with the average score of student learning outcomes 69.78 and the average value of student learning responses with the category Enough, then in cycle II shows that classical thoroughness 87 , 89% with mean score of student learning result 78,94 and average value of student learning response with good category. So it can be concluded that the implementation of Model Cooperative Learning Type Index Card Match can improve student learning outcomes on the subject matter of composition function and inverse function.

  18. Body composition, dietary intake and physical activity of young survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Alford, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Lockwood, Liane; Hallahan, Andrew; Davies, Peter S W

    2018-03-07

    To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries. The CCS had significantly reduced body cell mass index Z-scores compared to controls (p = 0.0001), with 59% considered undernourished. The CCS had a significantly higher percent fat (p = 0.002) than the controls, with 27% classified as obese. The intake of 60% of CCS met estimated energy requirements, but the CCS consumed high amount of energy from fat and low amount of energy from carbohydrates. A high percentage of CCS did not meet their dietary requirements for calcium (61%), magnesium (46%), folate (38%) and iodine (38%). The CCS group had a light active lifestyle with 64% spending more than 2 h daily on screen time. Receiving a bone marrow transplant (r = -0.27; p = 0.02) and physical activity level (r = 0.49; p = 0.0001) were significantly correlated with body cell mass index. This study demonstrates that increased fat mass and decreased body cell mass is a concern for CCS and that CCS have poor health behaviours including light active lifestyles, excessive screentime, high fat intake, and poor intake of essential nutrients. This study has highlighted that CCS are at risk of both obesity and undernutrition and that increasing body cell mass as well as decreasing fat mass should be a focus of energy balance interventions in survivorship. There is a need for parents and children undergoing treatment for cancer to be educated about diet quality and importance of daily physical activity to ensure healthy habits are established and maintained into survivorship. Copyright © 2018

  19. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C.; Mulders, Peter F.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence

  20. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria. Keywords : annual equivalent value, benefit cost ratio, composite performance index, valuation appraisal

  1. The association of the human development index with global kidney cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Prasad, Sandip M; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Eggener, Scott E

    2012-06-01

    We describe contemporary worldwide age standardized incidence and mortality rates for kidney cancer, and their association with social and economic development metrics. We obtained gender specific, age standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratio on the national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with the development level of each country using the United Nations Human Development Index. The age standardized incidence rate varied twentyfold worldwide with the highest rate in North America, and the lowest in Africa and South Central Asia (11.8 vs 1.2 and 1.0/100,000 individuals, respectively). The geographic distribution of the age standardized mortality rate was similar to that of the age standardized incidence rate with the highest rates in Europe and North America (3.1 and 2.6/100,000 individuals, respectively) and the lowest rates in Asian and African regions (0.6 to 1.5). Age standardized incidence and mortality rates were 4.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, in more developed countries than in developing countries. However, the mortality-to-incidence ratio was highest in Africa and Asia, and lowest in North America (0.6 to 0.8 vs 0.2/100,000 individuals). There was a strong inverse relationship between the Human Development Index and the mortality-to-incidence ratio (regression coefficient -0.79, p<0.0001). Kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates vary widely throughout the world while the mortality-to-incidence ratio is highest in less developed nations. These observations suggest significant health care disparities and may reflect differences in risk factors, health care access, quality of care, diagnostic modalities and treatment options available. Future research should assess whether the mortality-to-incidence ratio decreases with increasing development. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  2. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  3. Some composition formulae for the M-S-M fractional integral operator with the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shilpi; Agarwal, Praveen; Kıymaz, I. Onur; ćetinkaya, Ayá¹£egül

    2018-01-01

    Authors presented some composition formulae for the Marichev-Saigo-Maeda (M-S-M) fractional integral operator with the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions. Our results are generalizes the results obtained by Choi and Agarwal [3]. Here, we record some particular cases of our main result. Finally, we obtain Laplace transforms of the composition formulae.

  4. In vitro analysis of shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index comparing light curing and self-curing composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the shear bond strength of self-curing (ConciseTM - 3M and Alpha Plast - DFL and light-curing composites (TransbondTM XT - 3M and Natural Ortho - DFL used in orthodontics bonding, associated to Morelli metal brackets, with further analysis of adhesive remnant index (ARI and enamel condition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM. METHODS: Forty human premolars, just extracted and stored in physiologic solution 0.9 % were used. Randomly, these samples were divided in four groups: G1 group, the brackets were bonded with ConciseTM - 3M composite; in G2 group, Alpha Plast - DFL composite was used; in G3 group, TransbondTM XT - 3M was used; in G4 group, Natural Ortho - DFL composite was used. These groups were submitted to shear strength tests in universal testing machine, at 0.5 mm per minute speed. RESULTS: Statistical difference between G3 and G4 groups was recorded, as G4 showing higher strength resistance than G3. In the other hand, there were no statistical differences between G1, G2 and G3 and G1, G2 and G4 groups. ARI analysis showed that there was no statistical difference between the groups, and low scores were recorded among then. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed the debonding spots and the enamel surface integrity. CONCLUSIONS: Shear bond strength was satisfactory and similar between the composites, however Natural Ortho - DFL revealed best comparing to TransbondTM XT - 3M.

  5. High refractive index organic–inorganic composites with TiO2 nanocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2013-01-01

    Highly transparent polyimide–nanocrystalline-titania hybrid materials with a relatively high titania content (up to 90 wt.%) have been fabricated via sol–gel process. The organo-soluble polyimide was synthesized from 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride, 3,3′-Diaminodiphenyl sulfone, and 4-aminobenzoic acid. Such carboxylic acid end groups could provide the organic–inorganic bonding with titania. The images of atomic force and scanning electron microscope showed the well-dispersed nanocrystalline-titania. The analytical results of transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer indicated that the formation of nanocrystalline-titania domains of around 3–4 nm in the hybrid films. The experimental results suggest that the prepared hybrid films have high thermal stability, good surface planarity, tunable refractive index (1.61 < n < 2.01), and optical transparency in the visible range. These results indicate that the polyimide–nanocrystalline-titania hybrid materials have potential applications for optical devices. - Highlights: ► Polyimide–titania hybrid materials with up to 90 wt.% titania via sol–gel process. ► The hybrid films are highly transparent. ► Organic–inorganic bonding through the carboxylic acid end groups of polymide. ► Nanocrystalline–titania domains in the hybrid films around 3–4 nm. ► High thermal stability, good surface planarity, tunable refractive index are obtained

  6. A Prospective Investigation of Body Size, Body Fat Composition and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luisa Saldana; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Morris, Jessica S; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil

    2017-12-19

    Obesity has been consistently associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk, but this relationship is weaker among women. In the UK Biobank, we investigated the associations between body size (body mass index [BMI], height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and body fat composition (total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage) measurements with colorectal cancer risk among 472,526 men and women followed for 5.6 years on average. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for developing colorectal cancer (2,636 incident cases) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among men, when the highest and lowest fifths were compared, BMI (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.13-1.61; P trend  body fat percentage (HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P trend  = 0.002), and trunk fat percentage (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.58; P trend  = 0.002) were associated with greater colorectal cancer risk. For women, only waist-to-hip ratio (HR for highest versus lowest fifth = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.08-1.65; P trend  = 0.005) was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. Greater body size (overall and abdominal adiposity) was positively associated with colorectal cancer development in men. For women, abdominal adiposity, rather than overall body size, was associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk.

  7. Diet and endometrial cancer: a focus on the role of fruit and vegetable intake, Mediterranean diet and dietary inflammatory index in the endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fasanelli, Francesca; Milanese, Dario; Sciannameo, Veronica; Fiorini, Laura; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2017-11-13

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in European women. The major risk factors for endometrial cancer are related to the exposure of endometrium to estrogens not opposed to progestogens, that can lead to a chronic endometrial inflammation. Diet may play a role in cancer risk by modulating chronic inflammation. In the framework of a case-control study, we recruited 297 women with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer and 307 controls from Northern Italy. Using logistic regression, we investigated the role of fruit and vegetable intake, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) in endometrial cancer risk. Women in the highest quintile of vegetable intake had a statistically significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (adjusted OR 5th quintile vs 1st quintile: 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68). Women with high adherence to the MD had a risk of endometrial cancer that was about half that of women with low adherence to the MD (adjusted OR: 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.86). A protective effect was detected for all the lower quintiles of DII, with the highest protective effect seen for the lowest quintile (adjusted OR 5th quintile vs 1st quintile: 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.26). These results suggest that high vegetable intake, adherence to the MD, and a low DII are related to a lower endometrial cancer risk, with several putative connected biological mechanisms that strengthen the biological plausibility of this association.

  8. Can Histological Grade and Mitotic Index Replace Ki67 to Determine Luminal Breast Cancer Subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddó, David; Pulgar, Dahiana; Elgueta, Nicole; Acevedo, Francisco; Razmiliz, Dravna; Navarro, María Elena; Camus, Mauricio; Merino, Tomás; Retamal, Ignacio; Pérez-Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Villarroel, Alejandra; Galindo, Héctor; Peña, José; Sánchez, César

    2018-01-27

    Introduction: Breast cancer can be classified into subtypes based on immunohistochemical markers, with Ki67 expression levels being used to divide luminal BC tumors in luminal A and B subtypes; however, Ki67 is not routinely determined due to a lack of standardization. Objective: To evaluate histological grade and Eliminate: the mitotic index to determine if they can be used as an alternative method to Ki67 staining for luminal subtype definition. Methods: We evaluated estrogen receptor positive breast cancer tissue samples. Pathological analysis included determination of Ki67. A low level of Ki67 was defined as <14% positive cells. Results: We evaluated 151 breast cancer samples; 24 (15,9%) were classified as I; 74 as HG II (49%), and 53 (35,1%) as HG III. The median value for Ki67 was 13% (range: <1% - 82%) and for MI was 2 (0-12). Histological grade I tumors exhibited Ki67 values significantly lower than HG II and III tumors (Anova, Tamhane test p=0,001). A higher Ki67 value was related to a higher MI (Rho Sperman p=0,336; R2= 0,0273). ROC curve analysis determined that a MI ≥ 3 had a sensibility of 61.9% and specificity of 66.7% in predicting a high Ki67 value (≥14%) (area under the curve: 0,691; p =0,0001). A HG I tumor or HG II-III with MI ≤2, had a high probability of corresponding to a LA tumor (76,3%), as defined using Ki67 expression, while the probability of a LB subtype was higher with HG II-III and a MI ≥3 (57.4%). Global discrimination was 68.1%. Conclusions: For the LA subtype, our predictive model showed a good correlation of HG and MI with the classification based on Ki67<14%. In the LB subtype, the model showed a weak correlation; therefore Ki67 determination seems to be needed for this group of patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Body Mass Index and Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure Following Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, Jason A.; Skowronski, Rafi Y.; Coen, John J.; Grocela, Joseph A.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure after radical prostatectomy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). We investigated whether BMI is associated with PSA failure in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analyses were conducted on 374 patients undergoing brachytherapy for stage T1c-T2cNXM0 prostate cancer from 1996-2001. Forty-nine patients (13%) received supplemental EBRT and 131 (35%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Height and weight data were available for 353 (94%). Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and PSA failure (nadir + 2 ng/ml definition). Covariates included age, race, preimplantation PSA, Gleason score, T category, percent of prescription dose to 90% of the prostate, use of supplemental EBRT, and ADT. Results: Median age, PSA, and BMI were 66 years (range, 42-80 years), 5.7 ng/ml (range, 0.4-22.6 ng/ml), and 27.1 kg/m 2 (range, 18.2-53.6 kg/m 2 ), respectively. After a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 3.0-10.2 years), there were 76 PSA recurrences. The BMI was not associated with PSA failure. Six-year PSA failure rates were 30.2% for men with BMI less than 25 kg/m 2 , 19.5% for BMI of 25 or greater to less than 30 kg/m 2 , and 14.4% for BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or greater (p = 0.19). Results were similar when BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using alternative definitions of PSA failure, and excluding patients treated with EBRT and/or ADT. In multivariate analyses, only baseline PSA was significantly associated with shorter time to PSA failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.20; p 0.0006). Conclusions: Unlike after surgery or EBRT, BMI is not associated with PSA failure in men treated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer. This raises the possibility that brachytherapy may be a preferred treatment strategy in obese

  10. Prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index in esophageal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, M; Migita, K; Matsumoto, S; Wakatsuki, K; Ito, M; Nakade, H; Kunishige, T; Kitano, M; Kanehiro, H

    2017-08-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important issues faced by cancer patients. Several studies have shown that a low preoperative nutritional status is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with various types of cancer, including esophageal cancer (EC). Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and/or radiotherapy have been accepted as the standard treatment for resectable advanced EC. However, NAC has the potential to deteriorate the nutritional status of a patient. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the nutritional status for EC patients who underwent NAC. We retrospectively reviewed 66 squamous cell EC patients who underwent NAC consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil followed by subtotal esophagectomy at Nara Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and August 2015. To assess the patients' nutritional status, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) before commencing NAC and prior to the operation was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dl) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (per mm3). The cutoff value of the PNI was set at 45. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). The mean pre-NAC and preoperative PNI were 50.2 ± 5.7 and 48.1 ± 4.7, respectively (P = 0.005). The PNI decreased following NAC in 44 (66.7%) patients. Before initiating NAC, 9 (13.6%) patients had a low PNI, and 12 (18.2%) patients had a low PNI prior to the operation. The pre-NAC PNI and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with the OS (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively) and RFS (P = 0.036 and P = 0.005, respectively) rates. The multivariable analysis identified the preoperative PNI as an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and RFS, although the pre-NAC PNI was not an independent predictor. Our results suggest that the preoperative PNI is a useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of EC patients

  11. Epidemiology, incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship with the development index in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpour, Mojtaba; Khani, Farah; Hesami, Sayed Mohammadali; Shamlou, Reza; Towhidi, Farhad; Salehiniya, Hamid; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Moini, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The highest incidence of lung cancer is seen in North America and the lowest incidence in central Africa. Socioeconomic factors of inequality reflect regional disparities in human development. Due to the importance of awareness about incidence and mortality of lung cancer in health programming and the possible role of the human development index (HDI), this study was done with the aim to investigate the epidemiology of lung cancer in the world and its relationship with HDI. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Data about the age-specific incidence and mortality rate (ASR) for every country in 2012 were getting from the global cancer project. To analyze data, correlation tests between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components were employed with a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software. Lung cancer with standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and standardized mortality rate (ASMR), equal to 23.1 and 19.7 (in 100,000 people), respectively. The highest and lowest values of mortality incidence ratio (MIR) for lung cancer due to continents division were 0.93 and 0.71 for Eastern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, respectively. Univariate analysis showed significant relationship (PASMR with life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling. The highest MIR for lung cancer was for medium human development countries. Linear regression analysis showed a reverse significant relationship between MIR and HDI.

  12. Prognostic nutritional index is associated with survival after total gastrectomy for patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Oyama, Yusuke; Abe, Akihito; Tago, Kazuma; Tanaka, Genki; Kubota, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the influence of clinical characteristics including nutritional markers on postoperative survival in patients undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer (GC). One hundred fifty-four patients were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to explore the most valuable clinical characteristic that was associated with postoperative survival. Multivariate analysis using twelve clinical characteristics selected from univariate analyses revealed that age (≤ 72/>72), carcinoembryonic antigen (≤ 20/>20) (ng/ml), white blood cell count (≤ 9.5/>9.5) (× 10(3)/mm(3)), prognostic nutritional index (PNI) (≤ 45/>45) and lymph node metastasis (negative/positive) were associated with postoperative survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test showed that patients with higher PNI (>45) had a higher postoperative survival rate than those with lower PNI (≤ 45) (p<0.001). PNI is associated with postoperative survival of patients undergoing TG for GC and is able to divide such patients into two independent groups before surgery. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of prognostic nutritional index and tumor markers on survival in gastric cancer surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Kono, Yusuke; Murakami, Yuki; Kuroda, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Yoji; Osaki, Tomohiro

    2017-05-01

    Blood analytes are easily used in routine clinical practice. Tumor markers (TMs) are useful in diagnosing, treating, and predicting prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was also recently found to be useful in predicting GC prognosis. The PNI and serum levels of CEA and CA19-9 of 453 patients with GC were measured to examine correlations between those levels and patients' prognoses. Of the 453 patients, 84 (18.5%) were positive for CEA and/or CA19-9 and therefore considered positive for TMs. Prognosis of patients who were TM+ was significantly worse than for those who were TM-. Mean PNI was 48.2 (range 27.7-63.6). ROC analysis indicated that 46.7 was the optimal PNI cutoff value. Prognosis of patients in the PNI Low group (<46.7) was significantly worse than in the PNI High group (≥46.7). Prognosis of patients who were both TM+ and PNI Low was significantly worse than that of patients who were either TM+ or PNI Low and those who were both TM- and PNI High . Multivariate analysis indicated that combination of TM and PNI was an independent prognostic indicator. The combination of TM and PNI offers accurate information about a patient's prognosis.

  14. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®, and CRC has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from nine studies were eligible, of which five were case-control and four were cohort studies. Results from meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII scores, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CRC. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference DII category showed an overall 40% increased risk of CRC with moderate evidence of heterogeneity [relative risk (RR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.26, 1.55; I2 = 69%, p < 0.001]. When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CRC of 7% for a 1-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the four prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet in preventing CRC. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CRC.

  15. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G; Resasco, Daniel E; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2013-08-27

    The present invention is a method for detecting and destroying cancer tumors. The method is based on the concept of associating a linking protein or linking peptide such as, but not limited to, annexin V or other annexins to carbon nanotubes such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form a protein-CNT complex. Said linking protein or peptide can selectively bind to cancerous cells, especially tumor vasculature endothelial cells, rather than to healthy ones by binding to cancer-specific external receptors such as anionic phospholipids including phosphatidylserine expressed on the outer surfaces of cancer cells only. Irradiation of bound CNTs with one or more specific electromagnetic wavelengths is then used to detect and destroy those cells to which the CNTs are bound via the linking protein or peptide thereby destroying the tumor or cancer cells and preferably an immunostimulant is provided to the patient to enhance the immune response against antigens released from the tumor or cancer cells.

  16. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C; Mulders, Peter F; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Baracos, Vickie E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2016-12-04

    Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on body composition in relation to clinical outcomes in RCC. Literature was reviewed through October 2016 using PubMed and Embase. We included studies investigating computed tomography-measured cross-sectional areas of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), perinephric fat, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), skeletal muscle index (SMI), and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) in relation to perioperative outcomes, treatment toxicity, and survival in RCC patients. We included 28 studies with a total of 6608 patients. Binary classification of body composition was used in most studies. In metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients treated with antiangiogenic drugs, dose-limiting toxicity was more frequent in patients with low versus high SMI (four studies, risk difference = 16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2-31%, p = 0.03, I 2 = 26%). Low versus high SMI (six studies, hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.08-2.03, p = 0.02, I 2 = 28%) and SMD (four studies, HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.20-2.03, p = 0.0008, I 2 = 0%) were associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in mRCC. Low versus high VAT and perinephric fat were not consistently associated with perioperative outcomes and survival. No associations for SAT were found. Low SMI is associated with increased dose-limiting toxicity, and low SMI and SMD are associated with increased overall mortality in mRCC. The association of VAT, perinephric fat, and SAT with clinical outcomes needs further investigation, also in localized RCC. We reviewed studies assessing the association of body composition with clinical outcomes in renal cell cancer. We demonstrated higher risk of dose-limiting toxicity and overall mortality for metastatic renal cell cancer patients with low

  17. Quantifying the Role of Circulating Unconjugated Estradiol in Mediating the Body Mass Index-Breast Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Catherine; Fuhrman, Barbara J; Boyd-Morin, Jennifer; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Gail, Mitchell H; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G

    2016-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) and circulating estrogen levels each increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk, particularly estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) tumors. Higher BMI also increases estrogen production. We estimated the proportion of the BMI-ER(+) breast cancer association mediated through estrogen in a case-control study nested within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants included 143 women with invasive ER(+) breast cancer and 268 matched controls, all postmenopausal and never having used hormone therapy at baseline. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites in baseline serum. We calculated BMI from self-reported height and weight at baseline. We estimated the mediating effect of unconjugated estradiol on the BMI-ER(+) breast cancer association using Aalen additive hazards and Cox regression models. All estrogens and estrogen metabolites were statistically significantly correlated with BMI, with unconjugated estradiol most strongly correlated [Pearson correlation (r) = 0.45]. Approximately 7% to 10% of the effect of overweight, 12% to 15% of the effect of obesity, and 19% to 20% of the effect of a 5 kg/m(2) BMI increase on ER(+) breast cancer risk was mediated through unconjugated estradiol. The BMI-breast cancer association, once adjusted for unconjugated estradiol, was not modified by further adjustment for two metabolic ratios statistically significantly associated with both breast cancer and BMI. Circulating unconjugated estradiol levels partially mediate the BMI-breast cancer association, but other potentially important estrogen mediators (e.g., bioavailable estradiol) were not evaluated. Further research is required to identify mechanisms underlying the BMI-breast cancer association. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Serum apelin levels and body composition changes in breast cancer patients treated with an aromatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Tarik; Demir, Leyla; Varol, Umut; Akyol, Murat; Oflazoglu, Utku; Yildiz, Yasar; Taskaynatan, Halil; Cengiz, Hakan; Guvendi, Guven; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Tarhan, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue plays a role in carcinogenesis with the adipokines it generates. Apelin is an anti-obesigenic adipokine, and assumes roles in both vascularization and tumor cell proliferation. The present study aimed to investigate changes in apelin levels, in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Forty early-stage postmenopausal BC patients treated with AIs with no history of chemotherapy administration were included in the study. At the beginning, we measured serum apelin levels in postmenopausal BC patients who were receiving AIs and healthy women of similar age and normal body mass index (BMI) (control group). We evaluated changes in the body composition, serum lipid profile and serum apelin levels at the beginning and the 12th month through anthropometric measurements and bioelectric impedance analysis. Forty subjects with postmenopausal BC had a median age of 57 years (range 44-82)). BC patients exhibited significantly higher apelin levels and body mass index (BMI) scores compared to the control group (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, respectively). The 12th month's measurements indicated reduced apelin levels in 24 patients (60%) and increased apelin levels in 16 patients (40%) compared to the initial figures. With respect to the parameters, the patients with reduced apelin levels had significantly different waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat mass scores compared to those with higher apelin levels (p=0.008, p=0.047, respectively). This study showed that postmenopausal BC patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores. This finding suggests that apelin promoted carcinogenesis particularly in obese individuals. The massive and metabolic changes observed in the fat tissues of the postmenopausal BC patients receiving AIs will especially affect the BC-associated outcome.

  19. Changes in body composition and muscle attenuation during taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, Hánah N; Jager, Agnes; Sleijfer, Stefan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Kock, Marc C J M; Levin, Mark-David

    2018-02-01

    Body composition parameters including low muscle mass, muscle attenuation (which reflects muscle quality) and adipose tissue measurements have emerged as prognostic factors in cancer patients. However, knowledge regarding the possibility of excessive muscle loss during specific systemic therapies is unknown. We describe the changes in body composition and muscle attenuation (MA) during taxane- and anthracycline-based regimens and its association with overall survival (OS) in metastatic breast cancer patients. The lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI) was used as marker of muscle mass. LSMI, MA, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) were measured before and after first-line treatment with paclitaxel (n = 73) or 5-fluorouracil-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (FAC) (n = 25) using CT-images. Determinants of the change of LSMI and MA were analyzed using multiple linear regression. OS was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. MA significantly decreased during paclitaxel treatment (- 0.9 HU, p = 0.03). LSMI (p = 0.40), SAT (p = 0.75), VAT (p = 0.84) and IMAT (p = 0.10) remained stable. No significant alterations in body composition parameters during FAC-treatment were observed. Previous (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy contributed to larger loss of MA during the current treatment. Body composition changes during chemotherapy were not associated with OS. MA decreased during treatment with paclitaxel, while muscle mass was stable. Body composition changes are not associated with survival in the absence of progressive disease.

  20. [Use of [-2] pro PSA and phi index for early detection of prostate cancer: a prospective of 452 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgatte, A; Vincendeau, S; Desfemmes, F; Ramirez, J; Benoist, N; Bensalah, K; Durand, X

    2012-05-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer (Pca) is a real challenge to reduce morbidity and mortality while avoiding over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is characterized by its imperfections justifying the evaluation of new serum or urinary specific markers allowing a better selection of patients at risk of developing aggressive Pca. To compare the value of -2pro PSA and phi index to total and free PSA. Serum sampled from 452 patients from two university centers were used to determine levels of PSA before performing biopsies. The patients were included in this study based on the PSA serum concentration between 1.6 ng/mL and 8 ng/mL according to the WHO international standard. All biopsies were performed according to a standardized protocol consisting of 12 cores or more. Sera were analyzed centrally in one of the two institutions with on a single analyzer. Sera from 243 prostate cancer and 208 negative biopsies patients have been taken into account. Sera were analyzed blinded for total PSA, free PSA and [-2] proPSA using Access(®) immunoassay method from Beckman Coulter. The Prostate Health Index (phi) was calculated using the formula phi=([-2] proPSA/fPSA)×sqrt (PSA). The median value of the phi index is significantly (P>0.0001) higher for patients with cancer (phi=65.8) compared to patients with negative biopsies (phi=40.6). At a given sensitivity, the phi index significantly increases the specificity of detection of prostate cancer compared to other markers. The phi index currently appears as the best predictor of prostate cancer for patients with a total PSA between 1.6 and 8 ng/mL according to the WHO standard. The improvement in specificity of the phi index over tPSA could reduce significantly the numbers of unnecessary biopsies. Whether this new biomarker could be an indicator of aggressive prostate cancer remains to be confirmed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical significance of prognostic nutritional index in patients with advanced gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shubin; Liu, Honggang; Xue, Yingwei

    2018-02-25

    To investigate the relationship of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) with clinicopathological factors and the clinical significance of PNI in predicting the survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 1150 patients with advanced gastric cancer who underwent radical gastrectomy from January 2007 to December 2010 at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The PNI value was calculated [PNI=absolute value of lymphocyte(10 9 /L)×5 + serum albumin (g/L)] and was grouped according to the mean value of PNI. Relationships of PNI with gender, age, tumor size, depth of invasion, tumor differentiation, tumor stage, tumor location, lymph node metastasis and tumor marker detection level were analyzed. At the same time, for the survival analysis of patients, log-rank method was used for univariate analysis, and Cox method was used for multivariate analysis. Of 1150 cases, 846 were males and 304 were females with an average age of 62 (24 to 88) years. The average maximum diameter of tumor was 5.4(1.0 to 20.0) cm. Tumor of 159 cases located in the gastric fundus, 221 cases in the gastric body, 705 cases in the gastric antrum and 65 cases in the whole stomach. Well differentiated tumors were found in 198 cases and poorly differentiated tumors in 952 cases. As for depth of tumor invasion, 165 cases were T2, 343 cases were T3 and 642 cases were T4. According to TNM stage, 53 cases were stage I(, 397 cases were stage II( and 700 cases were stage III(. The average lymph node metastasis rate was 25.0%, meanwhile lymph node metastasis was N0 in 296 cases, N1 in 246 cases, N2 in 277 cases and N3 in 331 cases. Blood examination showed hemoglobin ≤130 g/L in 544 cases and >130 g/L in 606 cases; carcinoembryonic antigen ≤5 μg/L in 903 cases and >5 μg /L in 247 cases; carbohydrate antigen 19-9 ≤37 kU/L in 927 cases and >37 kU/L in 223 cases. In whole patients

  2. Brief assessment of priority symptoms in hormone refractory prostate cancer: The FACT Advanced Prostate Symptom Index (FAPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banik Donald

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to construct and validate a brief, clinically-relevant symptom index for advanced prostate cancer. Methods Questions were extracted from a commonly-used multi-dimensional cancer quality of life instrument with prostate-specific items, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P. Surveys of disease-related symptoms were presented to an international sample of 44 expert physicians. Each expert narrowed the list to no more than five of the most important symptoms or concerns to monitor when assessing the value of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Symptoms/concerns endorsed at a frequency greater than chance probability (17% were retained for the symptom index and called the FACT Advanced Prostate Symptom Index-8 (FAPSI-8: pain (three items, fatigue, weight loss, urinary difficulties (two items, and concern about the condition becoming worse. The FAPSI-8 was validated using data from a clinical trial of 288 men being treated for hormone refractory prostate cancer. Results The FAPSI-8 showed good internal consistency (r = 0.67–0.80; association with existing FACT scales (e.g., FACT-P, Physical Well-being, Functional Well-being; r = 0.44–0.85, p Conclusions This project produced a reliable and valid list of the eight most important clinician-rated targets of drug therapy for advanced prostate cancer. These questions perform comparably to the longer derivative questionnaire. Examination of patient agreement with this priority list and the extent to which changes in these 8 targets are related to meaningful clinical benefit to the patient are important next steps for future research.

