WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer incidence risk

  1. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  2. Breast Cancer Incidence and Risk Reduction in the Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Eric J; Chin, Megan L; Haq, Mohamed M

    2018-02-26

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer amongst women worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality overall. It is also the foremost reason for cancer-related mortality in Hispanic females in the United States (US). Although the current incidence of breast cancer is significantly lower in Hispanics compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Blacks, (91.9, 128.1, and 124.3 per 100,000, respectively, annually), this may increase if Hispanics develop similar lifestyle behaviors to other American women, in categories such as weight management, age at first birth, number of children, and breastfeeding habits. Stage-for-stage mortality for Hispanics is similar to NHWs, but the mortality rate is not declining as rapidly in this ethnic group. Hispanic women share many of the same risk factors for developing breast cancer as NHWs and Blacks. This suggests that many of the risk reduction strategies used in other racial populations may also benefit this group. Providing education about breast cancer and implementing risk reduction strategies in culturally-aware environments could help keep incidence low and reduce cancer-related mortality. Since Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US, this could have a significant impact on the incidence and mortality nationally.

  3. Atrophic Gastritis and the Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. Methods A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRC were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (≥25 µg/l), low SPGI, and histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.47–1.05) and among those with histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.55–1.34). Conclusions Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers. PMID:19838812

  4. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development.

  5. Prospectively Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D; Loud, Jennifer T; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R; Greene, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR = 11.9; 95% CI, 5.1-23.4; excess absolute risk = 7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR = 13.4; 95% CI, 1.6-48.6). Our data are the first to indicate that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer: incidence, risk factors and impact on survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu Saadeh, Feras

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other cancers. Clear cell cancers carry the highest risk at 11-27%. The aim of this study was to identify the predisposing factors for VTE in a population of ovarian cancer patients and to determine the influence of VTE on overall survival.

  7. Prospectively-Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R.; Greene, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Results Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR=11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.1–23.4; excess absolute risk=7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR=13.4; 95%CI=1.6–48.6). Conclusions Our data are the first indicating that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Impact Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. PMID:26265202

  8. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  9. Coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer incidence: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Bin; Hao, Chuanzheng

    2018-04-01

    In epidemiologic studies, association between coffee consumption and esophageal cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of tjis study was to evaluate the effect of coffee on esophageal cancer by combining several similar studies. We conducted a meta-analysis for association of coffee intake and esophageal cancer incidence. Eleven studies, including 457,010 participants and 2628 incident cases, were identified. A relative risk (RR, for cohort study) or odds ratio (OR, for case-control study) of heavy coffee drinkers was calculated, compared with light coffee drinkers or non-drinkers. The analysis was also stratified by cancer types (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma), sex, and geographic region. The summarized OR of having esophageal cancer in heavy coffee drinkers was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.12), compared with light coffee drinkers. When stratified by sex, pathologic type of esophageal cancer, and type of epidemiologic study, we did not find any association of coffee consumption and esophageal cancer incidence. However, an inverse association between coffee consumption and incidence of esophageal cancer was found in East Asia participants with OR of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.44-0.83), but not in Euro-America participants (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81-1.29). There is a protective role of coffee consumption against esophageal cancer in East Asians, but not in Euro-Americans.

  10. Totally implantable central venous access port infections in patients with digestive cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Abdoulaye; Vanhems, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Cassier, Philippe; Péré-Vergé, Denis; Souquet, Jean-Christophe; Ecochard, René; Chambrier, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    Central venous access port-related bloodstream infection (CVAP-BSI) is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. This study examined the incidence rates and risk factors for CVAP-BSI in adult patients with digestive cancer. This prospective observational cohort study was performed from 2007 to 2011 in 2 oncology units of a university hospital. Incidence rate was expressed as number of CVAP-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days. A Cox regression model was used to identify risk factors for CVAP-BSI. A total of 315 patients were included. CVAP-BSI occurred in 41 patients (13.0%). The overall incidence rate was 0.76/1,000 catheter-days. The rate was higher in patients with esophageal cancer (1.28. P = .05) and pancreatic cancer (1.24; P = .007). Risk factors independently associated with CVAP-BSI were World Health Organization performance status between 2 and 4, catheter utilization-days in the previous month, pancreatic cancer, and parenteral nutrition. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci and enterobacteria were the main microorganisms isolated. In adult patients with digestive cancer, pancreatic cancer, cumulative catheter utilization-days, World Health Organization performance status, and parenteral nutrition were identified as independent risk factors for CVAP-BSI. Patients with any of these risk factors could be candidates for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of lifetime cumulative incidence and mortality risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Yukari; Katanoda, Kota; Charvat, Hadrien; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-11-01

    To estimate cumulative incidence and mortality risk for gastric cancer by risk category. Risk was classified into four types according to the presence/absence of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis: in order of lowest to highest risk, Group A: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group B: H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group C:H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(+); and, Group D: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(+). We used vital statistics for the crude all-cause and crude gastric cancer mortality rates in 2011 and data from population-based cancer registries (the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan) for gastric cancer incidence in 2011. For relative risk and prevalence, we used the results of a meta-analysis integrating previous studies and data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, respectively (baseline survey 2011-16). We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates and estimated the cumulative risk using a life-table method. The estimated lifetime cumulative incidence risk was 11.4% for men and 5.7% for women. The estimated risk for Groups A, B, C and D was 2.4%, 10.8%, 26.7% and 35.5% for men, and 1.2%, 5.5%, 13.5% and 18.0% for women, respectively. Similarly, the estimated lifetime cumulative mortality risk was 3.9% for men and 1.8% for women. The estimated risk of mortality for Groups A, B, C and D was 0.8%, 3.6%, 9.0% and 12.0% for men, and 0.4%, 1.7%, 4.2% and 5.7% for women, respectively. Our results may be useful for designing individually tailored prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Cancer incidence and risk in Alaskan natives exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzman, C.D.; Nelson, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer incidence in northern Alaskan villages exposed to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s was assessed using data from the Alaskan Native Tumor Registry. Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence in Alaskan natives differs from that in residents of the rest of the United States: rates of cancer of the nasopharynx and liver are higher in Alaskan native men and rates of cancer of the nasopharynx, gallbladder, cervix, and kidney are higher in Alaskan native women. Leukemia, breast cancer and bone sarcoma are the cancers most likely to result from fallout exposure in the Arctic, but the incidence of these cancers in the North Slope villages appeared to be lower than in either the entire Inuit population or the US population. The fallout radionuclides of potential health concern are cesium-137 and strontium-90, because of their abundance, long half-life, and chemical characteristics that facilitate transport through and concentration in the food chain and accumulation in sensitive tissues of the body. Radionuclide body burdens were determined in North Slope Inuit 25 years ago, because of their possible exposure to radioactive fallout via the lichen-caribou-man pathway. Cancer risk estimates have been calculated using highest average dose measurements from residents of Anaktuvuk Pass, under the assumption that peak exposure levels of the mid 1960s remained steady over the following 20 years. Worst-case estimates of expected cancer excess were calculated for leukemia, breast cancer and bone sarcoma

  13. Incidence of and risk factors for skin cancer after heart transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewer, Jerry D.; Colegio, Oscar R.; Phillips, P. Kim; Roenigk, Randall K.; Jacobs, M. Amanda; van de Beek, Diederik; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Kremers, Walter K.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Otley, Clark C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, tumor burden, and risk factors for nonmelanoma and other skin cancer types in this heart transplant cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patient medical records. SETTING: Tertiary care center. Patients All heart transplant recipients at Mayo Clinic from 1988

  14. Sleep and circadian disruption and incident breast cancer risk: An evidence-based and theoretical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Laura B; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Hall, Martica H

    2018-01-01

    Opportunities for restorative sleep and optimal sleep-wake schedules are becoming luxuries in industrialized cultures, yet accumulating research has revealed multiple adverse health effects of disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms, including increased risk of breast cancer. The literature on breast cancer risk has focused largely on adverse effects of night shift work and exposure to light at night (LAN), without considering potential effects of associated sleep disruptions. As it stands, studies on breast cancer risk have not considered the impact of both sleep and circadian disruption, and the possible interaction of the two through bidirectional pathways, on breast cancer risk in the population at large. We review and synthesize this literature, including: 1) studies of circadian disruption and incident breast cancer; 2) evidence for bidirectional interactions between sleep and circadian systems; 3) studies of sleep and incident breast cancer; and 4) potential mechanistic pathways by which interrelated sleep and circadian disruption may contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.; Golovneva, A.; Demidchik, E.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality risks in a large US Barrett's oesophagus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Michael B; Coburn, Sally B; Lam, Jameson R; Taylor, Philip R; Schneider, Jennifer L; Corley, Douglas A

    2018-03-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BE) increases the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma by 10-55 times that of the general population, but no community-based cancer-specific incidence and cause-specific mortality risk estimates exist for large cohorts in the USA. Within Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we identified patients with BE diagnosed during 1995-2012. KPNC cancer registry and mortality files were used to estimate standardised incidence ratios (SIR), standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and excess absolute risks. There were 8929 patients with BE providing 50 147 person-years of follow-up. Compared with the greater KPNC population, patients with BE had increased risks of any cancer (SIR=1.40, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.49), which slightly decreased after excluding oesophageal cancer. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk was increased 24 times, which translated into an excess absolute risk of 24 cases per 10 000 person-years. Although oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk decreased with time since BE diagnosis, oesophageal cancer mortality did not, indicating that the true risk is stable and persistent with time. Relative risks of cardia and stomach cancers were increased, but excess absolute risks were modest. Risks of colorectal, lung and prostate cancers were unaltered. All-cause mortality was slightly increased after excluding oesophageal cancer (SMR=1.24, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.31), but time-stratified analyses indicated that this was likely attributable to diagnostic bias. Cause-specific SMRs were elevated for ischaemic heart disease (SMR=1.39, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.63), respiratory system diseases (SMR=1.51, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.75) and digestive system diseases (SMR=2.20 95% CI 1.75 to 2.75). Patients with BE had a persistent excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma over time, although their absolute excess risks for this cancer, any cancer and overall mortality were modest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  17. Incidence of and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yujin; Kamisawa, Terumi; Anjiki, Hajime; Takuma, Kensuke; Egawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer sometimes occurs during the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of pancreatic cancer developing in 218 patients with chronic pancreatitis and clinical features of the chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer were studied. Nine patients developed pancreatic cancer. Average period from the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 9.6 years. All pancreatic cancers were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Only 2 patients had been followed-up periodically. There were no significant differences between chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer and those who did not in male/female ratio (3.5 vs. 8), average age on diagnosis (65.0 vs. 56.5), alcoholic/non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (1.6 vs. 2.6), smoking habits (62.5% vs. 70.7%), diabetes mellitus (77.8% vs. 54.4%), and continued alcohol drinking (37.5% vs. 53.1%). Over the period examined, 4% of chronic pancreatitis patients developed pancreatic cancer. Sex ratio, onset age, etiology, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and continued alcohol drinking were not significant risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis patients. Periodic follow-up due to the possibility of pancreatic cancer is necessary in chronic pancreatitis patients.

  18. The breast cancer incidence risk among females and a hazards in the microenvironments of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the earlier examinations on the Silesia voivodeship territory was found ultimately that in the districts with greatest development of industry the incidence of breast cancer was significantly greater in native females (stationary population than in immigrants (no stationary population, which suggests that there is a harmful influence of industrial pollutants in the female population (a longer time living in such conditions. It is possible that various chemical compounds especially from industrial-communal emissions and in the place of work – in the atmosphere contribute to a rise in the incidence of breast cancer in females as well. Material and methods. In analyse case-control type two women populations, i.e. natives – 540 cases with a breast cancer and 687 cases of control (women born within Silesia voivodeship, and immigrants – 319 cases of ills for breast cancer and 446 not-ills (all ones born outside Silesia voivodeship – were examinated. Anywhere in this case checking thesis whether character and long-time of hazards in microenvironment of work is significant in a risk of breast cancer. Results. The females that manually working without hazards in the place of work were characterized a bigger breast cancer risk – independently from place of birth (natives, immigrants, age group (30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 60 and total age and the endemic areas about statistically significantly high or low incidence and mortality (tab. II, III. It can not distinguished in this study no bigger females group with any characteristic impurities in the place of work comparatively suffering groups to controls ones. Conclusions. In this study the occupational risk factors are small significant mark in the incidence for female breast cancer.

  19. Incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Yao; Lee, Kuan-Der; Chen, Ping-Tsung; Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Yi-Yang; Huang, Cih-En; Kuan, Feng-Che; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lu, Chang Hsien

    2015-11-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy via central venous access ports is an important part of the standard treatment for most cancers, but it is accompanied with the risk of infections. This study aimed to analyze the incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection (CPI) among Chinese patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005 a total of 1391 cancer patients with 1449 totally implantable central venous access ports were evaluated. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the analyses of risk factors. The overall CPI incidence rate was 0.21 per 1000 catheter-days. Hematological malignancies and head and neck cancer were associated with an increased risk of CPI (hazard ratio 4.00 and 4.11, respectively, both p risk of infection than for patients in a nonadjuvant setting (p ports. Implementation of an insertion bundle for the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections is warranted, especially for those patients with hematological and head and neck cancers, as well as for patients receiving chemotherapy in the metastatic settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Delirium in Hospitalized Children with Cancer: Incidence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Chani; Ariagno, Sydney; Thau, Francesca; Rosenberg, Lynne; Mauer, Elizabeth A; Gerber, Linda M; Pritchard, David; Kearney, Julia; Greenwald, Bruce M; Silver, Gabrielle

    2017-12-01

    To assess the incidence of delirium and its risk factors in hospitalized children with cancer. In this cohort study, all consecutive admissions to a pediatric cancer service over a 3-month period were prospectively screened for delirium twice daily throughout their hospitalization. Demographic and treatment-related data were collected from the medical record after discharge. A total of 319 consecutive admissions, including 186 patients and 2731 hospital days, were included. Delirium was diagnosed in 35 patients, for an incidence of 18.8%. Risk factors independently associated with the development of delirium included age Delirium was associated with increased hospital length of stay, with median length of stay for delirious patients of 10 days compared with 5 days for patients who were not delirious during their hospitalization (P delirium was a frequent complication during admissions for childhood cancer, and was associated with increased hospital length of stay. Multi-institutional prospective studies are warranted to further characterize delirium in this high-risk population and identify modifiable risk factors to improve the care provided to hospitalized children with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  2. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrensch, Margaret; Peskin-Mentzer, Roni; Quesenberry, Charles P Jr; Souders-Mason, Virginia; Spence, Linda; Suzuki, Marisa; Gould, Mary; Chew, Terri; Farren, Georgianna; Barlow, Janice; Belli, Flavia; Clarke, Christina; Erdmann, Christine A; Lee, Marion; Moghadassi, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  3. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  4. Lobular breast cancer: incidence and genetic and non-genetic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Benusiglio, Patrick R

    2015-03-13

    While most invasive breast cancers consist of carcinomas of the ductal type, about 10% are invasive lobular carcinomas. Invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas differ with respect to risk factors. Invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with exposure to female hormones, and therefore its incidence is more subject to variation. This is illustrated by US figures during the 1987 to 2004 period: after 12 years of increases, breast cancer incidence declined steadily from 1999 to 2004, reflecting among other causes the decreasing use of menopausal hormone therapy, and these variations were stronger for invasive lobular than for invasive ductal carcinoma. Similarly, invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with early menarche, late menopause and late age at first birth. As for genetic risk factors, four high-penetrance genes are tested in clinical practice when genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is suspected, BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CDH1. Germline mutations in BRCA1 and TP53 are predominantly associated with invasive ductal carcinoma, while BRCA2 mutations are associated with both ductal and lobular cancers. CDH1, the gene coding for the E-cadherin adhesion protein, is of special interest as mutations are associated with invasive lobular carcinoma, but never with ductal carcinoma. It was initially known as the main susceptibility gene for gastric cancer of the diffuse type, but the excess of breast cancers of the lobular type in CDH1 families led researchers to identify it also as a susceptibility gene for invasive lobular carcinoma. The risk of invasive lobular carcinoma is high in female mutation carriers, as about 50% are expected to develop the disease. Carriers must therefore undergo intensive breast cancer screening, with, for example, yearly magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram starting at age 30 years.

  5. Personal history of rosacea and risk of incident cancer among women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-Q; Zhang, M; Danby, F W; Han, J; Qureshi, A A

    2015-07-28

    Rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease. We examined the association between personal history of rosacea and risk of incident cancers. A total of 75 088 whites were included from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Information on clinician-diagnosed rosacea and diagnosis year was collected in 2005. All cancers other than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were confirmed. During 1 447 205 person-years, we identified 5194 cases with internal malignancies and 5788 with skin cancers. We did not observe significant associations between personal history of rosacea and internal malignancies, except for thyroid cancer (hazard ratio (HR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-2.36). Among skin cancers, personal history of rosacea was associated with an elevated risk of BCC (HR=1.50, 95% CI=1.35-1.67). We suggest possible associations between personal history of rosacea and an increased risk of thyroid cancer and BCC. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Incidence and risk factors of hypomagnesemia in head and neck cancer patients treated with cetuximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Enokida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypomagnesemia is a common adverse event during cetuximab (Cmab treatment. However, few reports have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypomagnesemia in head and neck cancer patients treated with Cmab. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 131 head and neck cancer patients who received Cmab-containing therapy. Main eligibility criteria were ≥3 Cmab administrations, no prior EGFR-directed therapy, and no prophylactic Mg supplementation.Results Median baseline serum Mg level and number of Cmab administrations were 2.2 mg/dl and eight, respectively. Overall incidence of hypomagnesemia was 50.4% (grade 1, 46.6%; grade 2, 3.1%; grade 3, 0%; grade 4, 0.8% and differed between patients treated with palliative chemotherapy and bioradiation (Cmab and radiation (63% vs. 24%; p<0.01. Independent risk factors were low baseline serum Mg [Odds ratio (OR 161.988, 95% confidence interval (CI 9.436-2780.895], ≥7 Cmab administrations (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.16-13.98, and concurrent administration of platinum (cisplatin; OR 23.695, 95% CI 5.219-107.574, carboplatin; OR 5.487, 95% CI 1.831-16.439. Respective incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients in high- (concurrent platinum and ≥7 Cmab administrations and low-risk (no concurrent platinum and <7 Cmab administrations groups was 66.0% and 6.6% (P<0.001, OR 28.0. Conclusion Cmab is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia in patients with head and neck cancer with longer term administration and concurrent platinum therapy. High-risk patients should be treated with particular care.

  7. Incidence and risk factors of refeeding syndrome in head and neck cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Kristensen, Marianne Boll; Wessel, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence rates of refeeding phenomena (defined as a decline in p-phosphate) and refeeding syndrome (RFS; defined as development of clinical symptoms in addition to a decline in p-phosphate) in head and neck cancer patients, and to identify risk factors. Fifty......-four head and neck cancer patients referred for surgery were included. Forty-six potential risk factors were registered at the baseline, and p-phosphate was measured at Days 2, 4, and 7. Eleven patients (20%) developed RFS, and twenty-eight (52%) developed refeeding phenomena. At baseline, these patients...... presented a higher prevalence of head and neck pain, eating difficulties, higher p-phosphate levels, lower p-transferrin levels, and, in men, lower b-hemoglobin levels. Patients who developed symptoms had a decline in p-phosphate ≥0.22 mmol/l. At baseline, these patients had higher p-phosphate levels...

  8. Sphincter-Preserving Surgery for Low Rectal Cancers: Incidence and Risk Factors for Permanent Stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Joanna Chung Kiu; Foo, Dominic Chi Chung; Wei, Rockson; Law, Wai Lun

    2017-11-01

    Advances in surgical techniques and paradigm changes in rectal cancer treatment have led to a drastic decline in the abdominoperineal resection rate, and sphincter-preserving operation is possible in distal rectal cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term incidence of permanent stoma after sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer and its corresponding risk factors. From 2000 to 2014, patients who underwent sphincter-preserving low anterior resection for low rectal cancer (within 5 cm from the anal verge) were included. The occurrence of permanent stoma over time and its risk factors were investigated by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. This study included 194 patients who underwent ultra-low anterior resection for distal rectal cancer, and the median follow-up period was 77 months for the surviving patients. Forty-six (23.7%) patients required a permanent stoma eventfully. Anastomotic-related complications and disease progression were the main reasons for permanent stoma. Clinical anastomotic leakage (HR 5.72; 95% CI 2.31-14.12; p consideration when contemplating sphincter-preserving surgery.

  9. Male pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer in a cohort of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Han, Jiali; Weinstock, Martin A; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-12-15

    We examined the association between male-pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer, including invasive melanoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a prospective analysis, based on 36,032 participants from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. In 1992, participants reported their status of male-pattern baldness at age 45 years by choosing from five crown-view pictograms based on Norwood's classification. Diagnosis of skin cancers was reported biennially and information on melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. We identified 327 melanoma cases, 1324 SCC cases, and 8438 BCC cases during the follow-up. Male-pattern baldness was not significantly associated with risk of incident melanoma, but was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC and BCC. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for the highest category of baldness (frontal plus severe vertex baldness) was 1.33 (1.06-1.68) for SCC (p trend  = 0.001) and 1.23 (1.12-1.35) for BCC (p trend  baldness. Analyses by body sites found significant associations between frontal plus moderate to severe vertex baldness and risk of melanoma (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) and SCC (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.66) at head and neck. The associations were particularly stronger for scalp melanoma (HR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.29-39.42) and scalp SCC (HR = 7.09, 95% CI: 3.84-13.08), but not for non-scalp head and neck sites. Information on body sites was not available for BCC. In conclusion, male pattern baldness may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer, but the associations may only exist for those occurring at head and neck, particularly at scalp. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Association of Oral Microbiome With Risk for Incident Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung; Fan, Xiaozhou; Peters, Brandilyn A; Ma, Yingfei; Yang, Liying; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert D; Ganly, Ian; Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, Neal D; Gapstur, Susan M; Pei, Zhiheng

    2018-03-01

    Case-control studies show a possible relationship between oral bacteria and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporal relationship between oral microbiome and subsequent risk of HNSCC. To prospectively examine associations between the oral microbiome and incident HNSCC. This nested case-control study was carried out in 2 prospective cohort studies: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Among 122 004 participants, 129 incident patient cases of HNSCC were identified during an average 3.9 years of follow-up. Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. All participants provided mouthwash samples and were cancer-free at baseline. Oral microbiome composition and specific bacterial abundances were determined through bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall oral microbiome composition and specific taxa abundances were compared for the case group and the control group, using PERMANOVA and negative binomial generalized linear models, respectively, controlling for age, sex, race, cohort, smoking, alcohol, and oral human papillomavirus-16 status. Taxa with a 2-sided false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P-value (q-value) <.10 were considered significant. Incident HNSCC. The study included 58 patient cases from CPS-II (mean [SD] age, 71.0 [6.4] years; 16 [27.6%] women) and 71 patient cases from PLCO (mean [SD] age, 62.7 [4.8] years; 13 [18.3%] women). Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. Head and neck squamous cell cancer cases and controls were similar with respect to age, sex, and race. Patients in the case group were more often current tobacco

  11. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Katy; Bertran, Enriqueta; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence and survival rate of stomach cancer (SC) and its associated factors in a high risk population in Chile. METHODS: The population-based cancer registry of Valdivia, included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer system, covers 356 396 residents of Valdivia Province, Southern Chile. We studied all SC cases entered in this Registry during 1998-2002 (529 cases). Population data came from the Chilean census (2002). Standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants (SIR) using the world population, cumulative risk of developing cancer before age 75, and rate ratios by sex, age, ethnicity and social factors were estimated. Relative survival (Ederer II method) and age-standardized estimates (Brenner method) were calculated. Specific survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were measured at 3 and 5 years and survival curves were analyzed with the Logrank and Breslow tests. Survival was studied in relation to demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory results and medical management of the cases. Those variables significantly associated with survival were later included in a Cox multivariate model. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 529 primary gastric cancers occurred in Valdivia (crude incidence rate 29.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Most cases were male (69.0%), residents of urban areas (57.5%) and Hispanic (83.2%), with a low education level (84.5% Mapuche ethnicity only significant for women (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Of all cases, 76.4% were histologically confirmed, 11.5% had a death certificate only (DCO), 56.1% were TNM stage IV; 445 cases (84.1%) were eligible for survival analysis, all completed five years follow-up; 42 remained alive, 392 died of SC and 11 died from other causes. Specific 5-year survival, excluding cases with DCO, was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.7-13.5); 5-year relative survival rate was 12.3% (95% CI: 9.1-16.1), men 10.9% (95% CI: 7.4-15.2) and women 16.1% (95% CI: 9.5-24.5). Five-year specific survival was higher for patients

  12. The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, R. P.; Richel, O.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Prins, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase. The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for

  13. Incidence and lifetime risk of uterine corpus cancer in Taiwanese women from 1991 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the observed changes in incidence rate, the burden of uterine corpus cancer in the general female population is expected to increase in the near future. From a public-health perspective, care providers should develop strategies for the prevention, early detection, and intervention to reduce the rapidly increasing incidence of uterine corpus cancer in Taiwan.