  3. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  4. Carbohydrate, dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Fang, Yu-Jing; Xu, Ming; Luo, Hong; Zhang, Nai-Qi; Huang, Wu-Qing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2018-04-01

    A carbohydrate-rich diet results in hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia; it may further induce the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. However, epidemiological evidence among Chinese population is quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate total carbohydrate, non-fibre carbohydrate, total fibre, starch, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in relation to colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2017, recruiting 1944 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 2027 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. There was no clear association between total carbohydrate intake and colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted OR was 0·85 (95 % CI 0·70, 1·03, P trend=0·08) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Total fibre was related to a 53 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 0·47; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·58). However, dietary GI was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 of 3·10 (95 % CI 2·51, 3·85). No significant association was found between the intakes of non-fibre carbohydrate, starch and dietary GL and colorectal cancer risk. This study indicated that dietary GI was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no evidence supported that total carbohydrate, non-fibre carbohydrate, starch or high dietary GL intake were related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.

  5. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Reiko [Division of Medical Nutrition, Department of Healthcare, Tokyo Health Care University, Tokyo (Japan); Saji, Shigehira [Department of Target Therapy Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Toi, Masakazu, E-mail: toi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-04

    A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m{sup 2}) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  6. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m 2 ) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  7. Body mass index, waist circumference, type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of liver cancer for U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter T.; Newton, Christina C.; Freedman, Neal D.; Koshiol, Jill; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Buring, Julie E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Datta, Mridul; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; King, Lindsey; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha; Palmer, Julie; Petrick, Jessica L.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Purdue, Mark; Robien, Kim; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wactowski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Renehan, Andrew G.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates for liver cancer have increased threefold since the mid-1970s in the United States in parallel with increasing trends for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted an analysis of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and T2DM with risk of liver cancer. The Liver Cancer Pooling Project maintains harmonized data from 1.57 million adults enrolled in 14 U.S.-based prospective studies. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, study center, alcohol, smoking, race, and BMI (for WC and T2DM). Stratified analyses assessed whether the BMI-liver cancer associations differed by hepatitis sera-positivity in nested analyses for a subset of cases (n=220) and controls (n=547). After enrollment, 2,162 incident liver cancer diagnoses were identified. BMI, per 5 kg/m2, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, more so for men (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.46) than women (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.35; p-interaction: 0.02). WC, per 5 cm, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, approximately equally by sex (overall, HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13). T2DM was associated with higher risk of liver cancer (HR: 2.61; 95% CI: 2.34 to 2.91). In stratified analyses, there was a null association between BMI and liver cancer risk for participants who were sera-positive for hepatitis. This study suggests that high BMI, high WC, and T2DM are associated with higher risks of liver cancer and that the association may differ by status of viral hepatitis infection. PMID:27742674

  8. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  9. Body mass index: different nutritional status according to WHO, OPAS and Lipschitz classifications in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barao, Katia; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2012-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the most common marker used on diagnoses of the nutritional status. The great advantage of this index is the easy way to measure, the low cost, the good correlation with the fat mass and the association to morbidity and mortality. To compare the BMI differences according to the WHO, OPAS and Lipschitz classification. A prospective study on 352 patients with esophageal, gastric or colorectal cancer was done. The BMI was calculated and analyzed by the classification of WHO, Lipschitz and OPAS. The mean age was 62.1 ± 12.4 years and 59% of them had more than 59 years. The BMI had not difference between the genders in patients cancer had more than 65 years. A different cut off must be used for this patients, because undernourished patients may be wrongly considered well nourished.

  10. The Effects of Compliance with Nutritional Counselling on Body Composition Parameters in Head and Neck Cancer Patients under Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hopanci Bicakli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiotherapy (RT has been associated with increased risk of malnutrition in cancer patients, particularly in those with head and neck cancer (HNC. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of compliance of patients with individual dietary counselling on body composition parameters in HNC patients under RT. Material and Methods. Sixty-nine consecutive patients (mean age: 61.0±13.8 were prospectively followed. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed to determine body composition parameters before, in the middle of, and at the end of RT. All patients received nutritional counselling and majority of them (94.6% received oral nutritional supplement (ONS during RT or chemoradiotherapy. If a patient consumed ≥75% of the recommended energy and protein intake via ONS and regular food, he/she was considered to be “compliant” (n=18, while those who failed to meet this criteria were considered to be “noncompliant” (n=30. Results. Body mass index, weight, fat percentage, fat mass, fat free mass, and muscle mass did not decrease significantly over time in compliant patients, but in noncompliant patients, all of these indices decreased significantly from baseline compared to the end of treatment (p<0.001. Hand grip strength did not differ significantly between the two groups at baseline and over time in each group. When retrospectively evaluated, heavy mucositis was less commonly observed in compliant than noncompliant patients (11.1% versus 88.9%, resp. (p<0.009. Conclusion. We conclude that body composition parameters were better in head and neck cancer patients considered as compliant with nutritional counselling than noncompliant ones during RT period.

  11. Adding glycaemic index and glycaemic load functionality to DietPLUS, a Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Wai, Tony Ng Kock; Arshad, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.

  12. diet, bowel motility, faeces composition and colonic cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-07-20

    Jul 20, 1970 ... The commonness of colonic cancer in privileged popula- tions compared with ... salient differences in environmental factors concern diet. physical activity .... how well known are the risk factors for coronary heart disease; yet ...

  13. Differences in time-domain and spectral indexes of skin-surface laser-Doppler signals between controls and breast-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu, Hsin; Chen, Chao-Tsung; Hung, Shuo-Hui; Chen, Guan-Zhang; Huang, Yu-Ling

    2018-04-13

    There is an urgent need to improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study applied spectral and beat-to-beat analyses to laser-Doppler (LDF) data sequences measured on the skin surface on the back of the right hands, with the aim of comparing the different peripheral microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) perfusion condition between breast-cancer and control subjects. ECG and LDF signals were obtained simultaneously and noninvasively from 23 breast-cancer patients and 23 age-matched control subjects. Time-domain beat-to-beat indexes and their variability parameters were calculated. Spectral indexes were calculated using the Morlet wavelet transform. The beat-to-beat LDF pulse width and its variability were significantly smaller in cancer patients than in the controls. The energy contributions of endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were also significantly smaller in cancer patients. The present study has revealed significant differences in the beat-to-beat and spectral indexes of skin-surface-acquired LDF signals between control subjects and breast-cancer patients. This illustrates that LDF indexes may be useful for monitoring the changes in the MBF perfusion condition induced by breast cancer. Since the breast-cancer patients were at TNM stages 0- 2, the present findings may aid the development of indexes for detecting breast cancer.

  14. The incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship to the 2012 Human Development Index of Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Tiyuri; Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani; Elham Iziy; Hamidreza Sadeghi Gandomani; Hamid Salehiniya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lip and oral cavity cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in Asia and considered to be a major public health problem due to the low survival rate. Because of the importance of access to information about this cancer (including incidence, mortality rate and relation to socioeconomic indicators), this study aims at investigating the incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) of Asia (from 2012). Meth...

  15. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  16. Histological evaluation of patients with gastritis at high risk of developing gastric cancer using a conventional index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Kamada, Tomoari; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Shiotani, Akiko; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Manabe, Noriaki; Ito, Masanori; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2011-06-15

    Although gastric cancer (GCa) is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, only some H. pylori-positive subjects develop gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to identify H. pylori-positive subjects at high risk of developing GCa by assessment of the histopathological findings in the non-cancer-containing mucosa of patients with and without GCa. The subjects were 35 patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer (D-GCa), 55 with intestinal-type gastric cancer (I-GCa), and 99 H. pylori-positive controls without GCa. Two specimens were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the middle body. Histopathological gradings were evaluated using the updated Sydney System, and the risk of GCa was evaluated using a modified Meining's gastric cancer risk index (GCRI). Among the H. pylori-positive controls, corpus gastritis was seen in 98.0% (97/99) and corpus atrophic gastritis in 78.8% (78/99). The mean GCRI for the D-GCa (5.514±2.03) and I-GCa (6.836±2.08) groups was significantly greater than that for the H. pylori-positive controls (4.071±2.07; p=0.0005, pcancer. However, H. pylori-positive patients at high risk of developing GCa (not only intestinal-type but also diffuse-type) may be detected using a simple GCRI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The association between dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabung, Fred K; Steck, Susan E; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D; Zhang, Jiajia; Caan, Bette; Hou, Lifang; Johnson, Karen C; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Shivappa, Nitin; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ockene, Judith K; Hebert, James R

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a process central to carcinogenesis and in particular to colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) from extensive literature review to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In the current study, we utilized this novel index in the Women's Health Initiative to prospectively evaluate its association with risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. The DII was calculated from baseline food frequency questionnaires administered to 152,536 women aged 50-79 years without CRC at baseline between 1993 and 1998 and followed through 30 September 2010. Incident CRC cases were ascertained through a central physician adjudication process. Multiple covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for colorectal, colon (proximal/distal locations), and rectal cancer risk, by DII quintiles (Q). During an average 11.3 years of follow-up, a total of 1,920 cases of CRC (1,559 colon and 361 rectal) were identified. Higher DII scores (representing a more pro-inflammatory diet) were associated with an increased incidence of CRC (HRQ5-Q1 1.22; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.43; p trend = 0.02) and colon cancer, specifically proximal colon cancer (HRQ5-Q1 1.35; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.67; p trend = 0.01) but not distal colon cancer (HRQ5-Q1 0.84; 95 % CI 0.61, 1.18; p trend = 0.63) or rectal cancer (HRQ5-Q1 1.20; 95 % CI 0.84, 1.72; p trend = 0.65). Consumption of pro-inflammatory diets is associated with an increased risk of CRC, especially cancers located in the proximal colon. The absence of a significant association for distal colon cancer and rectal cancer may be due to the small number of incident cases for these sites. Interventions that may reduce the inflammatory potential of the diet are warranted to test our findings, thus providing more information for colon cancer prevention.

  18. The Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship With the Human Development Index in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian, Maryam; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common cancer among men, and its incidence is increasing in Asia. Awareness about the status of this cancer incidence and mortality is necessary for a better plan. The present study was done with the aim to investigate the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. This study was an ecological study, which was conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization for Asian countries. We assessed the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of colorectal cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS software, version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A total of 592,563 incidences of and 325,752 deaths from colorectal cancer were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The 5 countries with the highest SIR were Republic of Korea (45 per 100,000), Israel (35.9 per 100,000), Singapore (33.7 per 100,000), Japan (32.2 per 100,000), and Jordan (25.6 per 100,000). The 5 countries with the highest SMR for colorectal cancer were Jordan (15.5 per 100,000), Kazakhstan (12.8 per 100,000), Democratic Republic of Korea (12 per 100,000), Brunei (12 per 100,000), and Japan (11.9 per 100,000). Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.709 overall (P ≤ .001)- 0.667 in men (P ≤ .001) and 0.759 in women (P ≤ .001). Also, correlation between HDI and SMR overall was 0.517 (P ≤ .001)- 0.447 in men (P = .002) and 0.593 in women (P ≤ .001). Cancer incidence and mortality are higher in countries with more development. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between standardized incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer and the Human Development Index and its components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... hepatitis, alcohol-related disorders, and biliary cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI in childhood increases the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. In view of the high case fatality of primary liver cancer, this result adds to the future negative health outcomes of the epidemic of childhood overweight...

  20. Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in the World in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence is generally increasing. In 2012, it was the second most common cancer in the world. It is necessary to obtain information on incidence and mortality for health planning. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the human development index (HDI), and the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the world in 2012. This ecologic study concerns incidence rate and standardized mortality rates of the cancer from GLOBOCAN in 2012, and HDI and its components extracted from the global bank site. Data were analyzed using correlation tests and regression with SPSS software (version 15). Among the six regions of WHO, the highest breast cancer incidence rate (67.6) was observed in the PAHO, and the lowest incidence rate was 27.8 for SEARO. There was a direct, strong, and meaningful correlation between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.725, p≤0.001). Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and components of the HDI (life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and GNP). On the other, a non-significant relationship was observed between ASIR and HDI overall (r=0.091, p=0.241). In total, a significant relationship was not found between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) and components of HDI. Significant positive correlations exist between ASIR and components of the HDI. Socioeconomic status is directly related to the stage of the cancer and patient's survival. With increasing the incidence rate of the cancer, mortality rate from the cancer does not necessariloy increase. This may be due to more early detection and treatment in developed that developing countries. It is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in the latter.

  1. Using the National Death Index to Identify Duplicate Cancer Incident Cases in Florida and New York, 1996–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Brad; Qiao, Baozhen; MacKinnon, Jill A.; Schymura, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cancer registries link incidence data to state death certificates to update vital status and identify missing cases; they also link these data to the National Death Index (NDI) to update vital status among patients who leave the state after their diagnosis. This study explored the use of information from NDI linkages to identify potential duplicate cancer cases registered in both Florida and New York. Methods The Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR) linked incidence data with state and NDI death records from 1996 through 2005. Information for patients whose death occurred in the reciprocal state (the death state) was exchanged. Potential duplicate cases were those that had the same diagnosis and the same or similar diagnosis date. Results NDI identified 4,657 FCDS cancer patients who died in New York and 2,740 NYSCR cancer patients who died in Florida. Matching identified 5,030 cases registered in both states; 508 were death certificate-only (DCO) cases in the death state’s registry, and 3,760 (74.8%) were potential duplicates. Among FCDS and NYSCR patients who died and were registered in the registry of the reciprocal state, more than 50% were registered with the same cancer diagnosis, and approximately 80% had similar diagnosis dates (within 1 year). Conclusion NDI identified DCO cases in the death state’s cancer registry and a large proportion of potential duplicate cases. Standards are needed for assigning primary residence when multiple registries report the same case. The registry initiating the NDI linkage should consider sharing relevant information with death state registries so that these registries can remove erroneous DCO cases from their databases. PMID:25254985

  2. A critical evaluation of body composition modalities used to assess adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Katie M; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience some form of body composition change during the disease trajectory. For example, breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy gain fat and lose skeletal muscle, which are associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence and clinical comorbidities. In contrast, advanced cancer patients, such as lung and colorectal cancer patients, experience symptoms of cancer cachexia (accelerated loss of skeletal muscle with or without adipose tissue loss), which are associated with decreased treatment response and poorer survival rates in advanced cancers. The heterogeneity of body composition features and their diverse implications across different cancer populations supports the need for accurate quantification of muscle and adipose tissue. Use of appropriate body composition modalities will facilitate an understanding of the complex relationship between body composition characteristics and clinical outcomes. This will ultimately support the development and evaluation of future therapeutic interventions that aim to counter muscle loss and fat gain in cancer populations. Despite the various metabolic complications that may confound the accurate body composition measurement in cancer patients (i.e., dehydration may confound lean tissue measurement), there are no guidelines for selecting the most appropriate modalities to make these measurements. In this review we outline specific considerations for choosing the most optimal approaches of lean and adipose tissue measurements among different cancer populations. Anthropometric measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be discussed.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of prostate health index to identify aggressive prostate cancer. An Institutional validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Celma, A; Planas, J; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I; Pacciuci, R; Olivan, M

    2016-01-01

    New generations of tumor markers used to detect prostate cancer (PCa) should be able to discriminate men with aggressive PCa of those without PCa or nonaggressive tumors. The objective of this study has been to validate Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a marker of aggressive PCa in one academic institution. PHI was assessed in 357 men scheduled to prostatic biopsy between June of 2013 and July 2014 in one academic institution. Thereafter a subset of 183 men younger than 75 years and total PSA (tPSA) between 3.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, scheduled to it first prostatic biopsy, was retrospectively selected for this study. Twelve cores TRUS guided biopsy, under local anaesthesia, was performed in all cases. Total PSA, free PSA (fPSA), and [-2] proPSA (p2PSA) and prostate volume were determined before the procedure and %fPSA, PSA density (PSAd) and PHI were calculated. Aggressive tumors were considered if any Gleason 4 pattern was found. PHI was compared to %fPSA and PSAd through their ROC curves. Thresholds to detect 90%, 95% of all tumors and 95% and 100% of aggressive tumors were estimated and rates of unnecessary avoided biopsies were calculated and compared. The rate of PCa detection was 37.2% (68) and the rate of aggressive tumors was 24.6% (45). The PHI area under the curve was higher than those of %fPSA and PSAd to detect any PCa (0.749 vs 0.606 and 0.668 respectively) or to detect only aggressive tumors (0.786 vs 0.677 and 0.708 respectively), however, significant differences were not found. The avoided biopsy rates to detect 95% of aggressive tumors were 20.2% for PHI, 14.8% for %fPSA, and 23.5% for PSAd. Even more, to detect all aggressive tumors these rates dropped to 4.9% for PHI, 9.3% for %fPSA, and 7.9% for PSAd. PHI seems a good marker to PCa diagnosis. However, PHI was not superior to %fPSA and PSAd to identify at least 95% of aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  5. Diet, bowel motility, faeces composition and colonic cancer | Walker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonness of colonic cancer in privileged populations compared with its rarity in those pursuing a primitive manner of life suggests that environmental factors are primarily responsible. In this study, differences in diet and their ramificarions are discussed in relation to populations prone and less prone to the disease.

  6. Determinants & Sequelae of Altered Body Composition in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, approximately 600 children are diagnosed with cancer every year. Due to improvement of treatment, combining surgery, multi-agent chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, in addition to remarkable advances in supportive care, survival has increased substantially over the

  7. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  8. Oropharyngeal cancer mortality according to the human development index in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, 2002-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Livacic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine mortality rates for oropharyngeal cancer according to the Human Development Index (HDI per district in the Metropolitan Region (RM, Santiago, Chile, between 2002 and 2014. Materials and Methods: An ecological study was carried out. The sample corresponded to individuals over 45 years, from the Metropolitan Region, with oropharyngeal cancer as cause of death, as registered in the Chilean National Institute of Statistics (INE. The HDI was classified into three categories: “medium” (8 districts, “high” (18 districts and “very high” (25 districts. The crude and adjusted mortality rates were calculated for each year and period. Results: The oropharyngeal cancer adjusted mortality rate for the chosen period was 3.98 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The specific mortality rate from oropharyngeal cancer in the “medium” HDI category was 4.01; in the “high” DHI category, 4.42; and in the “very high” HDI category, 3.79. Conclusion: Mortality from oropharyngeal cancer was higher in the “medium” HDI category between 2002 and 2014.

  9. Does advanced lung inflammation index (ALI) have prognostic significance in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Berna Akinci; Ozdemirel, Tugce Sahin; Ozden, Sertac Buyukyaylaci; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Ozmen, Ozlem; Kaplan, Bekir; Kaplan, Tugba

    2018-01-22

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and death-related cancer type and is more frequent in males. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all case. In this study, it was aimed to research the relationship between advanced lung inflammation index (ALI) and the primary mass maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at initial diagnosis and the prognostic value of ALI in determining the survival in metastatic NSCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed as stage 4 non-small-lung cancer in our hospital between January 2006 and December 2013 were included in this study. ALI was calculated as body mass index (BMI) × serum albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The patients were divided into two groups as ALI ALI ≥ 18 (low inflammation). The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were used to identify predictors of mortality. Evaluation was made of 94 male and 18 female patients with a mean age of 59.7 ± 9.9 years. A statistically significant negative relationship was determined between ALI and CRP values (P ALI and SUVmax values (P = .436). The median survival time in patients with ALI ALI ≥ 18, it was 16 months (P = .095). ALI is an easily calculated indicator of inflammation in lung cancer patients. Values <18 can be considered to predict a poor prognosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Implications of the Index Cholecystectomy and Timing of Referral for Radical Resection of Advanced Incidental Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausania, F; White, SA; French, JJ; Jaques, BC; Charnley, RM; Manas, DM

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advanced (pT2/T3) incidental gallbladder cancer is often deemed unresectable after restaging. This study assesses the impact of the primary operation, tumour characteristics and timing of management on re-resection. Methods The records of 60 consecutive referrals for incidental gallbladder cancer in a single tertiary centre from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Decision on re-resection of incidental gallbladder cancer was based on delayed interval restaging at three months following cholecystectomy. Demographics, index cholecystectomy data, primary pathology, CA19–9 tumour marker levels at referral and time from cholecystectomy to referral as well as from referral to restaging were analysed. Results Thirty-seven patients with pT2 and twelve patients with pT3 incidental gallbladder cancer were candidates for radical re-resection. Following interval restaging, 24 patients (49%) underwent radical resection and 25 (51%) were deemed inoperable. The inoperable group had significantly more patients with positive resection margins at cholecystectomy (p=0.002), significantly higher median CA19–9 levels at referral (p=0.018) and were referred significantly earlier (p=0.004) than the patients who had resectable tumours. On multivariate analysis, urgent referral (p=0.036) and incomplete cholecystectomy (p=0.048) were associated significantly with inoperable disease following restaging. Conclusions In patients with incidental, potentially resectable, pT2/T3 gallbladder cancer, inappropriate index cholecystectomy may have a significant impact on tumour dissemination. Early referral of breached tumours is not associated with resectability. PMID:25723690

  11. Validity of Three Recently Proposed Prognostic Grading Indexes for Breast Cancer Patients With Radiosurgically Treated Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: BCD06275@nifty.com [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center E, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabe, Takuya [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshinori [Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Sato, Yasunori [Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Barfod, Bierta E. [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Kasuya, Hidetoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center E, Tokyo (Japan); Urakawa, Yoichi [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: We tested the validity of 3 recently proposed prognostic indexes for breast cancer patients with brain metastases (METs) treated radiosurgically. The 3 indexes are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA), New Breast Cancer (NBC)-Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), and our index, sub-classification of RPA class II patients into 3 sub-classes (RPA class II-a, II-b and II-c) based on Karnofsky performance status, tumor number, original tumor status, and non-brain METs. Methods and Materials: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using our database of 269 consecutive female breast cancer patients (mean age, 55 years; range, 26-86 years) who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) alone, without whole-brain radiation therapy, for brain METs during the 15-year period between 1996 and 2011. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the absolute risk of each event. Results: Kaplan-Meier plots of our patient series showed statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into 3, 4, or 5 groups based on the 3 systems (P<.001). However, the mean survival time (MST) differences between some pairs of groups failed to reach statistical significance with all 3 systems. Thus, we attempted to regrade our 269 breast cancer patients into 3 groups by modifying our aforementioned index along with the original RPA class I and III, (ie, RPA I+II-a, II-b, and II-c+III). There were statistically significant MST differences among these 3 groups without overlap of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between any 2 pairs of groups: 18.4 (95% CI = 14.0-29.5) months in I+II-a, 9.2 in II-b (95% CI = 6.8-12.9, P<.001 vs I+II-a) and 5.0 in II-c+III (95% CI = 4.2-6.8, P<.001 vs II-b). Conclusions: As none of the new grading systems, DS-GPS, BC-RPA and our system, was applicable to our set of radiosurgically treated patients for comparing survivals after GKRS, we slightly modified our system for breast cancer

  12. Educational differences in postmenopausal breast cancer--quantifying indirect effects through health behaviors, body mass index and reproductive patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt

    Full Text Available Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth, body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use. The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125 extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69% could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%, parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%, and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%. Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level.

  13. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer – Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Diderichsen, Finn; Keiding, Niels; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50–70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22–125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%–69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%–257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%–45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%–18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level. PMID:24205296

  14. Associations of the Transforming Growth Factor β/Smad Pathway, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity With Breast Cancer Outcomes: Results From the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yinghao; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Ying; Qiu, Qingchao; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou; Cai, Qiuyin

    2016-10-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway plays an important role in breast cancer progression and in metabolic regulation and energy homeostasis. The prognostic significance of TGF-β interaction with obesity and physical activity in breast cancer patients remains unclear. We evaluated the expression of TGF-β type II receptor and pSmad2 immunohistochemically in breast cancer tissue from 1,045 patients in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (2002-2005). We found that the presence of nuclear pSmad2 in breast cancer cells was inversely associated with overall and disease-free survival, predominantly among participants with lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m) 2 ) and a moderate level of physical activity. However, the test for multiplicative interaction produced a significant result only for BMI (for disease-free survival and overall survival, adjusted hazard ratios were 1.79 and 2.05, respectively). In 535 earlier-stage (T1-2, N0) invasive cancers, nuclear pSmad2 was associated with improved survival among persons with higher BMI (overall survival: adjusted hazard ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.86). The cytoplasmic pattern of TGF-β type II receptor expression in cancer cells was significantly associated with a lower survival rate but was not modified by BMI or physical activity. Our study suggests that the TGF-β pathway in tumor cells is involved in breast cancer prognosis and may be modified by BMI through pSmad2. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  16. Preparation and characterization of composite microspheres for brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Di; Huang Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Wang Deping; Gu Yifei

    2012-01-01

    Composite microspheres were prepared by coating yttrium–aluminum–silicate (YAS) glass microspheres (20–30 μm) with a layer of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and evaluated for potential use in brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. After neutron activation to form the β-emitting 90 Y radionuclide, the composite microspheres can be injected into a patient to destroy cancerous tumors; at the same time, the composite microspheres can generate heat upon application of a magnetic field to also destroy the tumors. The results showed that the composite microspheres were chemically durable when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), with ∼ 0.25% weight loss and ∼ 3.2% yttrium dissolved into the SBF after 30 days at 37 °C. The composite microspheres also showed ferromagnetic properties as a result of the Fe 3 O 4 coating; when immersed in water at 20 °C (20 mg in 1 mL of water), the application of an alternating magnetic field produced a temperature increase from 20 °C to 38−46 °C depending on the thickness of the Fe 3 O 4 coating. The results indicate that these composite microspheres have promising potential in combined brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancerous tumors. - Highlights: ► Composite microspheres for brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. ► Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles coated on the yttrium–aluminum–silicate glass microspheres. ► Microspheres are chemically stable in SBF. ► Microspheres can generate heat for hyperthermia under an alternating magnetic field. ► Microspheres can emit β-rays for brachytherapy after neutron activation.

  17. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria.

  18. Changes in body composition after childhood cancer treatment : Impact on future health status - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; Kamps, W. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.

    Purpose: To describe data on changes in body composition in childhood cancer survivors. Underlying mechanisms in development of obesity are addressed, in order to discuss intervention strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken with a number of search terms. Results: Female

  19. The role of body mass index, physical activity, and diet in colorectal cancer recurrence and survival: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Kampman, E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of dietary and other lifestyle factors in colorectal cancer recurrence and survival is largely unknown. We conducted a review to summarize the evidence from epidemiologic studies that examined the association of body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and nutrition with colorectal cancer

  20. [Scientific production and cancer-related collaboration networks in Peru 2000-2011: a bibliometric study in Scopus and Science Citation Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Huamaní, Charles; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Samanez-Figari, César; González-Alcaide, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to describe the scientific production on cancer written by Peruvians and published in international health journals, as well as to assess the scientific collaboration networks. It included articles on cancer written in Peru between the years 2000 and 2011 and published in health journals indexed in SCOPUS or Science Citation Index Expanded. In the 358 articles identified, an increase in the production was seen, from 4 articles in 2000 to 57 in 2011.The most studied types were cervical cancer (77 publications); breast cancer (53), and gastric cancer (37). The National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) was the most productive institution (121 articles) and had the highest number of collaborations (180 different institutions). 52 clinical trials were identified, 29 of which had at least one author from INEN. We can conclude that, cancer research is increasing in Peru, the INEN being the most productive institution, with an important participation in clinical trials.

  1. Measuring body composition using the bioelectrical impedance method can predict the outcomes of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Mami; Tsuchiya, Aya; Ohta, Seiko; Iijima, Yukie; Maruyama, Miyuki; Onodera, Yoshiko; Hagihara, Megumi; Nakaya, Naoki; Sato, Itaru; Omura, Kenji; Ueno, Soichiro; Nakajima, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    In order to examine the effect on body composition of anticancer drug treatments, the body composition rate in patients being treated with gemcitabine (GEM)-based chemotherapy was measured over time on an outpatient basis with a simple body composition monitor using the bioelectrical impedance (BI) method. The results revealed a significant reduction in the body fat rate (P=0.01) over the course of treatment in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer who became unable to continue GEM-based chemotherapy due to progressive disease or a decreased performance status. Meanwhile, no changes were observed in the body composition of control patients with urothelial carcinoma receiving GEM-based chemotherapy. In association with the adverse reactions to GEM and the hematotoxicity profile, a decreased white blood cell count was more likely to occur in body fat-dominant patients (mean fat rate, 25.8%; mean muscle rate, 26.2%), whereas a decreased blood platelet count was more likely to occur in skeletal muscle-dominant patients (mean fat rate, 23.3%; mean muscle rates, 28.7%). The correlation between body composition parameters and the relative dose intensity (RDI) associated with GEM administration was also analyzed. The results revealed a positive correlation between the RDI and basal metabolism amount (P=0.03); however, the RDI did not correlate with the body fat rate, skeletal muscle rate or body mass index (P=0.61, P=0.14 and P=0.20, respectively). In conclusion, the body composition rate measurement using the BI method over time may be useful for predicting the outcome of GEM-based chemotherapy and adverse events in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer. In particular, the present findings indicate that the changes in body fat rate may be helpful as an adjunct index for assessing potential continuation of chemotherapy and changes in physical conditions.