  14. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  15. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  16. Incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-García, Inés; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Iribarren, José Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis Fernando; Lacruz-Rodrigo, José; Masiá, Mar; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis; Hernández-Quero, José; Vidal, Francesc; Alejos-Ferreras, Belén; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs); and to investigate the effect of making different assumptions on the definition of incident cases. A multicentre cohort study was designed. Poisson regression was used to assess incidence and risk factors. To account for misclassification, incident cases were defined using lag-times of 0, 14 and 30 days after enrolment. A total of 6393 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The incidences of ADCs changed as the lag periods were varied from 0 to 30 days. Different risk factors emerged as the definition of incident cases was changed. For a lag time of 0, the risk of Kaposi sarcoma [KS] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] increased at CD4 counts sex with men had a higher risk of KS. KS and NHL were not associated with viral load, gender, or hepatitis B or C. The results were similar for a lag-time of 14 and 30 days; however, hepatitis C was significantly associated with NHL. This analysis shows the importance of the definition of incident cases in cohort studies. Alternative definitions gave different incidence estimates, and may have implications for the analysis of risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation among cancer patients treated with vandetanib: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Zang

    Full Text Available Vandetanib is a multikinase inhibitor that is under assessment for the treatment of various cancers. QTc interval prolongation is one of the major adverse effects of this drug, but the reported incidence varies substantially among clinical trials. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to obtain a better understanding in the risk of QTc interval prolongation among cancer patients administered vandetanib.Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials that involved cancer patients who were prescribed vandetanib 300 mg/d and that included data on QTc interval prolongation. The overall incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nine trials with 2,188 patients were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of all-grade and high-grade QTc interval prolongation was 16.4% (95% CI, 8.1-30.4% and 3.7% (8.1-30.4%, respectively, among non-thyroid cancer patients, and 18.0% (10.7-28.6% and 12.0% (4.5-28.0%, respectively, among thyroid cancer patients. Patients with thyroid cancer who had longer treatment duration also had a higher incidence of high-grade events, with a relative risk of 3.24 (1.57-6.71, than patients who had non-thyroid cancer. Vandetanib was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-grade QTc interval prolongation with overall Peto odds ratios of 7.26 (4.36-12.09 and 5.70 (3.09-10.53 among patients with non-thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer, respectively, compared to the controls.Treatment with vandetanib is associated with a significant increase in the overall incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation. Different cancer types and treatment durations may affect the risk of developing high-grade QTc interval prolongation.

  18. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk in Georgia, USA: 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Mu, Lan; Madden, Marguerite; Vena, John E.

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in Georgia, USA. However, the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer risk in Georgia have not been fully studied. Hierarchical Bayesian models are used here to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk by race and gender in Georgia for the period of 2000-2007. With the census tract level as the spatial scale and the 2-year period aggregation as the temporal scale, we compare a total of seven Bayesian spatio-temporal models including two under a separate modeling framework and five under a joint modeling framework. One joint model outperforms others based on the deviance information criterion. Results show that the northwest region of Georgia has consistently high lung cancer incidence risk for all population groups during the study period. In addition, there are inverse relationships between the socioeconomic status and the lung cancer incidence risk among all Georgian population groups, and the relationships in males are stronger than those in females. By mapping more reliable variations in lung cancer incidence risk at a relatively fine spatio-temporal scale for different Georgian population groups, our study aims to better support healthcare performance assessment, etiological hypothesis generation, and health policy making.

  19. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  20. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  1. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  2. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  3. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Enriqueta; Heise, Katy; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-11-15

    We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia. We analyzed GBC incidence (Poisson regression) and GBC survival (Cox regression). Cases were identified by histology (69.4%), clinical work-up (21.8%), or death certificate only (8.8%). Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV. In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC. GBC cases were mainly females (76.0%), urban residents (70.3%), Hispanic (83.7%) of low schooling Mapuche 25.0, Hispanic 16.2 (p = 0.09). The highest SIRs were in Mapuche (269.2) and Hispanic women (199.6) with 8 years of schooling. Low schooling, female and urban residence were independent risk factors. By December 31, 2007, 6 (1.9%) cases were living, 280 (88.3%) died from GBC, 32 (10.1%) were lost of follow-up. Kaplan Meier Global 5-year survival was: 10.3%, 85% at stage I and 1.9% at stage IV; median survival: 3.4 months. Independent poor prognostic factors were TNM IV, jaundice and nonincidental diagnoses. Our results suggest that women of Mapuche ancestry with low schooling (>50 years) are at the highest risk of presenting and dying from GBC and should be the target for early detection programs.

  4. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-01-01

    annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the

  5. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

  6. Diabetes and risk of cancer incidence: results from a population-based cohort study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Vicentini, Massimo; Manicardi, Valeria; Gallo, Marco; Chiatamone Ranieri, Sofia; Greci, Marina; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-10-25

    Aim of this study was to compare cancer incidence in populations with and without diabetes by cancer site. Furthermore, we aimed at comparing excess risk of cancer according to diabetes type, diabetes duration and treatment, the latter as regards Type 2 diabetes. By use of the Reggio Emilia diabetes registry we classified the resident population aged 20-84 at December 31 st 2009 into two groups: with and without diabetes. By linking with the cancer registry we calculated the 2010-2013 cancer incidence in both groups. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) by cancer site, type of diabetes, diabetes duration, and as concerns Type 2 diabetes, by treatment regimen were computed using Poisson regression model and non-diabetic group as reference. The cohort included 383,799 subjects without diabetes and 23,358 with diabetes. During follow-up, we identified 1464 cancer cases in subjects with diabetes and 9858 in the remaining population. Overall cancer incidence was higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (IRR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.15-1.29), with similar results focusing on subjects with at least 2-year diabetes duration. Cancer sites driving overall increased risk were liver, pancreas, Colon rectum, and bladder in both sexes, corpus uteri for females. There was also suggestion of an increased risk for kidney cancer in females and a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Excess risk was found in patients with Type 2 diabetes, more marked among insulin users, especially with combined therapy. We observed an increasing risk for diabetes duration up to 10 years from diagnosis (IRR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.29-1.61) and a subsequent decrease to moderate-higher risk (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04-1.30). Our study indicates that the strength of association depends on specific cancer site. Insulin, monotherapy or combined therapy, per se or as an indication of poor blood glucose control, in addition to diabetes duration, may play a role in the association of diabetes and

  7. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption as predictors of cancer incidence among women at high risk of breast cancer in the NSABP P-1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R; Liu, Qing; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P; Ganz, Patricia A

    2014-05-01

    NSABP P-1 provides an opportunity to examine the association of behavioral factors with prospectively monitored cancer incidence and interactions with tamoxifen. From 1992 to 1997, 13,388 women with estimated 5-year breast cancer risk greater than 1.66% or a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (87% younger than age 65; 67% postmenopausal) were randomly assigned to tamoxifen versus placebo. Invasive breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer were analyzed with Cox regression. Predictors were baseline cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, and established risk factors. At median 7 years follow-up, we observed 395, 66, 35, and 74 breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Women who had smoked were at increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.007; HR = 1.3 for 15-35 years smoking, HR = 1.6 for ≥ 35 years), lung cancer (P cancer (P breast cancer risk only among women assigned to placebo (P = 0.021 activity main effect, P = 0.013 activity-treatment interaction; HR = 1.4 for the placebo group) and endometrial cancer among all women (P = 0.026, HR = 1.7). Moderate alcohol (>0-1 drink/day) was associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (P = 0.019; HR = 0.35) versus no alcohol. There were no other significant associations between these behaviors and cancer risk. Among women with elevated risk of breast cancer, smoking has an even greater impact on breast cancer risk than observed in past studies in the general population. Women who smoke or are inactive should be informed of the increased risk of multiple types of cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  8. Incidence and relative risk of peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients treated with eribulin: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ling; Hong, Yun; Ye, Xianghua; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Junyan; Wang, Yina; Zhao, Qiong

    2017-12-19

    Eribulin is a microtubule inhibitor, which is approved for the treatment of breast cancer. Peripheral neuropathy has been reported in the studies of eribulin, but the incidence and relative risk (RR) of eribulin-associated peripheral neuropathy varied greatly in cancer patients. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the overall incidence and RR of eribulin-associated peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients. Pubmed database and Embase and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meetings were systematically reviewed for primary studies. Eligible studies included prospective clinical trials and expanded access programs of cancer patients treated with eribulin. Statistical analyses were performed to calculate the incidences, RRs, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Altogether, 4,849 patients from 19 clinical trials were selected for this meta-analysis. The incidences of all-grade and high-grade peripheral neuropathy were 27.5% (95% CI: 23.3-32.4%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 3.6-6.2%), respectively. The relative risks of peripheral neuropathy of eribulin compared to control were increased for all-grade (RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.10-3.25) but not statistically significant for high-grade (RR = 2.98, 95% CI: 0.71-12.42). The use of eribulin is associated with an increased incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The RR is increased for all-grade peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teras, Lauren R., E-mail: lauren.teras@cancer.org [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Diver, W. Ryan [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Turner, Michelle C. [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Krewski, Daniel [McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Disease Prevention, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sahar, Liora [Statistics and Evaluation Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, Elizabeth [Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gapstur, Susan M. [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m{sup 3}) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m{sup 3}) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR{sub continuous}=1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m{sup 3}; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor

  10. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  11. Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Incident Cancers in China: A Prospective Study among 0.5 Million Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; He, Meian; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Zhengming; Pan, An; Li, Liming

    2018-01-03

    Using data from the China Kadoorie Biobank study, we conducted a prospective investigation on the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer risk in Chinese adults. A total of 508,892 participants (mean (standard deviation) age = 51.5 (10.7) years) without prior cancer diagnosis at baseline (2004-2008) were included. We documented 17,463 incident cancer cases during follow-up until December 31, 2013. Participants with T2DM had increased risks of total and certain site-specific cancers, and the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.19) for total cancer, 1.51 (1.29, 1.76) for liver cancer, 1.86 (1.43, 2.41) for pancreatic cancer, and 1.21 (1.01, 1.47) for female breast cancer. The associations were largely consistent when doctor-diagnosed and screen-detected T2DM were analyzed separately, except for colorectal cancer (HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.13) for doctor-diagnosed T2DM, and HR = 1.44 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.77) for screen-detected T2DM). In participants without prior diagnosis of T2DM, higher random blood glucose levels were positively associated with risk of total cancer, liver cancer, and female breast cancer (all P for trend ≤0.02). In conclusion, T2DM is associated with an increased risk of new-onset cancer in China, particularly cancers of the liver, pancreas, and female breast. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Spatial Assessment of Cancer Incidences and the Risks of Industrial Wastewater Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingru Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth and social transitions have deteriorated environmental conditions and caused further public health issues in last three decades. This study examines the complex mechanisms of how socioeconomic transitions and physical environmental conditions impact public health, especially with respect to increasing cancer incidences in mainland China from a spatial-temporal perspective. Specifically, (1 spatial variations of seven types of cancer incidences were analyzed in relation to heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater at the prefecture-level city scale from 2004 to 2009. Additionally; (2 spatial statistical methods were employed to explore the associations between health outcome, heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, as well as socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and physical environmental factors (hydrology and vegetation coverage. Results showed a significant increase of cancer incidences between 2004 and 2009. Consistent with the spatial pattern of heavy metal emissions, cancer patient clusters were identified in both traditional industrial bases and newly industrialized economic zones, especially in major cities located at downstream watersheds, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan. The results also revealed the double-edged effects of industrialization, economic growth, and urbanization on natural environment and human health. The findings provide informative knowledge of heavy metal pollution and cancer outbreaks in China and therefore offer valuable reference for authorities formulating regulations.

  13. Gene by Environment Investigation of Incident Lung Cancer Risk in African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. David

    2016-02-01

    Interpretation: These results suggest that chromosome 15q25.1 variants are robustly associated with CPD and lung cancer in African-Americans and that the allelic dose effect of these polymorphisms on lung cancer risk is most pronounced in lighter smokers.

  14. Incidence and risk of peripheral neuropathy with nab-paclitaxel in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L; Bu, Z; Ye, X; Zhou, Y; Zhao, Q

    2017-09-01

    Nab-paclitaxel, a Cremophor EL-free formulation of paclitaxel, is used to treat various malignancies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of its major toxicities, although the overall incidence remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the incidence of peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel and to compare the relative risk (RR) with conventional taxanes. The electronic databases were searched for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel with toxicity profile on peripheral neuropathy. Statistical analyses were done to calculate summary incidences, RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using fixed-effects or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nineteen trials were selected for the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 2878 cancer patients. The overall incidences of peripheral neuropathy (all-grade) was 51.0% (95% CI: 45.1-57.6%), and that of high-grade peripheral neuropathy was 12.4% (9.8-15.7%). The RRs of peripheral neuropathy of nab-paclitaxel compared to taxanes were not increased for all-grade and high-grade peripheral neuropathy. Nab-paclitaxel is associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy. Future clinical studies are still needed to investigate the risk reduction and possible use of nab-paclitaxel. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  16. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M; Ferrer, S; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G; Salas, M D; Cuevas, M D

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10 -6 , 6 x 10 -4 ] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10 -3 . The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  17. Periodontal Disease and Incident Cancer Risk among Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, Ngozi N; Marshall, James R; Moysich, Kirsten; Genco, Robert J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been isolated from precancerous and cancerous lesions and also shown to promote a procarcinogenic microenvironment. Few studies have examined periodontal disease as a risk factor for total cancer, and none have focused on older women. We examined whether periodontal disease is associated with incident cancer among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Our prospective cohort study comprised 65,869 women, ages 54 to 86 years. Periodontal disease information was obtained via self-report questionnaires administered between 1999 and 2003, whereas ascertainment of cancer outcomes occurred through September 2013, with a maximum follow-up period of 15 years. Physician-adjudicated incident total cancers were the main outcomes and site-specific cancers were secondary outcomes. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were conducted two-sided. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.32 years, 7,149 cancers were identified. Periodontal disease history was associated with increased total cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20); findings were similar in analyses limited to 34,097 never-smokers (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). Associations were observed for breast (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), lung (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51), esophagus (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.64-6.53), gallbladder (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.95), and melanoma skin (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48) cancers. Stomach cancer was borderline (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.94-2.67). Conclusions: Periodontal disease increases risk of total cancer among older women, irrespective of smoking, and certain anatomic sites appear to be vulnerable. Impact: Our findings support the need for further understanding of the effect of periodontal disease on cancer outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1255-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer

  18. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  19. Incidence and risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after gynecologic cancer surgery with initiation of periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deura, Imari; Shimada, Muneaki; Hirashita, Keiko; Sugimura, Maki; Sato, Seiya; Sato, Shinya; Oishi, Tetsuro; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Harada, Tasuku; Kigawa, Junzo

    2015-06-01

    Lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is one of the most frequent postoperative complications of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer. LLL often impairs quality of life, activities of daily living, sleep, and sex in patients with gynecologic cancer. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for LLL after gynecologic cancer surgery in patients who received assessment and periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). We retrospectively reviewed 126 cases of gynecologic cancer that underwent surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy at Tottori University Hospital between 2009 and 2012. All patients received physical examinations to detect LLL and underwent CDP by nurse specialists within several months after surgery. The International Society of Lymphology staging of lymphedema severity was used as the diagnostic criteria. Of 126 patients, 57 (45.2%) had LLL, comprising 45 and 12 patients with stage 1 and stage 2 LLL, respectively. No patient had stage 3 LLL. LLL was present in 37 (29.4%) patients at the initial physical examination. Multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy and age ≥ 55 years were independent risk factors for ≥ stage 2 LLL. To minimize the incidence of ≥ stage 2 LLL, gynecologic oncologists should be vigilant for this condition in patients who are ≥ 55 years and in those who undergo adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients should be advised to have a physical assessment for LLL and to receive education about CDP immediately after surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer.

  20. Confirmation of the reported association of clonal chromosomal mosaicism with an increased risk of incident hematologic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula M Schick

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities provide clinical utility in the diagnosis and treatment of hematologic malignancies, and may be predictive of malignant transformation in individuals without apparent clinical presentation of a hematologic cancer. In an effort to confirm previous reports of an association between clonal mosaicism and incident hematologic cancer, we applied the anomDetectBAF algorithm to call chromosomal anomalies in genotype data from previously conducted Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS. The genotypes were initially collected from DNA derived from peripheral blood of 12,176 participants in the Group Health electronic Medical Records and Genomics study (eMERGE and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI. We detected clonal mosaicism in 169 individuals (1.4% and large clonal mosaic events (>2 mb in 117 (1.0% individuals. Though only 9.5% of clonal mosaic carriers had an incident diagnosis of hematologic cancer (multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, or leukemia, the carriers had a 5.5-fold increased risk (95% CI: 3.3-9.3; p-value = 7.5×10(-11 of developing these cancers subsequently. Carriers of large mosaic anomalies showed particularly pronounced risk of subsequent leukemia (HR = 19.2, 95% CI: 8.9-41.6; p-value = 7.3×10(-14. Thus we independently confirm the association between detectable clonal mosaicism and hematologic cancer found previously in two recent publications.

  1. Towards gene-and gender-based risk estimates in Lynch syndrome; Age-specific incidences for 13 extra-colorectal cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Ladelund, Steen; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background:In Lynch syndrome, inherited mismatch repair (MMR) defects predispose to colorectal cancer and to a wide spectrum of extra-colorectal tumours. Utilising a cohort study design, we aimed to determine the risk of extra-colorectal cancer and to identify yet unrecognised tumour types...... were identified for 13 cancer types with differences related to gender, age and disease-predisposing gene. The different cancer types showed variable peak age incidence rates (IRs) with the highest IRs for ovarian cancer at age 30-49 years, for endometrial cancer, breast cancer, renal cell cancer...... and brain tumours at age 50-69 years, and for urothelial cancer, small bowel cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer and skin tumours after age 70.Conclusions:The broad spectrum of tumour types that develop at an increased incidence defines Lynch syndrome as a multi-tumour syndrome. The variable...

  2. Carcinogenesis model analysis for breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors and the implications for cancer risk estimate for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is the highest risk due to radiation among atomic bomb survivors. The excess relative risk of the early-onset breast cancer seems to be remarkably high for the youngest age-at-exposure groups. The cancer risk estimate of breast cancer is a current issue in radiological protection. We used a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis to analyze the breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors (Kai, et al. Radiat. Res. 1997). Our purpose is to examine the dependence of radiation risk on age at exposure using the two-stage model and how to transfer it to other populations for radiological protection. We fitted the model assuming that radiation acts as an initiator and that the rate of radiation-induced mutation and background initiation mutation leading to baseline cancer are additive. We took two age-dependence, not attained age but age at exposure, of the spontaneous process into account. First, age-dependence of spontaneous initiation was expressed by a linear model. We also modeled the age-dependence of spontaneous net growth rate of initiated cells by a linear function. As far as radiation-induced initiation is concerned, we took a stepwise function other than a liner function into account. The analysis did not show that the radiation mutation for the youngest age-at-exposure groups below age 10 was higher than for the older groups. Furthermore, the incidence of female breast cancer in Japan is increasing and the birth cohort effect can be observed in atomic bomb survivors. Our model assumed that an acute exposure to atomic radiation can only initiate cancers and do not influence other stages of carcinogenesis, whereas spontaneous initiation and promotion are age-dependent to consider birth cohort effects. When these cohort effects are properly accounted for, the shape of the age-specific incidence curve in Japan is remarkably similar to the age-specific incidence in western populations (shown in figure). Recently Little and

  3. Infertility and incident endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H P; Cook, L S; Weiderpass, E; Adami, H-O; Anderson, K E; Cai, H; Cerhan, J R; Clendenen, T V; Felix, A S; Friedenreich, C M; Garcia-Closas, M; Goodman, M T; Liang, X; Lissowska, J; Lu, L; Magliocco, A M; McCann, S E; Moysich, K B; Olson, S H; Petruzella, S; Pike, M C; Polidoro, S; Ricceri, F; Risch, H A; Sacerdote, C; Setiawan, V W; Shu, X O; Spurdle, A B; Trabert, B; Webb, P M; Wentzensen, N; Xiang, Y-B; Xu, Y; Yu, H; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Brinton, L A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nulliparity is an endometrial cancer risk factor, but whether or not this association is due to infertility is unclear. Although there are many underlying infertility causes, few studies have assessed risk relations by specific causes. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of 8153 cases and 11 713 controls from 2 cohort and 12 case-control studies. All studies provided self-reported infertility and its causes, except for one study that relied on data from national registries. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Nulliparous women had an elevated endometrial cancer risk compared with parous women, even after adjusting for infertility (OR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.59–1.94). Women who reported infertility had an increased risk compared with those without infertility concerns, even after adjusting for nulliparity (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.13–1.33). Among women who reported infertility, none of the individual infertility causes were substantially related to endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Based on mainly self-reported infertility data that used study-specific definitions of infertility, nulliparity and infertility appeared to independently contribute to endometrial cancer risk. Understanding residual endometrial cancer risk related to infertility, its causes and its treatments may benefit from large studies involving detailed data on various infertility parameters. PMID:25688738

  4. Incidence and risk of hematologic toxicities in cancer patients treated with regorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Hong

    2017-11-07

    Regorafenib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of several malignancies. As a non-traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, regorafenib is often associated with hematologic toxicities. Here we searched PubMed and Embase up to June 2017 for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies include trials in which subjects treated with 160 mg of regorafenib daily during the first 21 days of each 28-day cycle, and adequate safety data profile reporting thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutropenia and leucopenia. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the overall incidences, relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2,341 subjects from 16 trials were included in the present studies. The incidences of regorafenib associated all-grade and high-grade hematologic toxicities were: thrombocytopenia, 22% and 3%; anemia, 20% and 3%; neutropenia, 10% and 2%, and leucopenia, 13% and 2%, respectively. Regorafenib-treated subjects had a significant increased risk of all-grade (RR=6.35; 95% CI, 3.19-12.64) and high-grade (RR=6.27; 95% CI, 1.69-23.26) thrombocytopenia, all-grade (RR=2.76; 95% CI, 1.63-4.68) and high-grade (RR=5.38; 95% CI, 1.60-18.06) anemia. Our results suggested that regorafenib therapy was associated with significantly increased risks of hematological toxicities, and hematologic monitoring at regular intervals should be advised to clinician.