  2. Comparison of dose evaluation index by pencil beam convolution and anisotropic analytical algorithm in stereotactic radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Masayuki; Noguchi, Yoshitaka; Fukunaga, Jyunichi; Hirano, Naomi; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Hirose, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    We previously studied dose distributions of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for lung cancer. Our aim is to compare in combination pencil beam convolution with the inhomogeneity correction algorithm of Batho power low [PBC (BPL)] to the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) by using the dose evaluation indexes. There were significant differences in D95, planning target volume (PTV) mean dose, homogeneity index, and conformity index, V10, and V5. The dose distributions inside the PTV calculated by PBC (BPL) were more uniform than those of AAA. There were no significant differences in V20 and mean dose of total lung. There was no large difference for the whole lung. However, the surrounding high-dose region of PTV became smaller in AAA. The difference in dose evaluation indexes extended between PBC (BPL) and AAA that as many as low CT value of lung. When the dose calculation algorithm is changed, it is necessary to consider difference dose distributions compared with those of established practice. (author)

  3. Analysis of energy utilization and body composition in kidney, bladder, and adrenal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen P; Cao, Dong X; Lin, Zong M; Wu, Guo H; Chen, Lian; Zhang, Jian P; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Zi A; Jiang, Yi; Han, Yu S; Xu, Le; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen F

    2012-09-01

    To investigate resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition and the relationship between substrate utilization and energy expenditure in urologic cancer patients. Measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) was detected by indirect calorimetry in 122 urologic cancer patients and 131 control subjects. Extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF), and total water (TW) were measured by bioelectrical impedance appliance. Fat oxidation rate (F-O), carbohydrate oxidation rate, fat mass (FM), and fat free mass (FFM) were further determined. Compared with the controls, cancer patients showed significantly elevated mREE and mREE/FFM (P = 0.049; P cancer patients, 50% (n = 61) were hypermetabolic, 43.4% (n = 53) normometabolic, and 6.6% (n = 8) hypometabolic, whereas 35.1% (n = 46) of the controls were hypermetabolic, 56.5% (n = 74) normometabolic, and 8.4% (n = 11) hypometabolic. REE was correlated to substrate oxidation rate (R(2) = 0.710). Cancer patients exhibited no significant difference in FM, FM/body weight (BW) and FFM, compared with controls. Cancer patients presented no significant difference in TW compared with controls (P = 0.791), but they had increased ECF (P cancer patients. Cancer type and pathologic stage are influential factors of REE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric properties of the stress index radiooncology (SIRO) - a new questionnaire measuring quality of life of cancer patients during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlen, S.; Fahmueller, H.; Lenk, M.; Duehmke, E.; Herschbach, P.; Aydemir, U.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the course of radiotherapy oncological patients often experience considerable psychosocial distress. For its measurement however, no specific questionnaire is available. The stress index radiooncology (SIRO), which is based upon the results of extensive preliminary studies, will be made available as a screening-instrument to facilitate measurement of psychosocial distress of cancer patients, including radiotherapy-induced distress. The aim of this study is, to psychometrically evaluate the preliminary version of the questionnaire, to transfer it to the final version (SIRO) and to gain information about the psychosocial distress of radiooncological patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: 104 cancer patients (18 to 85 years) with different diagnoses have been included in the study (Table 1). The data have been assessed by means of the preliminary version of the new questionnaire SIRO, the HADS, EORTC QLQ-C30 and LS. With 25 patients semistructured clinical interviews have been conducted. (orig.) [de

  5. PSA and Prostate Health Index based prostate cancer screening in a hereditary migration complicated population: implications in precision diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizhanova, Mariyam; Iskakova, Elzira E; Kim, Valdemir; Wang, Xiao; Kogay, Roman; Turebayeva, Aiym; Sun, Qinglei; Zheng, Ting; Wu, Shenghui; Miao, Lixia; Xie, Yingqiu

    2017-01-01

    Precision diagnosis requires specific markers for differential ethnic populations. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level (threshold of 4ng/ml) has been widely used to screen prostate cancer and as reference of pro-biopsy but false diagnosis frequently occurs. Prostate health Index (PHI) is a new diagnosis marker which combines PSA, free PSA and p2PSA4. Overall the PCa screening database is lacking in Kazakhstani patients. We analyzed the PSA levels and Gleason scores of 222 biopsies collected in 2015 in Almaty area, Kazakhstan approved by institutional ethics board. We found using PSA of 4ng/ml as threshold, only 25.68% of patients have cancer with Gleason score ranged 6-8 and 65.77% of patients have no character of cancer. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between PSA and cancerous (P=0.266) or Gleason grade (P=0.3046) based on pathological biopsy. In addition, PHI is not correlated to prostate cancer (P=0.4301). Our data suggest that false-positive rate is much higher than the correct-positive diagnosis when using PSA as the first screening. Thus in this cohort study, most patients can not get benefit from the PSA screening for precision PCa diagnosis. As Kazakhstani family trees are unique and complicated because of history and migration, the high rate of over diagnosis might be due to the hyperexpression of PSA via heterosis in Eurasian men. Therefore we should be cautious when using pro-biopsy in precision diagnosis for Eurasian prostate cancer patients.

  6. Outcomes according to body mass index following laparoscopic surgery in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Deok Kwak

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The obese group had the fewest harvested lymph nodes, whereas the underweight group had the highest estimated blood loss, conversion rate to open approaches and the poorest overall and cancer-specific survivals.

  7. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI ( 2 vs. ≥25 kg/m 2 ). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  8. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary.To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity.We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates.Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile.A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  9. Composition of The Knee Index, a novel three-dimensional biomechanical index for knee joint load, in subjects with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Brian; Andriacchi, Tom; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg

    Background Knee joint load is an important factor associated with progression of knee osteoarthritis. To provide an overall understanding of knee joint loading, the Knee Index (KI) has been developed to include moments from all three planes (frontal, sagittal and transversal). However, before KI...... index of joint load for the knee, in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods The contribution of frontal, sagittal and transversal plane knee moments to KI was investigated in 24 subjects (13 women, age: 58 ± 7.6 years, BMI: 27.1 ± 3.0) with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate knee...... kinematics (i.e. the knee adduction moment), and secondarily the sagittal plane kinematics (i.e. the knee flexion moment). This holds promise for using KI in clinical trials since both frontal and sagittal knee joint moments have been suggested to be associated with the knee osteoarthritis disease...

  10. Polymeric composite devices for localized treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Kan-Dapaah

    Full Text Available For early-stage breast cancers mastectomy is an aggressive form of treatment. Therefore, there is a need for new treatment strategies that can enhance the use of lumpectomy by eliminating residual cancer cells with limited side effects to reduce local recurrence. Although, various radiotherapy-based methods have been developed, residual cells are found in 20-55% of the time at the first operation. Furthermore, some current treatment methods result in poor cosmesis. For the last decade, the authors have been exploring the use of polymeric composite materials in single and multi-modal implantable biomedical devices for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, the concept and working principles of the devices, as well as selected results from experimental and numerical investigations, are presented. The results show the potential of the biomedical implants for cancer treatment.

  11. Composition-tuned band gap energy and refractive index in GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} layered mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isik, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmet.isik@atilim.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atilim University, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Gasanly, Nizami [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Virtual International Scientific Research Centre, Baku State University, 1148, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-04-01

    Transmission and reflection measurements on GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} mixed crystals (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were carried out in the 400–1000 nm spectral range. Band gap energies of the studied crystals were obtained using the derivative spectra of transmittance and reflectance. The compositional dependence of band gap energy revealed that as sulfur (selenium) composition is increased (decreased) in the mixed crystals, band gap energy increases quadratically from 1.99 eV (GaSe) to 2.55 eV (GaS). Spectral dependencies of refractive indices of the mixed crystals were plotted using the reflectance spectra. It was observed that refractive index decreases nearly in a linear behavior with increasing band gap energy for GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} mixed crystals. Moreover, the composition ratio of the mixed crystals was obtained from the energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements. The atomic compositions of the studied crystals are well-matched with composition x increasing from 0 to 1 by intervals of 0.25. - Highlights: • Transmission and reflection experiments were performed on GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} mixed crystals. • Derivative spectra of transmittance and reflectance were used for analyses. • Compositional dependence of band gap energy and refractive index were reported.

  12. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  13. A Comparison of the Hot Spot and the Average Cancer Cell Counting Methods and the Optimal Cutoff Point of the Ki-67 Index for Luminal Type Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Fujisue, Mamiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the most suitable cell counting area and the optimal cutoff point of the Ki-67 index. Thirty recurrent cases were selected among hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer patients. As controls, 90 nonrecurrent cases were randomly selected by allotting 3 controls to each recurrent case based on the following criteria: age, nodal status, tumor size, and adjuvant endocrine therapy alone. Both the hot spot and the average area of the tumor were evaluated on a Ki-67 immunostaining slide. The median Ki-67 index value at the hot spot and average area were 25.0 and 14.5%, respectively. Irrespective of the area counted, the Ki-67 index value was significantly higher in all of the recurrent cases (p hot spot was the most suitable cutoff point for predicting recurrence. Moreover, higher x0394;Ki-67 index value (the difference between the hot spot and the average area, ≥10%) and lower progesterone receptor expression (hot spot strongly correlated with recurrence, and the optimal cutoff point was found to be 20%. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Impact of body composition parameters on clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer treated with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushen, Samantha J; Power, Derek G; Murphy, Kevin P; McDermott, Ray; Griffin, Brendan T; Lim, Marvin; Daly, Louise; MacEneaney, Peter; O' Sullivan, Kathleen; Prado, Carla M; Ryan, Aoife M

    2016-06-01

    Body composition may influence clinical outcomes of certain chemotherapeutic agents. We examined the prognostic significance of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue on docetaxel toxicity and overall survival in patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). A retrospective review of patients medical records with mCRPC, treated with docetaxel was conducted. Body composition parameters (skeletal muscle mass, muscle attenuation [MA], visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue) were measured at L3 by computed tomography (CT) and defined using previously established cut points. Toxicity profile was assessed after 3 cycles of the drug and graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 4). Overall survival was analysed. Overall 63 patients, mean age 69 years (SD 8.3), were included. Sarcopenia was present in 47% (n = 30) and of these 26.7% (8/30) were sarcopenic obese. Common toxicities (all grades) observed included fatigue (80.9%), pain (46%), and constipation (34.9%). DLT occurred in 22 (34.9%) patients; of these 10 patients (15.8%) experienced dose reductions and 12 patients (19%) experienced dose terminations. Measurements of adiposity were not predictive of DLT, however 59.1% patients who had a combination of both sarcopenia and low MA experienced DLT compared to 29.3% of patients without sarcopenia and low MA (p = 0.021). Skeletal muscle index and MA were significantly lower in patients who experienced neutropenia (grade I-II) (46.5 cm 2 /m 2 vs. 51.2 cm 2 /m 2 , p = 0.005) compared to their counterparts (24.6 HU vs. 32.2 HU, p = 0.044). Neither sarcopenia nor sarcopenic obesity was associated with overall survival. In multivariate analysis, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 (HR: 0.349, CI: 0.156-0.782, p = 0.010) was a significant predictor of longer overall survival and both visceral fat index ≥ median 58.7 cm 2 /m 2 (HR: 2.266 CI: 1.066-4.814, p = 0.033) and anaemia (HR: 2.81, CI: 1.297-6.091, p

  15. The association between body composition and toxicities from the combination of Doxil and trabectedin in patients with advanced relapsed ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Baracos, Vickie E; Xiao, Jingjie; Birdsell, Laura; Stuyckens, Kim; Park, Youn Choi; Parekh, Trilok; Sawyer, Michael B

    2014-06-01

    Emerging research suggests that body composition can predict toxicity of certain chemotherapeutic agents. We used data from a clinical study to investigate associations between body composition and combined DOXIL (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin; PLD) and trabectedin (Yondelis) treatment, an effective treatment for ovarian cancer that shows high interpatient variation in toxicity profile. Patients (n = 74) participating in a phase III randomized trial of relapsed advanced ovarian cancer receiving PLD (30 mg/m(2)) and trabectedin (1.1 mg/m(2)) were included. Muscle tissue was measured by analysis of computerized tomography images, and an extrapolation of muscle and adipose tissue to lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) were employed. Toxicity profile after cycle 1 was used and graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 3). Patients presented with a wide range of body composition. In overweight and obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2), n = 48) toxicity was more prevalent in those with lower BMI (p = 0.028) and a lower FM (n = 43, p = 0.034). Although LBM alone was not predictive of toxicity, a lower FM/LBM ratio was the most powerful variable associated with toxicity (p = 0.006). A different pattern emerged among normal weight patients (n = 26) where toxicity was rare among patients with smaller BMI (body weight, with a lower ratio predicting higher exposure and risk for toxicity.

  16. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Bladder Cancer and their Relationship with the Development Index in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Reza; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is an international public health problem. It is the ninth most common cancer and the fourteenth leading cause of death due to cancer worldwide. Given aging populations, the incidence of this cancer is rising. Information on the incidence and mortality of the disease, and their relationship with level of economic development is essential for better planning. The aim of the study was to investigate bladder cancer incidence and mortality rates, and their relationship with the the Human Development Index (HDI) in the world. Data were obtained from incidence and mortality rates presented by GLOBOCAN in 2012. Data on HDI and its components were extracted from the global bank site. The number and standardized incidence and mortality rates were reported by regions and the distribution of the disease were drawn in the world. For data analysis, the relationship between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components was measured using correlation coefficients and SPSS software. The level of significance was set at 0.05. In 2012, 429,793 bladder cancer cases and 165,084 bladder death cases occurred in the world. Five countries that had the highest age-standardized incidence were Belgium 17.5 per 100,000, Lebanon 16.6/100,000, Malta 15.8/100,000, Turkey 15.2/100,000, and Denmark 14.4/100,000. Five countries that had the highest age-standardized death rates were Turkey 6.6 per 100,000, Egypt 6.5/100,000, Iraq 6.3/100,000, Lebanon 6.3/100,000, and Mali 5.2/100,000. There was a positive linear relationship between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.653, Pincidence rate with life expectancy at birth, average years of schooling, and the level of income per person of population. A positive linear relationship was also noted between the standardized mortality rate and HDI (r=0.308, Pincidence of bladder cancer in developed countries and parts of Africa was higher, while the highest mortality rate was observed in the countries of North Africa and the

  17. Modified GAP index for prediction of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Haruki; Omori, Shota; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Predicting the incidence rate of acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and its prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and IPF is difficult. The aim was to study the incidence of IPF-AE during the clinical course of the disease and its prognosis in patients with both NSCLC and IPF. In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence rate of AE during the clinical course of the disease as well as the 1-year survival rate and overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC and IPF using a modified gender, age and physiology (mGAP) staging system based on gender, age and percent predicted forced vital capacity. Of 43 patients with NSCLC and IPF included in the final analysis, 17 patients (40%; 95% CI: 26-54%) experienced AE during the clinical course of the disease. One-year survival and median OS were 41.9% (95% CI: 28-57%) and 9.4 months, respectively. Further analysis showed that the incidence of IPF-AE gradually increased and that the 1-year survival rate and median OS gradually decreased with increasing mGAP index score and stage. Our study suggested that mGAP index score and cancer stage may predict IPF-AE and its prognosis in patients with NSCLC and IPF. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Correlation between Expression of MVP, Index of p53 and AgNOR Value with Chemoradiotherapy Clinical Response of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kurnia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer found in Indonesia. The primary treatment of cervical cancer at the locally advanced stage is usually performed by using radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The combination of the two techniques is often called chemoradioherapy. The response to chemoradiotherapy is influenced by biological and physical factors. Major vault protein (MVP is a ribonucleoprotein which contributes to drug resistance in some cancers. The purposes of this research were: (1 to determine the correlation between the expression of MVP and the index of p53, including AgNOR values and index of MIB-1; and (2 between MVP and chemoradiotherapy clinical response of cervical cancer. Twenty-one microscopic slides taken from biopsy tissues of cervical cancer patients before undergoing treatment were stained to identify MVP, p53, and MIB-1 by means of immunohistochemistry techniques and AgNORs staining. After undergoing chemoradiotherapy treatment, the patients’ clinical responses were observed by pelvic control method. Experimental results showed that there was a correlation between MVP and AgNOR value (P=0.05, but no correlation between MVP and index of p53 (P=0.729, including MIB-1 LI (P=0.63, in untreated cervical cancer. In addition, there was no association between MVP and chemoradioterapy response. In conclusion, MVP expression correlates with the process of cell proliferation before the G2 phase of cell cycle in untreated cancer cells. Those have no association with clinical responses after the completion of treatment.

  19. Correlation between expression of MVP, index of p53 and AgNOR value with chemoradiotherapy clinical response of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, I.; Tetriana, D.; Siregar, B.; Ramli, I.; Andrijono, A.; Soetopo, S.; Kurjana, T.; Hernowo, B.S.; Tobing, M.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer found in Indonesia. The primary treatment of cervical cancer at the locally advanced stage is usually performed by using radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The combination of the two techniques is often called chemoradiotherapy. The response to chemoradiotherapy is influenced by biological and physical factors. Major vault protein (MVP) is a ribonucleoprotein which contributes to drug resistance in some cancers. The purposes of this research were: (1) to determine the correlation between the expression of MVP and the index of p53, including AgNOR values and index of MIB-1; and (2) between MVP and chemoradiotherapy clinical response of cervical cancer. Twenty-one microscopic slides taken from biopsy tissues of cervical cancer patients before undergoing treatment were stained to identify MVP, p53, and MIB-1 by means of immunohistochemistry techniques and AgNORs staining. After undergoing chemoradiotherapy treatment, the patients’ clinical responses were observed by pelvic control method. Experimental results showed that there was a correlation between MVP and AgNOR value (P=0.05), but no correlation between MVP and index of p53 (P=0.729), including MIB-1 LI (P=0.63), in untreated cervical cancer. In addition, there was no association between MVP and chemoradiotherapy response. In conclusion, MVP expression correlates with the process of cell proliferation before the G2 phase of cell cycle in untreated cancer cells. Those have no association with clinical responses after the completion of treatment. (author)

  20. Comparing a medical records-based and a claims-based index for measuring comorbidity in patients with lung or colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Kenneth L; Lamont, Elizabeth B; McNeil, Barbara J; Bozeman, Samuel R; Kelley, Michael J; Keating, Nancy L

    2015-05-01

    Ascertaining comorbid conditions in cancer patients is important for research and clinical quality measurement, and is particularly important for understanding care and outcomes for older patients and those with multi-morbidity. We compared the medical records-based ACE-27 index and the claims-based Charlson index in predicting receipt of therapy and survival for lung and colon cancer patients. We calculated the Charlson index using administrative data and the ACE-27 score using medical records for Veterans Affairs patients diagnosed with stage I/II non-small cell lung or stage III colon cancer from January 2003 to December 2004. We compared the proportion of patients identified by each index as having any comorbidity. We used multivariable logistic regression to ascertain the predictive power of each index regarding delivery of guideline-recommended therapies and two-year survival, comparing the c-statistic and the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Overall, 97.2% of lung and 90.9% of colon cancer patients had any comorbidity according to the ACE-27 index, versus 59.5% and 49.7%, respectively, according to the Charlson. Multivariable models including the ACE-27 index outperformed Charlson-based models when assessing receipt of guideline-recommended therapies, with higher c-statistics and lower AICs. Neither index was clearly superior in prediction of two-year survival. The ACE-27 index measured using medical records captured more comorbidity and outperformed the Charlson index measured using administrative data for predicting receipt of guideline-recommended therapies, demonstrating the potential value of more detailed comorbidity data. However, the two indices had relatively similar performance when predicting survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Bruzzese, Dario; Ferro, Matteo; Autorino, Riccardo; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Oliva, Andrea; De Sio, Marco; Damiano, Rocco; Altieri, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-02-15

    Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) have been recently proposed as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. One hundred sixty male subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay), and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA) were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core first prostate biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman coulter phi and PCA3 score and other used biomarkers were determined. One hundred sixty patients met inclusion criteria. %p2PSA (p2PSA/fPSA × 100), phi and PCA3 were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared to PCa-negative group (median values: 1.92 vs. 1.55, 49.97 vs. 36.84, and 50 vs. 32, respectively, P ≤ 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi, and PCA3 are good indicator of malignancy (AUCs = 0.68, 0.71, and 0.66, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model consisting of both the phi index and PCA3 score allowed to reach an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.77. Decision curve analysis revealed that this "combined" marker achieved the highest net benefit over the examined range of the threshold probability. phi and PCA3 showed no significant difference in the ability to predict PCa diagnosis in men undergoing first prostate biopsy. However, diagnostic performance is significantly improved by combining phi and PCA3. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical Assessment of Sarcopenia and Changes in Body Composition During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Ohue, Masayuki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Tomokuni, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yano, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and investigate whether chemotherapy-related toxicities affect body composition in patients with esophageal cancer. In ninety-four patients who underwent NAC for esophageal cancer, body composition was assessed before and after NAC. Associations between the incidence of toxicities and change in body composition during NAC were investigated. Forty-four (46.8%) and 50 (53.2%) out of 94 patients were defined as having sarcopenia before and after NAC, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any toxicity pre-treatment between patients with sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia. No significant reduction in skeletal muscle mass or fat mass was observed in the patients during NAC (p=0.501 and p=0.072). However, patients who experienced grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia during NAC showed a significantly larger decrease in change of skeletal muscle mass compared to patients who did not experience those toxicities (p=0.013 and 0.036, respectively). The incidence of serious adverse events such as febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia is associated with a significant reduction of skeletal muscle mass during NAC. We should make an effort to reduce the incidence of adverse events in order to maintain an appropriate body composition during NAC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Structural and reliability analysis of quality of relationship index in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousson-Gélie, Florence; de Chalvron, Stéphanie; Zozaya, Carole; Lafaye, Anaïs

    2013-01-01

    Among psychosocial factors affecting emotional adjustment and quality of life, social support is one of the most important and widely studied in cancer patients, but little is known about the perception of support in specific significant relationships in patients with cancer. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI) by evaluating its factor structure and its convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 388 patients completed the QRI. Convergent validity was evaluated by testing the correlations between the QRI subscales and measures of general social support, anxiety and depression symptoms. Discriminant validity was examined by testing group comparison. The QRI's longitudinal invariance across time was also tested. Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation identified three factors accounting for 42.99% of variance: perceived social support, depth, and interpersonal conflict. Estimates of reliability with McDonald's ω coefficient were satisfactory for all the QRI subscales (ω ranging from 0.75 - 0.85). Satisfaction from general social support was negatively correlated with the interpersonal conflict subscale and positively with the depth subscale. The interpersonal conflict and social support scales were correlated with depression and anxiety scores. We also found a relative stability of QRI subscales (measured 3 months after the first evaluation) and differences between partner status and gender groups. The Quality of Relationship Inventory is a valid tool for assessing the quality of social support in a particular relationship with cancer patients.

  4. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  5. Low Preoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Poor Survival Post-gastrectomy in Elderly Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Katsunobu; Tamura, Tatsuro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-10-01

    Preoperative nutritional status may predict short- and long-term outcomes of patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of preoperative nutritional status on outcomes of elderly patients who have undergone gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC). A review examining 147 patients treated for GC by gastrectomy at our institution between January 2004 and December 2011 was conducted. Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was invoked, using an optimal cutpoint to stratify patients by high (PNI > 43.8; n = 84) or low (PNI ≤ 43.8; n = 63) nutritional status. Clinicopathologic features and short- and long-term outcomes, including the cause of death, were compared. In multivariate analysis, low PNI was identified as an independent correlate of poor 5-year overall survival (OS). In subgroup analysis, 5-year OS rates for patients with stage 1 GC were significantly worse in the low PNI (vs. high PNI) patient subset, which also posed a significantly higher risk of death from other disease; however, 5-year cancer-specific survival and PNI were unrelated. Deaths from recurrence in both groups were statistically similar, and morbidity rates did not differ significantly by group. PNI is useful in predicting long-term outcomes of elderly patients surgically treated for GC, helping to identify those at high risk of death from other disease. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, nutritional status and oncologic staging merit attention.

  6. Predicting prostate biopsy outcome: prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are useful biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Marino, Ada; Sorrentino, Alessandra; Di Carlo, Angelina; Autorino, Riccardo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Altieri, Vincenzo; Mariano, Angela; Macchia, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2012-08-16

    Indication for prostate biopsy is presently mainly based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels and digital-rectal examination (DRE). In view of the unsatisfactory accuracy of these two diagnostic exams, research has focused on novel markers to improve pre-biopsy prostate cancer detection, such as phi and PCA3. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of phi and PCA3 for prostate cancer using biopsy as gold standard. Phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay) and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA) were assessed before a 18-core prostate biopsy in a group of 251 subjects at their first biopsy. Values of %p2PSA and phi were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared with PCa-negative group (pphi and PCA3 are predictive of malignancy. In conclusion, %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 may predict a diagnosis of PCa in men undergoing their first prostate biopsy. PCA3 score is more useful in discriminating between HGPIN and non-cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI.

  8. Improving DNA double-strand repair inhibitor KU55933 therapeutic index in cancer radiotherapy using nanoparticle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi; Lara, Haydee; Wagner, Kyle T.; Saripalli, Srinivas; Hyder, Syed Nabeel; Foote, Michael; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina; Caster, Joseph M.; Zhang, Longzhen; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-11-01

    Radiotherapy is a key component of cancer treatment. Because of its importance, there has been high interest in developing agents and strategies to further improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. DNA double-strand repair inhibitors (DSBRIs) are among the most promising agents to improve radiotherapy. However, their clinical translation has been limited by their potential toxicity to normal tissue. Recent advances in nanomedicine offer an opportunity to overcome this limitation. In this study, we aim to demonstrate the proof of principle by developing and evaluating nanoparticle (NP) formulations of KU55933, a DSBRI. We engineered a NP formulation of KU55933 using nanoprecipitation method with different lipid polymer nanoparticle formulation. NP KU55933 using PLGA formulation has the best loading efficacy as well as prolonged drug release profile. We demonstrated that NP KU55933 is a potent radiosensitizer in vitro using clonogenic assay and is more effective as a radiosensitizer than free KU55933 in vivo using mouse xenograft models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Western blots and immunofluorescence showed NP KU55933 exhibited more prolonged inhibition of DNA repair pathway. In addition, NP KU55933 leads to lower skin toxicity than KU55933. Our study supports further investigations using NP to deliver DSBRIs to improve cancer radiotherapy treatment.

  9. Body Composition as a Predictor of Toxicity in Patients Receiving Anthracycline and Taxane Based Chemotherapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Shlomit Strulov; Deal, Allison M.; Weinberg, Marc; Williams, Grant R.; Nyrop, Kirsten A.; Popuri, Karteek; Choi, Seul Ki; Muss, Hyman B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Poor body composition metrics (BCM) are associated with inferior cancer outcomes; however, in early breast cancer (EBC) there is a paucity of evidence regarding BCM’s impact on toxicities. This study investigates associations between BCM and treatment-related toxicity in EBC patients receiving anthracyclines-taxane based chemotherapy. Experimental Design Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) images were evaluated for skeletal muscle area (SMA), density (SMD), and fat tissue at the 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMA/height2) and skeletal muscle gauge (SMG=SMI x SMD) were also calculated. Relative risks (RR) are reported for associations between body composition measures and toxicity outcomes, after adjustment for age and body surface area (BSA). Results BCM were calculated for 151 patients with EBC (median age 49, range 23 to 75). Fifty patients (33%) developed grade 3 or 4 toxicity, which was significantly higher in those with low SMI (RR=1.29, p=0.002), low SMG (RR=1.09, p=0.01), and low LBM (RR=1.48, p=.002). ROC analysis showed the SMG measure to be the best predictor of grade 3 and 4 toxicity. Dividing SMG into tertiles showed toxicity rates of 46%, and 22% for lowest versus highest tertile, respectively (p=0.005). After adjusting for age and BSA, low SMG (<1475 units) was significantly associated with hematological (RR=2.12, p=0.02), gastrointestinal grade 3–4 toxicities (RR=6.49, p=0.02), and hospitalizations (RR=1.91, p=0.05). Conclusions Poor BCM are significantly associated with increased treatment-related toxicities. Further studies are needed to investigate how these metrics can be used to more precisely dose chemotherapy to reduce treatment related toxicity while maintaining efficacy. PMID:28143874

  10. Social inequalities and cancer: can the European deprivation index predict patients' difficulties in health care access? a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriceau, Guillaume; Bourmaud, Aurélie; Tinquaut, Fabien; Oriol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Context The European Deprivation Index (EDI), is a new ecological estimate for Socio-Economic Status (SES). This study postulates that Time-To-Treatment could be used as a cancer quality-of -care surrogate in order to identify the association between cancer patient's SES and quality of care in a French comprehensive cancer center. Methods retrospective mono-centered cohort study. All consecutive incoming adult patients diagnosed for breast cancer(BC), prostate cancer(PC), colorectal cancer (CRC), lung cancer(LC) or sarcoma(S) were included between January 2013 and December 2013. The association of EDI and Time-To-Diagnosis(TTD), as well as Time-To-Treatment(TTT) was analyzed using a cox regression, and a strata analysis per tumor site was performed. Results 969 patients were included. Primitive tumor site was 505 BC(52%), 169 PC(17%), 145 LC(15%), 116 CRC(12%), and 34 S(4%). Median TTD was 1.41 months (Q1-Q3 0.5 to 3.5 months). Median TTT was 0.9 months (0.4 - 1.4). In a multivariate analysis, we identified the tumor site as a predictive factor to influence TTD, shorter for BC (0.75months, [0.30- 1.9]) than PC (4.69 months [1.6-29.7]), HR 0.27 95%CI= [0.22-0.34], p < 0.001. TTT was also shorter for BC (0.75months [0.4-1.1]) than PC (2.02 [0.9-3.2]), HR 0.32 95%CI= [0.27-0.39], p < 0.001. EDI quintiles were not found associated with either TTT or TTD. Conclusions Deprivation estimated by the EDI does not appear to be related to an extension of the Time-to-Diagnosis or Time-to-Treatment in our real-life population. Further research should be done to identify other frailty-sensitive factors that could be responsible for delays in care. PMID:26540571

  11. Transrectal real-time tissue elastography targeted biopsy coupled with peak strain index improves the detection of clinically important prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Yang, Dong-Rong; Xue, Bo-Xin; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Han-Bin; Dong, Yun; Wang, Cai-Shan; Shan, Yu-Xi

    2017-07-01

    The focus of the present study was to evaluate transrectal real-time tissue elastography (RTE)-targeted two-core biopsy coupled with peak strain index for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and to compare this method with 10-core systematic biopsy. A total of 141 patients were enrolled for evaluation. The diagnostic value of peak strain index was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The cancer detection rates of the two approaches and corresponding positive cores and Gleason score were compared. The cancer detection rate per core in the RTE-targeted biopsy (44%) was higher compared with that in systematic biopsy (30%). The peak strain index value of PCa was higher compared with that of the benign lesion. PCa was detected with the highest sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (85.5%) using the threshold value of a peak strain index of ≥5.97 with an area under the curve value of 0.95. When the Gleason score was ≥7, RTE-targeted biopsy coupled with peak strain index detected 95.6% of PCa cases, but 84.4% were detected using systematic biopsy. Peak strain index as a quantitative parameter may improve the differentiation of PCa from benign lesions in the prostate peripheral zone. Transrectal RTE-targeted biopsy coupled with peak strain index may enhance the detection of clinically significant PCa, particularly when combined with systematic biopsy.