  5. Spatial variations in ambient ultrafine particle concentrations and the risk of incident prostate cancer: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Valois, Marie-France; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2017-07-01

    Diesel exhaust contains large numbers of ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1µm) and is a recognized human carcinogen. However, epidemiological studies have yet to evaluate the relationship between UFPs and cancer incidence. We conducted a case-control study of UFPs and incident prostate cancer in Montreal, Canada. Cases were identified from all main Francophone hospitals in the Montreal area between 2005 and 2009. Population controls were identified from provincial electoral lists of French Montreal residents and frequency-matched to cases using 5-year age groups. UFP exposures were estimated using a land use regression model. Exposures were assigned to residential locations at the time of diagnosis/recruitment as well as approximately 10-years earlier to consider potential latency between exposure and disease onset. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated per interquartile range (IQR) increase in UFPs (approximately 4000 particles/cm 3 ) using logistic regression models adjusting for individual-level and ecological covariates. Ambient UFP concentrations were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) in fully adjusted models when exposures were assigned to residences 10-years prior to diagnosis. This risk estimate increased slightly (OR=1.17, 95% CI; 1.01, 1.35) when modeled as a non-linear natural spline function. A smaller increased risk (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.11) was observed when exposures were assigned to residences at the time of diagnosis. Exposure to ambient UFPs may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding as this is the first study to evaluate this relationship. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of the observed to the expected numbers of cancers, that is, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using incidence rates for the general Danish and Swedish populations as a reference. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During 5,652,918 person-years of follow-up, 80,990 cancers occurred......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  7. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    ), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  8. A systematic review of breast cancer incidence risk prediction models with meta-analysis of their performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, Catherine; Ahmed, Ikhlaaq; Riley, Richard D

    2012-04-01

    A risk prediction model is a statistical tool for estimating the probability that a currently healthy individual with specific risk factors will develop a condition in the future such as breast cancer. Reliably accurate prediction models can inform future disease burdens, health policies and individual decisions. Breast cancer prediction models containing modifiable risk factors, such as alcohol consumption, BMI or weight, condom use, exogenous hormone use and physical activity, are of particular interest to women who might be considering how to reduce their risk of breast cancer and clinicians developing health policies to reduce population incidence rates. We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate the performance of prediction models for breast cancer that contain modifiable factors. A protocol was developed and a sensitive search in databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted in June 2010. Extensive use was made of reference lists. Included were any articles proposing or validating a breast cancer prediction model in a general female population, with no language restrictions. Duplicate data extraction and quality assessment were conducted. Results were summarised qualitatively, and where possible meta-analysis of model performance statistics was undertaken. The systematic review found 17 breast cancer models, each containing a different but often overlapping set of modifiable and other risk factors, combined with an estimated baseline risk that was also often different. Quality of reporting was generally poor, with characteristics of included participants and fitted model results often missing. Only four models received independent validation in external data, most notably the 'Gail 2' model with 12 validations. None of the models demonstrated consistently outstanding ability to accurately discriminate between those who did and those who did not develop breast cancer. For example, random-effects meta-analyses of the performance of the

  9. Incidence and relative risk for developing cancer among patients with COPD: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chung-Han; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Liao, Kuang-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This observational study aimed to examine the incidence of malignant diseases, including specific cancer types, after the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Taiwanese patients. Setting Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants The definition of a patient with COPD was a patient with a discharge diagnosis of COPD or at least 3 ambulatory visits for COPD. The index date was the date of the first COPD diagnosis. Patients with a history of malignancy disorders before the index date were excluded. After matching age and gender, 13 289 patients with COPD and 26 578 control participants without COPD were retrieved and analysed. They were followed from the index date to malignancy diagnosis, death or the end of study follow-up (31 December 2011), whichever came first. Primary outcome measures Patients were diagnosed with cancer (n=1681, 4.2%; 973 (7.3%) for patients with COPD and 728 (2.7%) for patients without COPD). The risk of 7 major cancer types, including lung, liver, colorectal, breast, prostate, stomach and oesophagus, between patients with COPD and patients without COPD was also estimated. Results The mean age of all study participants was 57.9±13.5 years. The average length of follow-up to cancer incidence was 3.9 years for patients with COPD and 5.0 years for patients without COPD (pCOPD were diagnosed with cancer (n=973, 73%) at a significantly higher rate than patients without COPD (n=708, 2.7%; pCOPD was 2.8 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.1) compared with patients without COPD after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities. The most common cancers in patients with COPD include lung, liver, colorectal, breast, prostate and stomach cancers. Conclusions The risk of developing cancer is higher in patients with COPD compared with patients without COPD. Cancer screening is warranted in patients with COPD. PMID:28279996

  10. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  11. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  12. Project Pocos de Caldas Plateau: cancer research and natural radioactivity - incidence and risk behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniazzi, Berenice Navarro; Otero, Ubirani Barros

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established by epidemiological studies that long term exposure due to radon increases the risk of lung cancer. While smoking continues to account for the bulk of lung cancers, it is been estimated that radon accounts for around 10% of all lung cancers. There is a synergistic relationship between smoking and radon and exposure due to radon is the primary cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Recognizing the importance of radon as a source of radiation exposure, the IAEA safety standard Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (generally referred to simply as the BSS) contains requirements aimed at reducing the associated risks. The BSS requires Member States to provide information on the levels of radon indoors and the associated health effects, and if appropriate, to establish and implement a radon action plan for controlling public exposure due to radon indoors. Although not specifically stated, it is clear that in order to decide whether or not an action plan is necessary, some measurement data must be available on the concentrations of radon present indoors. To assist in the implementation of the BSS, the Agency has also developed a Safety Guide: Protection of the Public against Exposure indoors due do Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation. This Safety Guide provides guidance on establishing and implementing a national radon action plan; developing national radon policy; undertaking national and regional surveys of radon in dwellings; measurement protocols; setting a reference level for dwellings; defining radon prone areas; radon control through building codes; and evaluation of programme effectiveness. While many sources of radiation exposure are not amenable to control, proven and effective building practices exist to limit the accumulation of radon in new buildings and cost-effective corrective actions have been developed to reduce high radon concentrations in existing buildings. The

  13. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Cullings, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy"-"1 (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  14. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Cullings, H.M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy{sup -1} (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  15. Opium Consumption and the Incidence of Cancer: Does Opium Account as an Emerging Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaidi, Mohammed Azeez; Arab, Hossein Ali; Amanpour, Saeid; Shirkoohi, Reza; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Sasani, Farhang

    2018-01-24

    Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between opium consumption and the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of opium on the initiation of GI cancer in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly divided into three groups; each received different treatment for 40 weeks. The rats in group 1 received purified water, while animals in group 2 were treated with 5 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN) orally for 8 weeks and continued with purified water by the end of the experiment. The third experimental group received 300 mg/kg opium for 16 weeks and then continued with 50 mg/kg phenobarbital by the end of the 40th week. The growth of tumors in the treated groups was assessed by histological changes and the up/down expression of p53, cdkn1, cdk2, e-cdh, and n-cdh genes in different parts of GI tract. Histological examinations revealed that DEN was able to induce the growth of tumor in GI tract as shown by active mitotic figure in different regions of GI system and hyperplasia of hepatocytes associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells, intestinal villous hypertrophy, and colorectal adenoma. There was also significant (p opium-treated group. The results of this study suggest that the opium does not promote the initiation of cancer in GI tract.

  16. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors of Refeeding Syndrome in Head and Neck Cancer Patients-An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Kristensen, Marianne Boll; Wessel, Irene; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence rates of refeeding phenomena (defined as a decline in p-phosphate) and refeeding syndrome (RFS; defined as development of clinical symptoms in addition to a decline in p-phosphate) in head and neck cancer patients, and to identify risk factors. Fifty-four head and neck cancer patients referred for surgery were included. Forty-six potential risk factors were registered at the baseline, and p-phosphate was measured at Days 2, 4, and 7. Eleven patients (20%) developed RFS, and twenty-eight (52%) developed refeeding phenomena. At baseline, these patients presented a higher prevalence of head and neck pain, eating difficulties, higher p-phosphate levels, lower p-transferrin levels, and, in men, lower b-hemoglobin levels. Patients who developed symptoms had a decline in p-phosphate ≥0.22 mmol/l. At baseline, these patients had higher p-phosphate levels, higher alcohol consumption, and lower p-transferrin and p-sodium levels, as well as a higher prevalence of eating difficulties, low handgrip strength (HGS), and a history of radiation therapy. The risk factors most strongly associated with the development of refeeding phenomena and RFS were pain, eating difficulties, low HGS, high alcohol intake, and previous radiation therapy.

  18. Cancer incidence among merchant seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Volk, Julie; Kaerlev, Linda

    2018-01-01

    on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. Methods: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women. Information on vital status and cancer was linked...... to each member of the cohort from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry using the unique Danish personal identification number. SIRs were estimated for specific cancers using national rates. Results: The overall incidence of cancer was increased for both male and female...

  19. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  20. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  1. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  2. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  3. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Albertsen, Katrine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2005-01-01

    in a brewery between 1939 and 1963. From the original cohort of 14,313 workers, it was possible to identify 13,051 brewery workers (91.2%). The identified brewery workers were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry for any cancer diagnoses during 1943-1999. The incidence rate of all Danish men was applied...... to calculate the expected number of cancers, standardised incidence ratios for age and time trend (O/E) were computed. A total of 3,928 cases of cancer were observed compared to 2,835.8 expected (O/E, 1.39; 95%-CI, 1.34-1.43). Significantly elevated risk of cancers was seen for cancer sites such as the buccal...

  4. Incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection in Chinese cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yao Wang

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Infection remains to be a challenging issue for totally implantable central venous ports. Implementation of an insertion bundle for the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections is warranted, especially for those patients with hematological and head and neck cancers, as well as for patients receiving chemotherapy in the metastatic settings.

  5. A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) identifies early-stage incident cancers and demonstrates high positive predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H; Skates, Steven; Hernandez, Mary A; Bedi, Deepak; Bevers, Therese; Leeds, Leroy; Moore, Richard; Granai, Cornelius; Harris, Steven; Newland, William; Adeyinka, Olasunkanmi; Geffen, Jeremy; Deavers, Michael T; Sun, Charlotte C; Horick, Nora; Fritsche, Herbert; Bast, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy was evaluated that incorporates change of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) levels over time and age to estimate risk of ovarian cancer. Women with high-risk scores were referred for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). A single-arm, prospective study of postmenopausal women was conducted. Participants underwent an annual CA125 blood test. Based on the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) result, women were triaged to next annual CA125 test (low risk), repeat CA125 test in 3 months (intermediate risk), or TVS and referral to a gynecologic oncologist (high risk). A total of 4051 women participated over 11 years. The average annual rate of referral to a CA125 test in 3 months was 5.8%, and the average annual referral rate to TVS and review by a gynecologic oncologist was 0.9%. Ten women underwent surgery on the basis of TVS, with 4 invasive ovarian cancers (1 with stage IA disease, 2 with stage IC disease, and 1 with stage IIB disease), 2 ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (both stage IA), 1 endometrial cancer (stage I), and 3 benign ovarian tumors, providing a positive predictive value of 40% (95% confidence interval = 12.2%, 73.8%) for detecting invasive ovarian cancer. The specificity was 99.9% (95% confidence interval = 99.7%, 100%). All 4 women with invasive ovarian cancer were enrolled in the study for at least 3 years with low-risk annual CA125 test values prior to rising CA125 levels. ROCA followed by TVS demonstrated excellent specificity and positive predictive value in a population of US women at average risk for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  6. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  8. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses' health study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; DuPre, Natalie; James, Peter; Vieira, Verónica M; VoPham, Trang; Mittleman, Maggie R; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2018-03-27

    Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, to date, no nationwide studies have evaluated these possible associations. Our objective was to examine the impacts of mammary carcinogen and estrogen disrupting HAPs on risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide cohort. We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Risk of overall invasive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+), and ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer with increasing quartiles of exposure were assessed in time-varying multivariable proportional hazards models, adjusted for traditional breast cancer risk factors. A total of 3321 invasive cases occurred (2160 ER+, 558 ER-) during follow-up 1989-2011. Overall, there was no consistent pattern of elevated risk of the HAPs with risk of breast cancer. Suggestive elevations were only seen with increasing 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposures (multivariable adjusted HR of overall breast cancer = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.29; ER+ breast cancer HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.30; ER- breast cancer HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; each in the top exposure quartile compared to the lowest). Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

  11. Incidence, determinants and the transient impact of cancer treatments on venous thromboembolism risk among lymphoma patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jennifer L; Østgård, Lene Sofie; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Valid estimation of the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) among lymphoma patients has been limited by small studies focused on selected lymphoma subtypes and failure to account for death as a competing risk. Using a nationwide cohort of Danish lymphoma patients...... logistic regression models and adjusted odds ratios (aORs). RESULTS: VTE IRs were >40/1000person-years within 180days post-diagnosis, decreasing to 8/1000person-years in year two. VTE risk was 2.9% and 3.5% at 1 and 2years, respectively. Lymphoma subtype, central nervous system involvement, and elevated...... lactate dehydrogenase were associated with VTE risk. Central venous catheter use increased the transient odds of VTE (aOR=6.7 (1.2, 28.1)). CONCLUSIONS: We report a lower VTE incidence among lymphoma patients compared with prior studies. Lymphoma aggressiveness was the main driver of baseline VTE risk...

  12. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  13. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  15. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  16. Incidence of Cancers of the Lower Stomach Increasing among Younger Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events Cancer Currents Blog Cancer Currents Blog Incidence of Cancers of the Lower Stomach Increasing among ... younger individuals, she added. Risk Factors and Shifting Incidence Rates Two of the main causes of noncardia ...

  17. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  18. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Dreger, S.; Zeeb, H. [University of Bremen, Leibniz - Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Research Focus Health Sciences Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Schindel, R.; Blettner, M. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Albrecht, T. [Vivantes, Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Asmussen, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Berthold, J.D. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Chavan, A. [Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische and Interventionelle Radiologie, Oldenburg (Germany); Claussen, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Gianicolo, E.A.L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce (Italy); Jablonka, K. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Jahnen, A. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Langer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Laniado, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Lotz, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Mentzel, H.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Jena (Germany); Queisser-Wahrendorf, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Zentrum fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Rompel, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Schlick, I. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuremberg (Germany); Schneider, K.; Seidenbusch, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Munich (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Neurozentrum, Freiburg (Germany); Spix, C. [University Medical Center Mainz, German Childhood Cancer Registry, Mainz (Germany); Spors, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Kinderradiologie, Standort Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Staatz, G. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Mainz (Germany); Vogl, T. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/Main, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagner, J. [Vivantes, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Weisser, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates. (orig.)

  19. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krille, L; Dreger, S; Schindel, R; Albrecht, T; Asmussen, M; Barkhausen, J; Berthold, J D; Chavan, A; Claussen, C; Forsting, M; Gianicolo, E A L; Jablonka, K; Jahnen, A; Langer, M; Laniado, M; Lotz, J; Mentzel, H J; Queißer-Wahrendorf, A; Rompel, O; Schlick, I; Schneider, K; Schumacher, M; Seidenbusch, M; Spix, C; Spors, B; Staatz, G; Vogl, T; Wagner, J; Weisser, G; Zeeb, H; Blettner, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates.

  20. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  1. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Siemerink, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Verhaegh, M.E.J.M.; Ostertag, J.U.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that the incidence of skin cancer is rising rapidly worldwide, but no reliable figures on multiple nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are available. Aim To determine the actual incidence of skin cancer in dermatology practice and to estimate how this relates to the first primary

  2. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Jose Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. Methods One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. Results The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p p p = 0.04. Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04. Conclusion The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate.

  3. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  4. Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kenigsberg, J.E.; Vavilov, S.E.; Tronko, M.D.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 1 31I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

  5. Elucidating the underlying causes of oral cancer through spatial clustering in high-risk areas of Taiwan with a distinct gender ratio of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ting Chiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate whether or not high-risk clusters of oral cancer (OC incidence spatially correlate with the prevalence rates of betel quid chewing (BQC and cigarette smoking (CS in Taiwan. The spatial autocorrelation and potential clusters of OC incidence among the 307 townships and heavy metal content of soil throughout Taiwan were identified using the Anselin’s local Moran test. Additionally, the spatial correlations among the incidence of OC, the prevalence of BQC and CS and heavy metal content of soil were determined based on a comparison of spatial clusters. High-risk OC (Moran’s I = 0.638, P <0.001 clusters were located in central and eastern Taiwan, while “hot spots” of BQC and CS prevalence were located mainly in eastern Taiwan. The distributions of BQC and CS lifestyle factors (P <0.001 were spatially autocorrelated. The “hot spots” of OC largely coincided with the “hot spots” of BQC, except for the Changhua and Yunlin counties, which are located in central Taiwan. However, high soil contents of nickel and chromium (P <0.001 in central Taiwan also coincided with the high-risk areas of OC incidence. In particular, Changhua county has incurred several decades of serious heavy-metal pollution, with inhabitants living in polluted areas having high-risk exposure to these metals. Results of this study suggest that, in addition to BQC and CS, anthropogenic pollution may profoundly impact the complexity of OC aetiology in central Taiwan.

  6. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...... standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968...

  7. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  8. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Incidence and risk factors for breast cancer subtypes in three distinct South-East Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, C R Beena; Tang, Tieng Swee; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-12-15

    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  10. Vegetable intake, but not fruit intake, is associated with a reduction in the risk of cancer incidence and mortality in middle-aged Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Li, Zhong-Min; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Moo-Song; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Shin, Myung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the preventive role of fruit and vegetable intakes against cancer in Asian populations. This prospective study evaluated the associations between total fruit intake, total vegetable intake, and total fruit and vegetable intake and total cancer incidence and mortality. This prospective cohort study included 14,198 men 40-59 y of age enrolled in the Seoul Male Cohort Study from 1991 to 1993. Fruit and vegetable intakes were assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute RR ratios and 95% CIs. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2008, 1343 men were diagnosed with cancer, and 507 died of cancer. Total vegetable intake was linearly associated with cancer incidence but was nonlinearly associated with cancer mortality; by comparing ≥ 500 g/d with Korean men. However, total fruit intake is not associated with total cancer incidence or mortality. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    assumption of future stabilization in the prevalence of screening. New cancer cases to rise: The annual number of new cancer cases is predicted to increase by 84% in Canadian males, from 80 800 in 2003-2007 to 148 400 in 2028-2032, and by 74% in Canadian females, from 74 200 to 128 800. Drivers of the changes in cancer cases: The primary reason for the increase in the number of all newly diagnosed cancer cases will be the aging of the Canadian population and, to a lesser extent, the increase in population size. Changes in the risk of cancer will constitute a relatively small component of the projected increase in new cases. Preventive interventions can have a strong influence on future incidence rates for individual cancer types. Most common cancers: The most common new cancers in males--prostate, colorectal, lung and bladder cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma--are projected to remain the same from 2003-2007 to 2028-2032, but colorectal cancer is predicted to outrank lung cancer as the second most frequently diagnosed cancer by 2028-2032. For females, breast, lung, colorectal and uterine cancers figure as the top 4 most common incident cancers in both periods. However, thyroid cancer will overtake non-Hodgkin lymphoma as the fifth most common cancer by 2028-2032. Incidence by geographical region: There is an east-west gradient in incidence across Canada. The highest incidence rates for most cancers are projected to be in eastern Canada (Atlantic region [New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador], Quebec or Ontario for both males and females. While British Columbia is projected to continue to have the lowest incidence rates for the majority of cancers in both sexes, this province will also continue to experience the highest rates for esophageal cancer in females, liver cancer in both sexes and testis cancer. The Atlantic region is projected to have the lowest incidence rates for cancers of the breast, uterus and ovary in females, and for

  12. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  13. Incidence of myocardial infarction among Swedish and immigrant smoking women: can physical activity modify the risk? An epidemiological study on the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Raj Kumar; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Janzon, Ellis

    2013-11-01

    Sweden has shown a decreasing tendency in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), except among middle-aged women. The incidence among middle-aged immigrant women is less explored. To determine if foreign-born women have a higher risk of MI as compared to women born in Sweden. Furthermore, to examine if physical activity (PA) modifies the risk of MI regardless of immigration status and smoking habits. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study was used for analyses. A total of 16,776 women aged 45-73 years participated. The mean follow-up time was 13.8±4 years. Mean age was 57.4±7.9 years. No difference was found in incidence of MI between Swedish and immigrant women (p=0.72). For current smokers among Swedish women, the relative risk (RR) with no/low PA was 2.93 (95% CI 2.07-4.14) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 2.21 (95% CI 1.61-3.03) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. Among immigrant smoking women, the RR with no/low PA was 4.56 (95% CI 1.62-12.8) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 3.27 (95% CI 1.21-8.84) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. PA reduces the risk of MI in non-smokers as well as in smokers, regardless of immigration status. Furthermore, PA was even more beneficial for women born outside Sweden. Against this background, immigrant women ought to get special consideration and attention from both caregivers and public health workers.

  14. The incidence and risk of developing a second primary esophageal cancer in patients with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma: a population-based study in Taiwan over a 25 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuan-Der; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Chen, Ping-Tsung; Chan, Chunghuang Hubert; Lin, Jen-Tsun; Huang, Cih-En; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Min-Chi

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of oral and pharyngeal (including oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx) carcinoma increases rapidly in Asia and South Pacific because of betel quid chewing. Thus far, large-scale epidemiological studies are not available yet to stratify these patients by their risks of developing a second primary cancer in the digestive tract including esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. A population-based study was conducted using the database from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry for the period 1979-2003. We quantified standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence of second primary cancers among 33,787 patients with initial diagnoses of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma. Among these four digestive tract organs, the esophagus was the only site of second cancer with excess risk in patients with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma. The incidence and risk of developing a second primary esophageal cancer differed by the site of the primary index tumor, most frequently seen in hypopharyngeal cancer (71/4,218 = 1.68%, SIR = 22.76, 95% CI 17.77-28.70), followed by oropharyngeal cancer (30/3,403 = 0.88%, SIR = 14.29, 95% CI 9.64-20.39) and the least in oral cavity cancer (99/26,166 = 0.38%, SIR = 5.57, 95% CI 4.53-6.78). In addition, the risk was extraordinarily high for patients with a follow-up interval ≤ 1 year and those with first primary cancer diagnosed at age ≤50. These patients may justify more close surveillance. The present study represents the first population-based study in Asia attempting to stratify the patients of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma by their risk of developing a second esophageal cancer. It helps identify patients at high risk and tailor the application of intense follow-up surveillance to the estimated risk in each individual case

  15. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  16. Cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining workers. We evaluated cancer incidence between 1988 and 2010 in a cohort of 40,720 Minnesota taconite mining workers used between 1937 and 1983. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by comparing numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. SIRs for lung cancer by histologic subtypes were also estimated. We adjusted for out-of-state migration and conducted a probabilistic bias analysis for smoking-related cancers. A total of 5700 cancers were identified, including 51 mesotheliomas and 973 lung cancers. The SIRs for lung cancer and mesothelioma were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.2-1.4) and 2.4 (95% CI = 1.8-3.2), respectively. Stomach, laryngeal, and bladder cancers were also elevated. However, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking attenuated the estimates for lung (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), laryngeal (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.6), oral (SIR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.2), and bladder cancers (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1). Taconite workers may have an increased risk for certain cancers. Lifestyle and work-related factors may play a role in elevated morbidity. The extent to which mining-related exposures contribute to disease burden is being investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  18. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  19. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  20. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  1. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Geography of breast cancer incidence according to age & birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, David I; Ford, Chandler; Samociuk, Holly

    2017-06-01

    Geographic variation in breast cancer incidence across Connecticut was examined according to age and birth cohort -specific groups. We assigned each of 60,937 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in Connecticut, 1986-2009, to one of 828 census tracts around the state. Global and local spatial statistics estimated rate variation across the state according to age and birth cohorts. We found the global distribution of incidence rates across places to be more heterogeneous for younger women and later birth cohorts. Concurrently, the spatial scan identified more locations with significantly high rates that pertained to larger proportions of at-risk women within these groups. Geographic variation by age groups was more pronounced than by birth cohorts. Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30 c...

  4. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  5. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  6. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B. L.; Watkins, K.; Soliman, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008-2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp.) and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.). Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates.Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008-2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both

  7. Recent declines in cancer incidence: related to the Great Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to

  8. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  9. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2011-01-01

    their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50 + ) and 122,424 matched controls......Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p ...

  10. Cancer Incidence following Expansion of HIV Treatment in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Medhin, Heluf; Kebabonye-Pusoentsi, Malebogo; Seage, George R; Suneja, Gita; Kayembe, Mukendi K A; Mmalane, Mompati; Rebbeck, Timothy; Rider, Jennifer R; Essex, Myron; Lockman, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) in southern Africa has dramatically reduced mortality due to AIDS-related infections, but the impact of ART on cancer incidence in the region is unknown. We sought to describe trends in cancer incidence in Botswana during implementation of the first public ART program in Africa. We included 8479 incident cases from the Botswana National Cancer Registry during a period of significant ART expansion in Botswana, 2003-2008, when ART coverage increased from 7.3% to 82.3%. We fit Poisson models of age-adjusted cancer incidence and counts in the total population, and in an inverse probability weighted population with known HIV status, over time and estimated ART coverage. During this period 61.6% of cancers were diagnosed in HIV-infected individuals and 45.4% of all cancers in men and 36.4% of all cancers in women were attributable to HIV. Age-adjusted cancer incidence decreased in the HIV infected population by 8.3% per year (95% CI -14.1 to -2.1%). However, with a progressively larger and older HIV population the annual number of cancers diagnosed remained constant (0.0% annually, 95% CI -4.3 to +4.6%). In the overall population, incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma decreased (4.6% annually, 95% CI -6.9 to -2.2), but incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (+11.5% annually, 95% CI +6.3 to +17.0%) and HPV-associated cancers increased (+3.9% annually, 95% CI +1.4 to +6.5%). Age-adjusted cancer incidence among individuals without HIV increased 7.5% per year (95% CI +1.4 to +15.2%). Expansion of ART in Botswana was associated with decreased age-specific cancer risk. However, an expanding and aging population contributed to continued high numbers of incident cancers in the HIV population. Increased capacity for early detection and treatment of HIV-associated cancer needs to be a new priority for programs in Africa.

  11. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  12. Incidence and identification of risk factors for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients: an audit of a single "real-world" setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Grace H; Acuna, Sergio A; Sevick, Laura; Yan, Andrew T; Brezden-Masley, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Management of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients includes the combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab. A meta-analysis reported that risk factors associated with TIC among less selected patients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 160 HER2+ breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab from January 2006 to June 2014 at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Patient demographics, cardiovascular history, and TIC were recorded. TIC was defined as symptomatic (heart failure) or asymptomatic [decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by ≥10% or LVEF ≤ 50%]. Of the 160 patients [median age 52 (IQR 45-60), 48.1% on anthracycline-based chemotherapy], 34 patients (21.3%) experienced TIC (median follow-up 55.4 months). The median time to development of TIC was 28.5 weeks during trastuzumab therapy. Those with TIC were more likely to have undergone a mastectomy (52.9 vs. 33.3%, p = 0.04). However, after adjusting for anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, mastectomy was not independently associated with TIC (HR 2.02; 95% CI 0.88-4.63). The incidence of TIC is higher in our "real-world" population compared to clinical trial data. The median time to development of TIC was 28 weeks after trastuzumab initiation, approximately the 10th treatment of trastuzumab. Timely identification and management of patients is important to avoid irreversible cardiac toxicity and improve breast cancer survival.