  12. Bio-responsive chitin-poly(L-lactic acid) composite nanogels for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunraj, T R; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Ashwin Kumar, N; Jayakumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancer and its treatment has been considered a therapeutic challenge. Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment for liver cancer. However, the efficacy of Dox therapy is restricted by the dose-dependent toxic side effects. To overcome the cardiotoxicity of Dox as well as the current problems of conventional modality treatment of HCC, we developed a locally injectable, biodegradable, and pH sensitive composite nanogels for site specific delivery. Both control and Dox loaded composite nanogel systems were analyzed by DLS, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA. The size ranges of the control composite nanogels and their drug loaded counterparts were found to be 90±20 and 270±20 nm, respectively. The control chitin-PLA CNGs and Dox-chitin-PLA CNGs showed higher swelling and degradation in acidic pH. Drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release studies were carried out and showed a higher drug release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. Cellular internalization of the nanogel systems was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the composite nanogels was analyzed toward HepG2 (human liver cancer) cell lines. Furthermore, the results of in vitro hemolytic assay and coagulation assay substantiate the blood compatibility of the system. Overall Dox-chitin-PLA CNGs system could be a promising anticancer drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-09-11

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  14. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham; Incitti, Roberto; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  15. Interactive effect of genetic susceptibility with height, body mass index, and hormone replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlid Sophia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and height, body mass index (BMI and hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Methods We analyzed samples from three different study populations: two prospectively followed Swedish cohorts and one Icelandic case–control study. Totally 2884 invasive breast cancer cases and 4508 controls were analysed in the study. Genotypes were determined using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-TOF and phenotypic variables were derived from measurements and/or questionnaires. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with the inclusion of an interaction term in the logistic regression model. Results One SNP (rs851987 in ESR1 tended to interact with height, with an increasingly protective effect of the major allele in taller women (p = 0.007 and rs13281615 (on 8q24 tended to confer risk only in non users of HRT (p-for interaction = 0.03. There were no significant interactions after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions We conclude that much larger sample sets would be necessary to demonstrate interactions between low-risk genetic polymorphisms and the phenotypic variables height, BMI and HRT on the risk for breast cancer. However the present hypothesis-generating study has identified tendencies that would be of interest to evaluate for gene-environment interactions in independent materials.

  16. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Cancer Survivors’ Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, E. L.; Fluchel, M.; Sweeney, C.; Smith, K. R.; Kirchhoff, A. C.; Fluchel, M.; Wright, J.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of underweight or overweight/obese childhood cancer survivors. Procedure. Adult survivors (diagnosed ≤20 years) were identified from the linked Utah Cancer Registry and Utah Population Database. We included survivors currently aged ≥20 years and ≥5 years from diagnosis (N=1060), and a comparison cohort selected on birth year and sex (N=5410). BMI was calculated from driver license data available from 2000 to 2010. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to calculate prevalence relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of BMI outcomes for survivors and the comparison cohort. Results. Average time since diagnosis was 18.5 years (SD=7.8), and mean age at BMI for both groups was 30.5 (survivors SD-= 7.7, comparison SD=8.0). Considering all diagnoses, survivors were not at higher risk for being underweight or overweight/obese than the comparison. Male central nervous system tumor survivors were overweight (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.23) more often than the comparison. Female survivors, who were diagnosed at age 10 and under, had a 10% higher risk of being obese than survivors diagnosed at ages 16-20 (P<0.05). Conclusion. While certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at risk for being overweight/obese, in general they do not differ from population estimates.

  17. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  18. The association between the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) and breast cancer and the evaluation of nutrient intake of breast cancer patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid, Farhad; Hatami, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Mahya; Ameri, Fatemeh; Faghfoori, Zeinab; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females and second cancer after lung cancer in many societies. In Iran, the risk for BrCa is 1 in 35 and each year, 8000 new patients have been diagnosed with BrCa. Studies have shown that dietary components are implicated in the etiology of BrCa. The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) is a method of quantitative and qualitative analysis of single foods, meals, and diets. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of INQs in predicting BrCa risk. Our case-control study was conducted from March 2015 to February 2016. The study included 145 cases and 148 controls who attended the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Cancer Research Center. INQ scores were computed based on dietary intake using a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable odds ratios adjusted body mass index, education, employment, marital status, menarche age, childbirth number, smoking, menopause status, and physical activity. Vitamins A, C, B 1 , B 2 , and B 12 and selenium INQs as a continuous variable in relation to risk for BrCa showed a significant association after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio [OR] vitA , 0.41 [0.27-0.64]; OR vitC , 0.30 [0.20-0.47]; OR vitB1 , 0.08 [0.04-0.17]; OR vitB2 , 0.19 [0.11-0.34]; OR vitB12 , 0.44 [0.31-0.61]; and OR selenium , 0.42 [0.26-0.67]). Women who consumed a healthier diet including vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin C, and folate and low-fat milk were at decreased risk for developing BrCa compared with those whose diet included more high fat and lamb meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of MDCT in the preoperative definition of Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer who underwent peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Khader, Leila; Cirigliano, Alfredo; Cioffi Squitieri, Nevada; Guerrini, Susanna; Forzoni, Beatrice; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco; Mazzei, Francesco Giuseppe; Volterrani, Luca

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of MDCT in the preoperative definition of Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer who underwent a peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy to obtain a pre-surgery prognostic evaluation and a prediction of optimal cytoreduction surgery. Pre-HIPEC CT examinations of 43 patients with advanced ovarian cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed by two radiologists. The PCI was scored according to the Sugarbaker classification, based on lesion size and distribution. The results were compared with macroscopic and histologic data after peritonectomy and HIPEC. To evaluate the accuracy of MDCT to detect and localize peritoneal carcinomatosis, both patient-level and regional-level analyses were conducted. A correlation between PCI CT and histologic values for each patient was searched according to the PCI grading. Considering the patient-level analysis, CT shows a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and an accuracy in detecting the peritoneal carcinomatosis of 100 %, 40 %, 93 % 100 %, and 93 %, respectively. Considering the regional level analysis, a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of 72 %, 80 %, 66 %, 84 %, and 77 %, respectively were obtained for the correlation between CT and histology. Our results encourage the use of MDCT as the only technique sufficient to select patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis for cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC on the condition that a CT examination will be performed using a dedicated protocol optimized to detect minimal peritoneal disease and CT images will be analyzed by an experienced reader.

  20. Pretreatment advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) for predicting early progression in nivolumab-treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tamiya, Motohiro; Tamiya, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayako; Okamoto, Norio; Nakahama, Kenji; Taniguchi, Yoshihiko; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Inoue, Takako; Imamura, Fumio; Atagi, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status is inadequate for indicating nivolumab in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because the baseline advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) is reportedly associated with patient outcomes, we investigated whether the pretreatment ALI is prognostic in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients treated with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC between December 2015 and May 2016 at three Japanese institutes. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of the pretreatment ALI (and other inflammation-related parameters) on progression-free survival (PFS) and early progression (i.e., within 8 weeks after starting nivolumab). A total of 201 patients were analyzed; their median age was 68 years (range, 27-87 years), 67% were men, and 24% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or higher. An ECOG performance status ≥2, serum albumin ALI ALI ALI was found to be a significant independent predictor of early progression in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving nivolumab, and may help identify patients likely to benefit from continued nivolumab treatment in routine clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based.......001). The overall survival (OS) index identified three different subgroups (Pcolon cancer. Furthermore...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...

  2. Structural characterization and anti-cancerous potential of gallium bioactive glass/hydrogel composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, T J; Placek, L M; Coughlan, A; Bowers, G M; Hall, M M; Wren, A W

    2016-11-20

    A bioactive glass series (0.42SiO2-0.10Na2O-0.08CaO-(0.40-X)ZnO-(X)Ga2O3) was incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/dextran (Dex) hydrogels in three different amounts (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25m(2)), and the resulting composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP MAS-NMR). Composite extracts were also evaluated in vitro against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. TEM confirmed glass distribution throughout the composites, although some particle agglomeration was observed. DSC revealed that glass composition and content did have small effects on both Tg and Tm. MAS-NMR revealed that both CMC and Dex were successfully functionalized, that cross-linking occurred, and that glass addition did slightly alter bonding environments. Cell viability analysis suggested that extracts of the glass and composites with the largest Ga-content significantly decreased MG-63 osteosarcoma viability after 30days. This study successfully characterized this composite series, and demonstrated their potential for anti-cancerous applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M; Menko, Fred H; Sijmons, Rolf H; Verdam, Mathilde G E; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Informing Relatives Inventory, a battery of instruments that intend to measure counselees' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to at-risk relatives. Guided by the proposed conceptual framework, existing instruments were selected and new instruments were developed. We tested the instruments' acceptability, dimensionality, reliability, and criterion-related validity in consecutive index patients visiting the Clinical Genetics department with questions regarding hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer or colon cancer. Data of 211 index patients were included (response rate = 62%). The Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI) assesses three barriers in disclosure representing seven domains. Instruments assessing index patients' (positive) motivation and self-efficacy were acceptable and reliable and suggested good criterion-related validity. Psychometric properties of instruments assessing index patients knowledge were disputable. These items were moderately accepted by index patients and the criterion-related validity was weaker. This study presents a first conceptual framework and associated inventory (IRI) that improves insight into index patients' barriers regarding the disclosure of genetic cancer information to at-risk relatives. Instruments assessing (positive) motivation and self-efficacy proved to be reliable measurements. Measuring index patients knowledge appeared to be more challenging. Further research is necessary to ensure IRI's dimensionality and sensitivity to change.

  4. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Taroni

    Full Text Available Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause. Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content, blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level, and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power. The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated.Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4, while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content remain significantly different.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc. and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  5. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE BASELINE VALUES OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND FREE ANDROGEN INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Grigoryev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of prostate cancer (PC and its variable nature are an important problem today. PC is distinguished by its latent ability in many cases, which makes its screening difficult.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is one of the most common tumor markers of PC, which are used for mass male screening. However, the detection rate of PC in men with normal PSA values is also very high. This promotes an active search for new markers and predictors of PC.The effect of androgens on hormonal carcinogenesis in the prostate suggests that the analysis of serum testosterone concentrations and free androgen index may be made in patients with low PSA levels in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PC.

  6. Practical prognostic index for patients with metastatic recurrent breast cancer: retrospective analysis of 2,322 patients from the GEICAM Spanish El Alamo Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Javier; López-Tarruella, Sara; Ruiz, Amparo; Lluch, Ana; Pastor, Miguel; Alba, Emilio; de la Haba, Juan; Ramos, Manuel; Cirera, Luis; Antón, Antonio; Llombart, Antoni; Plazaola, Arrate; Fernández-Aramburo, Antonio; Sastre, Javier; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Martin, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Women with recurrent metastatic breast cancer from a Spanish hospital registry (El Alamo, GEICAM) were analyzed in order to identify the most helpful prognostic factors to predict survival and to ultimately construct a practical prognostic index. The inclusion criteria covered women patients diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer who had metastatic recurrence between 1990 and 1997 in GEICAM hospitals. Patients with stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis or with isolated loco-regional recurrence were excluded from this analysis. Data from 2,322 patients with recurrent breast cancer after primary treatment (surgery, radiation and systemic adjuvant treatment) were used to construct the prognostic index. The prognostic index score for each individual patient was calculated by totalling up the scores of each independent variable. The maximum score obtainable was 26.1. Nine-hundred and sixty-two patients who had complete data for all the variables were used in the computation of the prognostic index score. We were able to stratify them into three prognostic groups based on the prognostic index score: 322 patients in the good risk group (score or =15.61). The median survivals for these groups were 3.69, 2.27 and 1.02 years, respectively (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, risk scores are extraordinarily valuable tools, highly recommendable in the clinical practice.

  7. DMF-T index in patients undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabrina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer frequently caused severe salivary gland dysfunction. The salivary gland dysfunction possibly decreased the protective function of saliva and caused dental caries. The purpose of this study was to obtain an illustration about DMF-T index in patient undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital in January-February 2007. The study was a simple descriptive. The study was conducted on 7 males and 9 females undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer. The ages of patient are between 37 years and 77 years. The severity of caries was measured by DMF-T index. DMF-T index in 16 patient undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital is 10.6 as the result of this study. The conclusion of this study showed that the DMF-T index in 16 patient undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital had very high grade based on WHO classification, which the value was over 6.6.

  8. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  9. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong

    2011-01-01

    Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary....

  10. Hazard Quotients, Hazard Indexes, and Cancer Risks of Toxic Metals in PM10 during Firework Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonfire night is a worldwide phenomenon given to numerous annual celebrations characterised by bonfires and fireworks. Since Thailand has no national ambient air quality standards for metal particulates, it is important to investigate the impacts of particulate injections on elevations of air pollutants and the ecological health impacts resulting from firework displays. In this investigation, Pb and Ba were considered potential firework tracers because their concentrations were significantly higher during the episode, and lower than/comparable with minimum detection limits during other periods, indicating that their elevated concentrations were principally due to pyrotechnic displays. Pb/Ca, Pb/Al, Pb/Mg, and Pb/Cu can be used to pin-point emissions from firework displays. Air mass backward trajectories (72 h from the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model indicated that areas east and north-east of the study site were the main sources of the airborne particles. Although the combined risk associated with levels of Pb, Cr, Co., Ni, Zn, As, Cd, V, and Mn was far below the standards mentioned in international guidelines, the lifetime cancer risks associated with As and Cr levels exceeded US-EPA guidelines, and may expose inhabitants of surrounding areas of Bangkok to an elevated cancer risk.

  11. Optimization of DRASTIC method by artificial neural network, nitrate vulnerability index, and composite DRASTIC models to assess groundwater vulnerability for unconfined aquifer of Shiraz Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghapour, Mohammad Ali; Fadaei Nobandegani, Amir; Talebbeydokhti, Nasser; Bagherzadeh, Somayeh; Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Chitsazan, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Extensive human activities and unplanned land uses have put groundwater resources of Shiraz plain at a high risk of nitrate pollution, causing several environmental and human health issues. To address these issues, water resources managers utilize groundwater vulnerability assessment and determination of protection. This study aimed to prepare the vulnerability maps of Shiraz aquifer by using Composite DRASTIC index, Nitrate Vulnerability index, and artificial neural network and also to compare their efficiency. The parameters of the indexes that were employed in this study are: depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity, and land use. These parameters were rated, weighted, and integrated using GIS, and then, used to develop the risk maps of Shiraz aquifer. The results indicated that the southeastern part of the aquifer was at the highest potential risk. Given the distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations from the wells in the underlying aquifer, the artificial neural network model offered greater accuracy compared to the other two indexes. The study concluded that the artificial neural network model is an effective model to improve the DRASTIC index and provides a confident estimate of the pollution risk. As intensive agricultural activities are the dominant land use and water table is shallow in the vulnerable zones, optimized irrigation techniques and a lower rate of fertilizers are suggested. The findings of our study could be used as a scientific basis in future for sustainable groundwater management in Shiraz plain.

  12. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects....... effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects......·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective...

  13. Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

  14. The Zubrod performance status and the Karnofsky index in quality of life evaluation of children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Helena Vitoriano Polo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiologic profile of children undergoingchemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and to assess the quality of lifeduring treatments, by means of the ECOG scale and the Karnofskyindex. Methods: A descriptive exploratory study, with quantitativeapproach. The sample consisted of children with cancer undergoingchemotherapy or radiotherapy. Results: Twenty-four children, mostmales (67%, were interviewed; chemotherapy was the primarytreatment in 56% of them. The most frequent condition was acutelymphoid leukemia in both sexes. Chemotherapy was the treatmentmodality interfering most with the quality of life, altering aspectssuch as: socialization, behavior, nutrition, sleep and rest, performanceof activities. Regarding the ECOG scale, 75% of the patients whoscored 1 were symptomatic, and only 25% of patients scored 0 andwere asymptomatic. As to the Karnofsky index, 25% of patients wereasymptomatic and performed their daily activities, whereas 71%presented with mild symptoms of the disease, yet performed theirdaily activities. Conclusion: A chronic disease, like cancer, changessome aspects in the daily routine of the children and their family.However, individual characteristics must be respected aiming at thechild’s quality of life.

  15. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in patients with head and neck cancer: An observational study leading to a new predictive equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Micheline Tereza Pires; Singer, Pierre; Ozorio, Gislaine Aparecida; Rosa, Vitor Modesto; Alves, Maria Manuela Ferreira; Mendoza López, Rossana Verónica; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2018-02-05

    Patients with head and neck cancer have changes in body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) related to significant inflammatory processes. We investigated REE and body composition in a population of patients with head and neck cancer, comparing the measured REE with predicted energy expenditure and deriving an equation of anthropometric values and body composition. This retrospective, observational, descriptive study of a single center included patients with head and neck cancer. We evaluated nutritional status by body mass index (BMI) and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), body composition by electric bioimpedance, and REE by indirect calorimetry (IC). We included 140 patients, most of whom were men (80.7%), 60 y or older (58.6%), and had advanced disease (77.9%). Most were malnourished by BMI standards (77.9%) and severely malnourished according to the PG-SGA (49.3%), with a fat-free mass below the ideal values (82.9%) associated with sarcopenia (92.1%). Hypermetabolism was 57%. When comparing REE with the Harris-Benedict formula, we found the agreement limits from -546 613 to 240 708, the mean difference was -152 953 (95% confidence interval [CI], -185 844 to -120 062) and Pitman's variance test was r = -0.294 (P = 0.001). When we included the activity factor and the thermogenesis factor in REE and compared with Harris-Benedict, we found the agreement limits from -764.423 to 337.087, a mean difference of -213.668 (95% CI -259.684 to -167.652), and the Pitman's variance text at r = -0.292 (P = 0.001). Predictive equations, generally recommended by guidelines, are imprecise when compared with IC measures. Therefore, we suggest a new predictive equation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life, functional outcome, and voice handicap index in partial laryngectomy patients for early glottic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandogan Tolga

    2005-05-01

    part 1. (p = 0. A statistically significant difference was also established between cordectomy and fronto-lateral laryngectomy groups, as well as between cordectomy and cricohyoidopexi groups in answers to the University of Washington- Quality of Life- Revised survey part 2. (p = 0,036 and p = 0.009, respectively. Cricohyoidopexi group has given the lowest scores and the cordectomy group has given the highest scores in three survey questions representing the quality of life, performances and new voices. These ranges are also consistent with the laryngeal tissue excised during surgery (cricohyoidopexi > fronto-lateral laryngectomy > cordectomy. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck cancer patients instrument. The difference between the Voice Handicap Index and Voice Handicap Index (functional; Voice Handicap Index (physical and Voice Handicap Index (emotional scores in three patient groups was not significant either. All of the patients evaluated that their new voices have similar functional, physical and emotional impact on their life. Decanulation and oral feeding times of cricohyoidopexi and fronto-lateral laryngectomy patients are found to be significantly longer than cordectomy patients. Lastly, the removal of arytenoid does not have any significant adverse effects on the quality of life, the functional outcomes, or the quality of voice. Conclusion In the present study, all patients with early glottic cancer, treated with different surgical technics reported fairly good quality of life outcomes, functional results and voice qualities. This study also finds that the removal of arytenoid does not have any adverse effects on the quality of life and voice from the patients' point of view.

  17. Imaging body composition in cancer patients: visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may impact on clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Connie; Dinkel, Charlotte; Mahajan, Abhishek; Siddique, Musib; Cook, Gary J. R.; Goh, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the influence of body composition on oncological patient outcomes. Visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have been identified as adverse factors in cancer patients. Imaging quantification of body composition such as lean muscle mass and fat distribution is a potentially valuable tool. This review describes the following imaging techniques that may be used to assess body composition: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  18. [Value of the palliative prognostic index, controlling nutritional status, and prognostic nutritional index for objective evaluation during transition from chemotherapy to palliative care in cases of advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Annen, Kazuya; Kawamukai, Yuji; Onuma, Noritomo; Kawashima, Mayu

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether objective evaluation by using the palliative prognostic index(PPI), controlling nutritional status(COUNT), and prognostic nutritional index(PNI)can provide prognostic information during the transition from chemotherapy to palliative care in patients with advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer. The subjects were 28 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who died of their disease between January 2009 and June 2012. We compared the PPI, COUNT, and PNI scores between patients who died within 90 days of completing chemotherapy(Group A, n=14)and patients who survived for 90 or more days(Group B, n=14). The PPI score for Group A(4.0)was significantly higher than that for Group B(0.8)(pevaluation during the transition from chemotherapy to palliative care.

  19. Epidemiology, incidence and mortality of oral cavity and lips cancer and their relationship with the human development index in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Ramezani Siakholak; Mahshid Ghoncheh; Reza Pakzad; Hamidreza Sadeghi Gandomani; Fereshteh Ghorat; Hamid Salehiniya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: According to the importance of knowledge about incidence and mortality of oral cavity and lip cancer in health planning, this study was performed with the aim of investigating the incidence and mortality rate of oral cavity and lip cancer and its relation with the Human Development Index in the world in 2012. Methods: The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Data about the age-specific inc...

  20. [The relevance of body composition in cancer patients: what is the evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronha, Ana Lúcia; Camilo, Maria Ermelinda; Ravasco, Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the past few years, there has been a growing interest on body composition changes of cancer patients. Muscle mass and fat mass are pointed out as the most important compartments from a physiological point of view, as their changes are the ones with the most impact on disease. The excess of fat mass is related with increased risk of incidence and recurrence of some types of cancer, and some studies identify it as a major contributing factor for increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Weight loss in cancer is frequent and is associated with symptoms, circulating pro-cachectic substances produced by the tumour, and/or hypermetabolism states, not compensated with adequate intake. Muscle mass depletion is the most worrying, and has been associated with decreased functional capacity, increased toxicity of anti-neoplastic treatments, longer length of stay and higher risk of nosocomial infections. In end stage disease, some patients may develop cancer cachexia, an irreversible condition highly associated with mortality. Of note that, lean body mass depletion may occur with excess fat mass (sarcopenic obesity), a condition that combines the health risks of obesity and those of sarcopenia. The high prevalence of malnutrition in cancer patients justifies its relevance. Many patients point it as a cause for the reduction of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functions, as well as anorexia, fatigue, dyspnoea, insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and worse Quality of Life. Additionally, body composition may be affected by nutrition, lifestyles and physical activity; therefore, any approach to the patient should include all these dimensions, with special emphasis on individualised nutritional intervention. Therefore, nutritional therapy should be adjuvant to any treatment, as it is essential in all stages of the disease: for its development, during the treatment(s) and in the follow-up period. The aim of nutritional intervention is to promote changes in

  1. Impact of resistance training on body composition and metabolic syndrome variables during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jacqueline K; Dorff, Tanya B; Todd Schroeder, E; Lane, Christianne J; Gross, Mitchell E; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M

    2018-04-03

    Prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience adverse effects such as lean mass loss, known as sarcopenia, fat gain, and changes in cardiometabolic factors that increase risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Resistance training can increase lean mass, reduce body fat, and improve physical function and quality of life, but no exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients on ADT have concomitantly improved body composition and MetS. This pilot trial investigated 12 weeks of resistance training on body composition and MetS changes in prostate cancer patients on ADT. An exploratory aim examined if a combined approach of training and protein supplementation would elicit greater changes in body composition. Prostate cancer patients on ADT were randomized to resistance training and protein supplementation (TRAINPRO), resistance training (TRAIN), protein supplementation (PRO), or control stretching (STRETCH). Exercise groups (EXE = TRAINPRO, TRAIN) performed supervised exercise 3 days per week for 12 weeks, while non-exercise groups (NoEXE = PRO, STRETCH) performed a home-based stretching program. TRAINPRO and PRO received 50 g⋅day - 1 of whey protein. The primary outcome was change in lean mass assessed through dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes examined changes in sarcopenia, assessed through appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) index (kg/m 2 ), body fat %, strength, physical function, quality of life, MetS score and the MetS components of waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. A total of 37 participants were randomized; 32 participated in the intervention (EXE n = 13; NoEXE n = 19). At baseline, 43.8% of participants were sarcopenic and 40.6% met the criteria for MetS. Post-intervention, EXE significantly improved lean mass (d = 0.9), sarcopenia prevalence (d = 0.8), body fat % (d = 1.1), strength (d = 0.8-3.0), and

  2. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  3. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  4. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk : Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Koppert, Linetta B; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perez, Jose I A; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or

  5. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); P.J.D. Delhanty (Patric); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI), is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study

  6. The impact of body mass index and waist circumference on healt related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors : Resultes from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Martucci, R.B.; Mols, F.; Bours, M.J.; Winkels, R.M.; Kampman, E.; Weijenberg, M.P.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Beijer, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess the association of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Methods: CRC survivors diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 completed questionnaires in August 2013 (with self-reported

  7. Review of the Interaction Between Body Composition and Clinical Outcomes in Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Treated With Targeted Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Yip

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC currently focuses on inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Obesity confers a higher risk of RCC. However, the influence of obesity on clinical outcomes in mRCC in the era of targeted therapy is less clear. This review focuses on the impact of body composition on targeted therapy outcomes in mRCC. The International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium database has the largest series of patients evaluating the impact of body mass index (BMI on outcomes in mRCC patients treated with targeted therapy. Overall survival was significantly improved in overweight patients (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and this observation was externally validated in patients who participated in Pfizer trials. In contrast, sarcopenia is consistently associated with increased toxicity to inhibitors of angiogenesis and mTOR. Strengthening patients with mRCC and sarcopenia, through a structured exercise program and dietary intervention, may improve outcomes in mRCC treated with targeted therapies. At the same time, the paradox of obesity being a risk factor for RCC while offering a better overall survival in response to targeted therapy needs to be further evaluated.

  8. MRI-derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging Cellularity Index is Associated with High Grade Prostate Cancer on Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Andre Liss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique to improve detection of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of presurgical prostate MRI scans using an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI, which can be presented as a normalized z-score statistic (RSI z-score. Scans were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy. Prostatectomy specimens were processed using whole mount sectioning and regions of interest (ROIs were drawn around individual prostate cancer (PCa tumors. Corresponding ROIs were drawn on the MRI imaging and paired with ROIs in regions with no pathology. RSI z-score and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values were recorded for each ROI. Paired t-test, ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were performed.Results: We evaluated 28 patients with 64 regions of interest (28 benign and 36 PCa. The mean difference in RSI z-score (PCa ROI – Benign ROI was 2.17 (SE = 0.11; p <0.001 and in ADC was 551 mm2/sec (SE = 80 mm2/sec; paired t-test, p <0.001. The differences in the means among all groups (benign, primary Gleason 3 and primary Gleason 4 was significant for both RSI z-score (F3,64 = 97.7, p <0.001 and ADC (F3,64 = 13.9, p <0.001. A t-test was performed on only PCa tumor ROIs (n=36 to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness (Gleason 3 vs. Gleason 4 revealing that RSI z-score was still significant (p = 0.03, whereas, ADC values were no longer significant (p = 0.08. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age and race, RSI z-score was associated with PCa aggressiveness (OR 10.3, 95%CI: 1.4-78.0, p=0.02 while ADC trended to significance (p=0.07. Conclusions: The RSI derived normalized cellularity index (RSI z-score is associated with aggressive prostate cancer as determined by pathologic Gleason scores. Further utilization of RSI techniques may serve to enhance standardized reporting systems.

  9. Bispectral Index monitoring in cancer patients undergoing palliative sedation: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Carrillo, Edith; Allende-Pérez, Silvia; Hui, David; García-Salamanca, Maria-Fernanda; Bruera, Eduardo; Verástegui, Emma

    2017-10-01

    Continuous palliative sedation (PS) is currently titrated based on clinical observation; however, it is often unclear if patients are still aware of their suffering. The aim of this prospective study is to characterize the level of consciousness in patients undergoing PS using Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring. We enrolled consecutive patients with refractory symptoms requiring PS. We documented the level of sedation using Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) and BIS at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h during the first day of PS and examined their degree of association. Intravenous midazolam or propofol was titrated according to the sedation level. Twenty patients on PS were recruited and had BIS continuous monitoring. Delirium was the most frequent reason for PS (n = 15, 75%). The median time of sedation was 24.5 h (interquartile range 6-46). The average time to achieve the desired sedation level was 6 h, and dose titration was required in 80% of the cases. At baseline, 14 (70%) patients were considered to be awake according to RSS (i.e., 1-3) and 19 (95%) were awake according to BIS (i.e., >60%). This proportion decreased to 31 and 56% at 4 h, 27% and 53 at 6 h, and 22 and 33% at 24 h. RS and BIS had moderate correlation (rho = -0.58 to -0.65); however, a small proportion of patients were found to be awake by BIS (i.e., ≥60%) despite clinical observation (i.e., RSS 4-6) indicating otherwise. The BIS is a noninvasive, bedside, real-time continuous monitoring method that may facilitate the objective assessment of level of consciousness and dose titration in patients undergoing PS.

  10. Average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer and the association with the marginalization index in Mexico in 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervantes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer in Mexico in 2000 and 2010. Data on mortality in women aged between 20 and 84 years was obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost, which is an estimate of the number of years that a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely, were estimated for both diseases. Data was disaggregated into five-year age groups and socioeconomic status based on the 2010 marginalization index obtained from the National Population Council. A decrease in average years of life lost due to cervical cancer (37.4% and an increase in average years of life lost due breast cancer (8.9% was observed during the period studied. Average years of life lost due to cervical cancer was greater among women living in areas with a high marginalization index, while average years of life lost due to breast cancer was greater in women from areas with a low marginalization index.

  11. Average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer and the association with the marginalization index in Mexico in 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Claudio Alberto Dávila; Botero, Marcela Agudelo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer in Mexico in 2000 and 2010. Data on mortality in women aged between 20 and 84 years was obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost, which is an estimate of the number of years that a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely, were estimated for both diseases. Data was disaggregated into five-year age groups and socioeconomic status based on the 2010 marginalization index obtained from the National Population Council. A decrease in average years of life lost due to cervical cancer (37.4%) and an increase in average years of life lost due breast cancer (8.9%) was observed during the period studied. Average years of life lost due to cervical cancer was greater among women living in areas with a high marginalization index, while average years of life lost due to breast cancer was greater in women from areas with a low marginalization index.

  12. The effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) on body composition of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Henrique A; Baracos, Vickie E; Hong, David S; Abbruzzese, James; Bruera, Eduardo; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-04-12

    Curcumin is a natural product that is often explored by patients with cancer. Weight loss due to fat and muscle depletion is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer and is associated with worse outcomes. Studies of curcumin's effects on muscularity show conflicting results in animal models. Retrospective matched 1:2 case-control study to evaluate the effects of curcumin on body composition (determined by computerized tomography) of 66 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (22 treated,44 controls). Average age (SEM) was 63(1.8) years, 30/66(45%) women, median number of prior therapies was 2, median (IQR) time from advanced pancreatic cancer diagnosis to baseline image was 7(2-13.5) months (p>0.2, all variables). All patients lost weight (3.3% and 1.3%, treated vs. control, p=0.13). Treated patients lost more muscle (median [IQR] percent change -4.8[-9.1,-0.1] vs. -0.05%[-4.2, 2.6] in controls,pcancer treated with curcumin showed significantly greater loss of subcutaneous fat and muscle than matched untreated controls.

  13. Composition and method for detecting cancer with technetium labeled antibody fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchiel, S. W.; Crockford, D. R.; Rhodes, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments of antibodies to: (a) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), hCG alpha subunit, hCG beta subunit, or an hCG-like material; or (b) other tumor specific or tumor associated molecules, to include carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human melanoma associated antigens, human sarcoma associated antigens or other antigens, are radiolabeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m). When the F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments of antibody to such tumor associated antigens are injected intravenously into a patient, the radiolabeled composition accumulates at tumor sites. The accumulation of the cancer seeking radiopharmaceutical at tumor sites permits detection by external gamma scintigraphy. Thus, the composition is useful in the monitoring, localization and detection of cancer in the body. In an alternative composition, a double antibody approach to tumor localization using radiolabeled F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments is utilized. In this approach, a tumor specific antibody in the form of IgG, F(ab') 2 or Fab is first administered to a patient intravenously. Following a sufficient period of time, a second antibody in the form of F(ab') 2 or Fab is administered. The second antibody is radiolabeled with Tc-99m and has the property that it is reactive with the first antibody. This double antibody method has the advantage over a single antibody approach in that smaller tumors can be localized and detected and that the total amount of radioactive trace localized at the cancer site is increased

  14. Lasing characteristics of refractive-index-matched composite Y3Al5O12 rods employing transparent ceramics for solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ikesue, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    We have proposed a new configuration of solar-pumped lasers employing transparent ceramic rods. The laser rod has a composite structure consisting of a Nd/Cr:YAG gain domain surrounded by Gd:YAG with the same refractive index as that of Nd/Cr:YAG. The lasing mode is well controlled by the output coupler, and the parasitic oscillation is suppressed, owing to the refractive index matching. A high laser slope efficiency and a low laser oscillation threshold were achieved owing to the suppressed absorption outside the lasing mode, which was previously a serious issue for the end-pumping configuration using a high-NA focusing optics. The laser oscillation threshold of 136 mW and the slope efficiency of 25.3% were derived. Thus, we have resolved the issue of useless absorption associated with the high-NA end-pumping, and achieved significant improvements compared with the conventional structure of uniform Nd/Cr:YAG.

  15. A Practical Standardized Composite Nutrition Score Based on Lean Tissue Index: Application in Nutrition Screening and Prediction of Outcome in Hemodialysis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chang, Cheng-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Ju; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Chen, Chang-Hsu; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2017-07-01

    Rapid screening and monitoring of nutritional status is mandatory in hemodialysis population because of the increasingly encountered nutritional problems. Considering the limitations of previous composite nutrition scores applied in this population, we tried to develop a standardized composite nutrition score (SCNS) using low lean tissue index as a marker of protein wasting to facilitate clinical screening and monitoring and to predict outcome. This retrospective cohort used 2 databases of dialysis populations from Taiwan between 2011 and 2014. First database consisting of data from 629 maintenance hemodialysis patients was used to develop the SCNS and the second database containing data from 297 maintenance hemodialysis patients was used to validate this developed score. SCNS containing albumin, creatinine, potassium, and body mass index was developed from the first database using low lean tissue index as a marker of protein wasting. When applying this score in the original database, significantly higher risk of developing protein wasting was found for patients with lower SCNS (odds ratio 1.38 [middle tertile vs highest tertile, P < .0001] and 2.40 [lowest tertile vs middle tertile, P < .0001]). The risk of death was also shown to be higher for patients with lower SCNS (hazard ratio 4.45 [below median level vs above median level, P < .0001]). These results were validated in the second database. We developed an SCNS consisting of 4 easily available biochemical parameters. This kind of scoring system can be easily applied in different dialysis facilities for screening and monitoring of protein wasting. The wide application of body composition monitor in dialysis population will also facilitate the development of specific nutrition scoring model for individual facility. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on infant growth and body composition: Evidence from a pregnancy cohort study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalbahar, Nurzalinda; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Loy, See Ling; Najman, Jake; McIntyre, Harold David; Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Parental body mass index (BMI) is strongly linked with the development of offspring overweight and obesity. However, there are a limited number of studies focusing on the association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on offspring growth and body composition in early life, particularly in developing countries. Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered. Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ). Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. One Size Fits All? The Validity of a Composite Poverty Index Across Urban and Rural Households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Janina Isabel; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Melendez-Torres, G J; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Composite indices have been prominently used in poverty research. However, validity of these indices remains subject to debate. This paper examines the validity of a common type of composite poverty indices using data from a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Multiple-group comparisons in structural equation modelling were employed for testing differences in the measurement model across urban and rural groups. The analysis revealed substantial variations between urban and rural respondents both in the conceptualisation of poverty as well as in the weights and importance assigned to individual poverty indicators. The validity of a 'one size fits all' measurement model can therefore not be confirmed. In consequence, it becomes virtually impossible to determine a household's poverty level relative to the full sample. Findings from our analysis have important practical implications in nuancing how we can sensitively use composite poverty indices to identify poor people.

  18. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  19. Comparing 3 dietary pattern methods--cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis--With colorectal cancer risk: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Wirfält, Elisabet; Flood, Andrew; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F

    2010-02-15

    The authors compared dietary pattern methods-cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis-with colorectal cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,306). Data from a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (1995-1996) were used to identify 4 clusters for men (3 clusters for women), 3 factors, and 4 indexes. Comparisons were made with adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, distributions of individuals in clusters by quintile of factor and index scores, and health behavior characteristics. During 5 years of follow-up through 2000, 3,110 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, the vegetables and fruits cluster, the fruits and vegetables factor, the fat-reduced/diet foods factor, and all indexes were associated with reduced risk; the meat and potatoes factor was associated with increased risk. In women, reduced risk was found with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and increased risk with the meat and potatoes factor. For men, beneficial health characteristics were seen with all fruit/vegetable patterns, diet foods patterns, and indexes, while poorer health characteristics were found with meat patterns. For women, findings were similar except that poorer health characteristics were seen with diet foods patterns. Similarities were found across methods, suggesting basic qualities of healthy diets. Nonetheless, findings vary because each method answers a different question.

  20. Prognostic index to identify patients who may not benefit from whole brain radiotherapy for multiple brain metastases from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, P.; Yeghiaian, R.; Gebski, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is often recommended in the management of multiple brain metastases. Allowing for WBRT waiting time, duration of the WBRT course and time to clinical response, it may take 6 weeks from the point of initial assessment for a benefit from WBRT to manifest. Patients who die within 6 weeks ('early death') may not benefit from WBRT and may instead experience a decline in quality of life. This study aimed to develop a prognostic index (PI) that identifies the subset of patients with lung cancer with multiple brain metastases who may not benefit from WBRT because of'early death'. The medical records of patients with lung cancer who had WBRT recommended for multiple brain metastases over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as either having died within 6 weeks or having lived beyond 6 weeks. Potential prognostic indicators were evaluated for correlation with 'early death'. A PI was constructed by modelling the survival classification to determine the contribution of these factors towards shortened survival. Of the 275 patients recommended WBRT, 64 (23.22%) died within 6 weeks. The main prognostic factor predicting early death was Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status >2. Patients with a high PI score (>13) were at higher risk of'early death'. Twenty-three per cent of patients died prior to benefit from WBRT. ECOG status was the most predictive for 'early death'. Other factors may also contribute towards a poor outcome. With further refinement and validation, the PI could be a valuable clinical decision tool.

  1. Assessment of Adequacy of Pain Management and Analgesic Use in Patients With Advanced Cancer Using the Brief Pain Inventory and Pain Management Index Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this cross-sectional, noninterventional, 6-month observational study was to assess the adequacy of pain management in patients with cancer admitted to the Oncology Department of Guru Gobind Singh Medical College in Faridkot, India. Methods and Materials: A total of 348 patients with cancer were recruited for evaluation of the prevalence of inadequate cancer pain management using the Brief Pain Inventory Pain Management Index. Results: The current study included 127 males (36.5% and 221 females (63.5%. The most prevalent cancer type was genitourinary; 268 patients (77% had inadequately managed pain. A significant correlation was observed between poorly managed pain and age groups, analgesic used, and body mass index. Conclusion: Our observation of inadequate pain management among 77% of patients indicates that pain management was insufficient in three quarters of the patients in this study. Accumulating data regarding the inadequacy of cancer pain management is crucial to improve symptom management. Better management of pain not only alleviates pain symptoms but also increases the quality of life for patients with cancer.

  2. Assignment of releves to pre-defined classes by supervised clustering of plant communities using a new composite index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, O.; Gremmen, N.; Hennekens, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: How does a newly designed method of supervised clustering perform in the assignment of releve ( species composition) data to a previously established classification. How do the results compare to the assignment by experts and to the assignment using a completely different numerical method?

  3. Incremental predictive validity of the Addiction Severity Index psychiatric composite score in a consecutive cohort of patients in residential treatment for drug use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Bloomfield, Kim; Hesse, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is a widely used assessment instrument for substance abuse treatment that includes scales reflecting current status in seven potential problem areas, including psychiatric severity. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the psychiatric composite score to predict suicide and psychiatric care after residential treatment for drug use disorders after adjusting for history of psychiatric care. All patients treated for drug use disorders in residential treatment centers in Denmark during the years 2000-2010 with complete ASI data were followed through national registers of psychiatric care and causes of death (N=5825). Competing risks regression analyses were used to assess the incremental predictive validity of the psychiatric composite score, controlling for previous psychiatric care, length of intake, and other ASI composite scores, up to 12years after discharge. A total of 1769 patients received psychiatric care after being discharged from residential treatment (30.3%), and 27 (0.5%) committed suicide. After adjusting for all covariates, psychiatric composite score was associated with a higher risk of receiving psychiatric care after residential treatment (subhazard ratio [SHR]=3.44, psuicide (SHR=11.45, pdrug use disorders who could benefit from additional mental health treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players.

  5. Slow and stopped light in active gain composite materials of metal nanoparticles. Ultralarge group index-bandwidth product predicted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Hyon; Choe, Song-Hyok [Institute of Lasers, State Academy of Sciences, Unjong District, Pyongyang (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Chip-compatible slow light devices with large group index-bandwidth products and low losses are of great interest in the community of modern photonics. In this work, active gain materials containing metal nanoparticles are proposed as the slow and stopped light materials. Gain-assisted high field enhancement in metal nanoparticles and the resultant strong dispersion lead to such phenomena. From the Maxwell-Garnett model, it is revealed that the metal nanocomposite exhibits the infinitely large group index when the gain of the host medium and the filling factor of metal nanoparticles satisfy a critical condition. For the gain of the host above the critical value, one can observe slowing down effect with amplification of light pulses. Significantly large group index-bandwidth products, which vary from a few to several thousand or even infinity depending on the gain value of the host medium, have been numerically predicted in active silica glasses containing spheroidal metal nanoparticles, as examples. The proposed scheme inherently provides the widely varying operating spectral range by changing the aspect ratio of metal nanoparticles and chip-compatibility with low cost. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Patient-reported outcomes, body composition, and nutrition status in patients with head and neck cancer: Results from an exploratory randomized controlled exercise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Lauren C; McNeely, Margaret L; Lau, Harold Y; Reimer, Raylene A; Giese-Davis, Janine; Fung, Tak S; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2016-04-15

    Patients with head and neck cancer experience loss of weight and muscle mass, decreased functioning, malnutrition, depression, and declines in quality of life during and after treatment. The purpose of this exploratory randomized study was to determine the optimal timing for the initiation of a lifestyle and progressive resistance exercise training intervention (during or after radiation therapy), as determined by intervention adherence and by comparing between-group outcomes across 24 weeks. Sixty patients with head and neck cancer were randomized to engage in a 12-week lifestyle intervention and progressive resistance-training program either during radiation treatment or immediately after completion. The primary outcome of body composition--specifically, lean body mass, body mass index, and body fat--as well as secondary outcomes of fitness, quality of life, depression, and nutrition status were evaluated. The progressive resistance-training intervention carried out during treatment did not significantly influence the primary outcome of body composition, despite a significant increase in weekly physical activity reported by the intervention group. A small-to-medium intervention effect was noted for some secondary outcomes, including fitness, quality of life, and nutrition status. Regardless of whether patients received the immediate or delayed progressive resistance-training intervention, the analysis revealed a main effect of time on body composition, fitness, quality of life, depression, and nutritional scores. Although the intervention during treatment did not reduce the loss of lean body mass, delaying the exercise program until after treatment completion was associated with improved intervention adherence, a finding with important clinical implications. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  8. Adolescent body mass index and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a cohort of 1.79 million Israeli men and women: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Zohar; Kark, Jeremy D; Katz, Lior H; Twig, Gilad; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Leibovici Weissman, Yaara; Leiba, Adi; Lipshiez, Irena; Keinan Boker, Lital; Afek, Arnon

    2017-10-15

    This study examined the association between the body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. This study analyzed a cohort of 1,087,358 Jewish men and 707,212 Jewish women who underwent health examinations at the ages of 16 to 19 years between 1967 and 2002 and were followed by linkage to the national cancer registry up to 2012. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer according to age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (overweight, 85th percentile to cancer, including 1977 among men (1403 in the colon and 574 in the rectum) and 990 among women (764 in the colon and 226 in the rectum), were identified. Overweight and obesity were associated with the risk for colon cancer among both men (HR for overweight, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.84; HR for obesity, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15-2.06; statistically significant from a BMI of 23.4 kg/m 2 [spline analysis]) and women (HR for overweight, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.22-1.93; HR for obesity, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.89-2.57; significant from a BMI of 23.6 kg/m 2 ). Obesity, but not overweight, was associated with a risk for rectal cancer among men (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65; significant from a BMI of 29.6 kg/m 2 ) and women (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 0.90-4.58; significant from a BMI of 30.6 kg/m 2 ). Being overweight or obese in adolescence was associated with an increased risk of subsequent colon cancers in men and women, whereas obesity was associated with rectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:4022-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Monitoring Poisson's ratio of glass fiber reinforced composites as damage index using biaxial Fiber Bragg Grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Çağatay; Yilmaz, Cagatay; Akalın, Çağdaş; Akalin, Cagdas; Kocaman, Esat Selim; Suleman, A.; Yıldız, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Damage accumulation in Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites is monitored based on Poisson's ratio measurements for three different fiber stacking sequences subjected to both quasi-static and quasi-static cyclic tensile loadings. The sensor systems utilized include a dual-extensometer, a biaxial strain gage and a novel embedded-biaxial Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. These sensors are used concurrently to measure biaxial strain whereby the evolution of Poisson's ratio as a functi...

  10. Clinical Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting Short- and Long-Term Surgical Outcomes After Gastrectomy: A Retrospective Analysis of 7781 Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, You-Na; Hong, Jung Hwa; Alshomimi, Saeed; An, Ji Yeong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy.Assessing a patient's immune and nutritional status, PNI has been reported as a predictive marker for surgical outcomes in various types of cancer.We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of 7781 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2001 to December 2010 at a single center. From this data, we analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics, PNI, and short- and long-term surgical outcomes for each patient. We used the PNI value for the 10th percentile (46.70) of the study cohort as a cut-off for dividing patients into low and high PNI groups.Regarding short-term outcomes, multivariate analysis showed a low PNI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.505, 95% CI = 1.212-1.869, P cancer recurrence.

  11. Prediction of 90 Day and Overall Survival after Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer: Role of Performance Status and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J C S; Williams, L J; Simms, A; Price, A; Campbell, S; Fallon, M T; Fearon, K C H

    2017-09-01

    If appropriate patients are to be selected for lung cancer treatment, an understanding of who is most at risk of adverse outcomes after treatment is needed. The aim of the present study was to identify predictive factors for 30 and 90 day mortality after chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and factors that were prognostic for overall survival. A retrospective cohort study of 194 patients with lung cancer who had undergone CRT in South East Scotland from 2008 to 2010 was undertaken. Gender, age, cancer characteristics, weight loss, body mass index (BMI), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; ECOG) and computed tomography-derived body composition variables were examined for prognostic significance using Cox's proportional hazards model and logistic regression. The median overall survival was 19 months (95% confidence interval 16.3, 21.7). Four of 194 patients died within 30 days of treatment completion, for which there were no independent predictive variables; 22/194 (11%) died within 90 days of treatment completion. BMI < 20 and ECOG performance status ≥2 were independent predictors of death within 90 days of treatment completion (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Patients with either BMI < 20 or ECOG performance status ≥ 2 had an odds ratio of death within 90 days of 5.97 (95% confidence interval 2.20, 16.19), rising to an odds ratio of 13.27 (1.70, 103.47) for patients with both BMI < 20 and ECOG performance status ≥ 2. Patients with low muscle attenuation had significantly reduced overall survival (P = 0.004); individuals with low muscle attenuation had a median survival of 15.2 months (95% confidence interval 12.7, 17.7) compared with 23.0 months (95% confidence interval 18.3, 27.8) for those with high muscle attenuation, equating to a hazard ratio of death of 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.17, 2.23, P = 0.003). Poor performance status, low BMI and low muscle attenuation identify patients at increased risk of premature death after

  12. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-07-15

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index and nomogram predicting recurrence-free survival in patients with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer without carcinoma in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jianfeng Cui,1,* Shouzhen Chen,1,* Qiyu Bo,2 Shiyu Wang,1 Ning Zhang,1 Meng Yu,1 Wenfu Wang,1 Jie Han,3 Yaofeng Zhu,1 Benkang Shi1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of First Operating Room, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objectives: Among the cancers of the urogenital system, bladder cancer is ranked second both in incidence and mortality, and hence, a more accurate estimate of the prognosis for individual patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is urgently needed. Prognostic nutritional index (PNI which is based on serum albumin levels and peripheral lymphocyte count has been confirmed to have prognostic value in various cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of PNI in patients with NMIBC.Methods: Data of 329 patients with NMIBC were evaluated retrospectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the equivalences of survival curves were tested by log-rank tests. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Discrimination of the nomogram was measured by the concordance index. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: In univariate analysis, age, tumor focality, tumor size, tumor grade, pathological T stage and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with RFS. Multivariate analysis identified PNI as an independent predictor of RFS in patients with NMIBC. According to these independent predictors, a nomogram for the prediction of recurrence was developed.Conclusion: PNI can be regarded as an independent prognostic factor for predicting RFS in NMIBC. The nomogram could be useful to improve personalized therapy for patients with NMIBC. Keywords: non

  15. Clonal composition of human ovarian cancer based on copy number analysis reveals a reciprocal relation with oncogenic mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuko; Ukita, Masayo; Schmidt, Jeanette; Wu, Longyang; De Velasco, Marco A; Roter, Alan; Jevons, Luis; Nishio, Kazuto; Mandai, Masaki

    2017-10-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of cancer cells remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the composition of ovarian cancer and its biological relevance. A whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array was applied to detect the clonal composition of 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of human ovarian cancer. Genome-wide segmentation data consisting of the log2 ratio (log2R) and B allele frequency (BAF) were used to calculate an estimate of the clonal composition number (CC number) for each tumor. Somatic mutation profiles of cancer-related genes were also determined for the same 24 samples by next-generation sequencing. The CC number was estimated successfully for 23 of the 24 cancer samples. The mean ± SD value for the CC number was 1.7 ± 1.1 (range of 0-4). A somatic mutation in at least one gene was identified in 22 of the 24 ovarian cancer samples, with the mutations including those in the oncogenes KRAS (29.2%), PIK3CA (12.5%), BRAF (8.3%), FGFR2 (4.2%), and JAK2 (4.2%) as well as those in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 (54.2%), FBXW7 (8.3%), PTEN (4.2%), and RB1 (4.2%). Tumors with one or more oncogenic mutations had a significantly lower CC number than did those without such a mutation (1.0 ± 0.8 versus 2.3 ± 0.9, P = 0.0027), suggesting that cancers with driver oncogene mutations are less heterogeneous than those with other mutations. Our results thus reveal a reciprocal relation between oncogenic mutation status and clonal composition in ovarian cancer using the established method for the estimation of the CC number. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine me...... and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (P...

  17. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  18. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2,048 cases and 2,173 hospital- and population-based controls from ten European countries (alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at three time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancers and BMI at time of interview and 2 years before interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 and 2 years before interview, BMI decrease (BMI change <-5%) vs. BMI stability (-5% ≤ BMI change <5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancers (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥+5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and\\/or drinking behaviors and\\/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.

  19. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  20. Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J; Gietema, Jourik A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mensink, Manon G J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Ter Horst, Gert J; Reyners, Anna K L

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCS treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Fifty TCS, 1-7 years post-chemotherapy, and 50 age-matched healthy men participated. Taste and smell function were measured using taste strips and 'Sniffin' Sticks', respectively. Dietary intake was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was performed to measure body composition. Presence of metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism were assessed. TCS had a lower total taste function, a higher bitter taste threshold, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and more (abdominal) fat than controls (p body composition in TCS (p = 0.016). Although taste function was impaired in TCS, this was not related to a different dietary intake compared to controls. Lower testosterone levels were associated with a higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat distribution in TCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Significance of Serum Adipokines according to Body Mass Index in Patients with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of 7 circulating adipokines according to body mass index (BMI in Korean men with localized prostate cancer (PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two of 65 prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP between 2015 and 2016 were evaluated. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to their BMI: non-obese (<25 kg/m2 and obese (≥25 kg/m2. The adipokines evaluated were interleukin-2, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, chemerin, C-X-C motif chemokine 10, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of advanced tumor stage. Results: We found that obese patients with PCa who underwent RP had a higher incidence of tumors with a high Gleason score (≥8, pathological T3 (pT3 stage, and positive extraprostatic extension than patients with a normal BMI. Additionally, patients with obesity showed significantly lower serum adiponectin and higher serum leptin levels, but did not show differences in other adipokines. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.03 was identified as a predictor of advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 in the overall population. However, only leptin remained an independent predictive factor for advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 (OR=1.15 in patients with obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results indicate that a higher leptin level in obese men can be considered a risk factor for aggressive PCa. This prospective study provides greater insight into the role of circulating adipokines in Korean patients with PCa undergoing RP, particularly in patients with obesity.

  2. New genetic signatures associated with cancer cachexia as defined by low skeletal muscle index and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Neil; Stretch, Cynthia; Tan, Benjamin H L; Solheim, Tora S; Sørhaug, Sveinung; Stephens, Nathan A; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Skipworth, Richard J E; Deans, D A Christopher; Vigano, Antonio; Ross, James A; Bathe, Oliver F; Tremblay, Michel L; Kaasa, Stein; Strasser, Florian; Gagnon, Bruno; Baracos, Vickie E; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Fearon, Kenneth C H

    2017-02-01

    Cachexia affects the majority with advanced cancer. Based on current demographic and clinical factors, it is not possible to predict who will develop cachexia or not. Such variation may, in part, be due to genotype. It has recently been proposed to extend the diagnostic criteria for cachexia to include a direct measure of low skeletal muscle index (LSMI) in addition to weight loss (WL). We aimed to explore our panel of candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) for association with WL +/- computerized tomography-defined LSMI. We also explored whether the transcription in muscle of identified genes was altered according to such cachexia phenotype METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used. Analysis explored associations of candidate SNPs with WL (n = 1276) and WL + LSMI (n = 943). Human muscle transcriptome (n = 134) was analysed using an Agilent platform. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the following genes showed association with WL alone: GCKR, LEPR, SELP, ACVR2B, TLR4, FOXO3, IGF1, CPN1, APOE, FOXO1, and GHRL. SNPs in LEPR, ACVR2B, TNF, and ACE were associated with concurrent WL + LSMI. There was concordance between muscle-specific expression for ACVR2B, FOXO1 and 3, LEPR, GCKR, and TLR4 genes and LSMI and/or WL (P < 0.05). The rs1799964 in the TNF gene and rs4291 in the ACE gene are new associations when the definition of cachexia is based on a combination of WL and LSMI. These findings focus attention on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the renin-angiotensin system as biomarkers/mediators of muscle wasting in cachexia. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  3. Impact of body mass index on clinico-pathological parameters and outcome in patients with metastatic prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; EL-Tanni, H.; Ghanem, H.M.; El Saify, A.M.; Al-Zahrani, A.S.; EL-Khatib, H.M.; Mohammed, A.A.; Farooq, M.U.; EL-Shentenawy, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and clinico pathological parameters of metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) and its impact on survival. Method During the study period, 71 MPC patients were eligible. Patients with BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 were categorized as level I and patients with BMI ⩾ 25.0 kg/m2 were categorized as level II. Demographic features and survival rates were evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional models. Results 31 patients belonged to level I while the rest belonged to level II with insignificant higher median follow-up duration in level II; ρ=0.5. In terms of age, metastasis, serum level of albumin, prostatic specific antigen, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and Gleason score, there was no significant difference between the two levels. The cumulative survival probability in the 12th, 24th and 36th month in level I vs; level II was; 86.7%, 68.7%, 64.1% vs; 74.4%, 67.7%, 55.1%, respectively with 7 patients dead in level I compared to 14 patients dead in level II denoting a higher PC-specific death rate in the level II group. In univariate and multivariate analysis, poor prognosis was associated with increasing AKP (HR = 1.0005, 95% CI, p = 0.03; HR=1.001, 95% CI, ρ=0.03) respectively, while better prognosis was associated with no visceral metastasis (HR = 0.09, 95% CI, ρ=0.000; HR = 0.04, 95% CI, ρ=0.000) and increasing albumin levels (HR = 0.17, 95% CI, ρ=0.000; HR = 0.15, 95% CI, ρ=0.000) respectively. In multivariate analysis only, patients belonging to level I were associated with better prognosis (HR = 0.17, 95% CI, ρ=0.02). Conclusion BMI is dependent on prognostic factors in patients with MPC

  4. Body Mass Index and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide a quantitative assessment of the association between excess body weight, interpreted as increased body mass index (BMI, and the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC. METHODS: We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE up to 1 February 2015, and reference lists of retrieved articles. Summary relative risks with their 95% confidence intervals were calculated in a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed according to study design, gender, geographic location, ascertainment of exposure and adjustment for confounders. RESUITS: A total of 12 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with “normal” weight, the summary relative risks of GBC were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04–1.25 for overweight individuals (BMI 25–30 kg/m2 and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.41–1.73 for obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2. Obese women had a higher risk of GBC than men did (women: SRRs 1.67, 95% CI 1.38–2.02; men: SRRs 1.42, 95% CI 1.21–1.66, and there was significant association between overweight and GBC risk in women (SRRs 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.40, but not in men (SRRs 1.06, 95% CI 0.94–1.20. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that obesity is associated with an increased risk of GBC, especially in women. Overweight is associated with GBC risk only in women.