  13. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  14. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney L. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008–2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp. and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.. Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates.

  15. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR and mortality (ASMR rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Chupakhin, Valery S; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997-2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997-2010 for incidence and 1999-2010 for mortality. Two years' data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across circumpolar regions and countries. With its small

  19. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Hoff, Andreas; Ross, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-12-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this study, we investigated whether the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population. We followed 11,580 Danish Adventists and Baptists in the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, which contains information on cases of cancer for 1943-2008. Cancer incidence in the cohort was compared with that in the general Danish population as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and within-cohort comparisons were made with a Cox model. Lower cancer incidences were observed for both Seventh-day Adventist men (SIR, 66; 95% CI, 60-72) and women (85; 80-91). The same result was observed for Baptists although not as low. The differences were most pronounced for smoking-related cancers such as those of the buccal cavity and lung (SIR, 20; 13-30 for Seventh-day Adventist men and 33; 22-49 for Seventh-day Adventist women). The incidences of other lifestyle-related cancers, such as of stomach, rectum, liver and cervix, were also decreased. In general, the SIRs were lower for men than for women, and Adventists had lower hazard rates than Baptists. Our findings point to the benefits of compliance with public health recommendations and indicate that lifestyle changes in the population might change the cancer risks of individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  1. Incidence of cancer in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Ann; Schou, Morten; Videbaek, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: With improvement in survival of chronic heart failure (HF), the clinical importance of co-morbidity is increasing. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and risk of cancer and all-cause mortality in a large Danish HF cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 9307 outpatients...

  2. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  3. Incidence of new primary cancers after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Storm, H.H.; Mouridsen, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of new primary cancers was evaluated in 3538 postmenopausal patients who had received surgical treatment for primary breast cancer. Of these patients, 1828 with a low risk of recurrence received no further treatment. High-risk patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group (n = 846) received postoperative radiotherapy, while the second group (n = 864) received radiotherapy plus tamoxifen at a dose of 30 mg given daily for 48 weeks. The median observation time was 7.9 years. In comparison with the number of new cancers in the general population, the number of new cancers in the three groups was elevated mostly due to a high number of cancers of the contralateral breast and of colorectal cancers in the high-risk groups. The cumulative risk of nonlymphatic leukemia was increased among patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (P = .04). Cancer incidence in the high-risk tamoxifen-treated group relative to that in the high-risk group not treated with tamoxifen was not significant (1.3). No protective effect of tamoxifen on the opposite breast was seen (rate ratio for breast cancer = 1.1), but a tendency to an elevated risk of endometrial cancer was observed (rate ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 0.6-32.4). Continued and careful follow-up of women treated with tamoxifen is necessary to clarify the potential cancer-suppressive or cancer-promoting effects of this drug

  4. Groundwater uranium and cancer incidence in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sara E.; Burch, James B.; Bottai, Matteo; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne; Bolick-Aldrich, Susan; Temples, Tom; Wilkerson, Rebecca C.; Vena, John E.; Hébert, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This ecologic study tested the hypothesis that census tracts with elevated groundwater uranium and more frequent groundwater use have increased cancer incidence. Methods Data sources included: incident total, leukemia, prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, kidney, and bladder cancers (1996–2005, SC Central Cancer Registry); demographic and groundwater use (1990 US Census); and groundwater uranium concentrations (n = 4,600, from existing federal and state databases). Kriging was used to predict average uranium concentrations within tracts. The relationship between uranium and standardized cancer incidence ratios was modeled among tracts with substantial groundwater use via linear or semiparametric regression, with and without stratification by the proportion of African Americans in each area. Results A total of 134,685 cancer cases were evaluated. Tracts with ≥50% groundwater use and uranium concentrations in the upper quartile had increased risks for colorectal, breast, kidney, prostate, and total cancer compared to referent tracts. Some of these relationships were more likely to be observed among tracts populated primarily by African Americans. Conclusion SC regions with elevated groundwater uranium and more groundwater use may have an increased incidence of certain cancers, although additional research is needed since the design precluded adjustment for race or other predictive factors at the individual level. PMID:21080052

  5. Incidence of low risk human papillomavirus in oral cancer: a real time PCR study on 278 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, A; Scapoli, L; Martinelli, M; Pezzetti, F; Girardi, A; Spinelli, G; Lucchese, A; Carinci, F

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignant tumour of the oral cavity. It is widely known that tobacco and alcohol consumption are the major causes of the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The human papilloma virus infection has also been postulated as a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, although conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of high-risk and low-risk type human papillomavirus in a large sample of squamous cell carcinoma limited to the oral cavity by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were obtained from 278 squamous cell carcinoma limited to oral cavity proper. Sequencing revealed that 5 samples were positive for HPV type 16, 5 for HPV type 11, and 1 for HPV type 6. Human papillomavirus 11 was detected in 5 tumours out of the 278 examined. The prevalence rate for Human papillomavirus 11 was 1.8% (C.I. 0.7-3.9). The matched case-controls analysis indicated that the prevalence among controls did not significantly differ with respect to cases and that Human papillomavirus 11 alone did not correlate with squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Cancer incidence in eastern Morocco: cancer patterns and incidence trends, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Ouarzane, Meryem; Boulouiz, Redouane; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2017-08-29

    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 7872 incident cases of cancer were registered in Eastern Morocco. Among these incident cases 5220 cases were women and 2652 were men, with a female to male ratio of 1.97. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years for males and 52 for females and 94% of the patients aged over 30 years. For both sexes combined and for all cancer sites, breast cancer was the commonest followed by cervix uteri, colon-rectum, lung, nasopharynx, and stomach cancers. The most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed respectively by cervix uteri cancer, colon-rectum cancer, ovary cancer, and stomach cancer. In men, the lung cancer ranked first, followed respectively by colon-rectum cancer, nasopharynx cancer, prostate cancer, and stomach cancer. For most cancers, crude incidence rates (CR) have increased significantly. The CR for all cancers combined has increased from 56.6 to 80.3 per 100,000 females and from 32.3 to 42.6 per 100,000 males during the study period. Patients profile analysis showed that 79% of cancer patients were from urban areas, 83% were unemployed and 85% had no health insurance. The distribution of cancers in Eastern Morocco is different from those observed in other regions of Morocco. Unlike most countries, women were much more affected with cancer than men in Eastern Morocco. More importantly, the rates of many cancers are rising. Therefore, our data justify the need to develop effective programs for cancer control and prevention in

  7. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane; Henry-Amar, Michel; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Rame, Jean-Pierre; Babin, Emmanuel; Icard, Philippe; Samama, Guy; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Mahoudeau, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ( 131 I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P 0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P 131 I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  8. Cancer incidence in relatives of British Fanconi Anaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson Shirley V

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fanconi anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive DNA repair disorder with affected individuals having a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia and certain solid tumours. Thirteen complementation groups have been identified and the genes for all of these are known (FANCA, B, C, D1/BRCA2, D2, E, F, G, I, J/BRIP1, L, M and N/PALB2. Previous studies of cancer incidence in relatives of Fanconi anemia cases have produced conflicting results. A study of British FA families was therefore carried out to investigate this question, since increases in cancer risk in FA heterozygotes would have implications for counselling FA family members, and possibly also for the implementation of preventative screening measures in FA heterozygotes. Methods Thirty-six families took part and data was collected on 575 individuals (276 males, 299 females, representing 18,136 person years. In this cohort, 25 males and 30 females were reported with cancer under the age of 85 years, and 36 cancers (65% could be confirmed from death certificates, cancer registries or clinical records. Results A total of 55 cancers were reported in the FA families compared to an estimated incidence of 56.95 in a comparable general population cohort, and the relative risk of cancer was 0.97 (95% C.I. = 0.71–1.23, p = 0.62 for FA family members. Analysis of relative risk for individual cancer types in each carrier probability group did not reveal any significant differences with the possible exception of prostate cancer (RR = 3.089 (95% C.I. = 1.09 – 8.78; Χ2 = 4.767, p = 0.029. Conclusion This study has not shown a significant difference in overall cancer risk in FA families.

  9. reputation Risks through Information Security Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Eduardovich Dorokhov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with accounting reputational risks arising through information security breaches in the management of a business entity. Security breach incidents which results to the loss of reputation are identified. Based on this analysis the definition of reputational risk in information security is given.

  10. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Larson, J. C.; Snetslaar, L. G.; Lane, D. S.; Tharp, K. M.; Stefanick, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample ( N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0-<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02-1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93-1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05-1.36) and high non drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01-2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Disparities in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R. M.; Gonzales, M.; Wiggins, C. L.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses indicated that New Mexican Hispanics and American Indians (AI) did not experience the declining colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates observed among non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We evaluated more recent data to determine whether racial/ethnic differences persisted. Methods. We used New Mexico Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data from 1995 to 2009 to calculate age-specific incidence rates and age-adjusted incidence rates overall and by tumor stage. We calculated mortality rates using National Center for Health Statistics’ data. We used join point regression to determine annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted incidence rates. Analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Incidence rates continued declining in NHW (APC −1.45% men, −1.06% women), while non significantly increasing for AI (1.67% men, 1.26% women) and Hispanic women (0.24%). The APC initially increased in Hispanic men through 2001 (3.33%, P = 0.06), before declining (−3.10%, P = 0,003). Incidence rates declined in NHW and Hispanics aged 75 and older. Incidence rates for distant-stage cancer remained stable for all groups. Mortality rates declined significantly in NHW and Hispanics. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities in CRC persist in New Mexico. Incidence differences could be related to risk factors or access to screening; mortality differences could be due to patterns of care for screening or treatment.

  12. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  13. Cancer incidence after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; Land, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    From 1940 until 1970, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was used to treat children and military personnel suffering from Eustachian tube failure attributable to local lymphoid hyperplasia. We studied cancer incidence in a cohort of 4339 Dutch patients treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation,

  14. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan. Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984 polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. METHODS: A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. RESULTS: The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76 and 3.86 (2.96-5.03 for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13. Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07. CONCLUSION: Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled

  15. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohong; Mai, Ruiqin; Huang, Bo

    2010-10-27

    Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984) polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR) being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76) and 3.86 (2.96-5.03) for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13). Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07). Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled with alcohol drinking or the ALDH2*504Lys allele.

  16. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe; Schneider, Uwe; Poppe, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  18. Using HPV prevalence to predict cervical cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monisha; Bruni, Laia; Diaz, Mireia; Castellsagué, Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Kim, Jane J

    2013-04-15

    Knowledge of a country's cervical cancer (CC) burden is critical to informing decisions about resource allocation to combat the disease; however, many countries lack cancer registries to provide such data. We developed a prognostic model to estimate CC incidence rates in countries without cancer registries, leveraging information on human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence, screening, and other country-level factors. We used multivariate linear regression models to identify predictors of CC incidence in 40 countries. We extracted age-specific HPV prevalence (10-year age groups) by country from a meta-analysis in women with normal cytology (N = 40) and matched to most recent CC incidence rates from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents when available (N = 36), or Globocan 2008 (N = 4). We evaluated country-level behavioral, economic, and public health indicators. CC incidence was significantly associated with age-specific HPV prevalence in women aged 35-64 (adjusted R-squared 0.41) ("base model"). Adding geographic region to the base model increased the adjusted R-squared to 0.77, but the further addition of screening was not statistically significant. Similarly, country-level macro-indicators did not improve predictive validity. Age-specific HPV prevalence at older ages was found to be a better predictor of CC incidence than prevalence in women under 35. However, HPV prevalence could not explain the entire CC burden as many factors modify women's risk of progression to cancer. Geographic region seemed to serve as a proxy for these country-level indicators. Our analysis supports the assertion that conducting a population-based HPV survey targeting women over age 35 can be valuable in approximating the CC risk in a given country. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Regular Use of Aspirin or Non-Aspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Is Not Associated With Risk of Incident Pancreatic Cancer in Two Large Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Natalia; Yuan, Chen; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Cao, Yin; Babic, Ana; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Kraft, Peter; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji; Stampfer, Meir; Cochrane, Barbara B; Manson, JoAnn E; Clish, Clary B; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wolpin, Brian M

    2018-04-01

    Use of aspirin and/or non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduces the risk of several cancers, but it is not clear if use of these drugs is associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in 141,940 participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses' Health Study using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. We considered several exposure classifications to model differing lag times between NSAID exposure and cancer development. We also conducted a nested case-control study of participants from 3 prospective cohorts using conditional logistic regression to evaluate pre-diagnosis levels of plasma salicylurate, a major metabolite of aspirin, in 396 pancreatic cancer cases and 784 matched individuals without pancreatic cancer (controls). In the prospective cohort study, 1122 participants developed pancreatic adenocarcinoma over 4.2 million person-years. Use of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk, even after considering several latency exposure classifications. In a pre-planned subgroup analysis, regular aspirin use was associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk among participants with diabetes (relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.94). In the nested case-control study, pre-diagnosis levels of salicylurate were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.72-1.61; P trend 0.81; comparing participants in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile of plasma salicylurate). Regular aspirin or non-aspirin NSAID use was not associated with future risk of pancreatic cancer in participants from several large prospective cohort studies. A possible reduction in risk for pancreatic cancer among people with diabetes who regularly use aspirin should be further examined in preclinical and human studies. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier

  20. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. Objectives This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. ...

  1. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea.Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope.During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4% and 5,579 (0.7% newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women.In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  2. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  3. Thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident: comparison with spontaneous incidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.; Kairo, I.; Likhtarev, I.; Heidenreich, W.F.; Jacob, P.; Goulko, G.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine among those born in the period 1968-1986 was analyzed with the aim to identify the enhancement due to the Chernobyl accident. Since any Ukrainian data referring to the time period before the accident are scarce and the variation of spontaneous incidences in other countries is immense, the Ukrainian incidences in the period 1986-1989 were used to estimate the baseline risk. Following 1990, the incidence in the southern part of the Ukraine increased by about 30%, independent of age. In the other parts the increase of the incidence depended on age at exposure. In the age group of 9-year-old children, the incidences in three regions defined as the 'high-dose area', the northern, and the middle oblasts, increased by factors of 50, 20, and 6, respectively. These rates (1991-1995) are well above spontaneous rates in other countries. In the age group of 17-year-old juveniles, the incidence increased by a factor of 6 for the 'high dose area' and in the three northern oblasts, whereas in the nine 'middle' oblasts it was similar to the incidence of the 'southern' Ukraine. These rates are within the range found in other countries. (orig.)

  4. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  5. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    and risk of cancer and all-cause mortality were calculated using Cox regression, Fine and Gray competing-risks regression, and instrumental variable analyses. Results: During a median follow-up time of 3.9 years for cancer and 4.9 years for all-cause mortality, 3243 individuals received a diagnosis...... of cancer and 3978 died. Observationally, 50% higher plasma urate was associated with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05-1.18) for cancer incidence and 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for all-cause mortality. Each A-allele of the SLC2A9 rs7442295 was associated with 9% higher plasma urate...

  6. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer--birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbom, A; Akre, O

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer is rising in most Western populations. A collaborative study between nine population-based cancer registries in countries around the Baltic Sea was utilized in order to analyze in detail geographic variations and temporal trends in the occurrence of testicular cancer. There were 34,309 cases registered up until 1989 starting in Denmark in 1942 and most recently in Latvia in 1977. From the descriptive epidemiology it was obvious that there was a substantial variation in the age-standardized incidence amounting to about a 10-fold difference between the different countries ranging from 0.8 per 100,000 person-years in Lithuania to 7.6 per 100,000 person-years in Denmark. Previous studies have indicated that this increase is due to birth cohort effects. A more detailed analysis was therefore performed in those six countries with a sufficiently long period of cancer registration; Poland, former East Germany, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden. This analysis showed that birth cohort is a more important determinant of testicular cancer risk than year of diagnosis. In Poland, former East Germany and Finland, there was an increasing risk for all birth cohorts. Among men born in Denmark, Norway or Sweden between 1930 and 1945, this increasing trend in risk was interrupted in these birth cohorts but followed thereafter by an uninterrupted increase by birth cohort. In conclusion, life time exposure to environmental factors which are associated with the incidence of testicular cancer appear to be more related to birth cohort than to year of diagnosis. Because testicular cancer typically occurs at an early age, major etiological factors therefore need to operate early in life, perhaps even in utero.

  7. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiao-feng; Li, Lian-fang; Ou, Zhou-luo; Shen, Rong; Shao, Zhi-min

    2012-01-01

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  8. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. Material and methods: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980–2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox......-standardized incidence of OC during the last 30 years in Denmark, and also an improvement in survival. The 5-year OS was significantly better in recent years even when we adjusted the analysis for relevant covariates....

  9. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  10. Sirolimus effects on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Siddiqui, Kulsoom; Engels, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant option for kidney transplant recipients, may reduce cancer risk by interrupting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, studies of sirolimus and cancer incidence in kidney recipients have not been definitive, and have had limited ability to examine specific cancer types. The literature was systematically reviewed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of kidney recipients that compared sirolimus users to sirolimus nonusers. Meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of the association between sirolimus use and incidence of total cancer and specific cancer types. Estimates were stratified by study type (RCT vs. observational) and use of cyclosporine (an immunosuppressant that affects DNA repair). Twenty RCTs and two observational studies were eligible for meta-analysis, including 39,039 kidney recipients overall. Sirolimus use was associated with lower overall cancer incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), driven by a reduction in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, IRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.76). The protective effect of sirolimus on NMSC risk was most notable in studies comparing sirolimus against cyclosporine (IRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04-0.84). After excluding NMSCs, there was no overall association between sirolimus and incidence of other cancers (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.69-1.63). However, sirolimus use had associations with lower kidney cancer incidence (IRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20-0.81), and higher prostate cancer incidence (IRR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.17-2.91). Among kidney recipients, sirolimus users have lower NMSC risk, which may be partly due to removal of cyclosporine. Sirolimus may also reduce kidney cancer risk but did not appear protective for other cancers, and it may actually increase prostate cancer risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  12. Chemotherapy-Related Amenorrhea and Menopause in Young Chinese Breast Cancer Patients: Analysis on Incidence, Risk Factors and Serum Hormone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Giok S.; Mo, Frankie K. F.; Pang, Elizabeth; Suen, Joyce J. S.; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Lee, Kun M.; Yip, Claudia H. W.; Tam, Wing H.; Ng, Rita; Koh, Jane; Yip, Christopher C. H.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Yeo, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this prospective cross-sectional study on young premenopausal breast cancer patients, the objectives were to: determine the incidences of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) and menopause (CRM); identify associated factors; and assess plasma levels of estradiol (E2) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) among patients who developed menopause. Methods Eligibility criteria include Chinese stage I-III breast cancer patients, premenopausal, age ≤45 at breast cancer diagnosis, having received adjuvant chemotherapy, within 3–10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Detailed menstrual history prior to and after adjuvant treatment was taken at study entry. Patients’ background demographics, tumor characteristics and anti-cancer treatments were collected. The rates of CRA and CRM were determined. Analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with CRM. For postmenopausal patients, levels of E2 and FSH were analyzed. Results 286 patients were recruited; the median time from breast cancer diagnosis to study entry was 5.0 years. 255 patients (91.1%) developed CRA. Of these, 66.7% regained menstruation. At the time of study entry, 137 (48.9%) had developed CRM, amongst whom 84 were age ≤45. On multivariate analysis, age was the only associated factor. Among patients with CRM, the median FSH was 41.0 IU/L; this was significantly lower in those who were taking tamoxifen compared to those who were not (20.1 vs. 59.7 IU/L, p<0.0001). The E2 level was <40 pmol/L; there was no difference between those who were still on tamoxifen or not. Conclusion After adjuvant chemotherapy, the majority of young Chinese breast cancer patients developed CRA; ~50% developed CRM, with 61% at age ≤45. Age at diagnosis is the only factor associated with CRM. FSH level may be affected by tamoxifen intake. PMID:26485568

  13. Incidence of cancer and overall risk of mortality in individuals treated with raltegravir-based and non-raltegravir-based combination antiretroviral therapy regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Zangerle, R.; Machala, L.; Zilmer, K.; Ristola, M.; Pradier, C.; Kirk, O.; Sambatakou, H.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Yust, I.; Schmid, P.; Gottfredsson, M.; Khromova, I.; Jilich, D.; Flisiak, R.; Smidt, J.; Rozentale, B.; Radoi, R.; Losso, M. H.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mocroft, A.; Kundro, M.; Schmied, B.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Begovac, J.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Møller, N. F.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Wiese, L.; Nielsen, L. N.; Aho, I.; Viard, J.-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Fontas, E.; Duvivier, C.; Reiss, P.

    2018-01-01

    There are currently few data on the long-term risk of cancer and death in individuals taking raltegravir (RAL). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether there is evidence for an association. The EuroSIDA cohort was divided into three groups: those starting RAL-based combination

  14. Incidence of cancer and overall risk of mortality in individuals treated with raltegravir-based and non-raltegravir-based combination antiretroviral therapy regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Zangerle, R; Machala, L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are currently few data on the long-term risk of cancer and death in individuals taking raltegravir (RAL). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether there is evidence for an association. METHODS: The EuroSIDA cohort was divided into three groups: those starting RAL...

  15. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the

  16. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  17. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  18. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  19. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality in Serbia 1999-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Zivković, Snežana; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in cancer incidence in the last years in Serbia, no nation-wide, population-based cancer epidemiology data have been reported. In this study cancer incidence and mortality rates for Serbia are presented using nation-wide data from two population-based cancer

  1. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  2. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of metachronous gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after synchronous multiple cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Isao; Hato, Shinji; Kobatake, Takaya; Ohta, Koji; Kubo, Yoshirou; Nishimura, Rieko; Kurita, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In the preoperative evaluation for gastric cancer, high-resolution endoscopic technologies allow us to detect small accessory lesions. However, it is not known if the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy for synchronous multiple gastric cancers has a greater risk for metachronous cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of metachronous cancer in this patient subset compared with that after solitary cancer surgery. Data on a consecutive series of 1,281 patients gastrectomized for early gastric cancer from 1991 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The 715 gastric remnants after distal gastrectomy were periodically surveyed by endoscopic examination in Shikoku Cancer Center. Among those surveyed cases, 642 patients were pathologically diagnosed with solitary lesion (SO group) and 73 patients with synchronous multiple lesions (MU group) at the time of the initial surgery. In the follow-up period, 15 patients in the SO group and 3 patients in the MU group were diagnosed as having metachronous cancer in the gastric remnant. The cumulative 4-year incidence rate was 1.9 % in the SO group and 5.5 % in the MU group. The difference did not reach the significant level by the log-rank test. The incidence of metachronous cancer is higher after multiple cancer surgery; however, the difference is not statistically significant.

  4. Penetrance of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 families : high cancer incidence at older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Dorina M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Leegte, Beike K.; Schaapveld, Michael; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Vries, J; van der Hout, Annemieke H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.

    Accurate estimations of lifetime risks of breast and ovarian cancer are crucial for counselling women from BRCA1/2 families. We therefore determined breast and ovarian cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation families in the northern Netherlands and compared them with the incidence of cancers in the

  5. Incidence and risk of treatment-related mortality with mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus in cancer patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Xiang Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two novel mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus are now approved by regulatory agencies and have been widely investigated among various types of solid tumors, but the risk of fatal adverse events (FAEs with these drugs is not well defined. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases for relevant trials. Eligible studies included prospective phase II and III trials evaluating everolimus and temsirolimus in patients with all malignancies and data on FAEs were available. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 3322 patients with various advanced solid tumors from 12 trials were included. The overall incidence of mTOR inhibitors associated FAEs was 1.8% (95%CI: 1.3-2.5%, and the incidences of everolimus related FAEs were comparable to that of temsirolimus (1.7% versus 1.8%. Compared with the controls, the use of mTOR inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of FAEs, with a RR of 3.24 (95%CI: 1.21-8.67, p = 0.019. On subgroup analysis, a non-statistically significant increase in the risk of FAEs was found according to different mTOR inhibitors, tumor types or controlled therapy. No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: With the present evidence, the use of mTOR inhibitors seems to increase the risk of FAEs in patients with advanced solid tumors. More high quality trials are still needed to investigate this association.

  6. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  7. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90 SrCl 2 , which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238 PuO 2 , which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90 Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238 Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90 Sr-, 239 Pu-, and 226 Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226 Ra or were injected with 224 Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei

    2018-05-01

    Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO 2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

  9. Testicular cancer - epidemiology, etiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Ondrus, D.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy, that affects 1-2 % of male population. Trends of testicular cancer mortality are stable for a long period of time, even that incidence shows a rapid growth. This paper deals with national trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia from 1968 to 2007 by using the join-point regression analysis to propose potential changes in health care. The authors noted a statistically significant increase in the values of incidence and improvement in mortality after 1975. Paper also deals with the etiology and risk factors of this malignancy. (author)

  10. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Ezaki, Haruo; Ron, E.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Lubin, J.; Asano, Masahide.

    1992-06-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 10 4 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  11. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  12. Persistent perineal sinus. Incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohsiriwat, V.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutic options for persistent perineal sinus (PPS), defined as a perineal wound that remains unhealed more than 6 months after surgery. The incidence of PPS after surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ranges from 3% to 70% and after abdominoperineal resection (APR) for Low rectal cancer, it can be up to 30%. These unhealed wounds are frequently related to perioperative pelvic or perineal sepsis. Crohn's disease (CD) and neoadjuvant radiation therapy are also important risk factors. The management of PPS is based on an understanding of pathogenesis and clinical grounds. The advantages and disadvantages of the current therapeutic approaches, including the topical administration of various drugs, vacuum-assisted closure, and perineal reconstruction with a muscle flap or a myocutaneous flap are also discussed. (author)

  13. A prospective study of the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The association between aging and falls risk, and the morbidity and mortality resulting from falls in older persons, is well documented. Results from a small number of studies of patients with cancer in inpatient settings suggest that patients with advanced cancer may be at high risk of falling. We present preliminary results pertaining to the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer from an ongoing study of risk factors for falls.

  14. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  15. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Wei, Li-Juan; Liu, Jun-Tian; Li, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qing-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented.

  16. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Galassi, Claudia; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Hoogh, Kees de; Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.

  17. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  18. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  19. Rural-Urban Differences in Cancer Incidence and Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, Whitney E; James, Aimee S; Jenkins, Wiley D; Izadi, Sonya R; Fogleman, Amanda J; Steward, David E; Colditz, Graham A; Brard, Laurent

    2017-07-27

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates in the US are declining, but this decrease may not be observed in rural areas where residents are more likely to live in poverty, smoke, and forego cancer screening. However, there is limited research exploring national rural-urban differences in cancer incidence and trends. We analyzed data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries' public use dataset, which includes population-based cancer incidence data from 46 states. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates, rate ratios, and annual percentage change (APC) for: all cancers combined; selected individual cancers; and cancers associated with tobacco use and human papillomavirus (HPV). Rural-urban comparisons were made by demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic characteristics for 2009 to 2013. Trends were analyzed for 1995 to 2013. Combined cancers incidence rates were generally higher in urban populations, except for the South, though the urban decline in incidence rate was greater than in rural populations (10.2% vs. 4.8%, respectively). Rural cancer disparities included higher rates of tobacco associated, HPV associated, lung and bronchus, cervical , and colorectal cancers across most population groups. Further, HPV-associated cancer incidence rates increased in rural areas (APC=0.724, purban areas. Cancer rates associated with modifiable risks - tobacco, HPV, and some preventive screening modalities (e.g. colorectal and cervical cancers) - were higher in rural compared to urban populations. Population-based, clinical, and/or policy strategies and interventions that address these modifiable risk factors could help reduce cancer disparities experienced in rural populations. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  1. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  2. Frozen shoulder and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma B; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder might be a complication or a presenting symptom of cancer. We examined the risk of a cancer diagnosis after an incident diagnosis of frozen shoulder. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from Danish registries to identify patients with frozen shoulder during 1...

  3. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.J.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Reyes-Waxweiler, M.; Key, C.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth [Department of Psychology, Sigmund Freud Private University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore [Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Management, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Sturdza, Alina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dimopoulos, Johannes C. [Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Nout, Remi A.; Sturdza, Alina; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  7. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelemen Linda E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Results Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08. This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02, although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09. Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. Conclusions We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community.

  8. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert; Bunker, Clare; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Vitonis, Allison F; Olson, Sara H; King, Melony; Chandran, Urmila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Webb, Penelope M; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Goodman, Marc T; Terry, Kathryn L; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Brinton, Louise A; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ness, Roberta B; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community

  9. Pneumonia diagnosis in childhood and incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-01-01

    of pneumonia was a clinical marker of the three most common childhood cancers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, hospital diagnoses, 1994-2013. METHODS: Using national health registries, we compared the observed incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer among 83 935 children...... with a hospital-based pneumonia diagnosis with that expected among children in the general population. We calculated absolute cancer risks and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: The cancer SIRs were substantially increased during the first 6 months of follow-up; lymphoid...

  10. Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor's influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Neuhouser, Marian L; Banack, Hailey R; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ho, Gloria Y F; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Strickler, Howard D; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Saquib, Nazmus; Nassir, Rami; Anderson, Garnet; Caan, Bette J

    2017-12-01

    Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative with weight and height measured at enrollment (1993-1998). Using Cox regression models, we contrast hazard ratios (HR) from two time-scales and corresponding study subpopulations: time to cancer death after enrollment among all women and time to cancer death after diagnosis among only cancer survivors. Median follow-up from enrollment to diagnosis/censoring was 13 years for both breast (7,633 cases) and colorectal cancer (2,290 cases). Median follow-up from diagnosis to death/censoring was 7 years for breast and 5 years for colorectal cancer. In analyses of time from enrollment to death, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 versus 18.5-cancer mortality: HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.56 for breast cancer (p trend colorectal cancer (p trend = 0.05). However, in analyses of time from diagnosis to cancer death, trends indicated no significant association (for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 , HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.67 for breast [p trend = 0.33] and HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.86 for colorectal cancer [p trend = 0.39]). We conclude that a risk factor that increases disease incidence will increase disease-specific mortality. Yet, its influence on postdiagnosis survival can vary, and requires consideration of additional design and analysis issues such as selection bias. Quantitative tools allow joint modeling to compare an exposure's influence on time from enrollment to disease incidence and time from diagnosis to death. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakash, Shobha; Nair, C.P.R.; Rao, B.S.; Sawant, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  12. Prostate cancer incidence and survival in immigrants to Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Ankerst, Donna P; Sundquist, Jan; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    The large international variation in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC) is well known but the underlying reasons are not understood. We want to compare PC incidence and survival among immigrants to Sweden in order to explain the international differences. Cancer data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for PC in first-degree immigrants by country of birth. The immigrants were classified into four groups by SIR and area of origin. Survival in PC was assessed by hazard ratio (HR) in the four groups. In some analyses, clinical stage of PC was assessed by the tumor, node, and metastasis classification. The SIR was 0.47 (95% confidence interval 0.43-0.51) for immigrants with the lowest risk, constituting men from Turkey, Middle East, Asia, and Chile. The HR was 0.60 (0.45-0.81) for these men and it was 0.49 if they had stayed 20+ years in Sweden. The SIR in screening detected PC, T1c, was 0.55. Among these men, screening detected PC constituted 34.5% of all PC, compared to 29.0% among Swedes (p = 0.10). The results showed that the non-European immigrants, of mainly Middle East, Asian, and Chilean origin, with the lowest risk of PC, also had the most favorable survival in PC. As the available clinical features of PC at diagnosis or the distribution of known risk factors could not explain the differences, a likely biological mechanism through a favorable androgenic hormonal host environment is suggested as an explanation of the observed effects.

  13. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  14. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  15. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  16. The incidence of other primary cancers in patients with an oral cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizutani, Kiminari; Koseki, Yonoshin; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    From January 1980 through April 1990, a total of 317 patients with an oral cancer were treated with radiation therapy at Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Twenty-seven (8.5%) of these 317 patients had other primary cancers. For statistical purposes, the expected number of other primary cancers was estimated by multiplying the age-sex specific incidence rates among Osaka residents with the Person-year at risk figures, based on the Osaka Prefectural Cancer Registry. The observed/expected [0/E] ratios were 16.00 (p<0.01) for the esophagus and 28.42 (p<0.01) for the oropharynx. The present study suggested the necessity of following up oral cancer patients, especially those who have had carcinoma of the mouth floor, in order to enable the early diagnosis of upper digestive tract cancer. (author)

  17. Variation in Cancer Incidence among Patients with ESRD during Kidney Function and Nonfunction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Christina A; Snyder, Jon J; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    Among patients with ESRD, cancer risk is affected by kidney dysfunction and by immunosuppression after transplant. Assessing patterns across periods of dialysis and kidney transplantation may inform cancer etiology. We evaluated 202,195 kidney transplant candidates and recipients from a linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and cancer registries, and compared incidence in kidney function intervals (time with a transplant) with incidence in nonfunction intervals (waitlist or time after transplant failure), adjusting for demographic factors. Incidence of infection-related and immune-related cancer was higher during kidney function intervals than during nonfunction intervals. Incidence was most elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.7 to 18), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.7), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.3), lip cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.0), and nonepithelial skin cancers (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5 to 5.8). Conversely, ESRD-related cancer incidence was lower during kidney function intervals (kidney cancer: HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.8 and thyroid cancer: HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.8). With each successive interval, incidence changed in alternating directions for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and lung, pancreatic, and nonepithelial skin cancers (higher during function intervals), and kidney and thyroid cancers (higher during nonfunction intervals). For many cancers, incidence remained higher than in the general population across all intervals. These data indicate strong short-term effects of kidney dysfunction and immunosuppression on cancer incidence in patients with ESRD, suggesting a need for persistent cancer screening and prevention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  19. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  20. Colorectal cancer incidence in 5 Asian countries by subsite: An analysis of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1998-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Jung, Sun Jae; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hai-Rim; Shin, Aesun

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Asia. However, the trends in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite have not been analyzed across Asian countries. We used the most recent, high quality data from 6 cancer registries for two 5-year periods, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents to estimate colorectal cancer incidence by subsite in 5 Asian countries. Cases with overlapping lesions or otherwise unspecified colon cancer were re-distributed as proximal or distal colon cancer. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population and incidence rate ratios from 1998 to 2002 to 2003-2007 were calculated for each subsite. For 2003-2007, men in Miyagi, Japan, had the highest ASR for cancer in the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum. Men of Jewish ancestry in Israel had a high ASR for proximal and distal colon cancer, but the lowest ASR for rectal cancer. The proportion of rectal cancer was highest among Korean men (51.39%) and lowest among Israeli women (26.6%). From 1998-2002 to 2003-2007, rectal cancer incidence did not significantly change in most registries, except for men in Miyagi, Japan, and both sexes in Korea. However, during the same period cancer incidence in the proximal and distal colon increased in most registries. In conclusion, there was substantial variation in subsite distributions of colorectal cancer in Asian registries and increases in overall incidence of colorectal cancer could be attributed to increases in colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer risk as a radiation detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.; Servomaa, K.

    1992-11-01

    Potential radiation detriment means a risk of cancer or other somatic disease, genetic damage of fetal injury. Quantative information about the relation between a radiation dose and cancer risk is needed to enable decision-making in radiation protection. However, assessment of cancer risk by means of the radiation dose is controversial, as epidemiological and biological information about factors affecting the origin of cancers show that risk assessment is imprecise when the radiation dose is used as the only factor. Focusing on radiation risk estimates for breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, the report is based on the models given in the Beir V report, on sources of radiation exposure and the uncertainty of risk estimates. Risk estimates are assessed using the relative risk model and the cancer mortality rates in Finland. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for men and women are shown in graphs as a function of age and time. Relative risks are shown as a function of time after exposure and lifetime risks as a function of age at exposure. Uncertainty factors affecting the radiation risk are examined from the point of view of epidemiology and molecular biology. (orig.)

  2. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  4. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least five servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  7. Cancer incidence attributable to air pollution in Alberta in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Abbey E.; Grundy, Anne; Khandwala, Farah; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified outdoor air pollution (fine particulate matter [PM2.5]) as a Group 1 lung carcinogen in humans. We aimed to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Annual average concentrations of PM2.5 in 2011 for 22 communities across Alberta were extracted from the Clean Air Strategic Alliance Data Warehouse and were population-weighted across the province. Using 7.5 µg/m3 and 3.18 µg/m3 as the annual average theoretical minimum risk concentrations of PM2.5, we estimated the proportion of the population above this cut-off to determine the population attributable risk of lung cancer due to PM2.5 exposure. Results: The mean population-weighted concentration of PM2.5 for Alberta in 2011 was 10.03 µg/m3. We estimated relative risks of 1.02 and 1.06 for theoretical minimum risk PM2.5 concentration thresholds of 7.5 µg/m3 and 3.18 µg/m3, respectively. About 1.87%-5.69% of incident lung cancer cases in Alberta were estimated to be attributable to PM2.5 exposure. Interpretation: Our estimate of attributable burden is low compared to that reported in studies in other areas of the world owing to the relatively low levels of PM2.5 recorded in Alberta. Reducing PM2.5 emissions in Alberta should continue to be a priority to help decrease the burden of lung cancer in the population. PMID:28659352

  8. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  9. Sedentary behavior and incident cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is ubiquitous in modern adults' daily lives and it has been suggested to be associated with incident cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer.PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to March 2014. All prospective cohort studies on the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer were included. The summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using random effect model.A total of 17 prospective studies from 14 articles, including a total of 857,581 participants and 18,553 cases, were included in the analysis for sedentary behavior and risk of incident cancer. The overall meta-analysis suggested that sedentary behavior increased risk of cancer (RR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.12-1.28, with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2 = 7.3%, P = 0.368. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that there were statistical associations between sedentary behavior and some cancer types (endometrial cancer: RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.53; colorectal cancer: RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49; breast cancer: RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.33; lung cancer: RR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.06-1.52. However, there was no association of sedentary behavior with ovarian cancer (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.87-1.82, renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.87-1.41 or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (RR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.82-1.43.The present meta-analysis suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior was independently associated with an increased risk of incident endometrial, colorectal, breast, and lung cancers, but not with ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms.

  10. International testicular cancer incidence trends: generational transitions in 38 countries 1900-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaor, Ariana; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Laversanne, Mathieu; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bray, Freddie

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in testicular cancer incidence have marked the second half of the last century. While these secular rises, observed mainly in countries attaining the highest levels of human development, appear to have attenuated in the last decade, rates continue to increase in countries transiting toward high developmental levels. The purpose of our study was to provide a comprehensive analysis and presentation of the cohort-specific trends in testicular cancer incidence rates in 38 countries worldwide. We used an augmented version of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to analyze testicular cancer incidence in men aged 15-54 in 38 countries, via age-period-cohort analysis. In many European countries, the USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, there is a continuation of the increasing risk among successive generations, yet rates are attenuating in male cohorts born since the 1970s in several Northern European countries, in contrast to the steeply increasing trends in recent cohorts in Southern Europe. Incidence rates have also been increasing in the populations traditionally at rather low risk, such as in the Philippines, Singapore, China, and Costa Rica. The attenuation of testicular cancer risk in younger generations (in the most developed countries) alongside concomitant increases (in countries undergoing developmental change) is indicative of a global transition in the risk of testicular cancer. While identifying the underlying causes remains a major challenge, increasing awareness and adapting national healthcare systems to accommodate a growing burden of testicular cancer may prevent future avoidable deaths in young men.

  11. Incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding Three Mile Island nuclear facility: the 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J; De Simone, Nicole F; Slotkin, Jaime F; Henson, Baker L

    2013-08-01

    Original data reported a potential increased incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear facility. A causal link to the accident, however, was indeterminate. Our objective was to determine if data 30 years later will change original conclusions, explore thyroid cancer incidence rates near nuclear power plants, and better understand effects of chronic low level radiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Retrospective data for specific Pennsylvania counties were provided by the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for thyroid cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System search engine. Our study examines thyroid cancer incidence from 1985 through 2009 analyzed by year, county, and age. Thirty years after the TMI accident, an increased incidence of thyroid cancer is seen in counties south of TMI and in high-risk age groups. The average incidence rates from 1990 through 2009 were greater than expected in York, Lancaster, Adams, and Chester Counties. Thyroid cancer incidence since the TMI accident was greater than expected in the counties analyzed when compared to local and national population growth. This supports a link to chronic low level radiation exposure and thyroid cancer development. Despite these findings, a direct correlation to the accident remains uncertain as incidence rates may coincide with other factors, and original data were limited. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Incidence and Mortality and Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pournamdar, Zahra; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  13. Ethnic differences in Colon and Rectal Cancer incidence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If moving from a location of low colorectal cancer incidence to one of high colorectal cancer incidence predisposes one to develop the disease, could not the converse apply and those with a predisposition to developing the disease experience some protection when they live or interact with those with negligible ...

  14. Increased cancer risk in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Hayran, Mutlu; Guven, Deniz Can; Yılmaz, Tolga Birtan; Taheri, Sahand; Akman, Abdullah C; Bilgin, Emre; Hüseyin, Beril; Berker, Ezel

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have noted a possible association between periodontal diseases and the risk of various cancers. We assessed cancer risk in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis by a periodontist between 2001 and 2010 were identified from the hospital registry. Patients younger than 35 years of age or with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. The age- and gender-standardized incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases from Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. A total of 280 patients were included (median age 49.6, 54% female). Median follow-up was 12 years. Twenty-five new cancer cases were observed. Patients with periodontitis had 77% increased risk of cancer (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.58, p = .004). Women with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of breast cancer (SIR 2.40, 95% CI 0.88-5.33) and men with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (SIR 3.75, 95% CI 0.95-10.21) and hematological cancers (SIR 6.97, 95% CI 1.77-18.98). Although showing a causal association necessitates further investigation, our results support the idea that periodontitis might be associated with increased cancer risk, particularly with hematological, breast and prostate cancers.

  15. Cancer incidence in the Swedish leather tanning industry: updated findings 1958–99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoczy, Z; Hagmar, L

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess how a 10 year extension of the follow up period affected cancer incidence in the Swedish leather tanning cohort. Methods: A cohort of 2027 tannery workers (of which 482 were women) who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 at one of three Swedish leather tanneries, was established. The start of observation varied between 1958 and 1966 for the three plants. Through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry, incident cancer cases were recorded up to 1999. Cause specific expected cancer incidence was calculated for 1958–99 based on calendar year, sex, and five year age group specific incidence rates for the counties where the plants had been located. Altogether 56 022 person-years at risk were generated. Results: A total of 351 incident cancer cases were observed compared to 302 expected, which resulted in an increased standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.16 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.29). An enhanced risk for prostate cancer was observed (SIR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.86), mainly attributable to the later part of the observation period (1990–99). In this updated analysis the previously observed risk excess for soft tissue sarcomas was no longer significant (SIR 2.62, 95% CI 0.96 to 5.70). For multiple myelomas and sinonasal cancer the slight non-significant excesses remained, still based on very few cases. Conclusions: The increased risk for prostate cancer in the present study might be a chance finding, but is noteworthy, since it is in acccordance with the finding of increased SIR for prostate cancer among leather workers in another recent Swedish study. Moreover, excess risks for prostate cancer among farmers have been reported, indicating pesticides as possible causative agents. Leather tanners have also been exposed to pesticides. PMID:15961622

  16. Cancer incidence in the Swedish leather tanning industry: updated findings 1958-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoczy, Z; Hagmar, L

    2005-07-01

    To assess how a 10 year extension of the follow up period affected cancer incidence in the Swedish leather tanning cohort. A cohort of 2027 tannery workers (of which 482 were women) who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 at one of three Swedish leather tanneries, was established. The start of observation varied between 1958 and 1966 for the three plants. Through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry, incident cancer cases were recorded up to 1999. Cause specific expected cancer incidence was calculated for 1958-99 based on calendar year, sex, and five year age group specific incidence rates for the counties where the plants had been located. Altogether 56,022 person-years at risk were generated. A total of 351 incident cancer cases were observed compared to 302 expected, which resulted in an increased standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.16 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.29). An enhanced risk for prostate cancer was observed (SIR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.86), mainly attributable to the later part of the observation period (1990-99). In this updated analysis the previously observed risk excess for soft tissue sarcomas was no longer significant (SIR 2.62, 95% CI 0.96 to 5.70). For multiple myelomas and sinonasal cancer the slight non-significant excesses remained, still based on very few cases. The increased risk for prostate cancer in the present study might be a chance finding, but is noteworthy, since it is in acccordance with the finding of increased SIR for prostate cancer among leather workers in another recent Swedish study. Moreover, excess risks for prostate cancer among farmers have been reported, indicating pesticides as possible causative agents. Leather tanners have also been exposed to pesticides.

  17. Effects of the chernobyl disaster on thyroid cancer incidence in Turkey after 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hasan; Cakabay, Bahri; Bayrak, Ferit; Evrenkaya, Tülay

    2011-01-01

    Background. Separate studies involving people who survived atomic bombs have shown that the risk for cancer remains high after 40 years, compared with the risk in the general population. An elevated risk may also remain in regions of Turkey near the Chernobyl disaster. Patients and Methods. A multidisciplinary study conducted in 2008, 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster, examined the thyroid cancer incidence in Rize, a province of Turkey located on the shore of the middle Black Sea. Approximately 100,000 people were screened, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 89 patients. Results. Based on postoperative histopathological examinations, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in six of the 100,000 people screened. Conclusion. Given a thyroid cancer frequency of approximately 8 in 100,000 in the Turkish population, according to the Turkish Cancer Research Association, the rate in Rize reflects no increase in the thyroid cancer incidence 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster.

  18. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    Objective: The registration data of local cancer registries in 2014 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR)in 2017 to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods: The data submitted from 449 registries were checked and evaluated, and the data of 339 registries out of them were qualified and selected for the final analysis. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by area, gender, age group and cancer type, and combined with the population data of 2014 to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively. Results: Total covered population of 339 cancer registries (129 in urban and 210 in rural) in 2014 were 288 243 347 (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality verified cases (MV%) were 68.01%. Among them, 2.19% cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. There were about 3, 804, 000 new cases diagnosed as malignant cancer and 2, 296, 000 cases dead in 2014 in the whole country. The incidence rate was 278.07/100, 000 (males 301.67/100, 000, females 253.29/100, 000) in China, age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 190.63/100, 000 and 186.53/100, 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.58%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 302.13/100, 000 and 196.58/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 248.94/100, 000 and 182.64/100, 000, respectively. The cancer mortality in China was 167.89/100, 000 (207.24/100, 000 in males and 126.54/100, 000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 106.98/100, 000 and 106.09/100, 000, respectively. And

  19. Effects of the Chernobyl Disaster on Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Turkey after 22 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Hasan; ?akabay, Bahri; Bayrak, Ferit; Evrenkaya, T?lay

    2011-01-01

    Background. Separate studies involving people who survived atomic bombs have shown that the risk for cancer remains high after 40 years, compared with the risk in the general population. An elevated risk may also remain in regions of Turkey near the Chernobyl disaster. Patients and Methods. A multidisciplinary study conducted in 2008, 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster, examined the thyroid cancer incidence in Rize, a province of Turkey located on the shore of the middle Black Sea. Approxi...

  20. Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among Full Term Deliveries. ... (LBW) is a reliable indicator in monitoring and evaluating the success of maternal and child ... Key words: Low birth weight- incidence- associated factors.

  2. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C

    2007-01-01

    STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population....... The time trends of the study are interesting and a relevant topic for further research....

  3. Testicular germ cell cancer incidence in an immigration perspective, Denmark, 1978 to 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Sven; Schüz, Joachim; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer....

  4. Cancer incidence in Holocaust male survivors-An Israeli cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Goldbourt, Uri

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939). Vital status and cancer incidence in the cohort were determined based on national registries. Socioeconomic level, health behaviors and cancer incidence were compared between the groups and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed hazard risk ratios for cancer by exposure status. All-cause mortality was studied as a competing risk. In total, 241, 682, and 522 cancer cases were diagnosed in the E, PE, and NE, respectively. Compared with the NE, all-site cancer incidence was higher in the E (HR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.97-1.32) but not in the PE. All-cause mortality competed with all-site invasive cancer incidence in the E group (HR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.38). Colorectal and lung cancer seemed to be positively though non-significantly associated with the exposure while prostate cancer was not. Male Holocaust survivors may be at a weakly increased risk for all-site, colorectal and lung cancer. The role of age at exposure and residual confounding should be further investigated. © 2016 UICC.