  5. Comparison of Glasgow prognostic score and prognostic index in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and prognostic index (PI) are also powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value between GPS and PI. We enrolled consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC in this prospective cohort. GPS and PI were calculated before the onset of chemotherapy. The prognosis outcomes included 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). The performance of two scores in predicting prognosis was analyzed regarding discrimination and calibration. 138 patients were included in the study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GPS predicting 1-year DFS was 0.62 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.68, P statistic showed good fit of the predicted 1-year DFS to the actual 1-year DFS by GPS (χ(2) = 4.326, P = 0.462), while no fit was found between the predicted 1-year DFS and the actual 1-year DFS by PI (χ(2) = 15.234, P = 0.091). Similar results of calibration power were found for predicting 3-year DFS, 5-year DFS, 1-year OS, 3-year OS, and 5-year OS by GPS and PI. GPS is more accurate than PI in predicting prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC. GPS can be used as a useful and simple tool for predicting prognosis in patients with NSCLC. However, GPS only can be used for preliminary assessment because of low predicting accuracy.

  6. Genetic polymorphism at Val80 (rs700518) of the CYP19A1 gene is associated with body composition changes in women on aromatase inhibitors for ER (+) breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Rastelli, Antonella; Ma, Cynthia; Colleluori, Georgia; Vattikuti, Swapna; Armamento-Villareal, Reina

    2015-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 (aromatase) gene influence disease-free survival and bone loss in patients taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. Because AI use results in severe estrogen deficiency that may lead to changes in body composition, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the rs700518 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene on the changes in body composition among postmenopausal women who were treated with AIs for ER+ breast cancer. This was a 1-year prospective study of changes in body composition in postmenopausal women who were initiated on third-generation AIs for ER+ breast cancer. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry at 6 and 12 months, serum estradiol by radioimmunoassay, and genotyping by a TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism allelic discrimination assay. Eighty-two women could provide at least one follow-up body composition measurement. Women with the GG genotype for the rs700518 (G/A at Val80) developed a significant increase in truncal fat mass index (P=0.03) and a significant decrease in fat-free mass index (P=0.01) at 12 months relative to patients carrying the A allele (GA/AA). There was no significant difference in the changes in estradiol levels among the genotypes. Patients with the GG genotype for the rs700518 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene are at risk for significant loss of fat-free mass and increase in truncal fat with AI therapy. Whether there are associated metabolic abnormalities and whether changes would persist with long-term AI therapy need to be confirmed in a larger study with a longer duration of follow-up.

  7. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%. The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer.

  8. Analysis of Margin Index as a Method for Predicting Residual Disease After Breast-Conserving Surgery in a European Cancer Center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2011-06-03

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) × 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  9. Analysis of margin index as a method for predicting residual disease after breast-conserving surgery in a European cancer center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) x 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  10. Pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia of body mass index and differentiated thyroid cancer: the importance of body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Enora; Leux, Christophe; Brindel, Pauline; Truong, Thérèse; Anger, Antoinette; Teinturier, Cécile; Diallo, Ibrahima; Doyon, Françoise; Guénel, Pascal; de Vathaire, Florent

    2010-11-01

    New Caledonia and French Polynesia have among of the world highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. Studies have demonstrated a relationship between anthropometric parameters and the prevalence of cancer. In this study we evaluated further the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric parameters on the incidence of thyroid cancer in the New Caledonia and French Polynesia populations. We performed a pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. We included a total of 554 cases (65 men and 489 women) of differentiated thyroid cancers and 776 population control subjects matched on sex, age, and study. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage [BF%], and body surface area [BSA]), at age 18 and before diagnosis, were analyzed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for other independent risk factors. A high proportion of cases (73%) were overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (≥30 kg/m(2)) before diagnosis of thyroid cancer (against 57% of control subjects). An increased risk of thyroid cancer was observed with greater height, weight, BMI, BF%, and BSA. The association of thyroid cancer risk with height, weight, BMI, and BF% did not remain when adjustment was made for BSA. By comparison, the odds ratios for the highest versus the lowest quartile of BSA at age 18 were 3.97 (95% confidence interval, 2.57-6.15; p < 0.001) for women and 4.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-16.06; p = 0.04) for men. The association between thyroid cancer risk and each of anthropometric factors did not depend on tumor size or menopausal status before diagnosis. Among anthropometric factors, BSA plays a dominant role in thyroid cancer risk and explains the apparent role of BMI.

  11. A prognostic factor index for overall survival in patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for HER2-negative advanced breast cancer: an analysis of the ATHENA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart-Cussac, Antonio; Pivot, Xavier; Biganzoli, Laura; Cortes-Funes, Hernan; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Smith, Ian; Thomssen, Christoph; Srock, Stefanie; Sampayo, Miguel; Cortes, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based definitions of 'poor-prognosis' or 'aggressive' advanced breast cancer are lacking. We developed a prognostic factor index using data from 2203 patients treated with first-line chemotherapy plus bevacizumab for HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. The risk factors most closely associated with worse OS were: disease-free interval ≤24 months; liver metastases or ≥3 involved organ sites; prior anthracycline and/or taxane therapy; triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); and performance status 2 or prior analgesic/corticosteroid treatment. Risk of death was increased threefold in patients with ≥3 versus ≤1 risk factors (hazard ratio 3.0 [95% CI 2.6-3.4; p < 0.001]; median 16.0 vs 38.8 months, respectively). This prognostic index may enable identification of patients with a poorer prognosis in whom more intensive systemic regimens may be appropriate. The index may also be considered in designing new trials, although it requires validation in other datasets before extrapolation to non-bevacizumab-containing therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00448591. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical approaches for evaluating body composition markers in clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Mohamed Amine; Antoun, Sami; Lanoy, Emilie

    2017-04-01

    The term 'morphomics' stands for the markers of body composition in muscle and adipose tissues. in recent years, as part of clinical cancer research, several associations between morphomics and outcome or toxicity were found in different treatment settings leading to a growing interest. we aim to review statistical approaches used to evaluate these markers and suggest practical statistical recommendations. Area covered: We identified statistical methods used recently to take into account properties of morphomics measurements. We also reviewed adjustment methods on major confounding factors such as gender and approaches to model morphomic data, especially mixed models for repeated measures. Finally, we focused on methods for determining a cut-off for a morphomic marker that could be used in clinical practice and how to assess its robustness. Expert commentary: From our review, we proposed 13 key points to strengthen analyses and reporting of clinical research assessing associations between morphomics and outcome or toxicity.

  13. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...... was associated with an unfavourable recurrence-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS), hazard ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.76) (P=0.028). The generated RF-CSS index divided the traditional high-risk patients into subgroups with 5-year RF-CSS rates of 87% and 73%, respectively (P...

  14. The potential usefulness of the Response Index in positron emission tomography assessing the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Matsuda, Chu; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Murata, Kohei; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Mizushima, Tsunekazu

    2017-12-01

    Pre-operative chemotherapy is an option for patients with local advanced rectal cancer, but the response rate to pre-operative chemotherapy with oxaliplatin is still low. If the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy could be assessed, we may be able to convert to surgery early. The purpose of the present study was to validate the correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) of the primary tumor and the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer. Retrospective cohort study from January 2011 to October 2015. We examined 28 patients with pathologically confirmed sigmoid or rectal cancer that underwent pre-operative chemotherapy and surgery. The correlation between Response Index (RI), calculated as (SUV max after chemotherapy)/(SUV max before chemotherapy), and the therapeutic effect on the primary tumor in advanced colorectal cancer. The degree of differentiation (p = 0.04), SUV max in the primary tumor after chemotherapy (p = 0.02), and RI (p = 0.008) were significant predictors of the therapeutic effect in univariate analysis. The areas under the ROC curve constructed with RI and therapeutic effect was 0.77. The optimal cut-off values for the RI in the responder group was effect of chemotherapy on advanced colorectal cancer. Thus, RI is potentially useful for predicting the therapeutic effect in advanced colorectal cancer.

  15. Past and future trends in cancer and biomedical research: a comparison between Egypt and the World using PubMed-indexed publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeneldin Ahmed Abdelmabood

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubMed is a free web literature search service that contains almost 21 millions of abstracts and publications with almost 5 million user queries daily. The purposes of the study were to compare trends in PubMed-indexed cancer and biomedical publications from Egypt to that of the world and to predict future publication volumes. Methods The PubMed was searched for the biomedical publications between 1991 and 2010 (publications dates. Affiliation was then limited to Egypt. Further limitation was applied to cancer, human and animal publications. Poisson regression model was used for prediction of future number of publications between 2011 and 2020. Results Cancer publications contributed 23% to biomedical publications both for Egypt and the world. Egyptian biomedical and cancer publications contributed about 0.13% to their world counterparts. This contribution was more than doubled over the study period. Egyptian and world’s publications increased from year to year with rapid rise starting the year 2003. Egyptian as well as world’s human cancer publications showed the highest increases. Egyptian publications had some peculiarities; they showed some drop at the years 1994 and 2002 and apart from the decline in the animal: human ratio with time, all Egyptian publications in the period 1991-2000 were significantly more than those in 2001-2010 (P  Conclusions The Egyptian contribution to world’s biomedical and cancer publications needs significant improvements through research strategic planning, setting national research priorities, adequate funding and researchers’ training.

  16. Does the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the Healthy Diet Index influence the risk of breast cancer in a large British cohort of women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J E; Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C

    2011-08-01

    To assess the risk of developing breast cancer associated with consumption of two common dietary patterns: a Mediterranean dietary pattern and a dietary pattern, which conforms to the World Health Organization Healthy Diet Index (WHO HDI). Dietary data from a 217-item food frequency questionnaire were used to generate two dietary patterns according to pre-defined criteria in women from the UK Women's Cohort Study. Survival analysis using Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios for risk of breast cancer adjusted for known confounders. This analysis included 828 incident cases of breast cancer in 33,731 women with a mean follow-up of 9 years. There were no statistically significant associations between either the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the WHO HDI and risk of breast cancer. In premenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant trend suggesting that increasing compliance with the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of breast cancer. Maximal adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with hazards ratio=0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.02, P trend=0.09) compared with minimal adherence. In postmenopausal women, no clear trends were observed. In this study, no strong association between the risk of breast cancer and the consumption of either a Mediterranean-type diet or one characterized by adherence to the WHO HDI was observed. In premenopausal, but not postmenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant inverse association with increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern.

  17. Past and future trends in cancer and biomedical research: a comparison between Egypt and the world using PubMed-indexed publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed Abdelmabood; Taha, Fatma Mohamed; Moneer, Manar

    2012-07-10

    PubMed is a free web literature search service that contains almost 21 millions of abstracts and publications with almost 5 million user queries daily. The purposes of the study were to compare trends in PubMed-indexed cancer and biomedical publications from Egypt to that of the world and to predict future publication volumes. The PubMed was searched for the biomedical publications between 1991 and 2010 (publications dates). Affiliation was then limited to Egypt. Further limitation was applied to cancer, human and animal publications. Poisson regression model was used for prediction of future number of publications between 2011 and 2020. Cancer publications contributed 23% to biomedical publications both for Egypt and the world. Egyptian biomedical and cancer publications contributed about 0.13% to their world counterparts. This contribution was more than doubled over the study period. Egyptian and world's publications increased from year to year with rapid rise starting the year 2003. Egyptian as well as world's human cancer publications showed the highest increases. Egyptian publications had some peculiarities; they showed some drop at the years 1994 and 2002 and apart from the decline in the animal: human ratio with time, all Egyptian publications in the period 1991-2000 were significantly more than those in 2001-2010 (P PubMed publications, respectively. The Egyptian contribution to world's biomedical and cancer publications needs significant improvements through research strategic planning, setting national research priorities, adequate funding and researchers' training.

  18. A social comparison theory analysis of group composition and efficacy of cancer support group programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack Taylor, Cindy L; Kulik, James; Badr, Hoda; Smith, Murray; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Penedo, Frank; Gritz, Ellen R

    2007-07-01

    Group-based psychosocial programs provide an effective forum for improving mood and social support for cancer patients. Because some studies show more benefit for patients with initially high psychosocial distress, and little or no benefit for patients with initially low distress, support programs may better address patient needs by only including distressed patients. However, distressed patients may benefit particularly from the presence of nondistressed patients who model effective coping, an idea many researchers and extensions of social comparison theory support. We present a theoretical analysis, based on a social comparison perspective, of how group composition (heterogeneous group of distressed and nondistressed patients versus homogeneous group of distressed patients) may affect the efficacy of cancer support programs. We propose that a heterogeneous group allows distressed patients maximal opportunity for the various social comparison activities they are likely to prefer; a homogeneous group does not. Though the presence of nondistressed patients in a heterogeneous group potentially benefits distressed patients, the benefits for nondistressed patients are unclear. For nondistressed patients, heterogeneous groups may provide limited opportunities for preferred social comparison activity and may create the possibility for no benefit or even negative effects on quality of life. We also discuss ethical issues with enrolling nondistressed patients whose presence may help others, but whose likelihood of personal benefit is questionable.

  19. Body composition analysis within 1 month after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Kawabe, Taiichi; Hirohito, Fujikawa; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Sato, Tsutomu; Oshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2016-04-01

    A significant body weight loss (BWL) is observed during 1 month after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. However, it remains unclear which body component mainly accounts for the weight loss. Two-hundred forty-four patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer between May 2010 and October 2013 were examined. Body weight and composition were evaluated by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer within 1 week before surgery (first measurement), at 1 week after surgery (second measurement), and at 1 month after surgery (third measurement). The changes in the early period were defined as the differences until the second measurement, and those in the late period were defined as the differences from the second to the third measurement. Total BWL within 1 month was -3.4 kg, and the rate of body weight at 1 month to the preoperative body weight was 94.1 %. BWL was significantly greater in the early period than in the late period (-2.1 kg vs -1.2 kg, p body mass was significantly greater than loss of fat mass (-1.5 kg vs -0.6 kg, p body mass accounted for a significant part of the BWL during the first week.

  20. The prognostic significance and relationship with body composition of CCR7-positive cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Knight, Stella C; Moorghen, Morgan; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Jenkins, John T

    2015-07-01

    The host local immune response (LIR) to cancer is a determinant of cancer outcome. Regulation of this local response is largely achieved through chemokine synthesis from the tumor microenvironment such as C-Chemokine-Receptor-7 (CCR7). We examined the LIR measured as CCR7 expression, in colorectal cancers (CRC) and explored relationships with body composition (BC) and survival. A study of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens was carried out in 116 patients with non-metastatic CRC. CCR7 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of computer tomography scans was used to calculate BC parameters. Survival analyses and multivariate regression models were used. High CCR7(+) cell density within the tumor stroma and at the margin was significantly associated with increased age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, higher tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, high Klintrup-Makinen immune score, and myosteatosis. High CCR7(+) cell density in the tumor margin was significantly associated with shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). This was also significantly associated with shorter survival in multivariate analysis (HR = 8.87; 95%CI [2.51-31.3]; P < 0.01 for OS and HR = 4.72; 95%CI (1.24-12.9); P = 0.02 for DFS). Our results suggest that a specific immune microenvironment may be associated with altered host's BC and tumor behavior, and that CCR7 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  2. Prognostic microRNAs in cancer tissue from patients operated for pancreatic cancer--five microRNAs in a prognostic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Andersen, Klaus; Roslind, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can predict overall survival (OS) in non micro-dissected cancer tissues from patients operated for pancreatic cancer (PC)....

  3. Food frequency questionnaire as an indicator of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early pregnancy, according to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, J; Vaz, J S; Moreira, J D; Pinto, T J P; Soares-Mota, M; Kac, G

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be indicative of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early pregnancy and if correlations are affected by body mass index (BMI). The present study comprised a prospective cohort conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample was composed of 248 women, aged 20-40 years, between 6 and the 13 weeks of gestation. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Fatty acid serum compositions were determined in fasting serum samples, employing a high-throughput robotic direct methylation coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. Spearman's correlation (r(s)) was used to assess the relationship between fatty acid intake and corresponding serum composition. Women were classified according to BMI (kg m(-2) ) as underweight/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 139) or excessive weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 109). In the total sample, dietary report was significantly correlated with the serum composition of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; r(s) = 0.232, P < 0.001), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6; r(s) = 0.271, P < 0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3; r(s) = 0.263, P < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3; r(s) = 0.209, P = 0.001). When analyses were stratified by BMI, significant correlations between FFQ and serum composition among underweight/normal weight women were observed for total PUFA (r(s) = 0.323, P < 0.001), LA (r(s) = 0.322, P < 0.001), EPA (r(s) = 0.352, P < 0.001) and DHA (r(s) = 0.176, P = 0.039). Among women of excessive weight, significant correlations were observed only for alpha linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3; r(s) = 0.199, P = 0.040) and DHA (r(s) = 0.236, P = 0.014). FFQ in early pregnancy may be used as a possible indicator of serum concentrations of fatty acids. Higher correlations were observed among underweight/normal weight women. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  5. Understanding the Role of Muscle and Body Composition in Studies of Cancer Risk and Prognosis in Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this conference is to bring together a community of researchers across the cancer control continuum using geospatial tools, models and approaches to address cancer prevention and control.

  6. The corpus-predominant gastritis index may serve as an early marker of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients at risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-C; Hsiao, W-H; Yang, H-B; Cheng, H-C; Chang, W-L; Lu, C-C; Sheu, B-S

    2013-05-01

    To eradicate Helicobacter pylori before the occurrence of precancerous changes is important to prevent gastric carcinogenesis. To validate whether the corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI) can serve as an early marker to identify the H. pylori-infected patients at risk of gastric carcinogenesis. This study enrolled 188 subjects, including 43 noncardiac gastric cancer patients, 63 of their first-degree relatives and 82 sex- and age-matched duodenal ulcer patients as controls. All received endoscopy to provide topographic gastric specimens to test for H. pylori infection and its related histological features, translated into the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA), operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages, and the presence of CGI. Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining of trefoil factor 2. Gastric cancer patients had higher prevalence of CGI and OLGIM stage II-IV, but not OLGA stage II-IV, than the controls (P = 0.001, OR = 3.4[95% CI: 1.4-8.1] for CGI; OR = 5.0[95% CI: 2.0-12.8] for OLGIM). In patients with the combined presence of CGI and OLGIM stage II-IV, the risk of gastric cancer increased to 9.8 (P cancer patients had a higher rate of the presence of CGI, but not OLGA or OLGIM stage II-IV than the duodenal ulcer controls (P = 0.001). Of the first-degree relatives, the presence of CGI increased the risk of SPEM (P = 0.003, OR = 5.5[95% CI: 1.8-17.0]). The corpus-predominant gastritis index, which is highly correlated to SPEM, may serve as an early marker to identify the H. pylori-infected patients at a higher risk of gastric cancer. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD. Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years.The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35, 60-69 (n = 123, 70-79 (n = 93, and 80-89 (n = 107 years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21, medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118, overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178, and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC, lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lumbar spine (L1-L4 BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2, LM index (LMI; LM/height2, FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2, percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM × 100% were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization.Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively. The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001 whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145. Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined with age (p = 0.0031 and p < 0

  8. Evaluation of [-2] proPSA and Prostate Health Index (phi) for the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Xavier; Giménez, Nuria

    2013-04-01

    The usefulness of %[-2] proPSA and Prostate Health Index (phi) in the detection of prostate cancer are currently unknown. It has been suggested that these tests can distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic diseases better than PSA or %fPSA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available scientific evidence to evaluate the clinical usefulness of %[-2] proPSA and phi. Relevant published papers were identified by searching computerized bibliographic systems. Data on sensitivity and specificity were extracted from 12 studies: 10 studies about %[-2] proPSA (3928 patients in total, including 1762 with confirmed prostate cancer) and eight studies about phi (2919 patients in total, including 1515 with confirmed prostate cancer). The sensitivity for the detection of prostate cancer was 90% for %[-2] proPSA and phi, while the pooled specificity was 32.5% (95% CI 30.6-34.5) and 31.6% (95% CI 29.2-34.0) for %[-2] proPSA and phi, respectively. The measurement of %[-2] proPSA improves the accuracy of prostate cancer detection in comparison with PSA or %fPSA, particularly in the group of patients with PSA between 2 μg/L and 10 μg/L. Similar results were obtained measuring phi. Using these tests, it is possible to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, maintaining a high cancer detection rate. Published results also showed that %[-2] proPSA and phi are related to the aggressiveness of the tumor.

  9. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-I as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-10-01

    The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. We analyzed retrospective data from 610 adult childhood cancer survivors, retrieved from the late effects clinic. Median age at diagnosis was 6 years (interquartile range 3-11) and follow-up time was 18 years (13-24). We assessed IGF-I standard deviation scores (SDS), anthropometrical measures, growth hormone stimulation tests in patients with clinical signs of GHD, and measures of body composition (assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, Lunar Prodigy). In 58 cranially irradiated acute leukemia survivors (25 Gy (24-25)) and 56 locally irradiated brain tumor survivors (42 Gy (35-54)) we found significantly lower IGF-I SDS (P body mass index (P = 0.01), higher waist-hip ratio (WHR; P = 0.001), higher total fat percentage SDS (P body mass SDS (P body mass (r = 0.15, P = 0.01). In patients with low IGF-I levels, IGF-I did not significantly differ between subjects with and without GHD as determined by GH-stimulation testing (P = 0.39). This study shows that IGF-I has limited value as a marker for alterations in body composition in adult childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alcohol consumption, body mass index and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: Women’ Lifestyle and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Aesun; Sandin, Sven; Lof, Marie; Margolis, Karen L.; Kim, Kyeezu; Couto, Elisabeth; Adami, Hans Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk and to test whether overweight and obesity modifies this association. We included in the analysis 45,233 women enrolled in the Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health study between 1991 and 1992. Participants were followed for occurrence of breast cancer and death until December 2009. Poisson regression models were used, and analyses were done for overall breast cancer and for estrogen receptor positive or negative (ER+, ER-) and progesterone receptor positive and negative (PR+, PR-) tumors separately. A total of 1,385 breast cancer cases were ascertained during the follow-up period. Overall, we found no statistically significant association between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk after adjustment for confounding, with an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.01 (95 % CI: 0.98–1.04) for an increment in alcohol consumption of 5 g/day. A statistically significant elevated breast cancer risk associated with higher alcohol consumption was found only among women with BMI ≤25 (RR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.0–1.05 per 5 g/day increase). An increase in breast cancer risk with higher alcohol consumption was found for breast cancers in women with a BMI ≤25 kg/m 2

  11. Childhood body mass index and height in relation to site-specific risks of colorectal cancers in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W; Gamborg, Michael; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    .14 (95% CI 1.09-1.19) per z-score, respectively. Children who were persistently taller or heavier than average, had increased risk of colon cancer. Similarly, growing taller or gaining more weight than average was positively associated with colon cancer. No associations were observed between BMI...

  12. Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders; Dejgaard, Thomas; Thomsen, Carsten; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Mikines, Kari J; van Hall, Gerrit; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-10-01

    Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer and ten healthy men with normal testosterone levels underwent 12 weeks of endurance training. Primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with concomitant glucose-tracer infusion) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (PBody weight (Pbody fat mass (FM) (Pbody mass (P=0.99) was unchanged. Additionally, reductions were observed in abdominal (Pcancer patients exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and body composition to a similar degree as eugonadal men.

  13. Exercise Improves V˙O2max and Body Composition in Androgen Deprivation Therapy-treated Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Bradley A; GALVãO, Daniel A; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Newton, Robert U

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience unfavorable changes in body composition and associated metabolic complications, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effect of a 6-month program of aerobic and resistance exercise aimed at improving body composition and cardiorespiratory health in this population. Ninety-seven men (43-90 yr) with localized prostate cancer receiving ADT were randomized to either exercise (EX, n = 50) or usual care (CON, n = 47). Supervised exercise was undertaken twice weekly at moderate to high intensity. Measures of cardiorespiratory capacity (V˙O2max), resting metabolic rate, central blood pressure, hemodynamic variables, blood markers, and body composition were assessed. There was a significant group-time interaction present for V˙O2max (P = 0.033) with a treatment effect for EX of 0.11 L·min (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.04-0.19) (relative to body mass = 1.3 mL·kg·min, 95% CI = 0.3-2.3) and fat oxidation (P = 0.037) of 12.0 mg·min (95% CI = 2.3-21.7). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in glucose (P Body composition was enhanced for EX with adjusted mean differences in lean mass (P = 0.015) of 0.8 kg (95% CI = 0.3-1.3), total fat mass (P = 0.020) of -1.1 kg (95% CI = -1.8 to -0.5), and trunk fat mass (P body composition despite the adverse effects of hormone suppression. Combined aerobic and resistance training should be considered a key adjuvant component in men undergoing ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. Poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm)-gold nanoshell composites for optically-triggered cancer therapeutic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laura Elizabeth

    Cancer is currently the second leading cause of death in the United States. Although many treatment options exist, some of the most common, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, are restricted by dose-limiting toxicities. For example, for 2-6% of patients receiving a regimen of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, irreversible cardiotoxicity will occur1, causing these patients to immediately cease treatment. In addition, the largest hurdle for translating novel biological therapies such as siRNA into the clinic is lack of an efficient delivery mechanism to get the therapeutic into malignant cells2. Both of these situations would benefit from a minimally invasive controlled release system that only delivers a therapeutic to the site of malignant tissue. This thesis presents work towards the creation of such a delivery platform using two novel material components: a thermally responsive poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide] (NIPAAm-co-AAm) hydrogel and gold-silica nanoshells. Thermally responsive hydrogels go through a physical property transition at their lower critical solution temperature (LCST). When transitioning from below to above the LCST, the hydrogel material expels large amounts of water and absorbed molecules. This phase change can be optically triggered by embedded gold-silica nanoshells, which rapidly transfer near-infrared (NIR) light energy into heat energy due to the surface plasmon resonance phenomena. When this material is loaded with absorbed drug molecules, drug release can be externally triggered by exposure to an NIR laser. Initial characterization of this material was done using bulk hydrogel-nanoshell composites. Poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm)-nanoshell composites were synthesized via free radical polymerization. The LCST of the poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm) hydrogels was determined to be from 39-45 °C, or slightly above physiologic temperature. The material was swollen in a drug solution of either doxorubicin (a common chemotherapeutic) or a 21bp ds

  15. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors.We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482. We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively.In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10. The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10-8 and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10-8. This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10-7. Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in association with breast cancer risk at p < 0.05; for 16 of them, the

  16. Oxidative stress and body composition in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Sebastiano; Favilla, Vincenzo; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; DI Rosa, Alessandro; Madonia, Massimo; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the role of body composition and oxidative stress measured by total thiol groups (TTG) levels in prostate specimens of patients affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer (PCa). From January 2011 to January 2013, a cohort of 150 consecutive male patients who underwent first prostate biopsy were enrolled. Twelve-core needle biopsy was performed as standard procedure, while twelve more needle tissue cores matched with the previous group were also collected for glutathione determination. After definitive diagnosis, measurement of glutathione was performed in the correspondent one matched prostatic sample where PCa or BPH were identified. A day after the prostatic biopsy, body composition was estimated by air plethysmography (BOD POD®). A significant difference of TTG was observed in BPH and PCa patients; 34 nanomole (nmol) reagent sulfihydrylc (RSH)/ mg protein vs. 1.1 nmol RSH/ mg protein respectively (p<0.05). In BPH patients, a negative correlation was found between TTG and age (r=-0.46; p<0.05), while, in PCa patients, a positive correlation was observed between TTG and fat mass (FM) (r=0.76; p<0.01) and waist circumference (WC) (r=0.49; p<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed TTG to be negatively associated with age (β-coefficient=-0.4; p<0.05) in BPH patients and positively with FM (β-coefficient=3.4; p<0.01) and WC (β-coefficient=2.7; p<0.05) in PCa patients. Aging determines a progressive reduction of TTG in BPH patients, while in PCa subjects glutathione concentrations are significantly lower and FM and WC are associated with an unbalance of its levels. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Role of body composition and metabolic profile in Barrett's oesophagus and progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Cheung, Wui Hang; Fini, Lucia; Keane, Margaret G; Theis, Belinda; Haidry, Rehan; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lovat, Laurence; Batterham, Rachel L; Banks, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for Barrett's oesophagus (BE) on the basis of body composition, metabolic pathways, adipokines and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as their role in cancer progression. In patients with and without BE at gastroscopy, data on MS, BMI, waist/hip ratio for abdominal obesity (AO) and body fat percentage by bioimpedance were obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured. The homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Histological findings for BE were correlated with the above parameters. Risk factors for BE identified using univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 250 patients and 224 controls (F/M: 189/285, mean age 58.08±15.51 years) were enroled. In the BE and control groups, 39.6 versus 31.3% were overweight, 32 versus 22.8% were obese, 75.6 versus 51.3% had AO, and 28.1 versus 18.9% were metabolically obese, respectively. AO [odds ratio (OR) 3.08], increased body fat percentage (OR 2.29), and higher BMI (overweight: OR 2.04; obese: OR 2.26) were significantly associated with BE. A positive trend was found in Normal Weight Obese Syndrome (OR 1.69). MS was associated with BE (overweight: OR 3.05; obese: OR 5.2; AO: OR 8.08). Insulin levels (P=0.05) and HOMA-IR (Pbody composition.