  5. Time trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, Outi; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Pukkala, Eero; Syvänen, Kari; Boström, Peter J

    2018-02-20

    To describe the trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries utilising national cancer registries, NORDCAN (NORDCAN project/database presents the incidence, mortality, prevalence and survival from >50 cancers in the Nordic countries) and NOCCA (Nordic Occupational Cancer) databases. We obtained the incidence data of testicular cancer for 5-year periods from 1960-1964 to 2000-2014 and for 5-year age-groups from the NORDCAN database. Morphological data on incident cases of seminoma and non-seminoma were obtained from national cancer registries. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASR) were calculated per 100 000 person-years (World Standard). Regression analysis was used to evaluate the annual change in the incidence of testicular cancer in each of the Nordic countries. The risk of testicular cancer in different professions was described based on NOCCA information and expressed as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). During 2010-2014 the ASR for testicular cancer varied from 11.3 in Norway to 5.8 in Finland. Until 1998, the incidence was highest in Denmark. There has not been an increase in Denmark and Iceland since the 1990s, whilst the incidence is still strongly increasing in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. There were no remarkable changes in the ratio of seminoma and non-seminoma incidences during the past 50 years. There was no increase in the incidences in children and those of pension age. The highest significant excess risks of testicular seminoma were found in physicians (SIR 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99), artistic workers (SIR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-1.99) and religious workers etc. (SIR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56). The lowest SIRs of testicular seminoma were seen amongst cooks and stewards (SIR 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-0.98), and forestry workers (SIR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.86). The occupational category of administrators was the only one with a significantly elevated SIR for testicular non-seminoma (SIR 1.21, 95

  6. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  7. Incidence Trend and Epidemiology of Common Cancers in the Center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Rajaei-Behbahani, Narjes; Khani, Yousef; Hosseini, Sayedehafagh; Pournamdar, Zahra; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Soltani, Shahin; Hosseini, Seyedeh Akram; Khazaei, Salman; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-07-13

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran and many other parts of the world. The cancer incidence is different in various countries and in country provinces. Geographical differences in the cancer incidence lead to be important to conduct an epidemiological study of the disease. This study aimed to investigate cancer epidemiology and trend in the province of Qom, located in center of Iran. This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out based on re-analysis cancer registry report and the disease management center of health ministry from 2004 to 2008 in the province of Qom. To describe incidence time trends, we carried out join point regression analysis using the software Join point Regression Program, Version 4.1.1.1. There were 3,029 registered cases of cancer during 5 years studied. Sex ratio was 1.32 (male to female). Considering the frequency and mean standardized incidence, the most common cancer in women were breast, skin, colorectal, stomach, and esophagus, respectively while in men the most common cancers included skin, stomach, colorectal, bladder, and prostate, respectively. There was an increasing and significant trend, according to the annual percentage change (APC) equal to 8.08% (CI: 5.1-11.1) for all site cancer in women. The incidence trend of all cancers was increasing in this area. Hence, planning for identifying risk factors and performing programs for dealing with the disease are essential.

  8. Breast cancer risks and risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Christine

    2015-02-01

    BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a considerably increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. The personalized clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals depends on precise knowledge of the cancer risks. In this report, we give an overview of the present literature on empirical cancer risks, and we describe risk prediction models that are currently used for individual risk assessment in clinical practice. Cancer risks show large variability between studies. Breast cancer risks are at 40-87% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 18-88% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. For ovarian cancer, the risk estimates are in the range of 22-65% for BRCA1 and 10-35% for BRCA2. The contralateral breast cancer risk is high (10-year risk after first cancer 27% for BRCA1 and 19% for BRCA2). Risk prediction models have been proposed to provide more individualized risk prediction, using additional knowledge on family history, mode of inheritance of major genes, and other genetic and non-genetic risk factors. User-friendly software tools have been developed that serve as basis for decision-making in family counseling units. In conclusion, further assessment of cancer risks and model validation is needed, ideally based on prospective cohort studies. To obtain such data, clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals should always be accompanied by standardized scientific documentation.

  9. Korean risk assessment model for breast cancer risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (pKorean women, especially urban women.

  10. Evaluation of Effective Factors in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Pourfarzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Colorectal cancer is considered as the third prevalent malignancy worldwide. Investigation of information on cancers in Iran during 1985-1996 showed an increase in the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer. Its rank in Iran has increased from 9 to 5th during 10 years. It was reported as high prevalent cancer in Iranian people aged less than 40 years among Asian countries.   Methods: In this cases-control study patients with a pathologic report of colorectal cancer were recruited among those cases registered in Ardabil Cancer Registry. Control group were selected from neighbors, frequency matched for age and gender. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire consisting information on age, gender, smoking, drugs and alcohol consuming, diet, family history of cancer and serum IgM and IgG level for H. pylori. Data were analyzed using SPSS v16.   Results: In the current study, 43 persons (53.8% were male and 37 (46.2% were female. In the case group, 10 persons (12.5% were under 40, 34 cases (42.5% in age group of 41- 60 and 36 persons (45% were more than 61 years. In the control group 12 persons (15% were under 40, 36 persons (45.5% in age group of 41-60 and 40 persons (68% were more than 61 years. In the control group 3 cases had BMI less than 19, 36 cases (45% between 19-24.9, 31 cases (38.8% between 25-29.9 and 10 cases (12.5% were more than 30, whereas this variable was 2.5, 32.5, 46.2 and 18.8% respectively in the case group.   Positive history of smoking found to increase the risk of cancer around 1.8 times (OR= 1.78 CI: 0.91- 5.85. However, significant difference was not observed between two groups regarding alcoholic beverage consumption (p=0.385 . There were significant differences between two groups in terms of vegetables and carbohydrates intake. Difference was also significant between two groups regarding positive level of IgG. Among studied persons, 19 and 13 patients in case and control group had

  11. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  12. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Glyphosate Use and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Koutros, Stella; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Sandler, Dale P; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lerro, Catherine C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Parks, Christine G; Alavanja, Michael C; Silverman, Debra T; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with both residential and agricultural uses. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic to humans," noting strong mechanistic evidence and positive associations for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in some epidemiologic studies. A previous evaluation in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) with follow-up through 2001 found no statistically significant associations with glyphosate use and cancer at any site. The AHS is a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators from North Carolina and Iowa. Here, we updated the previous evaluation of glyphosate with cancer incidence from registry linkages through 2012 (North Carolina)/2013 (Iowa). Lifetime days and intensity-weighted lifetime days of glyphosate use were based on self-reported information from enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up questionnaires (1999-2005). We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression, controlling for potential confounders, including use of other pesticides. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 54 251 applicators, 44 932 (82.8%) used glyphosate, including 5779 incident cancer cases (79.3% of all cases). In unlagged analyses, glyphosate was not statistically significantly associated with cancer at any site. However, among applicators in the highest exposure quartile, there was an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with never users (RR = 2.44, 95% CI = 0.94 to 6.32, Ptrend = .11), though this association was not statistically significant. Results for AML were similar with a five-year (RRQuartile 4 = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.98 to 5.51, Ptrend = .07) and 20-year exposure lag (RRTertile 3 = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.05 to 3.97, Ptrend = .04). In this large, prospective cohort study, no association was apparent between glyphosate and any solid tumors or lymphoid malignancies overall, including NHL and

  14. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  15. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  16. An ecological study of cancer incidence in Port Hope, Ontario from 1992 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Moir, Deborah; Lane, Rachel; Thompson, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    A plant processing radium and uranium ores has been operating in the town of Port Hope since 1932. Given the nuclear industry located in the community and ongoing public health concerns, cancer incidence rates in Port Hope were studied for a recent 16 year period (1992–2007) for continued periodic cancer incidence surveillance of the community. The cancer incidence in the local community for all cancers combined was similar to the Ontario population, health regions with similar socio-economic characteristics in Ontario and in Canada, and the Canadian population. No statistically significant differences in childhood cancer, leukaemia or other radiosensitive cancer incidence were observed, with the exception of statistically significant elevated lung cancer incidence among women. However, the statistical significance was reduced or disappeared when the comparison was made to populations with similar socio-economic characteristics. These findings are consistent with previous ecological, case-control and cohort studies conducted in Port Hope, environmental assessments, and epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants. Although the current study covered an extended period of time, the power to detect risk at the sub-regional level of analysis was limited since the Port Hope population is small (16 500). The study nevertheless indicated that large differences in cancer incidence are not occurring in Port Hope compared to other similar communities and the general population. (paper)

  17. An ecological study of cancer incidence in Port Hope, Ontario from 1992 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Moir, Deborah; Lane, Rachel; Thompson, Patsy

    2013-03-01

    A plant processing radium and uranium ores has been operating in the town of Port Hope since 1932. Given the nuclear industry located in the community and ongoing public health concerns, cancer incidence rates in Port Hope were studied for a recent 16 year period (1992-2007) for continued periodic cancer incidence surveillance of the community. The cancer incidence in the local community for all cancers combined was similar to the Ontario population, health regions with similar socio-economic characteristics in Ontario and in Canada, and the Canadian population. No statistically significant differences in childhood cancer, leukaemia or other radiosensitive cancer incidence were observed, with the exception of statistically significant elevated lung cancer incidence among women. However, the statistical significance was reduced or disappeared when the comparison was made to populations with similar socio-economic characteristics. These findings are consistent with previous ecological, case-control and cohort studies conducted in Port Hope, environmental assessments, and epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants. Although the current study covered an extended period of time, the power to detect risk at the sub-regional level of analysis was limited since the Port Hope population is small (16,500). The study nevertheless indicated that large differences in cancer incidence are not occurring in Port Hope compared to other similar communities and the general population.

  18. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  19. Trends in the incidence of cancer in the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokunonga, E; Borok, M Z; Chirenje, Z M; Nyakabau, A M; Parkin, D M

    2013-08-01

    Incidence rates of different cancers have been calculated for the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe for a 20-year period (1991-2010) coinciding with continuing social and lifestyle changes, and the peak, and subsequent wane, of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. The overall risk of cancer increased during the period in both sexes, with rates of cervix and prostate cancers showing particularly dramatic increases (3.3% and 6.4% annually, respectively). By 2004, prostate cancer had become the most common cancer of men. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus, formerly the most common cancer of men, has remained relatively constant, whereas rates of breast and cervix cancers, the most common malignancies of women, have shown significant increases (4.9% and 3.3% annually, respectively). The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma increased to a maximum around 1998-2000 and then declined in all age groups, and in both sexes The incidence of squamous cell cancers of the conjunctiva is relatively high, with temporal trends similar to those of Kaposi sarcoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the fifth most common cancer of men and fourth of women, showed a steady increase in incidence throughout the period (6.7-6.9% annually), although rates in young adults (15-39) have decreased since 2001. Cancer control in Zimbabwe, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, involves meeting the challenge of emerging cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (large bowel, breast and prostate), while the incidence of cancers associated with poverty and infection (liver, cervix and esophagus) shows little decline, and the residual burden of the AIDS-associated cancers remains significant. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  20. Postinfusion Phlebitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; McGrail, Matthew; Marsh, Nicole; Wallis, Marianne C.; Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Rickard, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To document the incidence of postinfusion phlebitis and to investigate associated risk factors. Design. Analysis of existing data set from a large randomized controlled trial, the primary purpose of which was to compare routine peripheral intravascular catheter changes with changing catheters only on clinical indication. Participants and Setting. Patients admitted to a large, acute general hospital in Queensland, Australia, and who required a peripheral intravenous catheter. Results. 5,907 PIVCs from 3,283 patients were studied. Postinfusion phlebitis at 48 hours was diagnosed in 59 (1.8%) patients. Fifteen (25.4%) of these patients had phlebitis at removal and also at 48 hours after removal. When data were analyzed per catheter, the rate was lower, 62/5907 (1.1%). The only variable associated with postinfusion phlebitis was placement of the catheter in the emergency room (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Although not a common occurrence, postinfusion phlebitis may be problematic so it is important for health care staff to provide patients with information about what to look for after an intravascular device has been removed. This trial is registered with ACTRN12608000445370. PMID:26075092

  1. Postinfusion Phlebitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Webster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the incidence of postinfusion phlebitis and to investigate associated risk factors. Design. Analysis of existing data set from a large randomized controlled trial, the primary purpose of which was to compare routine peripheral intravascular catheter changes with changing catheters only on clinical indication. Participants and Setting. Patients admitted to a large, acute general hospital in Queensland, Australia, and who required a peripheral intravenous catheter. Results. 5,907 PIVCs from 3,283 patients were studied. Postinfusion phlebitis at 48 hours was diagnosed in 59 (1.8% patients. Fifteen (25.4% of these patients had phlebitis at removal and also at 48 hours after removal. When data were analyzed per catheter, the rate was lower, 62/5907 (1.1%. The only variable associated with postinfusion phlebitis was placement of the catheter in the emergency room (P=0.03. Conclusion. Although not a common occurrence, postinfusion phlebitis may be problematic so it is important for health care staff to provide patients with information about what to look for after an intravascular device has been removed. This trial is registered with ACTRN12608000445370.

  2. Risks of cancer - All sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes the BEIR Committee's radiation risk models and the total risks of cancer following whole body exposure. This report focuses on the data from A-bomb survivors since this cohort contains persons of all ages at exposure. Because of large statistical uncertainties, it was not possible for the committee to provide risk estimates for cancers at all specific sites of interest. Estimates were made for risk of leukemia, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems. To obtain an estimate of the total risk of mortality from all cancers, the committee also modeled cancers other than those listed above as a group

  3. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality From Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Lee, Christoph I; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-02-16

    Estimates of risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from mammography screening have not considered variation in dose exposure or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening results. To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening while considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation among women. 2 simulation-modeling approaches. U.S. population. Women aged 40 to 74 years. Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 years until age 74 years. Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (harms) per 100,000 women screened. Annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancer cases (95% CI, 88 to 178) leading to 16 deaths (CI, 11 to 23), relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete examination (8% of population) were projected to have greater radiation-induced breast cancer risk (266 cancer cases and 35 deaths per 100,000 women) than other women (113 cancer cases and 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 years reduced risk for radiation-induced cancer 5-fold. Life-years lost from radiation-induced breast cancer could not be estimated. Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are affected by dose variability from screening, resultant diagnostic work-up, initiation age, and screening frequency. Women with large breasts may have a greater risk for radiation-induced breast cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, National Cancer Institute.

  4. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Rahu, Mati; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice Jr, John D

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. (paper)

  5. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4,810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyze the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay, and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of pharynx, oesophagus, and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1,018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together, and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. PMID:23532116

  6. Cancer incidence in south-east Nigeria: a report from Nnewi Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is the first population based cancer incidence report from a cancer registry in south-east Nigeria. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of some invasive cancers in southeast Nigeria. Methodology: We collected all new cases of invasive cancers between 1st January and 31st December, 2013.

  7. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  8. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Lyon, Joseph L

    2005-05-01

    Population-based Utah Cancer Registry data were linked with Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) Church membership records to obtain site-specific cancer incidence for LDS and non-LDS populations in Utah during 1995-1999. Analyses were based on 27,631 incident cases of cancer identified among whites. Restriction to whites was made because of the small number of nonwhites, approximately 5%, in the state during the study period. The direct method was used to age-adjust the rates to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Significantly lower cancer incidence rates per 100,000 were observed among LDS compared with non-LDS males (287.2 vs. 321.1) and females (247.7 vs. 341.0). The lower rates are primarily explained by smoking-related cancers and female breast cancer. If the overall cancer incidence rate in LDS had occurred in the non-LDS population, 2.9% or 421 fewer cases would have occurred among males and 7.9% or 1,025 fewer cases would have occurred among females during the study period. Given our current knowledge of risk factors for cancer, differences between LDS and non-LDS in smoking for males and smoking and sexual and reproductive behaviors in females primarily explain the lower risk of cancer in LDS populations.

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality of Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands: in-between Surinamese and Dutch levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Graciëlle; Mans, Dennis R A; Garssen, Joop; Visser, Otto; Kramer, Daniëlle; Kunst, Anton E

    2013-07-01

    It has been suggested that the cancer risk of migrants from low-income to high-income countries will converge toward the levels of their host country. However, comparisons with country of origin are mostly lacking. We compared cancer incidence and mortality rates of Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands to both native Dutch and Surinamese levels. Data covering the period 1995-2008 were obtained from Surinamese and Dutch national cancer registries and national cause-of-death registries. Cancer incidence was studied for 21 types of cancer and cancer mortality for nine types. We calculated age-standardized incidence/mortality ratios (SIR/SMR) for the Surinamese migrants and for Suriname, using the native Dutch population as reference. Significantly lower overall cancer incidence (SIR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.69-0.84) and mortality rates (SMR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55-0.72) were found for Surinamese migrants compared to native Dutch. Generally, cancer risk was lower for most cancers (e.g., cancer of the breast, colon and rectum, lung), but higher for other cancers (e.g., cancer of the uterine cervix, liver). For most cancers, cancer risk of the Surinamese migrants was in-between Surinamese and native Dutch levels. Importantly, for many cancers, migrants' incidence and mortality rates had not closely approached native Dutch rates. For skin cancer, incidence levels for Surinamese migrants were lower than both Surinamese and native Dutch levels. The results suggest that cancer incidence and mortality rates of Surinamese migrants generally converge from Surinamese toward Dutch levels, though not for all cancer types. Overall, Surinamese migrants still had a much more favorable cancer profile than the native Dutch population.

  10. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Darrin V; Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Goldenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States has increased rapidly and Pennsylvania is the state with the highest rate of thyroid cancer in the country, although the factors driving this increase are unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the increase in thyroid cancer represents a true increase in disease or is the result of overdiagnosis. To compare the increase in thyroid cancer incidence and tumor characteristics in Pennsylvania with the rest of the United States and gain insight into the factors influencing the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. In a population-based study, data on thyroid cancer from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 (SEER-9) registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR) from 1985 through 2009 were collected and reviewed for information regarding sex, race, histologic type of thyroid cancer, staging, and tumor size at diagnosis. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition code C739 (thyroid carcinoma) was used to identify 110,615 records in the SEER-9 registry and 29,030 records in the PCR. Average annual percent change (AAPC) in thyroid cancer incidence across various demographic groups in Pennsylvania. The AAPC for thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania was 7.1% per year (95% CI, 6.3%-7.9%) vs 4.2% (95% CI, 3.7%-4.7%) per year in the remainder of the United States, and trends in incidence were significantly different (P Pennsylvania than in the rest of the nation, as is the rate of tumors that are larger and higher stage at diagnosis. These findings suggest that rising disease burden has contributed to the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Etiologic factors promoting the rise in thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania must be investigated and may provide insight into the drivers of the national increase in thyroid cancer.

  11. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  12. Changes in Cancer Incidence Patterns among a Northeastern American Indian Population: 1955-1969 versus 1990-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Martin C.; Va, Puthiery; Stevens, Adrian; Kahn, Amy R.; Michalek, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript examines shifts in patterns of cancer incidence among the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) for the interval 1955-1969 compared to 1990-2004. Methods: A retrospective cohort design was used to examine cancer incidence among the SNI during 2 time intervals: 1955-1969 and 1990-2004. Person-years at risk were multiplied by…

  13. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  14. Ethnic and socioeconomic trends in breast cancer incidence in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson June

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer incidence varies between social groups, but differences have not been thoroughly examined in New Zealand. The objectives of this study are to determine whether trends in breast cancer incidence varied by ethnicity and socioeconomic position between 1981 and 2004 in New Zealand, and to assess possible risk factor explanations. Methods Five cohorts of the entire New Zealand population for 1981-86, 1986-1991, 1991-1996, 1996-2001, and 2001-2004 were created, and probabilistically linked to cancer registry records, allowing direct determination of ethnic and socioeconomic trends in breast cancer incidence. Results Breast cancer rates increased across all ethnic and socioeconomic groups between 1981 and 2004. Māori women consistently had the highest age standardised rates, and the difference between Māori and European/Other women increased from 7% in 1981-6 to 24% in 2001-4. Pacific and Asian women had consistently lower rates of breast cancer than European/Other women over the time period studied (12% and 28% lower respectively when pooled over time, although young Pacific women had slightly higher incidence rates than young European/other women. A gradient between high and low income women was evident, with high income women having breast cancer rates approximately 10% higher and this difference did not change significantly over time. Conclusions Differences in breast cancer incidence between European and Pacific women and between socioeconomic groups are explicable in terms of known risk factors. However no straightforward explanation for the relatively high incidence amongst Māori is apparent. Further research to explore high Māori breast cancer rates may contribute to reducing the burden of breast cancer amongst Māori women, as well as improving our understanding of the aetiology of breast cancer.

  15. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow......-up of a large nationwide cohort of 420,095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995 and who were followed through 2002 for cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cancer cases in the cohort by the number...... expected in the Danish population. RESULTS: A total of 14,249 cancers were observed (SIR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.97) for men and women combined. Cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.97), acoustic neuromas (SIR = 0.73), salivary...

  16. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2015-01-01

    sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries......% (adjusted). In Denmark, hysterectomies do not have a large overall impact on the calculated cancer incidence and screening coverage. Nevertheless, at ≥ 65 years adjusted rates would increase by almost 20% compared to unadjusted rates. This suggests that calculating disease risks per organ-years may have......, the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman...

  17. Burden and incidence of human papillomavirus-associated cancers and precancerous lesions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    the study period, and almost identical incidence rates were seen for women and men in the youngest birth cohorts. The current burden of HPV-associated lesions amounted to more than 5000 cases, the vast majority (85%) being severe precancerous lesions. The highest risk for HPV-associated cancers......AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in Denmark between 1978 and 2011, estimate the current absolute annual number (burden) of HPV-associated cancers (HPVaCa) and their precancerous lesions, and assess whether...... there is socioeconomic inequality in the risk of HPV-associated cancers. METHODS: From four nationwide population-based registries, information was collected on HPVaCa diagnosed during 1978-2011 and age-standardised incidence rate for each site by calendar year and birth cohort was calculated. Furthermore, the current...

  18. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  19. The incidence and multiplicity rates of keratinocyte cancers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, Nirmala; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2017-10-16

    To assess the incidence and multiplicity of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) excised in Australia, and to examine variations by age, sex, state, and prior skin cancer history. Analysis of individual-level Medicare data for keratinocyte cancer treatments (identified by eight specific MBS item codes) during 2011-2014. Histological data from the QSkin prospective cohort study were analysed to estimate BCC and SCC incidence. A 10% systematic random sample of all people registered with Medicare during 1997-2014. People aged at least 20 years in 2011 who made at least one claim for any MBS medical service during 2011-2014 (1 704 193 individuals). Age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). The person-based incidence of keratinocyte cancer excisions in Australia was 1531 per 100 000 person-years; incidence increased with age, and was higher for men than women (SIR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.42-1.45). Lesion-based incidence was 3154 per 100 000 person-years. The estimated ASRs for BCC and SCC were 770 per 100 000 and 270 per 100 000 person-years respectively. During 2011-2014, 3.9% of Australians had one keratinocyte cancer excised, 2.7% had more than one excised; 74% of skin cancers were excised from patients who had two or more lesions removed. Multiplicity was strongly correlated with age; most male patients over 70 were treated for multiple lesions. Keratinocyte cancer incidence was eight times as high among people with a prior history of excisions as among those without. The incidence and multiplicity of keratinocyte cancer in Australia are very high, causing a large disease burden that has not previously been quantified.

  20. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  1. Ovary cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kuangrong; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Liang, Zhiheng; Cen, Huishan; Chen, Wanqing

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate and analyze ovary cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2011 using ovary cancer data from population-based cancer registration in China, and to provide scientific information for its control and prevention. Invasive cases of ovary cancer were extracted and analyzed from the overall Chinese cancer database in 2011, which were based on data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributing in 28 provinces. The crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities et al. were calculated and new and deaths cases from ovary cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2011 were estimated using Chinese practical population. The estimates of new ovary cancer cases and deaths were 45,223 and 18,430, respectively, in China in 2011. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR-C) and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR-W) incidence were 6.89/100,000, 5.35/100,000 and 5.08/100,000, respectively; the crude, ASR-C and ASR-W mortalities were 2.81/100,000, 2.01/100,000 and 1.99/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. The age-specific incidence and mortality increased rapidly from age 35-39 and peaked at age 60-64 or 75-79 years. After age 45 or 55, the age-specific incidence and death rates in urban were much higher than those in rural areas. Compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data, the ovary cancer incidence in China in 2011 was at middle level, but its mortality was at low level worldwide.

  2. Rosacea and risk of cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Fowler, Joseph F; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common facial skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-10% among Caucasians. OBJECTIVE: We compared cancer incidence in patients previously diagnosed with rosacea with that in the general population. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population using...... cancers: breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, kidney, malignant melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), pancreatic, hepatic, thyroid, esophageal, and lung cancer. Baseline prevalence of cancers were assessed, incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted...... for age, sex, socio-economic status, and healthcare consumption were estimated by Cox regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 49,475 patients with rosacea and 4,312,213 subjects from the general population. There was no increased risk of malignant melanoma, ovarian, endometrial...

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J

    2015-01-01

    matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. RESULTS: During 7334 person......-years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited...... mDNA mutation, cases=13. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population....

  4. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0-2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score......, as it is likely more sensitive in detecting associations with risks of other endpoints than breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast cancer incidence in the 19,010 women was increased across allele sum quintiles (log-rank trend test; p=1*10(-12)), but not incidence of other cancers (p=0.41). Age- and study-adjusted hazard...... ratio for the 5(th) vs. 1(st) allele sum quintile was 1.82(95% confidence interval;1.53-2.18). Corresponding hazard ratios per allele were 1.04(1.03-1.05) and 1.05(1.02-1.08) for breast cancer incidence and mortality, similar across risk factors. In 50-year old women, the starting age for screening...