  18. Body composition and bone mineral density in breast cancer survivors and non-cancer controls: A 12- to 15-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, A L; Simonavice, E; Madzima, T A; Kim, J-S; Arjmandi, B H; Ilich, J Z; Panton, L B

    2018-03-01

    While prognosis for breast cancer in women has improved, adverse side effects of treatments may negatively affect body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). This study assessed body composition and BMD changes in breast cancer survivors (BCS) (n = 10, 57.9 ± 5.7 years) and age-matched women (non-cancer, n = 10, 56.5 ± 4.3 years) over a 12- to 15-month period via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. No differences were observed between groups at baseline except forearm BMD values were lower in BCS (BCS: 0.462 ± 0.070 g/cm 2 ; Control: 0.539 ± 0.052 g/cm 2 , p = .012). Body fat increased in both groups compared to baseline (BCS: 38.3-39.6 kg, p = .013; Control: 38.2-39.5 kg, p = .023) at the follow-up. Significant decreases in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total femur and ulna were observed in both groups. Breast cancer survivors had a greater decrease in left femoral neck BMD. While BCS demonstrated lower baseline forearm BMD values and a greater decrease in left femoral neck BMD, both groups showed an increase in body fat and decrease in forearm BMD. These findings support the implementation of interventions to improve body composition and BMD in both BCS and women without cancer. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rigor index, fillet yield and proximate composition of cultured striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus for its suitability in processing industries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Noor-E Islami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigor-index in market-size striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, locally called Thai-Pangas was determined to assess fillet yield for production of value-added products. In whole fish, rigor started within 1 hr after death under both iced and room temperature conditions while rigor-index reached a maximum of 72.23% within 8 hr and 85.5% within 5 hr at room temperature and iced condition, respectively, which was fully relaxed after 22 hr under both storage conditions. Post-mortem muscle pH decreased to 6.8 after 2 hr, 6.2 after 8 hr and sharp increase to 6.9 after 9 hr. There was a positive correlation between rigor progress and pH shift in fish fillets. Hand filleting was done post-rigor and fillet yield experiment showed 50.4±2.1% fillet, 8.0±0.2% viscera, 8.0±1.3% skin and 32.0±3.2% carcass could be obtained from Thai-Pangas. Proximate composition analysis of four regions of Thai-Pangas viz., head region, middle region, tail region and viscera revealed moisture 78.36%, 81.14%, 81.45% and 57.33%; protein 15.83%, 15.97%, 16.14% and 17.20%; lipid 4.61%, 1.82%, 1.32% and 24.31% and ash 1.09%, 0.96%, 0.95% and 0.86%, respectively indicating suitability of Thai-Pangas for production of value-added products such as fish fillets.

  20. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  1. Pre-treatment inflammatory indexes as predictors of survival and cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with wild-type RAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Guo, Xinli; Wang, Manni; Ma, Xuelei; Ye, Xiaoyang; Lin, Panpan

    2017-12-07

    This study aims at evaluating the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and systemic immune-inflammation indexes (SII) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab. Ninety-five patients receiving cetuximab for mCRC were categorized into the high or low NLR, PLR, LMR, and SII groups based on their median index values. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were performed to identify the indexes' correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In the univariate analysis, ECOG performance status, neutrphil counts, lymphocyte counts, monocyte counts, NLR, PLR, and LDH were associated with survival. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance status of 0 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.608, p < 0.001; HR 5.030, p < 0.001, respectively), high absolute neutrophil counts (HR 2.837, p < 0.001; HR 1.922, p = 0.026, respectively), low lymphocyte counts (HR 0.352, p < 0.001; HR 0.440, p = 0.001, respectively), elevated NLR (HR 3.837, p < 0.001; HR 2.467, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of shorter PFS and OS. In conclusion, pre-treatment inflammatory indexes, especially NLR were potential biomarkers to predict the survival of mCRC patients with cetuximab therapy.

  2. Among 4 Diet Quality Indexes, Only the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score Is Associated with Better Colorectal Cancer Survival and Only in African American Women in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Harmon, Brook E; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Boushey, Carol J; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with a 5-y survival rate of ∼65%. Therefore, the identification of modifiable health factors to improve CRC survival is crucial. We investigated the association of 4 prediagnostic a priori diet quality indexes with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). The MEC included >215,000 African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, Latino, and white adults living in Hawaii and California who completed a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1993-1996. CRC cases and deaths were identified through linkages to cancer registries and to state and national vital registries. Sex-specific HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternative HEI (AHEI) 2010, the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index with CRC-specific and overall mortality as the primary outcomes. Ethnicity-specific analyses were the secondary outcomes. Among 4204 MEC participants diagnosed with invasive CRC through 2010, 1976 all-cause and 1095 CRC-specific deaths were identified. A higher aMED score was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality in women [HR continuous pattern score divided by its respective SD (HR1SD): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96] but not in men (HR1SD: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11). A higher aMED score was also associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR1SD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96) but not in men (HR1SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). The HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, and DASH index were not significantly associated with CRC-specific or with all-cause mortality. The inverse relation for the aMED score was limited to African Americans and to colon (compared with rectal) cancer. The aMED score was related to lower mortality only in African-American women (1 of 5 ethnic groups studied). The results should be interpreted with caution due to the small

  3. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Combined Effects of Hormone Therapy, Body Mass Index, and Alcohol Use, by Hormone-receptor Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Tjonneland, Anne; Keiding, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high......,789 women ages 50+ years (study period 1981 to 2009). Information on risk factors was obtained in baseline questionnaires. We performed analyses using the Aalen additive hazards model. Serum estradiol and testosterone measurements were obtained in a subsample of approximately 1000 women. RESULTS: During 392...

  4. Age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score as predictor of survival of patients with digestive system cancer who have undergone surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaohua; Jian, Zhong; Xu, Beibei; Liu, Hui

    2017-10-03

    Comorbidities have considerable effects on survival outcomes. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to examine the association between age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) score and postoperative in-hospital mortality in patients with digestive system cancer who have undergone surgical resection of their cancers. Using electronic hospitalization summary reports, we identified 315,464 patients who had undergone surgery for digestive system cancer in top-rank (Grade 3A) hospitals in China between 2013 and 2015. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to evaluate the effect of ACCI score on postoperative mortality, with adjustments for sex, type of resection, anesthesia methods, and caseload of each healthcare institution. The postoperative in-hospital mortality rate in the study cohort was 1.2% (3,631/315,464). ACCI score had a positive graded association with the risk of postoperative in-hospital mortality for all cancer subtypes. The adjusted HRs for postoperative in-hospital mortality scores ≥ 6 for esophagus, stomach, colorectum, pancreas, and liver and gallbladder cancer were 2.05 (95% CI: 1.45-2.92), 2.00 (95% CI: 1.60-2.49), 2.54 (95% CI: 2.02-3.21), 2.58 (95% CI: 1.68-3.97), and 4.57 (95% CI: 3.37-6.20), respectively, compared to scores of 0-1. These findings suggested that a high ACCI score is an independent predictor of postoperative in-hospital mortality in Chinese patients with digestive system cancer who have undergone surgical resection.

  5. Body Mass Index, Diet-Related Factors, and Bladder Cancer Prognosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, E.; Witjes, J.A.; Fleshner, N.E.; Lerner, S.P.; Shariat, S.F.; Steineck, G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Vrieling, A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Urologists are frequently confronted with questions of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients about what they can do to improve their prognosis. Unfortunately, it is largely unknown which lifestyle factors can influence prognosis. Objective: To systematically review the available evidence

  6. Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegaard, U.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, Th.; Henriksson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Parotid saliva composition was studied before, during and up to 18 months after the irradiation period in 16 cancer patients treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected prior to radiotherapy and, when possible, weekly during treatment. New samples were taken 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of radiotherapy. Nine of the 16 patients were treated with bilateral irradiation fields and 7 patients with unilateral irradiation fields, with a total dose not exceeding 52 Gy. During the entire irradiation period the fraction of glands producing measurable volumes of saliva decreased to 40%. In the post irradiation period the number of active glands gradually increased and saliva secretion rate returned to an average of 72% of the initial value 18 months after the end of irradiation. The concentrations of the measured variables increased already during the first week of radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period the concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase, hexosamine and salivary IgA were significantly increased. The concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase and salivary IgA were still increased 6 months after the end of irradiation. At the 18-months observation all concentrations had returned to normal. (author)

  7. Interaction between body mass index and hormone-receptor status as a prognostic factor in lymph-node-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Yong Chung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI at a breast cancer diagnosis and various factors including the hormone-receptor, menopause, and lymph-node status, and identify if there is a specific patient subgroup for which the BMI has an effect on the breast cancer prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 8,742 patients with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer from the research database of Asan Medical Center. The overall survival (OS and breast-cancer-specific survival (BCSS outcomes were compared among BMI groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models with an interaction term. There was a significant interaction between BMI and hormone-receptor status for the OS (P = 0.029, and BCSS (P = 0.013 in lymph-node-positive breast cancers. Obesity in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer showed a poorer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 2.48 and significantly poorer BCSS (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.99. In contrast, a high BMI in hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer revealed a better OS (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.16 to 1.19 and BCSS (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.44. Being underweight (BMI < 18.50 kg/m2 with hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer was associated with a significantly worse OS (HR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.00-3.95 and BCSS (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.12-4.47. There was no significant interaction found between the BMI and hormone-receptor status in the lymph-node-negative setting, and BMI did not interact with the menopause status in any subgroup. In conclusion, BMI interacts with the hormone-receptor status in a lymph-node-positive setting, thereby playing a role in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  8. Relationship between body mass index and the expression of hormone receptors or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 with respect to breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ye Won; Kang, Su Hwan; Park, Min Ho; Lim, Woosung; Cho, Se Heun; Suh, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and the prognosis of breast cancer patients remains controversial. Furthermore, the association between BMI and prognosis with respect to different breast cancer subtypes is not clearly defined. We analyzed data from 41,021 invasive breast cancer patients between January 1988 and February 2008 from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry (KBCR) database. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox’s proportional hazard regression model among all patients and specific breast cancer subtypes with respect to BMI categories. A U-shaped association between BMI and mortality was observed in the total cohort. Underweight and obese individuals exhibited worse OS (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95 % confidence interval {CI}, 1.05 to 1.44] and 1.29 [1.13 to 1.48], respectively) and BCSS (1.26 [1.03 to 1.54] and 1.21 [1.02 to 1.43], respectively) than normal-weight individuals. In the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) - subgroup, obese individuals exhibited worse OS (1.48 [1.18 to 1.85]) and BCSS (1.31 [1.13 to 1.52]) than normal-weight individuals. Conversely, in the ER and PR-/HER2+ subgroup, underweight individuals exhibited worse OS (1.68 [1.12 to 2.47]) and BCSS (1.79 [1.11 to 2.90]) than normal-weight individuals. We observed a U-shaped relationship between BMI at diagnosis and poor OS and BCSS among all breast cancer patients. However, obesity in the ER and/or PR+/HER2- subgroup and underweight in the ER and PR-/HER2+ subgroup were poor prognostic factors. Therefore, BMI at diagnosis and breast cancer subtype should be considered simultaneously in various treatment decision processes and surveillance schedules

  9. Classification of obesity by means of the body mass index and verification by measurement of the body composition using the tritium dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.; Fischer, S.; Weck, M.; Hanefeld, M.

    1988-01-01

    65 female and 142 male patients have been classified according to their body mass index (BMI) into the categories underweight (BMI 20 or less), normal weight (BMI over 20 - 25), overweight (BMI over 25 - 30), obesity (BMI over 30 - 40), and morbid obesity (BMI over 40). Body composition was measured in all patients using the tritium dilution method. Total body fat was calculated from the total body water values. Relative fat values increased from 17.1% (women) and 14.5% (men) resp. in underweight to 46.2% (women) and 43.3% (men) in morbid obesity. In all classes of BMI men exhibited higher values of body weight, body height and body water and lower values of absolute and relative fat as compared to women. However, the relative fat and water values, relative to 1 in the normal weight class, were equal for both sexes. The results demonstrate that the BMI is very well suited for the classification of obesity. (author)

  10. Distinguishing Different Stages of Parkinson’s Disease Using Composite Index of Speed and Pen-Pressure of Sketching a Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Zham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The speed and pen-pressure while sketching a spiral are lower among Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with higher severity of the disease. However, the correlation between these features and the severity level (SL of PD has been reported to be 0.4. There is a need for identifying parameters with a stronger correlation for considering this for accurate diagnosis of the disease. This study has proposed the use of the Composite Index of Speed and Pen-pressure (CISP of sketching as a feature for analyzing the severity of PD. A total of 28 control group (CG and 27 PD patients (total 55 participants were recruited and assessed for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. They drew guided Archimedean spiral on an A3 sheet. Speed, pen-pressure, and CISP were computed and analyzed to obtain their correlation with severity of the disease. The correlation of speed, pen-pressure, and CISP with the severity of PD was −0.415, −0.584, and −0.641, respectively. Mann–Whitney U test confirmed that CISP was suitable to distinguish between PD and CG, while non-parametric k-sample Kruskal–Wallis test confirmed that it was significantly different for PD SL-1 and PD SL-3. This shows that CISP during spiral sketching may be used to differentiate between CG and PD and between PD SL-1 and PD SL-3 but not SL-2.

  11. Yield Traits, Physico-chemical Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of MR219 M3 Generation and its Effect on Glycemic Index and Responses in Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asma Ilyani Kadar; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun; Fazliana Mohd Saaya

    2014-01-01

    Mutation technique is a conventional breeding technique and it is very effective in improving of main crop characteristics such as yield traits, resistance to diseases and pests and nutritional qualities. In this study, MR219 seeds were treated with Carbon ion radiation (60 Gy) by AVF-Cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Japan and were planted at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency up to third mutant generation (M3). Thirty one M3 mutant lines (ML1 to ML31) were evaluated on morphological, yield and yield components, and were compared to the parental variety, MR219. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant difference among mutant lines in culm height, days to flowering, number of tillers, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight, total grain weight, total of dry matter, alkaline spreading value, gel consistency, amylose content, ash, crude protein, fat, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and energy. Mutant line ML21 had the best performance in majority of yield components and vegetative traits as compared to others mutant lines and parental variety. For nutritional composition, mutant lines namely ML31, ML21, ML10, ML19 were improved in crude protein content, dietary fibre and carbohydrate content. The estimation of glycemic index revealed that two mutant lines namely ML3 and ML30 can be consumed by diabetics. (author)

  12. Use of microvascular flaps including free osteocutaneous flaps in reconstruction after composite resection for radiation-recurrent oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, I.B.; Bell, M.S.; Barron, P.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Manktelow, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen patients underwent microsurgical free flap procedures for reconstruction after composite resection of radiation-recurrent oral cancer. The use of attached metatarsal bone in nine patients for mandibular reconstruction is in our view a significant advance in this field. Two failures occurred, one due to sepsis and one to delayed thrombosis. Our experience indicates that this procedure deserves a place in the surgical treatment of patients afflicted with oral malignancy

  13. High-intensity functional training improves functional movement and body composition among cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, K M; Becker, C; Carlisle, T; Gilmore, K; Hauser, J; Frye, J; Harms, C A

    2015-11-01

    This pilot study investigated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a high-intensity functional training (HIFT) group-exercise programme among adult cancer survivors within 5 years of last cancer treatment. Eight participants were assigned to a 5-week, 3 days/week HIFT intervention with four testing sessions and 12 workouts along with mobility and stretching exercises. Feasibility was assessed by initiation, adherence, and acceptability. Efficacy was determined by changes from baseline to post-test in health-related quality of life, body composition and functional movement. The recruitment rate was 80% and the adherence rate was 75%. Significant improvements were found for emotional functioning (P = 0.042) and body composition (lean mass +3.8 ± 2.1 kg, P = 0.008; fat mass -3.3 ± 1.0 kg, P = 0.001; body fat percentage -4.7 ± 1.2%, P body strength and power (P = 0.009), aerobic capacity and endurance (P = 0.039), and perceived difficulty for flexibility (P = 0.012). Five weeks of HIFT training was well-received and feasible for most cancer survivors, and effective for improving emotional functioning, body composition and functional movement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Systemic immune–inflammation index as a useful prognostic indicator predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1,* Ying Yan,2,* Lihua Zhu,3 Xiliang Cong,1 Sen Li,1 Shubin Song,1 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue1 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Internal Oncology, Harbin The First Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 3Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: A novel systemic immune–inflammation index named SII (SII=N×P/L, which is based on neutrophil (N, platelet (P and lymphocyte (L counts, has emerged and reflects comprehensively the balance of host inflammatory and immune status. We aimed to evaluate the potential prognostic significance of SII in patients with advanced gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Subjects and methods: The retrospective analysis included data from 107 patients with advanced gastric cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 185 patients with pathology-proven gastric cancer. The optimal cutoff value of SII by receiver operating characteristic curve stratified patients into low SII (<600×109/L and high SII (SII ≥600×109/L groups. The clinical outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were calculated by Kaplan–Meier survival curves and compared using log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the prognostic value of SII.Results: The results indicated that SII had prognostic significance using the cutoff value of 600×109/L on DFS and OS in univariate and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses. Low SII was associated with prolonged DFS and OS, and the mean DFS and OS for patients with low SII were longer than for those with high SII (57.22 vs 41.56 months and 62.25 vs 45.60 months, respectively. Furthermore, we found that patients

  15. Determination and analysis of non-linear index profiles in electron-beam-deposited MgOAl2O3ZrO2 ternary composite thin-film optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Thakur, S.; Senthilkumar, M.; Das, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    Thickness-dependent index non-linearity in thin films has been a thought provoking as well as intriguing topic in the field of optical coatings. The characterization and analysis of such inhomogeneous index profiles pose several degrees of challenges to thin-film researchers depending upon the availability of relevant experimental and process-monitoring-related information. In the present work, a variety of novel experimental non-linear index profiles have been observed in thin films of MgOAl 2 O 3 ZrO 2 ternary composites in solid solution under various electron-beam deposition parameters. Analysis and derivation of these non-linear spectral index profiles have been carried out by an inverse-synthesis approach using a real-time optical monitoring signal and post-deposition transmittance and reflection spectra. Most of the non-linear index functions are observed to fit polynomial equations of order seven or eight very well. In this paper, the application of such a non-linear index function has also been demonstrated in designing electric-field-optimized high-damage-threshold multilayer coatings such as normal- and oblique-incidence edge filters and a broadband beam splitter for p-polarized light. Such designs can also advantageously maintain the microstructural stability of the multilayer structure due to the low stress factor of the non-linear ternary composite layers. (orig.)

  16. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and risk of myocardial infarction in middle-aged Danes: the diet, cancer and health cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunge, V B; Andersen, I; Kyrø, C; Hansen, C P; Dahm, C C; Christensen, J; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A

    2017-05-01

    For decades, the Mediterranean diet has been in focus regarding healthy eating as it has been associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Less interest has been given to health benefits of other regional diets. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among middle-aged Danes. Data were obtained from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study of 57 053 men and women aged 50-64 years recruited between 1993 and 1997. The healthy Nordic food index comprised healthy Nordic food items selected a priori (fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apple and pears and root vegetables). Information on incident MI was ascertained through linkage with national registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 1669 men and 653 women developed MI during follow-up (13.6 median years). In adjusted models, those with an index score of 5-6 points (highest scores) had significantly lower MI risk (men: HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.62, 0.97; women: HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.37, 0.82) relative to those scoring 0 points in the index (lowest score). A significantly lower MI risk was found per 1-point increment in the index in both men (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99) and women (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88, 0.98). A healthy Nordic diet is associated with lower MI risk among middle-aged Danes, suggesting that Nordic diets should be considered in recommendations for dietary changes in the promotion of coronary health.

  17. Prognostic Value of the Pretreatment Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Hoon; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Lim, Joo Han

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI, body mass index × albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of survival in some solid cancers. We retrospectively investigated the usefulness of the ALI to predict chemotherapy response and survival in 212 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy. Patients were allocated to a low ALI group (n = 82, 38.7%) or a high ALI group (n = 130, 61.3%) according to an optimal pretreatment ALI cut-off value of 15.5 as determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The low ALI group displayed more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (54.9 vs. 75.4%, p = 0.008), and poorer 5-year progression-free (PFS, 58.1 vs. 77.3%, p = 0.006) and overall (OS, 64.2 vs. 80.2%, p = 0.008) survival. Multivariate analysis showed that low ALI was found to independently predict shorter PFS and OS. Interestingly, a low ALI reverted to a high ALI during treatment in 58 patients (27.4%), and the 5-year OS of these patients was better than that of patients whose ALI remained low (n = 24, 72.5 vs. 24%, p ALI might be an easily available marker for predicting clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Preoperative body size and composition, habitual diet, and post-operative complications in elective colorectal cancer patients in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstad, P; Haugum, B; Helgeland, M; Bukholm, I; Almendingen, K

    2013-08-01

    Both malnutrition and obesity are related to worsened post-operative outcomes after colorectal surgery. Obese cancer patients may be malnourished as a result of short-term weight loss. The present study aimed to evaluate preoperative nutritional status, body composition and dietary intake related to post-operative complications (POC) and post-operative hospital days (POHD) in elective colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Anthropometry, body composition measured by bioelectric spectroscopy and dietary habits assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire were examined in 100 newly-diagnosed CRC patients. Data from 30-day POC and POHD were collected from medical records. Nonparametric and chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to analyse associations between body and dietary variables and post-operative outcome. Twenty-nine patients had at least one POC. The median POHD was six. Body size and composition measures and short-term weight loss were no different between patients with and without POC, or between patients with POHD body size, body composition and short-term weight loss were not related to 30-day post-operative outcomes in CRC patients. A high content of marine n-3 PUFA in preoperative habitual diets may protect against POC after CRC surgery. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Changes in fitness are associated with changes in body composition and bone health in children after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Azar, Meital; Reuveny, Ronen; Katz, Uriel; Weintraub, Michael; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the effects of physical activity on the fitness, body composition and mental health of children after cancer or bone marrow transplantation. We focused on 22 children aged from seven to 14 years who had received chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation in our medical centre. Ten children took part in a six-month exercise programme, and 12 children who did not exercise formed the control group. At baseline and at the end of the trial, we measured aerobic fitness, body composition, bone density and assessed the child's mood and quality of life. We pooled all participants together post hoc to compare changes in fitness with the various study outcomes. We found no differences between groups in changes in fitness, body composition or mental health indices. Significant correlations were found between changes in aerobic fitness and changes in lean body mass (r = 0.74, p = 0.002), bone mineral content (r = 0.57, p = 0.026) and femoral neck bone mineral density (r = 0.59, p = 0.027) in all participants. Group-based exercise training did not improve aerobic fitness in children after cancer or bone marrow transplantation. However, changes in fitness throughout the study period were associated with changes in body composition and bone health in all participants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dietary patterns differ between urban and rural older, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and are associated with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Morey, Miriam C; Hartman, Terry J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Older adult cancer survivors are at greater risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that can be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors can be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high-risk population. To compare dietary patterns of urban and rural cancer survivors and to examine associations of dietary patterns with body mass index (BMI). A secondary analysis was performed of baseline data from the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial, a diet and exercise intervention among overweight, long-term (≥5 years), older survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Survivors in the present analysis (n=729) underwent two 45- to 60-minute telephone surveys, which included two 24-hour dietary recalls. Principal components analysis and multivariable general linear models were used to derive dietary patterns and to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and BMI, respectively. Principal components analysis identified three primary dietary patterns among rural dwellers (high sweets and starches, high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits, and mixed) and three among urban dwellers (high fruits and vegetables, high meat and refined grains, and high sugar-sweetened beverages). Among rural survivors, greater adherence to the high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits pattern was positively associated with lower BMI (P trend pattern was associated with greater BMI (P trend pattern among urban survivors was inversely associated with BMI (P trend dietary intake behavior should be considered in designing public health interventions among the increasing population of older cancer survivors. In addition, targeting overall dietary patterns might be one approach to help reduce the burden of obesity among this population. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Leptin expression in breast nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and serum is influenced by body mass index (BMI) but not by the presence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, E R; Garofalo, C; Hewett, J; Hewett, J E; Morelli, C; Surmacz, E

    2004-05-01

    While obesity is a known risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. Systemic levels of leptin, the product of the ob (obesity) gene, are increased in obese individuals (body mass index, BMI, over 25) and are higher in women than men. Leptin has been found to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our goal was to determine whether leptin was 1) present in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), and 2) whether NAF leptin levels were associated with a) levels in serum, b) obesity, and c) breast cancer. We collected and evaluated NAF specimens from 83 subjects and serum specimens from 49 subjects. NAF leptin was detectable in 16/41 (39 %) of premenopausal and 21/42 (50 %) postmenopausal subjects. NAF leptin was significantly lower (p = 0.042) in premenopausal than postmenopausal women with a BMI < 25, but not in those with a higher BMI. NAF leptin was significantly associated with BMI in premenopausal (p = 0.011) but not in postmenopausal women. Serum leptin was associated with BMI in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women (p = 0.0001 for both). NAF and serum leptin were associated in premenopausal (p = 0.02) but not postmenopausal women. Neither NAF nor serum leptin was associated with premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancer. Our findings include that 1) leptin is present in the breast and detectable in a subset of NAF samples, 2) NAF leptin in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women parallels serum leptin levels, and 3) neither NAF nor serum levels of leptin were associated with premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancer.

  2. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria I; Mazzucco, Sara; Biolo, Gianni; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Monti, Massimo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC) patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition. Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day). Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 10 days of supplementation (T1) to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in red blood cells (RBC) membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P -value DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls ( P DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03). No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as "good seafood consumers" showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to "low seafood consumers" ( P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively). After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was greater in "low seafood consumers" with respect to "good seafood consumers" ( P DHA supplementation was associated with increased DHA levels and omega-3 index in RBC membranes of BC cancer patients, independent of the type of BC presentation, and in controls. BRCA1/2 mutation, as well as low seafood consuming habits in both BC patients and healthy

  3. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of risk of malignancy index in predicting complete tumor removal at primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Håkansson, Fanny; Antonsen, Sofie L

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer patients in whom complete tumor removal is impossible with primary debulking surgery (PDS) may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery. However, the task of performing a pre-operative evaluation of the feasibility of PDS is difficult. We aimed to invest...