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cancer Risk After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, EC; Segev, DL; Engels, EA

    2014-01-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. U.S. kidney recipients (N=87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, pkidney (aIRR 2.09, pcancer (aIRR 2.14, pcancer (aIRR 0.72, p=0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  6. Canadian breast implant cohort: extended follow-up of cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sai Yi; Lavigne, Eric; Holowaty, Eric J; Villeneuve, Paul J; Xie, Lin; Morrison, Howard; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Cosmetic breast implants are not associated with increased breast cancer incidence, but variations of risk according to implant characteristics are still poorly understood. As well, the assessment of cancer risk for sites other than breast needs to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to fill these research gaps. This study presents an extended analysis of 10 more years of follow-up of a large Canadian cohort of women who received either cosmetic breast implants (n = 24,558) or other cosmetic surgery (15,893). Over 70% of the implant cohort was followed for over 20 years. Cancer incidence among implant women was compared to those of controls using multivariate Poisson models and the general female population using the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Women with breast implants had reduced rates of breast and endometrial cancers compared to other surgery women. Subglandular implants were associated to a reduced rate of breast cancer compared to submuscular implants [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.96] and this reduction persisted over time. We observed a sevenfold increased rate (IRR = 7.36, 95% CI = 1.86-29.12) of breast cancer in the first 5 years after the date of surgery for polyurethane-coated subglandular implant women but this IRR decreased progressively over time (p value for trend = 0.02). We also observed no increased risk of rarer forms of cancer among augmented women. A reduction in breast cancer incidence was observed for women with subglandular implants relative to women with submuscular implants. Possible increase of breast cancer incidence shortly after breast augmentation with polyurethane implants needs to be verified. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  8. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  9. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  10. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  11. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  12. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  13. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  14. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  15. A large proportion of esophageal cancer cases and the incidence difference between regions are attributable to lifestyle risk factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Veer, P. van 't; Zhang, Z.F.; Wang, X.S.; Gu, X.P.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-risk area (Dafeng) and a low-risk area (Ganyu) of Jiangsu province, China. In this analysis, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated to quantify the etiology of risk factors; the relative attributable risk (RAR) was

  16. Incidence and timing of cancer in HIV-infected individuals following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Napravnik, Sonia; Cole, Stephen R; Achenbach, Chad J; Gopal, Satish; Olshan, Andrew; Dittmer, Dirk P; Kitahata, Mari M; Mugavero, Michael J; Saag, Michael; Moore, Richard D; Mayer, Kenneth; Mathews, W Christopher; Hunt, Peter W; Rodriguez, Benigno; Eron, Joseph J

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but patterns of cancer incidence after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remain poorly characterized. We evaluated the incidence and timing of cancer diagnoses among patients initiating ART between 1996 and 2011 in a collaboration of 8 US clinical HIV cohorts. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rates. Cox regression was used to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with cancer incidence after ART initiation. At initiation of first combination ART among 11 485 patients, median year was 2004 (interquartile range [IQR], 2000-2007) and median CD4 count was 202 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 61-338). Incidence rates for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and lymphomas were highest in the first 6 months after ART initiation (P cancers combined increased from 416 to 615 cases per 100 000 person-years from 1 to 10 years after ART initiation (average 7% increase per year; 95% confidence interval, 2%-13%). Lower CD4 count at ART initiation was associated with greater risk of KS, lymphoma, and human papillomavirus-related cancer. Calendar year of ART initiation was not associated with cancer incidence. KS and lymphoma rates were highest immediately following ART initiation, particularly among patients with low CD4 cell counts, whereas other cancers increased with time on ART, likely reflecting increased cancer risk with aging. Our results underscore recommendations for earlier HIV diagnosis followed by prompt ART initiation along with ongoing aggressive cancer screening and prevention efforts throughout the course of HIV care.

  17. Post-operative Transient Hypoparathyroidism: Incidence and Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is limited data on the incidence and risk factors for developing postoperative hypoparathyroidism (POHP) in the South African setting. Objectives: This study aims to calculate the incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism in a South African tertiary setting, and to compare local risk factors for POHP to ...

  18. Female breast cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ting‐Ting; Zheng, Rong‐Shou; Zeng, Hong‐Mei; Zhang, Si‐Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Population‐based cancer registration data from the National Central Cancer Registry were used to analyze and evaluate the incidence and mortality rates in China in 2013, providing scientific information for cancer prevention and control. Methods Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. National new cases and deaths were estimated using age‐specific rates and the corresponding population in 2013. The Chinese population in 2000 and Segi's world population were used to calculate age‐standardized rates. Results The estimated number of new breast cancer cases was about 278 800 in China in 2013. The crude incidence, age‐standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population, and age‐standardized rate of incidence by world standard population were 42.02/100 000, 30.41/100 000, and 28.42/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of breast cancer deaths was about 64 600 in China in 2013. The crude mortality, age‐standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population, and age‐standardized rate of mortality by world standard population were 9.74/100 000, 6.54/100 000, and 6.34/100 000, respectively. Both incidence and mortality were higher in urban than in rural areas. Age‐specific breast cancer incidence significantly increased with age, particularly after age 20, and peaked at 50–55 years, while age‐specific mortality increased rapidly after 25 years, peaking at 85+ years. Conclusions Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Chinese women, especially women in urban areas. Comprehensive measures are needed to reduce the heavy burden of breast cancer. PMID:28296260

  19. Cancer incidence among mild steel and stainless steel welders and other metal workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K S; Lauritsen, J M; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    by a postal questionnaire in living cohort members and interviews by proxy for deceased and emigrated subjects. The incidence of lung cancer was increased among workers ever "employed as welders" (SIR = 1.38, 95% C.I. 1.03-1.81). There was a significant excess risk of lung cancer among "mild steel (MS) only...... "stainless steel (SS) only welders" (SIR = 2.38, 95% C.I. 0.77-5.55). In spite of signs of inconsistency in the risk estimation by duration and latency, we find the results support the conclusions of other studies: employment as a welder is associated with an increased lung cancer risk....

  20. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  1. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  2. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, C.; Benzenine, E.; Hagi, M.; Auverlot, B.; Cottenet, J.; Binquet, M.; Compain, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases) and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both). The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data.

  3. Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Zeinab; Salehiniya, Hamid; Amoori, Neda; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.

  4. Cancers of the Brain and CNS: Global Patterns and Trends in Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mortazavi, S A R; Paknahad, M

    2018-03-01

    Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled "Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence" provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The paper authored by Miranda-Filho et al. not only addresses a challenging issue, it can be considered as a good contribution in the field of brain and CNS cancers. However, our correspondence addresses a basic shortcoming of this paper about the role of electromagnetic fields and cancers and provides evidence showing that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), at least at high levels and long durations, can increases the risk of cancer.

  5. Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity - United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Thomas, Cheryll C; Henley, S Jane; Massetti, Greta M; Galuska, Deborah A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Puckett, Mary; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-10-03

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site. Because screening for colorectal cancer can reduce colorectal cancer incidence through detection of precancerous polyps before they become cancerous, trends with and without colorectal cancer were analyzed. In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of a cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates for overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005-2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20-74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence

  6. [Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X Y; Zheng, R S; Sun, K X; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-04-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China based on the cancer registry data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitted cervical cancer incidence and deaths in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of cervical cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 86.07% and 1.01%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.30. The estimates of new cases were about 102 000 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 15.30/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of cervical cancer were 11.57/100 000 and 10.61/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer in China was 1.11%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 15.27/100 000 and 11.16/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 15.34/100 000 and 12.14/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of cervical cancer deaths were about 30 400 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 4.57/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 3.12/100 000 and 2.98/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.33%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 4.44/100 000 and 2.92/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 4.72/100 000 and 3.39/100 000 in rural areas. Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of

  7. [Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Sun, K X; Xia, C F; Yang, Z X; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), and to provide support data for breast cancer prevention and control in China. Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitting female breast cancer incidence and deaths data occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of female breast cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas) in 2014. The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounted for 87.42% and 0.59% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.24. The estimates of new breast cancer cases were about 278 900 in China in 2014, accounting for 16.51% of all new cases in female. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population (ASRIC), and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population (ASRIW) of breast cancer were 41.82/100 000, 30.69/100 000, and 28.77/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 3.12%. The crude incidence rates and ASRIC in urban areas were 49.94 per 100 000 and 34.85 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 31.72 per 100 000 and 24.89 per 100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of breast cancer deaths were about 66 000 in China in 2014, accounting for 7.82% of all the cancer-related deaths in female. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population(ASRMC) and age

  8. The association between smoking and cancer incidence in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Pil; Kim, Shana J; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Lynch, Henry T; Armel, Susan; Park, Sue K; Karlan, Beth; Singer, Christian F; Neuhausen, Susan L; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Tobacco smoke is an established carcinogen, but the association between tobacco smoking and cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the association between tobacco smoking and cancer incidence in a cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. The study population consisted of unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. Information on lifestyle including smoking histories, reproductive factors, and past medical histories was obtained through questionnaires. Incident cancers were updated biennially via follow-up questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using time-dependent Cox regression models. There were 700 incident cancers diagnosed over 26,711 person-years of follow-up. The most frequent cancers seen in BRCA mutation carriers were breast (n = 428; 61%) and ovarian (n = 109; 15%) cancer. Compared to nonsmokers, (ever) smoking was associated with a modest increased risk of all cancers combined (HR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.01-1.37). Women in the highest group of total pack-years (4.3-9.8) had an increased risk of developing any cancer (HR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04-1.56), breast cancer (HR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.02-1.75), and ovarian cancer (HR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.06-2.67) compared to never smokers. The associations between tobacco smoking and cancer did not differ by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis. This prospective study suggests that tobacco smoking is associated with a modest increase in the risks of breast and ovarian cancer among women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. © 2018 UICC.

  9. Understanding differences in cervical cancer incidence in Western Europe: comparing Portugal and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Mesher, David; Pista, Angela; Baguelin, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer incidence has decreased over time in England particularly after the introduction of organized screening. In Portugal, where opportunistic screening has been widely available with only slightly lower coverage than that of the organized programme in England, rates of cervical cancer have been higher than in England. We compared the burden of cervical cancer, risk factors and preventive interventions over time in both countries, to identify elements hindering the further decline in incidence and mortality in Portugal. We used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in rate time-trends. We also analyzed individual-level Portuguese data on sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus prevalence, and recent aggregate data on organized and opportunistic screening coverage. We compared published estimates of survival, risk factors and historical screening coverage for both countries. Despite stable incidence, cervical cancer mortality has declined in both countries in the last decade. The burden has been 4 cases and 1 death per 100 000 women annually higher in Portugal than in England. Differences in human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors for infection and disease progression do not explain the difference found in cervical cancer incidence. Significant mortality declines in both countries followed the introduction of different screening policies, although England showed a greater decline than Portugal over nearly 2 decades after centralizing organized screening. The higher rates of cervical cancer in Portugal compared to England can be explained by differences in screening quality and coverage.

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in Mongolia - National Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandagdorj, Tuvshingerel; Sanjaajamts, Erdenechimeg; Tudev, Undarmaa; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Roder, David

    2010-01-01

    The National Cancer Registry of Mongolia began as a hospital-based registry in the early 1960s but then evolved to have a population-wide role. The Registry provides the only cancer data available from Mongolia for international comparison. The descriptive data presented in this report are the first to be submitted on cancer incidence in Mongolia to a peer-reviewed journal. The purpose was to describe cancer incidence and mortality for all invasive cancers collectively, individual primary sites, and particularly leading sites, and consider cancer control opportunities. This study includes data on new cancer cases registered in Mongolia in 2003-2007. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated as mean annual numbers per 100,000 residents. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and age-standardized mortality (ASMR) rates were calculated from age-specific rates by weighting directly to the World Population standard. Between 2003 and 2007, 17,271 new cases of invasive cancer were recorded (52.2% in males, 47.7% in females). The five leading primary sites in males were liver, stomach, lung, esophagus, and colon/rectum; whereas in females they were liver, cervix, stomach, esophagus and breast. ASRs were lower in females than males for cancers of the liver at 63.0 and 99.1 per 100,000 respectively; cancers of the stomach at 19.1 and 42.1 per 100,000 respectively; and cancers of the lung at 8.3 and 33.2 per 100,000 respectively. Liver cancer was the most common cause of death in each gender, the ASMR being lower for females than males at 60.6 compared with 94.8 per 100,000. In females the next most common sites of cancer death were the stomach and esophagus, whereas in males, they were the stomach and lung. Available data indicate that ASRs of all cancers collectively have increased over the last 20 years. Rates are highest for liver cancer, at about four times the world average. The most common cancers are those with a primary site of liver, stomach and esophagus, for which

  11. County‐level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cancer risk is affected by a combination of behavioral, genetic, and environmental factors. Individual environmental exposures have been associated with cancer development; however, a variety of environmental exposures may occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quali...

  12. PCOS and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Issat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical manifestation. For example not all patients suffer from obesity or hipertestosteronism related symptoms. From the analysis of literature it is possible to draw conclusions, that there is a possible correlation between PCOS and endometrial cancer, which emerges from clinical trials or research focused on molecular changes in endometrium patients with PCOS. On the other hand, correlation between PCOS and breast or ovary cancer is not so strong, in spite of single papers which are showing the link. The main problem in researching the correlation between PCOS and any cancer risk, is there is a very small group of women or the trial is imperfect (e.g. no control group. There is no meta-analysis focused on this correlation in literature. The change of criteria of PCOS in the past is also a big problem, because there was a number of definitions of PCOS, which results in inconsistent PCOS diagnoses over time. In this paper we would like to provide a description of studies that aimed at showing correlation between PCOS and cancer risk and underlying theoretical assumptions.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  14. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  15. Incidence and epidemiological features of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Brambilla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: patients with sporadic colorectal cancer or cases associated with syndromes are at risk of having synchronous or metachronous cancer. Although it is an important subject, Brazilian data on the subject are scarce. Objective: to evaluate the incidence and epidemiological features in patients with synchro- nous and metachronous colorectal cancer in a reference service of proctology in the Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: cross-sectional observational study, performed between January and July 2012, analyzing all patients admitted in the service that met the inclusion criteria. A retrospective review of records was performed, noting demographic variables, comorbidi- ties and tumor-related variables. Results: 150 records were analyzed, of which 53.3% were males and mean age was 63 (± 13.01 years old. The most frequently found tumor location was the sigmoid colon and high rectum (50.67%, followed by the lower rectum (36%. Adenocarcinomas were the most prevalent histological subtype (88%, followed by epidermoid tumors (1.33%. Hereditary syndromes were identified in five patients (3.33%, with four being Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP and one hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC. Among the an- alyzed patients, four (2.67% had synchronous and one (0.67% had metachronous cancer. Conclusion: the incidence of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer was, respectively, 2.67% and 0.67%, results that corroborate those reported in international literature. Resumo: Introdução: pacientes com diagnóstico de câncer colorretal esporádico ou associado a sín- dromes correm risco de apresentar lesões sincrônicas ou metacrônicas. Embora seja rele- vante, há escassez de informações sobre o tema na literatura nacional. Objetivo: avaliar a incidência e o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes com tumor colorretal sincrônico e metacrônico em um serviço de referência em proctologia do Rio Grande do Sul. Método: estudo

  16. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  17. Incidence of lung cancer among subway drivers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Bigert, Carolina; Pollán, Marina

    2008-07-01

    Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system in Stockholm. Subway particles are more toxic to DNA in cultured human lung cells than particles from ambient air. This cohort comprised all men in Stockholm County who were gainfully employed in 1970. They were followed for cancer incidence until 1989. Lung cancer cases were identified from the national cancer register. Subway drivers were identified from the census in 1970. The reference cohort comprised all transport and communication workers in Stockholm. There were nine cases of lung cancer among the subway drivers, giving a SIR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38-1.56). The lung cancer incidence was not increased among the subway drivers. The study gives some evidence against the hypothesis that subway particles would be more potent in inducing lung cancer than particles in ambient air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta : 1995-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Alberta Cancer Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Division of Population Health and Information Surveillance

    2009-02-15

    A high number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma, a rare form of bile duct cancer, as well as high rates of other cancers were reported by a physician working in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta in 2006. Concerns were raised by local residents, attributing cancers in their community to environmental contamination from a range of industrial development including the oil sands development, uranium mining and pulp mills. However, an initial review of the Alberta Cancer Registry did not confirm an increased incidence of cancer in Fort Chipewyan. In the summer/fall of 2007, a working group was formed to support the Alberta Cancer Board in doing a cluster investigation based on the guidelines of the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. This report presented an investigation to determine if there was an elevated rate of cholangiocarcinoma in Fort Chipewyan and whether there was an elevated rate of cancers overall in Fort Chipewyan. The report provided background information on the Athabasca oil sands, uranium mining, and Fort Chipewyan as well as previous investigations of cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan. Study methods were also presented with particular reference to study and comparison populations; cancer classification and inclusion criteria; active case ascertainment and verification; methods of analysis; and ethical approval. Results were also presented. The specific cancers that were discussed were cholangiocarcinoma, leukemia, colon cancer, and cancer in First Nations in Alberta. It was concluded that the observed number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma was within the expected range. 121 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs., 5 appendices.

  19. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  20. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xi-Lin; Chan, Juliana CN

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  1. Incidence of thyroid cancer in residents surrounding the Three Mile Island nuclear facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J

    2008-04-01

    On March 28, 1979, the worst nuclear exposure incident in U.S. history occurred near Harrisburg, PA. Small quantities of xenon and iodine radioisotopes were released into the environment from the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant. The Pennsylvania Department of Health (PDoH) implemented a TMI Population Registry, including 32,135 individuals within a 5-mile radius of TMI, to track possible health effects to the local population. Although no increase in cancer mortality has been noted in this cohort, cancer incidence has not been tracked. Given the long latency period for the development of thyroid cancer after exposure to low-level radiation exposure, it is plausible that an increase in thyroid cancer incidence might just now be occurring. Retrospective analysis of the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for Thyroid Cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System (EpiQMS) search engine. EpiQMS is an interactive health statistics Website that can produce numbers, rates, graphs, charts, maps, and county profiles using various demographic variables (age, sex, race, etc.) from birth, death, cancer, and population datasets for the state and counties or regions of Pennsylvania. Eighteen years of data (1985-2002) on thyroid cancer incidence were obtained from the PDoH. The three at-risk counties of Dauphin, York, and Lancaster were analyzed with regard to observed numbers of thyroid cancer cases versus expected incidence. Although the nuclear accident at TMI occurred in 1979, 1985 was chosen as the starting point for data analysis because that is when the PDoH began maintaining cancer incidence records. In the first year available for evaluation (1985), there were 11 new thyroid cancer cases in each of the at-risk counties (Dauphin, York, Lancaster). By 2002, the incidence had increased to 29 in Dauphin County, 81 in Lancaster County, and 69 in York County. The increase in thyroid cancer in Dauphin County is not above what would be expected for both

  2. The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and income per capita across countries. Data on breast cancer incidence in 52 countries were obtained from GLOBOCAN, along with economic indicators of gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank. Number of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging (from World Health Organization) were used as a surrogate for technology and access to screening for cancer diagnosis. Statistical analyses for correlation and regression were performed, along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A strong positive association between breast cancer incidence and gross domestic product per capita, Pearson's r = 65.4 %, controlling latitude, density of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging was found in countries of temperate zones. The estimated relationship suggests that 1 % higher gross domestic product per capita, within the temperate zones (latitudes), increases the expected age-standardized breast cancer incidence by about 35.6 % (p nations may have a higher incidence of breast cancer independent of geographic location and screening technology.

  3. Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival. Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. Study Design: A ...

  4. Study of cancer incidence among 6363 male workers in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbesland, A; Kjuus, H; Thelle, D S

    1999-09-01

    Little has been known about the risk of cancer associated with occupational exposure to manganese. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the associations between duration of specific work and cancer incidence among employees in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants. Among men first employed in 1933-91 and with at least 6 months in these plants, the incident cases of cancer during 1953-91 were obtained from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The numbers of various cancers were compared with expected figures calculated from age and calendar time specific rates for Norwegian men during the same period. Internal comparisons of rates were performed with Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 6363 men. A total of 607 cases of cancer were observed against 596 cases expected (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.02). Internal comparisons of rates showed a positive trend between the rate of all cancers and duration of furnace work. A slightly weaker trend was also found for duration of blue collar non-furnace work when lags of 25 or 30 years were applied in the analyses. However, several results indicated that the incidence of all cancers among the non-furnace workers decreased during the period of active employment. Furnace and non-furnace workers may have exposures that increase the incidence of several cancers. The low incidence of cancer among non-furnace workers during the period of ongoing exposure cannot be explained. As this study cannot identify any causal factors, the role of exposure to manganese remains unclear.

  5. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2011-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product b...

  6. Optimizing the Management of High-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...

  7. Global trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alexandre; Jayram, Gautam; Drazer, Michael; Eggener, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on testicular cancer have focused primarily on European countries. Global incidence and mortality have been less thoroughly evaluated. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the most recent global age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for testicular cancer and to use these values to estimate a region's health care quality. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in 172 countries by using the GLOBOCAN 2008 database, reflecting the annual rate of cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 men. These data were evaluated on a regional level to compare incidence and mortality rates. Global plots of these values were constructed to better visualize geographic distributions. Finally, the ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated as a method to assess each region's proficiency in diagnosing and effectively treating testicular cancer. ASIR and ASMR were analyzed by region, and each region's ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated. Testicular cancer ASIR is highest in Western Europe (7.8%), Northern Europe (6.7%), and Australia (6.5%). Asia and Africa had the lowest incidence (ASMR was highest in Central America (0.7%), western Asia (0.6%), and Central and Eastern Europe (0.6%). Mortality was lowest in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia (0.1-0.2%). The ASIR-ASMR ratio was highest in Australia (65.0%) and lowest in western Africa (1.0%). National reporting systems varied by country, and data quality may have fluctuated between regions. Testicular cancer incidence remains highest in developed nations with primarily Caucasian populations. Variable ASIR-ASMR ratios suggest markedly different geographic-specific reporting mechanisms, access to care, and treatment capabilities. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as fine particulate matter and arsenic in drinking water. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental Qualit...

  9. Familial risks in testicular cancer as aetiological clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-02-01

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk for testicular cancer in offspring through parental and sibling probands. Among 0 to 70-year-old offspring, 4,586 patients had testicular cancer. Standardized incidence ratios for familial risk were 3.8-fold when a father and 7.6-fold when a brother had testicular cancer. Testicular cancer was associated with leukaemia, distal colon and kidney cancer, melanoma, connective tissue tumours and lung cancer in families. Non-seminoma was associated with maternal lung cancer but the risk was highest for the late-onset cases, providing no support to the theory of the in utero effect of maternal smoking on the son's risk of testicular cancer. However, the theory cannot be excluded but should be taken up for study when further data are available on maternal smoking. The high familial risk may be the product of shared childhood environment and heritable causes.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen and long-term prediction of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-01-01

    It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population.......It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population....

  11. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    -years. In the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), 8170 cases were observed during the follow-up of 36.7 million person-years. Standardised incidence ratios with 95% CI were estimated for 53 occupations in the NOCCA cohort and HR with 95% CIs were estimated for 42 occupations in the CanCHEC. Results...

  12. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  13. Changing Incidence and Risk Factors for Kaposi Sarcoma by Time Since Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyss, Natascha; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains a frequent cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We examined incidence rates and risk factors for developing KS in different periods after starting cART in patients from European...

  14. Cancer incidence in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after......-induced adverse life styles....

  15. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same age ( 1 ). The general term for these cancers is "HIV-associated cancers." Three of these cancers are known as " acquired ... also have an increased cumulative risk of developing HIV-associated cancers. What can people infected with HIV do to ...

  16. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  17. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  18. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  19. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  20. High incidence of thyroid cancer among patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldrymidis, Dimitrios; Papadakis, Georgios; Tsakonas, Georgios; Kaldrymidis, Philippos; Flaskas, Theofanis; Seretis, Andreas; Pantazi, Eleni; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Peppa, Melpomeni; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12.26+9.6 years. From 110 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 26 (23.6%) patients. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer and was diagnosed in 13 patients (11.8%); other cancers encountered were gastric cancer (N=2), endometrial cancer (N-2), and breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer (N-2), myelodysplastic syndrome, renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer and pancreatic carcinoma, one case each. Age, gender, age at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly, tumor size of pituitary adenoma and duration of disease were not associated with cancer development. This study suggests that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and therefore they should undergo regular screening with hormonal and ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid and FNAB when required.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for thrombocytopenia in the intensive care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the incidence, risk factors and transfusion requirements of thrombocytopenia in tertiary care ICUs in northern India. Objective. To study the incidence and ... [1] Thrombocytopenia has been found to predispose patients to increased ... any intracranial bleed or any bleed associated with a fall in haemoglobin by at least 2 g/dL.