  5. Relationship between body composition, body mass index and bone mineral density in a large population of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Bazzocchi, A; Celi, M; Lauro, D; Sorge, R; Tarantino, U; Guglielmi, G

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of factors modulating the behaviour of bone mass is crucial for preventing and treating osteoporotic disease; among these factors, body weight (BW) has been shown to be of primary importance in postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, the relative effects of body composition indices are still being debated. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat and lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of women. Moreover, this study represents a first important report on reference standard values for body composition in Italian women. Between 2005 and 2008, weight and height of 6,249 Italian women (aged 30-80 years) were measured and BMI was calculated; furthermore BMD, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Individuals were divided into five groups by decades (group 1, 30.0-39.9; group 2, 40.0-49.9; group 3, 50.0-59.9; group 4, 60.0-69.9; group 5, 70.0-79.9). Differences among decades for all variables were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni test by the SPSS programme. Mean BW was 66.8±12.1 kg, mean height 159.1±6.3 cm and mean BMI 26.4±4.7 kg/m(2). According to BW and BMI, there was an increase of obesity with age, especially in women older than 50 years (posteoporosis in the examined population was 43.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Our data show that obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis but did not decrease the risk for osteopenia. It is strongly recommended that a strong policy regarding prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis be commenced. An overall examination of our results suggests that both fat and lean body mass can influence bone mass and that their relative effect on bone could be modulated by their absolute amount and ratio to total BW.

  6. Leptin, insulin and body composition changes during adjuvant taxane based chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer, preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacacioglu, A; Kebapcilar, L; Gokgoz, Z; Oztekin, O; Bozkaya, G; Tarhan, O; Somali, I; Yuksel, A; Sop, G; Sari, I

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer on serum insulin levels, serum leptin levels, and body composition in early stage breast cancer patients. 17 breast cancer patients underwent 6 cycles of docetaxel (75 mg), epirubicine (100 mg) and cyclophosphamide (500 mg) (TEC). Anthropometrical and foot-to-foot body fat analyzer BIA, serum glucose, insulin, lipids, HOMA-IR and leptin were compared pre- and post-treatment. There was no statistically significant weight gain after treatment; however, there was an overall trend toward weight gain (69.7 ± 9.8 kg vs 71.03 ± 9.8; P= 0.05). From baseline to the end of the study, percentage of body fat and body fat mass showed an upward trend at the end of chemotherapy (1%; 2 kg P> 0.05). Pre and post-treatment period, leptin was strongly correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR (Spearman's pre-T; r = 0.74; P cancer outcome, and insulin resistance may be increased in taxane based chemotherapy regimen. These data may have broad implications for diet and lifestyle strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers.

  7. Dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on body composition among colon cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Zemel, Babette S; Troxel, Andrea B; Rickels, Michael R; Damjanov, Nevena; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-11-21

    Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months. The prespecified key body composition outcome was visceral adipose tissue quantified using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion (P trend =0.008). Compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose exercise groups lost 9.5 cm 2 (95% CI: -22.4, 3.5) and 13.6 cm 2 (95% CI: -27.0, -0.1) in visceral adipose tissue, respectively. Each 60 min wk -1 increase in exercise predicted a 2.7 cm 2 (95% CI: -5.4, -0.1) reduction in visceral adipose tissue. Aerobic exercise reduces visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion among patients with stage I-III colon cancer. Visceral adipose tissue may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces the risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors.

  8. Microbiota Composition, HSP70 and Caspase-3 Expression as Marker for Colorectal Cancer Patients in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the relationship between microbiota composition with HSP70 and Caspase-3 expressions in colon tissue as an initial study to develop the candidate for early detection of colorectal cancer for Indonesian patients. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study on 32 patients undergoing colonoscopy; 16 patients of colorectal cancer (CRC while the other 16 patients are not (colitis and internal hemorrhoid. The composition of microbiota in stool samples was examined using 16S rRNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DDGE while expression of HSP70 was examined by immunohistochemistry and Caspase-3 by using Haematoxylin-Eosin(HE staining to determine the morphological changes in colon tissue. Results: analysis of PCR-DDGE shows a different composition of microbiota between patients with CRC and non-CRC. All CRC patients showed disappearance of dominant band from Bifidobacterium groups. Histological observation based on Inter Class Correlation (ICC test from all slide showed a high scores (5.2-9.2 in CRC patients and low scores (1.7-2.4 in non-CRC patients. HSP70 expression was increased significantly in CRC patients with the highest percentage of 84%, while expression of caspase-3 decreased with the highest percentage of 21%. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of colorectal cancer was associated with the expression of HSP 70 (p<0.001, and Caspase 3 (p<0.001. Conclusion: bifidobacterium is an important indicator for colorectal cancer patients that show disappearance of dominant band, while expression of HSP70 increased and the Caspase-3 expression decreased significantly.

  9. The corpus-predominant gastritis index can be an early and reversible marker to identify the gastric cancer risk of Helicobacter pylori-infected nonulcer dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chang, Wei-Lun; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-08-01

    Corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI) is an early histological marker to identify Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer relatives at risk of cancer. This study validated whether CGI is more prevalent in H. pylori-infected nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) subjects than in duodenal ulcer (DU) controls and whether it is reversible after H. pylori eradication or is correlated with noninvasive biomarkers. In this longitudinal cohort study, 573 H. pylori-infected subjects were enrolled, including 349 NUD and 224 DU. Gastric specimens were provided to assess CGI, spasmolyic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia assessment (OLGIM). Serum pepsinogen I and II levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CGI subjected were followed up at least 1 year after H. pylori eradication. NUD subjects had higher prevalence rates of CGI (47.0% vs 29.9%, Pgastritis and intestinal metaplasia. NUD subjects with CGI had higher risk of SPEM (OR 2.86, P<.001) and lower serum pepsinogen I/II ratios (P<.001) than those without CGI. Serum pepsinogen I/II ratios <9 could predict CGI modestly (AUROC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.74). CGI was regressed after eradication (P<.001). CGI was more prevalent in H. pylori-infected NUD subjects than in controls, was correlated with SPEM, and may serve as a marker earlier than OLGIM to indicate risk of gastric cancer. Moreover, CGI could be regressed after eradication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Levels and trends of childhood undernutrition by wealth and education according to a Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure: evidence from 146 Demographic and Health Surveys from 39 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Harttgen, Kenneth; Kupka, Roland; Subramanian, S V

    2017-01-01

    Governments have endorsed global targets to reduce childhood undernutrition as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. Understanding the socioeconomic differences in childhood undernutrition has the potential to be helpful for targeting policy to reach these goals. We specify a logistic regression model with the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) as the outcome and indicator variables for wealth quartiles, maternal education categories and a set of covariates as explanatory variables. Wealth and education variables are interacted with a period indicator for 1990-2000 compared with 2001-2014 to observe differences over time. Based on these regressions we calculate predicted CIAF prevalence by wealth and education categories and over time. The sample included 146 surveys from 39 low-income and lower-middle-income countries with an overall sample size of 533 217 children. CIAF prevalence was 47.5% in 1990-2000, and it declined to 42.6% in 2001-2014. In 1990-2000 the CIAF prevalence of children with mothers with less than primary education was 31 percentage points higher than for mothers with secondary or higher education. This difference slightly decreased to 27 percentage points in 2001-2014. The difference in predicted CIAF prevalence of children from the highest and lowest wealth quartiles was 21 percentage points and did not change over time. We find evidence for persistent and even increasing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood undernutrition, which underlines the importance of previous calls for equity-driven approaches targeting the most vulnerable to reduce childhood malnutrition.

  11. The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism is not associated with body mass index and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campa, Daniele; Hüsing, Anika; McKay, James D.

    2010-01-01

    of choice to evaluate body fatness and there is evidence that body fatness is related with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Methods we tested in a large-scale association study (3,973 women, including 1,269 invasive BC cases and 2,194 controls), nested within the EPIC cohort, the involvement of rs......7566605 as predictor of BMI and BC risk. Results and Conclusions In this study we were not able to find any statistically significant association between this SNP and BMI, nor did we find any significant association between the SNP and an increased risk of breast cancer overall and by subgroups of age...... fatness was a genome-wide association study (GWAS) which used BMI as the primary phenotype. Many follow-up studies sought to validate the association of rs7566605 with various markers of obesity, with several publications reporting inconsistent findings. BMI is considered to be one of the measures...

  12. Rasch Analysis of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF in an Iranian Sample of Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Male sexual dysfunction is an increasing problem across a variety of general and clinical populations, such as cancer populations; especially among prostate cancer patients who tend to receive treatments that often result in erectile dysfunction (ED and/or premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, in order to diagnose ED and PE in these populations, adequate and efficient instruments such as the International Index of Erectile Function 5-item version (IIEF-5 and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT are needed. However, since this is an important topic additional evidence of psychometric properties of the IIEF-5 and the PEDT in such samples are required. Thus the aim of the present study was to use Rasch models to investigate the construct validity, local dependency, score order, and differential item functioning (DIF of both questionnaires in a sample of prostate cancer patients.Prostate cancer patients (n = 1058, mean±SD age = 64.07±6.84 years who visited urology clinics were invited to fill out the IIEF-5 and the PEDT. Construct validity was examined using infit and outfit mean square (MnSq and local dependency using correlations between each two residual Rasch scores. Score order was investigated using step and average measures of difficulty and DIF using DIF contrast.All IIEF-5 and PEDT items had acceptable infit and outfit MnSq. Step measures revealed that all but two items had disordered categories in terms of scores 1 to 3. Only one local dependency was found, and no items displayed DIF across age, educational level, and help seeking.The results showed that both the IIEF-5 and the PEDT had sound psychometric properties in the Rasch analyses, although some score disordering could be detected in both instruments. The results of no DIF items in both instruments suggest using them to compare ED and PE across age and educational level is adequate.

  13. 消化道肿瘤患者术前PG-SGA评分与人体成分的相关性研究%The correlation between PG-SGA and body composition in preoperative patients with digestive tract cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟泽民; 郭剑; 张蓓蕾; 张燕忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and the index of body composition in nutritional assessment of patients with digestive tract cancer.Methods The nutritional status of 101 patients with digestive tract cancer were evaluated by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), and in the meantime, the body composition was measured by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, then take correlation analysis on the result.Results 65 cases were malnutrition, the rate is 64.36%. The incidence of gastric cancer patients with PG-SGA scores more than 4 was 76%, signiifcantly higher than 52.95% of patients with colorectal cancer (P0.05). The correlation between PG-SGA score and body mass, BMI, body fat mass and body fat percentage was higher than other body composition indexes.Conclusions The incidence of malnutrition was high in digestive tract cancer patients especially in gastric cancer patients. The body weight , body fat mass ,lean body mass and other indexes were signiifcantly decreased in the patients with malnutrition. There was a good correlation between PG-SGA score and body composition index, the combination of them can provide a more accurate assessment of preoperative nutritional status in order to provide the exact evidence for nutritional support.%目的探讨患者主观整体评估(PG-SGA)与人体成分指标在消化道肿瘤患者营养评估中的相关性。方法对101例消化道肿瘤患者应用PG-SGA进行术前营养状况评估,同时应用多频生物电阻抗分析法测定人体成分,将结果进行相关性分析。结果术前营养不良(PG-SGA≥4分)患者65例占64.36%。胃癌患者营养不良的发生率为76%,明显高于结直肠癌患者的52.95%(P<0.05)。营养不良组患者体重、BMI、体脂肪量、体脂百分比、瘦体组织、身体水分含量、细胞外液均低于非营养不良组(P<0.05),两组蛋

  14. Psychometric properties of the stress index radiooncology (SIRO) - a new questionnaire measuring quality of life of cancer patients during radiotherapy; Psychometrische Eigenschaften des Stress Index RadioOnkologie (SIRO) - ein neuer Fragebogen zur Erfassung der Lebensqualitaet bei Patienten unter Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlen, S.; Fahmueller, H.; Lenk, M.; Duehmke, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Herschbach, P. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Psychosomatische Medizin, Psychotherapie und Medizinische Psychologie, Technische Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Aydemir, U. [Inst. fuer Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Purpose: In the course of radiotherapy oncological patients often experience considerable psychosocial distress. For its measurement however, no specific questionnaire is available. The stress index radiooncology (SIRO), which is based upon the results of extensive preliminary studies, will be made available as a screening-instrument to facilitate measurement of psychosocial distress of cancer patients, including radiotherapy-induced distress. The aim of this study is, to psychometrically evaluate the preliminary version of the questionnaire, to transfer it to the final version (SIRO) and to gain information about the psychosocial distress of radiooncological patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: 104 cancer patients (18 to 85 years) with different diagnoses have been included in the study (Table 1). The data have been assessed by means of the preliminary version of the new questionnaire SIRO, the HADS, EORTC QLQ-C30 and LS. With 25 patients semistructured clinical interviews have been conducted. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die strahlentherapeutische Behandlung von Tumorpatienten ist haeufig mit starken psychosozialen Belastungen verbunden, fuer deren Erfassung es bisher keinen spezifischen Fragebogen gibt. Mit dem stress index radioonkologie (SIRO), der auf den Analyseergebnissen umfangreicher Voruntersuchungen beruht, soll erstmals ein Screening-Instrument zur Verfuegung gestellt werden, mit dem die psychosozialen Belastungen von Tumorpatienten, einschliesslich der durch Strahlentherapie induzierten, erfasst werden koennen. Ziel dieser Studie ist, die Fragebogen-Vorform psychometrisch zu evaluieren und in die endgueltige Fragebogenversion (SIRO) zu ueberfuehren. Darueber hinaus sollen Informationen ueber das psychosoziale Belastungsprofil radioonkologischer Patienten zu Beginn einer Strahlentherapie gewonnen werden. Patienten und Methoden: 104 Tumorpatienten (18-85 Jahre) mit unterschiedlichen Diagnosen wurden in die Studie aufgenommen

  15. Clinically relevant determinants of body composition, function and nutritional status as mortality predictors in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Zadak, Zdenek

    2014-04-01

    Lung cancer belongs to the type of tumors with a relatively high frequency of malnutrition, sarcopenia and cachexia, severe metabolic syndromes related to impairment of physical function and quality of life, resistance to therapy and short survival. Inexpensive and accessible methods of evaluating changes in body composition, physical function and nutrition status are for this reason of great importance for clinical practice to enable the early identification, monitoring, preventing and treatment of these nutritional deficiencies. This could lead to improved outcomes in the quality of life, physical performance and survival of patients with lung cancer. The aim of this article is to summarize the recent knowledge for the use of such methods, their predictability for patient outcomes and an association with other clinically relevant parameters, specifically with lung cancer patients, because such an article collectively describing their practical application in clinical practice is lacking. The interest of this article is in the use of anthropometry, handgrip dynamometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle and nutritional screening questionnaires in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CA 19-9 is an index of the response to neoadjunctive chemoradiation therpay in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, Christopher G.; Daly, William J.; Warshaw, Andrew L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the changes of serum levels of CA 19-9 in patients with pancreatic cancer following neoadjuvant irradiation and chemotherapy to define the potential role of this tumor marker in preoperative management of these patients. Materials and Methods: Serum CA 19-9 levels were measured in 42 patients before receiving external beam irradiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil in preparation for laparotomy and Whipple procedure or intraoperative irradiation (IORT). The CA 19-9 levels were determined again after irradiation, and changes were correlated with findings of restaging CT scan and laparatomy. Results: Following preoperative irradiation, 10 patients (24%) experienced an increase in CA 19-9 levels whereas 29 patients (69%) showed a decrease in CA 19-9. There was no change in the CA 19-9 levels of three patients (7%) after treatment. Of the 10 patients with increased CA 19-9 levels after irradiation, 9 patients (90%) had developed distant metastases or local tumor progression as determined by restaging CT scan or at laparotomy. In contrast, only 6 of 29 patients (21%) with declining CA 19-9 levels after irradiation demonstrated metastases or local tumor progression on restaging CT scan or at laparotomy. The correlation of CA 19-9 increase or decrease with disease progression or control, respectively, was statistically significant (p=0.009). Conclusions: Serum CA 19-9 levels may rise or fall during neoadjuvant therapy. A rising CA 19-9 reliably indicates cancer progression while a falling CA 19-9 connotes disease control in the majority of patients. In developing strategies for application of neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer, monitoring of CA 19-9 appears most useful for the identification of patients who manifest progressive tumor growth and metastasis in spite of this treatment

  17. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition......-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast...

  18. Heterogeneity in coal composition and implications for lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Large, David; Veld, Harry; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Rothman, Nat; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates in the country. This has been associated with the domestic combustion of bituminous coal (referred to as "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among

  19. Preparation and characterization of temperature-responsive magnetic composite particles for multi-modal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Aihua; Chen, Qi; Ai, Fanrong; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai

    2011-10-01

    The temperature-responsive magnetic composite particles were synthesized by emulsion-free polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylamide (Am) in the presence of oleic acid-modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. The magnetic properties and heat generation ability of the composite particles were characterized. Furthermore, temperature and alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggered drug release behaviors of vitamin B(12)-loaded composite particles were also examined. It was found that composite particles enabled drug release to be controlled through temperature changes in the neighborhood of lower critical solution temperature. Continuous application of AMF resulted in an accelerated release of the loaded drug. On the other hand, intermittent AMF application to the composite particles resulted in an "on-off", stepwise release pattern. Longer release duration and larger overall release could be achieved by intermittent application of AMF as compared to continuous magnetic field. Such composite particles may be used for magnetic drug targeting followed by simultaneous hyperthermia and drug release.

  20. Composition, peat-forming vegetation and kerogen paraffinicity of Cenozoic coals: Relationship to variations in the petroleum generation potential (Hydrogen Index)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H.I.; Lindstroem, S.; Nytoft, H.P.; Rosenberg, P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-04-01

    Coals with similar thermal maturity and from the same deposit normally show a considerable range in petroleum generation potential as measured by the Hydrogen Index (HI). This variation may partly be related to variations in plant input to the precursor mires and organic matter preservation. It is widely accepted that some Cenozoic coals and coaly sediments have the potential to generate oil, which is related to the coal's paraffinicity. Coal paraffinicity is not readily reflected in the bulk HI. In this paper, the relationships between measured HI and coal composition, coal kerogen paraffinicity and floral input have been investigated in detail for three sets of coals from Colombia/Venezuela, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The samples in each coal set are largely of iso-rank. The petroleum generation potential was determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Reflected light microscopy was used to analyse the organic matter (maceral) composition and the thermal maturity was determined by vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. The botanical affinity of pollen and spores was analysed by palynology. Coal kerogen paraffinicity was determined by ruthenium tetroxide-catalysed oxidation (RTCO) followed by chain length analysis and quantification (mg/g TOC) of the liberated aliphatic chains. The coals are dominated by huminite, in particular detrohuminite. Only the Vietnamese coals are rich in microscopically visible liptinite. The pollen and spores suggest that the coals were derived principally from complex angiosperm mire vegetations, with subordinate proportions of ferns that generally grew in a subtropical to tropical climate. Measured HI values vary considerably, but for the majority of the coals the values lie between approximately 200 mg HC/g TOC and 300 mg HC/g TOC. Aliphatics yielding monocarboxylic acids dominate in the coal kerogen, whereas aliphatics yielding dicarboxylic acids are secondary. However, the dicarboxylic acids show that cross-linking long-chain aliphatics

  1. Weight Gain in Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotheraphy: Exploring Hormonal Body Composition and Behavioral Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to prospectively and systematically observe the relative contribution of each viable mechanism such as nutritional intake, activity levels, body composition, hormonal...

  2. CEA to peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) ratio is prognostic in patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis undergoing cytoreduction surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozman, Mathew A; Fisher, Oliver M; Rebolledo, Bree-Anne J; Parikh, Roneil; Valle, Sarah J; Arrowaili, Arief; Alzahrani, Nayef; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2018-03-01

    Serum tumor markers are prognostic in patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC) undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC). Assessment of the ratio of tumor marker to volume, as depicted by peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI), and how this may affect overall (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) has not been reported. Survival effect of this ratio was analyzed in patients with CRPC managed from 1996 to 2016 with CRS and IPC. Of 260 patients included, those with low CEA/PCI ratio (PCI ratio was most pronounced in patients with PCI ≤ 10 (OS of 72 vs 30 months, P PCI ratio was independently associated with poorer OS (adjusted HR 1.85, 95%CI 1.11-3.10, P = 0.02) and RFS (adjusted HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.04-2.41, P = 0.03). CEA/PCI ratio is an independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS in CRPC. This novel approach allows both tumor activity and volume to be accounted for in one index, thus potentially providing a more accurate indication of tumor biological behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The evaluation of composite dose using deformable image registration in adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chul Hwan; Ko, Seong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Seok Yoon; Ye, Soo Young; Kang, Se Sik [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In adaptive radiotherapy(ART), generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue on overall treatment course which is using deformable image registration from multistage images. Also, compared with doses summed by each treatment plan and clinical significance is considered. From the first of May, 2011 to the last of July, 2012. Patients who were given treatment and had the head and neck cancer with 3-dimension conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy, those who were carried out adaptive radiotherapy cause of tumor shrinkage and weight loss. Generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue using deformable image registration was been possible, statistically significant difference was showed to mandible(48.95±3.89 vs 49.10±3.55 Gy), oral cavity(36.93±4.03 vs 38.97±5.08 Gy), parotid gland(35.71±6.22 vs 36.12±6.70 Gy) and temporomandibular joint(18.41±9.60 vs 20.13±10.42 Gy) compared with doses summed by each treatment plan. The results of this study show significant difference between composite dose by deformable image registration and doses summed by each treatment plan, composite dose by deformable image registration may generate more exact evaluation to surrounding normal tissue in adaptive radiotherapy.

  4. The evaluation of composite dose using deformable image registration in adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chul Hwan; Ko, Seong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Seok Yoon; Ye, Soo Young; Kang, Se Sik

    2013-01-01

    In adaptive radiotherapy(ART), generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue on overall treatment course which is using deformable image registration from multistage images. Also, compared with doses summed by each treatment plan and clinical significance is considered. From the first of May, 2011 to the last of July, 2012. Patients who were given treatment and had the head and neck cancer with 3-dimension conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy, those who were carried out adaptive radiotherapy cause of tumor shrinkage and weight loss. Generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue using deformable image registration was been possible, statistically significant difference was showed to mandible(48.95±3.89 vs 49.10±3.55 Gy), oral cavity(36.93±4.03 vs 38.97±5.08 Gy), parotid gland(35.71±6.22 vs 36.12±6.70 Gy) and temporomandibular joint(18.41±9.60 vs 20.13±10.42 Gy) compared with doses summed by each treatment plan. The results of this study show significant difference between composite dose by deformable image registration and doses summed by each treatment plan, composite dose by deformable image registration may generate more exact evaluation to surrounding normal tissue in adaptive radiotherapy

  5. Association of Locoregional Control With High Body Mass Index in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Bedi, Meena; Saeed, Hina; Prior, Phillip; Rein, Lisa E.; Szabo, Aniko; Wilson, J. Frank; Currey, Adam D.; White, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity, as measured by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for distant recurrence and decreased survival in breast cancer. We sought to determine whether the BMI correlated with local recurrence and reduced survival in a cohort of predominantly obese women treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 154 women with early-stage invasive breast cancer and 39 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ underwent prone whole breast irradiation. Cox proportional hazards regression, Kaplan-Meier methods with the log-rank test, and multivariate analysis were used to explore the association of the outcomes with the BMI. Results: The median patient age was 60 years, and the median follow-up duration was 73 months. The median BMI was 33.2 kg/m 2 ; 91% of the patients were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and 69% of the patients were clinically obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ). The BMI was significantly associated with the locoregional recurrence-free interval for patients with invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; P=.047). Also, a trend was seen for increased locoregional recurrence with a higher BMI (P=.09) for patients with invasive disease, which was significant when examining the outcomes with a BMI stratified by the median value of 33.2 kg/m 2 (P=.008). A greater BMI was also significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence-free interval (HR, 1.09; P=.011) and overall survival (HR, 1.09; P=.004); this association remained on multivariate analysis (distant recurrence-free interval, P=.034; overall survival, P=.0007). Conclusions: These data suggest that the BMI might affect the rate of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients. A higher BMI predicted a worse distant recurrence-free interval and overall survival. The present investigation adds to the increasing evidence that BMI is an important prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation

  6. Association of Locoregional Control With High Body Mass Index in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Bedi, Meena; Saeed, Hina; Prior, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Rein, Lisa E.; Szabo, Aniko [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wilson, J. Frank; Currey, Adam D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: Julia.White@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, James Cancer Hospital, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Obesity, as measured by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for distant recurrence and decreased survival in breast cancer. We sought to determine whether the BMI correlated with local recurrence and reduced survival in a cohort of predominantly obese women treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 154 women with early-stage invasive breast cancer and 39 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ underwent prone whole breast irradiation. Cox proportional hazards regression, Kaplan-Meier methods with the log-rank test, and multivariate analysis were used to explore the association of the outcomes with the BMI. Results: The median patient age was 60 years, and the median follow-up duration was 73 months. The median BMI was 33.2 kg/m{sup 2}; 91% of the patients were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) and 69% of the patients were clinically obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m{sup 2}). The BMI was significantly associated with the locoregional recurrence-free interval for patients with invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; P=.047). Also, a trend was seen for increased locoregional recurrence with a higher BMI (P=.09) for patients with invasive disease, which was significant when examining the outcomes with a BMI stratified by the median value of 33.2 kg/m{sup 2} (P=.008). A greater BMI was also significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence-free interval (HR, 1.09; P=.011) and overall survival (HR, 1.09; P=.004); this association remained on multivariate analysis (distant recurrence-free interval, P=.034; overall survival, P=.0007). Conclusions: These data suggest that the BMI might affect the rate of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients. A higher BMI predicted a worse distant recurrence-free interval and overall survival. The present investigation adds to the increasing evidence that BMI is an important prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer treated with

  7. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) Among Cancer Survivors: 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Doratha A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Berrigan, David; Lee, Richard; Thompson, Frances E

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports racial/ethnic differences in mean dietary and alcohol intake, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) among cancer survivors and examines adherence to the American Cancer Society and the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Data are from the cross-sectional 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The total sample of cancer survivors (N = 3367) included non-Hispanic Whites (NHW; N = 2698), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs; N = 379), and Hispanics (N = 290). We compared mean reported dietary intake, moderate/vigorous physical activity, and BMI among racial/ethnic groups. Predicted marginals and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare prevalence of non-adherence with recommendations among groups. Among the three racial/ethnic groups, Hispanics had the highest mean intake of vegetables, fiber, and calcium (p = 0.0003; p < 0.0001; p = 0.001). In the logistic regression model adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, smoking and BMI, Hispanics had lower non-adherence to fiber guidelines (OR = 0.38; CI = 0.24-0.58) than NHWs. NHBs had significantly higher non-adherence to vegetable guidelines (OR = 1.63; CI = 1.07-2.47). NHBs and Hispanics had lower non-adherence with alcohol guidelines than NHWs (OR = 0.35 and 0.38; CI = 0.18-0.69 and 0.19-0.76, respectively). NHBs and Hispanics were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.66 and 1.57; CI = 1.24-2.23 and CI = 1.11-2.21, respectively). There are racial/ethnic differences in certain health behaviors of cancer survivors. However, non-adherence to guidelines is high in all three racial/ethnic groups. Achieving the recommended guidelines for diet, physical activity, and a healthy BMI is a concern for all cancer survivors, indicating the need for intervention among this growing group of at-risk individuals.

  8. Barriers to physical activity and healthy eating in young breast cancer survivors: modifiable risk factors and associations with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Emily E; Ganz, Patricia A; Bower, Julienne E; Abascal, Liana; Petersen, Laura; Stanton, Annette L; Crespi, Catherine M

    2013-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) are important behaviors to encourage in breast cancer survivors (BCS). We examined associations between various factors and barriers to PA (BPA) and barriers to HE (BHE), as well as relationships between barriers and body mass index (BMI) in younger BCS. Self-reported data from 162 BCS (mean age 48 years) were used. BPA were assessed with a 21-item scale and BHE with a 19-item scale. Participants were classified as high or low on each scale. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial characteristics were compared by high/low barriers. Correlates of continuous BPA and BHE were assessed as were associations among BHE, BPA, and BMI. 61 % of participants were characterized as having low BHE and low BPA; 12 % were high for both. High BHE/high BPA participants had the least favorable scores for depression, perceived stress, social support, fatigue, bladder control, and weight problems. Factors associated with BHE were lower education, higher perceived stress, and more severe weight problems. Factors associated with BPA were more severe bladder control problems and lower physical well-being. Higher BHE and BPA were significantly and uniquely associated with higher BMI, controlling for covariates. Several biopsychosocial factors (e.g., depression, stress, and fatigue) characterize young BCS who experience barriers to both HE and PA. The correlates of BHE and BPA are distinct. Both BHE and BPA are associated with BMI. These results should be considered in designing interventions for younger women with breast cancer.

  9. Medicinal Plants, Effective Plant Compounds (Compositions) and their Effects on Stomach Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Elahe; Nasri, Hamid; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Beigrezaei, Sara; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.

  10. The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devin, James L; Sax, Andrew T; Hughes, Gareth I; Jenkins, David G; Aitken, Joanne F; Chambers, Suzanne K; Dunn, Jeffrey C; Bolam, Kate A; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors. Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks. HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p body composition for colorectal cancer survivors. HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body