  2. Incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Ron; Kapiev, Andronik; Poluksht, Natan; Halevy, Ariel; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide. The incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel have not been studied in depth. The aim of our study was to try and investigate the aforementioned issues in Israel in different ethnic groups. This retrospective study is based on the data of The Israel National Cancer Registry and The Central Bureau of Statistics. Published data from these two institutes were collected, summarized, and analyzed in this study. Around 650 new cases of gastric cancer are diagnosed yearly in Israel. While we noticed a decline during the period 1990-2007 in the incidence in the Jewish population (13.6-8.9 and 6.75-5.42 cases per 100,000 in Jewish men and women, respectively), an increase in the Arab population was noticed (7.7-10.2 and 3.7-4.2 cases per 100,000 in men and women, respectively). Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 cases of gastric cancer decreased significantly, from 7.21 in 1990 to 5.46 in 2007, in the total population. The 5-year relative survival showed a slight increase for both men and women. There is a difference in the incidence and outcome of gastric cancer between the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. The grim prognosis of gastric cancer patients in Israel is probably due to the advanced stage at which gastric cancer is diagnosed in Israel.

  3. Incidence of eye cancer in Taiwan: an 18-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-Y; Hsu, W-M

    2004-02-01

    To describe the incidence and histologic patterns of eye cancers in Chinese in Taiwan. Beginning in 1979, cases of cancer in Taiwan were reported to the Taiwan National Cancer Registry. Information on all Chinese patients diagnosed with eye malignancies under the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, site 190, was retrieved for analysis from the data bank of the Taiwan National Cancer Registry. In all, 733 cases with primary eye cancers were identified from 1979 to 1996, an 18-year period. The average annual age-standardized incidence of eye cancers was 2.46 per million population (2.57 for male and 2.33 for female). For cases less than 15 years of age, the most common eye malignancy was retinoblastoma (86.0%), followed by rhabdomyosarcoma (3.9%) and lymphoma (2.8%). For cases 15 years of age or older, the most common eye malignancy was melanoma (28.6%), followed by squamous cell sarcoma (21.0%) and lymphoma (20.8%). The time trends of the incidence of eye cancers were relatively stable over the 18-year period in Taiwan. Retinobalstoma, melanoma, and lymphoma were the three most common eye cancers in this Chinese population.

  4. Ambient air emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and female breast cancer incidence in US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, William Parker; Wei, Yudan

    2018-05-05

    To examine ambient air pollutants, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a factor in the geographic variation of breast cancer incidence seen in the US, we conducted an ecological study involving counties throughout the US to examine breast cancer incidence in relation to PAH emissions in ambient air. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute were collected and analyzed using SEER*Stat 8.3.2. PAH emissions data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency. Linear regression analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software for Windows to analyze the association between PAH emissions and breast cancer incidence, adjusting for potential confounders. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer were found being significantly higher in more industrialized metropolitan SEER regions over the years of 1973-2013 as compared to less industrialized regions. After adjusting for sex, race, education, socioeconomic status, obesity, and smoking prevalence, PAH emission density was found to be significantly associated with female breast cancer incidence, with the adjusted β of 0.424 (95% CI 0.278, 0.570; p < 0.0001) for emissions from all sources and of 0.552 (95% CI 0.278, 0.826; p < 0.0001) for emissions from traffic source. This study suggests that PAH exposure from ambient air could play a role in the increased breast cancer risk among women living in urban areas of the US. Further research could provide insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  5. The Effect of Combined Aspirin and Clopidogrel Treatment on Cancer Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Avi; Zelikson-Saporta, Ravit; Pereg, David; Spectre, Galia; Rozovski, Uri; Raanani, Pia; Hermoni, Doron; Lishner, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Multiple studies have shown an association between aspirin treatment and a reduction in newly diagnosed cancer. Conversely, there are conflicting clinical and laboratory data on the effect of combined clopidogrel and aspirin therapy on cancer incidence, including analyses suggesting an increased cancer risk. No large-scale cohort study has been performed to address this issue in a heterogeneous real-world scenario. We investigated the effect of clopidogrel and aspirin on cancer incidence compared with aspirin alone and no antiplatelet therapy. A population-based historical cohort study of subjects aged ≥50 years covered by Clalit Health Services, an Israeli health maintenance organization, was performed. Patients treated with the newer antiplatelet drugs, prasugrel or ticagrelor, which, like clopidogrel, inhibit adenosine diphosphate receptors, and those with prior cancer were excluded. Prescription records of antiplatelet medication were retrieved. The cohort included 183,912 subjects diagnosed with 21,974 cancer cases based upon the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Dual aspirin and clopidogrel was prescribed in 9.6%, while 49% received aspirin alone and 41% used neither. Compared with nonusers, there was a lower risk of cancer in subjects exposed to aspirin with (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.49) or without clopidogrel (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.52-0.56), on long-term follow-up. Combined treatment was associated with a lower cancer risk than the aspirin-only group (HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97). Dual clopidogrel and aspirin treatment is safe regarding the cancer risk. This study generates the hypothesis that clopidogrel may reduce cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol drinking in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huijuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005. Methods We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies. Results We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women. The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases. Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers. Conclusions Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.

  7. Incidence of risk factors for hearing impairment in premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of hearing impairment in newborn population is 1-3 per 1000 (WHO, 2012. Apart from that, many authors have found that the incidence of hearing impairment is twenty times higher, 2-4%, in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Thus, a congenital hearing loss is the most frequent sensory or motor deficit that could be diagnosed immediately upon birth. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of risk factors for hearing impairment in the population of preterm babies. We were especially interested in the impact of gestational age at birth on the incidence of risk factors for hearing loss. A cohort of 150 preterm babies was enrolled in the study. They were hospitalized in the Institute for Neonatology in Belgrade during 2014 and 2015 and the data were obtained from their medical files. The results of this study indicate high incidence of risk factors for hearing impairment in this population of babies. Gestational age at birth had a strong, statistically significant, correlation with risk factor incidence in lower gestational age and vice versa. High incidence of risk factors and their interaction could account for twenty times higher occurrence of congenital and early acquired hearing loss in population of preterm babies compared to term neonates. These results imply the need for systematic audiological surveillance of prematurely born babies at least until 12 months of corrected age.

  8. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, Erik; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mahmmod, Nofel; Kremer, Willemijn; Siersema, Peter D.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies (interval CRC). We

  9. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, Erik; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mahmmod, Nofel; Kremer, Willemijn; Siersema, Peter D.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies (interval CRC).

  10. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, E.; Maulen- de Jong, A.E. van der; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Woude, C.J. van der; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Jansen, J.M.; Mahmmod, N.; Kremer, W.; Siersema, P.D.; Oldenburg, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies

  11. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, D. W.; Gavin, A.; Hegarty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES). We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995-2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI) and Republic of Ireland (RoI). Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84-0.97)), with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79-0.92)). For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  12. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  13. Adherence to diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations and breast cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-12-15

    Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower incidence of breast cancer in previous studies, but evidence in African American women is limited. This project evaluated the association between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer incidence among African American women. The Black Women's Health Study (analytic cohort = 49,103) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of African American women, ages 21-69 years at baseline (1995). Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1, partial adherence = 0.5, non-adherence = 0) were calculated using questionnaire data and summed for overall (maximum = 7) and diet only (maximum = 5) scores. Associations between baseline and time-varying adherence scores and breast cancer incidence (N = 1,827 incident cases through 2011) were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. In this cohort, 8.5% adhered >4 recommendations. Adherence at baseline was not associated with breast cancer incidence. Higher overall time-varying adherence (per 0.5 point increase) was associated with lower breast cancer incidence (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Adherence to physical activity, sugar beverage and red and processed meat recommendations were also associated with reduced risk. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was low and may be associated with lower breast cancer incidence in African American women. © 2016 UICC.

  14. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  15. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex.

  16. Cancer incidence among radiologic technologists and nurses in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smerdokiene, V.

    2000-01-01

    The retrospective cohort study of 'Cancer incidence among persons, working at ionizing radiation environment' was performed. The cohort consisted of 2034 persons (13.82% males and 86.18% females). Among them 475 were radiologists (doctors), 868 - radiologic technologists (all of them females) and 470 nurses (cleaners in radiology departments). The members of the cohort were followed -up retrospectively from 01.01.1978 until 31.12.1977. Standard Incidence Ratio for all cancers in the cohort of female radiologic technologists was 1,31 [0,90-1,85], of female nurses -1,99 [1,26-2,99]. The size of cohorts and follow-up period were too small for site - specific analysis of cancer incidence. (author)

  17. Breast implants and breast cancer: a review of incidence, detection, mortality, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deapen, Dennis

    2007-12-01

    Soon after breast implants were commercially introduced over 30 years ago, questions about potential carcinogenicity were raised. Animal experiments dating back to the mid-twentieth century demonstrated that foreign body implantation of many materials, including silicone, can induce sarcomas. Indeed, female breast cancer incidence rates in the United States have increased substantially over that period. Of the several published studies from various countries that have formally investigated the risk of breast cancer among augmentation mammaplasty patients, none show any evidence of increased risk. In fact, most find lower than expected risk, some with statistically significant reductions. Similarly, breast cancer mortality among these patients is generally found to be below that expected of other similar women. Delayed detection of breast cancer is a concern for these patients because implants can interfere with mammography. However, using indicators such as stage at diagnosis and tumor size, current research shows that augmentation patients do not experience delayed detection. Furthermore, several comparisons of post-breast cancer survival of augmented versus nonaugmented patients have found no significant differences. In summary, breast implants are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer incidence or death, and these patients do not experience delayed detection or poorer post-breast cancer survival.

  18. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Ca?edo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. Methods/Design During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study ...

  19. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health

  20. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  1. Cardiovascular disease incidence in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Chawla, X; Chew, Helen K; Malogolowkin, Marcio; Wun, Ted

    2018-06-01

    Few population-based studies have focused on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescent and young adult (AYA; 15-39 years) cancer survivors and none have considered whether CVD risk differs by sociodemographic factors. Analyses focused on 79,176 AYA patients diagnosed with 14 first primary cancers in 1996-2012 and surviving > 2 years after diagnosis with follow-up through 2014. Data were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and State hospital discharge data. CVD included coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke. The cumulative incidence of developing CVD accounted for the competing risk of death. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression evaluated factors associated with CVD and the impact of CVD on mortality. Overall, 2249 (2.8%) patients developed CVD. Survivors of central nervous system cancer (7.3%), acute lymphoid leukemia (6.9%), acute myeloid leukemia (6.8%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.1%) had the highest 10-year CVD incidence. In multivariable models, African-Americans (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33-1.81; versus non-Hispanic Whites), those with public/no health insurance (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.61-1.96; versus private) and those who resided in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods had a higher CVD risk. These sociodemographic differences in CVD incidence were apparent across most cancer sites. The risk of death was increased by eightfold or higher among AYAs who developed CVD. While cancer therapies are known to increase the risk of CVD, this study additionally shows that CVD risk varies by sociodemographic factors. The identification and mitigation of CVD risk factors in these subgroups may improve long-term patient outcomes.

  2. Kidney Function, Proteinuria, and Cancer Incidence: The Korean Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana H; Sang, Yingying; Jung, Keum Ji; Lee, Sunmi; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Reported associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with cancer risk are inconsistent, and data for the proteinuria-cancer relationship are sparse. We sought to quantify the associations of cancer incidence with eGFR and with proteinuria in a large population-based cohort. A prospective cohort study. 242,583 adults (30-74 years old) without a diagnosis of cancer at baseline in the Korean Heart Study, based on health checkups in 1996 to 2004 with follow-up until 2012. Creatinine-based eGFR (≥90, 60-89, 45-59, and cancer incidence based on ICD-10 codes. 15,165 cases of cancer were detected. The relationship between eGFR and incidence of any cancer was J shaped, with the lowest risk at 45 to 59mL/min/1.73m 2 . There was 44% higher risk for any cancer among those with eGFRscancer risk, showing a dose-response relationship (HRs of 1.24 [95% CI, 1.13-1.35], 1.38 [95% CI, 1.17-1.63], and 1.66 [95% CI, 1.30-2.12] for 1+, 2+, and ≥3+ vs undetectable/trace). Examining site-specific cancer, eGFRkidney and ureteral cancer, multiple myeloma, and leukemia, whereas proteinuria ≥ 1+ (vs undetectable/trace) was related to a broader set of cancers (ie, stomach, rectal, liver, lung, ovarian, kidney, bladder, and multiple myeloma). After excluding study participants with follow-up less than 3 years, the associations remained consistent for kidney cancer and myeloma with eGFR and for rectal, liver, lung, and ovarian cancer with proteinuria. Relatively small number of participants with severely reduced eGFR or 70 years or older. Kidney measures, particularly proteinuria, were associated with increased incidence of cancer. Future studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these associations. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon......-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer were related to intake of total or specific fiber source using Cox proportional hazards models. For men, an inverse association was observed between intake of total fiber and the risk of colon cancer per an incremental increase of 10 g day(-1) , IRR...... fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer....

  4. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H

    2001-01-01

    into account. Assuming the age dependency of the incidence pattern in old age to be common for the Nordic countries, an internal comparison could be made among the four countries of the cohort effects and the period effects. The study indicated that the period effects have been of importance for the increase...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...... exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects....

  5. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  6. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  7. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author)

  8. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. I-131 dose response for incident thyroid cancers in Ukraine related to the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I; Oliynik, Valery A; Lubin, Jay H; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereschenko, Valery P; McConnell, Robert J; Zamotaeva, Galina A; O'Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P; Shpak, Victor M; Ron, Elaine

    2011-07-01

    Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case-control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose-response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. The cohort consists of individuals radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, environmental transport models, and interview data. Excess radiation risks were estimated using Poisson regression models. Sixty-five incident thyroid cancers were diagnosed during the second through fourth screenings and 73,004 person-years (PY) of observation. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity on relative and absolute scales, although the excess relative risk (ERR) model described data better than did the excess absolute risk (EAR) model. The ERR per gray was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-6.34], and the EAR per 10⁴ PY/Gy was 2.21 (95% CI, 0.04-5.78). The ERR per gray varied significantly by oblast of residence but not by time since exposure, use of iodine prophylaxis, iodine status, sex, age, or tumor size. I-131-related thyroid cancer risks persisted for two decades after exposure, with no evidence of decrease during the observation period. The radiation risks, although smaller, are compatible with those of retrospective and ecological post-Chornobyl studies.

  10. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  11. Incidence trends of human papillomavirus-related head and neck cancer in Taiwan, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tzer-Zen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) is an emerging risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC), particularly for oropharyngeal cancer. Studies from the West showed a rising trend of HPV-related HNC despite a decrease of the overall HNC incidence. In contrast, the overall HNC incidence in Taiwan has continued to rise. It is not clear whether the incidence trends of HPV-related HNC in Taiwan have a similar pattern to those from countries with an overall decreasing incidence of HNC. This study examined the incidence trends of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated HNC in Taiwan using data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Our results showed that the incidence trends of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated HNC in Taiwan both rose during 1995-2009. The incidence of HPV-related HNC (1.3 per 100,000 in 1995 to 3.3 in 2009, annual percentage change (APC) = 6.9, p Taiwan has continued to increase, the most rapid rise is in the HPV-related HNC. This suggests that similar to the Western world, HPV-related HNC is becoming an important public health issue in Taiwan. © 2014 UICC.

  12. Anatomic Subsite of Primary Colorectal Cancer and Subsequent Risk and Distribution of Second Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Chan, Andrew T.; Shuji Ogino, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with a history of colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased risk of subsequent cancer. We used cancer registry data to evaluate whether this increased risk of cancer after CRC differed by anatomic subsite of a first CRC. Methods Individuals diagnosed with first primary CRC between 1992–2009 were identified from 12 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the incidence of subsequent cancers in these index CRC cases to cancer incidence rates in the general population. SIRs were calculated for cancers at anatomic sites within and outside the colorectum in analyses stratified by subsite of the index CRC. Results Cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in those with prior CRC than in the general population (SIR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.13–1.16). Individuals with an index CRC located between the transverse and descending colon experienced the greatest increased risk both overall (SIR=1.29 to 1.33), and with respect to risk of second CRC in particular (SIR=2.53 to 3.35). Incidence of small intestinal cancer was significantly elevated regardless of index CRC subsite (SIR=4.31, 95% CI: 3.70–4.77); incidence of endometrial cancer was elevated in those with index CRC in the proximal colon (SIR=1.37 to 1.79). Conclusions Risk of second cancer after CRC differs by anatomic site of the first tumor, and is particularly pronounced for those with prior CRC located in the transverse to descending colon. The mechanisms underlying this pattern of second cancer risk remain unknown. PMID:23856984

  13. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic site and disease stage in the United States from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Eng, Cathy; Nieman, Linda Z; Kapadia, Asha S; Du, Xianglin L

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the current study were to examine the trends in incidence rates of subsite-specific colorectal cancer at all stages in a large US population and to explore the impact of age and sex on colorectal cancer incidence. Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 registries. Colorectal cancer incidence was divided into 3 anatomic subsite groupings: proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. Incidence rates and relative risk were calculated using the SEER*Stat software provided by the National Cancer Institute. From 1976 to 2005, age-adjusted incidence of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers per 100,000 population have steadily decreased from 22.5, 18.8, and 19.2 to 21.1, 11.7, and 13.6, respectively, contributing to the overall decline in the incidence of colorectal cancer from 60.5 to 46.4. Distal colon cancer had the greatest incidence decline (-37.79%), whereas the most minimal change in the incidence rates occurred for proximal colon cancer (-6.37%) because of increased incidence rates of ascending colon (24.8%) and hepatic flexure (21.3%) over 30 years. The steadily increased proportion of proximal colorectal cancer subsites was observed in both men and women starting at age 50 although women experienced a greater increase than did men. Overall incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased over the past 3 decades. The percent of ascending colon and hepatic flexure cancers diagnosed at early stages (localized and regional) increased. The finding on sex difference over years suggests that great attention should be paid in the future studies to male and female disparities.

  14. Recent trends in incidence of and mortality from breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers in England and Wales and their relation to changing fertility and oral contraceptive use.

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Silva, I.; Swerdlow, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reproductive-related factors play a major role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast, ovary and endometrium. Pregnancy history influences the risk of each of these cancers, and oral contraceptive use modifies the risks of ovarian and endometrial cancers, although its effect on breast cancer risk is less certain. We analysed recent time trends in the incidence and mortality of these cancers in England and Wales and assessed whether they can be explained by changes in fertility and oral con...

  15. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age...

  16. Incidence, management, and course of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaba, Alicia; Guerra, Iván; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Quintanilla, Elvira; López-Serrano, Pilar; García-Sánchez, María Concepción; Casis, Begoña; Taxonera, Carlos; Moral, Ignacio; Chaparro, María; Martín-Rodríguez, Daniel; Martín-Arranz, María Dolores; Manceñido, Noemí; Menchén, Luis; López-Sanromán, Antonio; Castaño, Ángel; Bermejo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are at increased risk for developing some types of neoplasia. Our aims were to determin the risk for cancer in patients with IBD and to describe the relationship with immunosuppressive therapies and clinical management after tumor diagnosis. Retrospective, multicenter, observational, 5-year follow-up, cohort study. Relative risk [RR] of cancer in the IBD cohort and the background population, therapeutic strategies, and cancer evolution were analyzed. A total of 145 cancers were diagnosed in 133 of 9100 patients with IBD (global cumulative incidence 1.6% vs 2.4% in local population; RR = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.78). Patients with IBD had a significantly increased RR of non-melanoma skin cancer [RR = 3.85; 2.53-5.80] and small bowel cancer [RR = 3.70; 1.23-11.13]. After cancer diagnosis, IBD treatment was maintained in 13 of 27 [48.1%] patients on thiopurines, in 2 of 3 on methotrexate [66.6%], none on anti-TNF-α monotherapy [n = 6] and 4 of 12 [33.3%] patients on combined therapy. Rate of death and cancer remission during follow-up did not differ [p > 0.05] between patients who maintained the treatment compared with patients who withdrew [5% vs 8% and 95% vs 74%, respectively]. An association between thiopurines [p = 0.20] or anti-TNF-α drugs [p = 0.77] and cancer was not found. Patients with IBD have an increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancer and small bowel cancer. Immunosuppresive therapy is not related to a higher overall risk for cancer or worse tumor evolution in patients who maintain these drugs after cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia; Hatch, Maureen; Brenner, Alina; Nadyrov, Eldar; Veyalkin, Ilya; Polyanskaya, Olga; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Polyakov, Semion; Levin, Leonid; Zablotska, Lydia; Rozhko, Alexander; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    Background While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. PMID:26851723

  18. Cancer in adolescents: Incidences and trends during 1995-2009 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Chen, Chao-Chun; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Lin, Li-Yih

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe cancer incidence rates and trends specifically for adolescents aged 15-19 years during 1995-2009 in Taiwan. The incidence counts and census data were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. During the 15-year study period, 4122 adolescents were diagnosed with cancer. The overall incidence rate was 155.2 per million person-years. Other epithelial tumors were the most frequently diagnosed cancer group (23.7%), followed by leukemias (18.0%) and lymphomas (13.9%). When compared to rates in Western countries, a significantly low rate of lymphomas was found. Moreover, rates of the subtypes of melanomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas being 1/10- and 4-times rates in Western countries were the most striking variations. During 1995-2009, the overall rate of adolescent cancer did not significantly change. However, the most significant upward and declining trends in incidence rates were found for male germ cell neoplasms (annual percent change, APC, 6.4%) and hepatic tumors (APC, -11.1%), respectively. Further investigation and enhancement of the public discourse of possible lifestyle and environmental risk factors associated with increasing trends of certain adolescent cancers should be carried out in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. International patterns and trends in testicular cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, B; Chen, J; Devesa, S S; Bray, F; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates of testicular cancer in Northern European and North American countries have been widely reported, whereas rates in other populations, such as Eastern Europe, Central/South America, Asia, and Africa, have been less frequently evaluated. We examined testicular cancer incidence rates overall and by histologic type by calendar time and birth cohort for selected global populations 1973-2007. Age-standardized incidence rates over succeeding 5-year periods were calculated from volumes 4-9 of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume 10) database. Annual percent change over the 35-year period was calculated using weighted least squares regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were performed and observed rates and fitted rate ratios presented by birth cohort. Incidence rates of testicular cancer increased between 1973-1977 and 2003-2007 in most populations evaluated worldwide. Of note, incidence rates in Eastern European countries rose rapidly and approached rates in Northern European countries. Rates in Central and South America also increased and are now intermediate to the high rates among men of European ancestry and low rates among men of Asian or African descent. Some heterogeneity in the trends in seminoma and nonseminoma were observed in Denmark, the United Kingdom, and among US whites, particularly in recent generations, with rapid and uniform increases in the incidence of both histologic types in Slovakia. Reasons for the rising incidence rates among European and American populations remain unexplained; however, changing distributions in the prevalence of risk factors for testicular cancer cannot be ruled out. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Incidence and risk factors of neonatal thrombocytopenia: a pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kusumasari

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].

  1. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...

  2. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  3. Brief Report: Anal Cancer in the HIV-Positive Population: Slowly Declining Incidence After a Decade of cART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, Olivier; van der Zee, Ramon P.; Smit, Colette; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed trends in incidence (1995-2012) and risk factors for anal cancer in the Dutch HIV-positive population. After an initial increase with a peak incidence in 2005-2006 of 114 [95% confidence interval (CI): 74 to 169] in all HIV+ patients and 168 (95% CI: 103 to 259) in HIV+ men who have sex

  4. Cancer incidence in adults living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France, based on data from the French Network of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiolles, Alice; Roudier, Candice; Goria, Sarah; Stempfelet, Morgane; Kairo, Cécile; Quintin, Cécile; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Monnereau, Alain; Vacquier, Blandine

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) release toxic emissions into the environment that may affect neighboring populations. This ecologic study was designed to investigate the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer in the vicinity of French NPPs by examining the incidence by municipality of 12 types of cancer in the population aged 15 years and older during the 1995-2011 period. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from towns of residence to the NPP. Using regression models, we assessed the risk of cancer in a 20-km zone around NPPs and observed an excess incidence of bladder cancer (Relative Risk (RR), 95% Credibility Interval (95% CI)) in men and women (RR men  = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17 and RR women  = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39). Women living within the 20-km proximity areas had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (RR women  = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). No excess risk of hematologic malignancies in either sex was seen. The higher than expected incidence of bladder cancer may be due to an excess incidence localized around the Flamanville NPP and the nearby La Hague nuclear waste treatment center, which is a source of chemical contaminants, many (including arsenic) of them known risk factors for bladder cancer. Differences in medical practices could explain the reduced risk of thyroid cancer. In this first study of adults living near NPPs in France, cancer incidence is significantly higher than in the references populations for one of the cancer types studied: bladder cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Cancer incidence among California Seventh-Day Adventists, 1976-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P K; Beeson, W L; Phillips, R L; Fraser, G E

    1994-05-01

    Cancer incidence was monitored in a population of 34,000 Seventh-day Adventists in California. By religious belief, Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol, or pork and approximately one-half adhere to a lacto-ovovegetarian lifestyle. Only a small percentage are pure vegetarians. Comparisons of cancer-incidence rates in this population with an external reference population were completed by calculating standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) for all cancer sites. Also, within the population, relative risks were calculated by using data obtained from a detailed lifestyle questionnaire that members of the study population completed. For all cancer sites combined in males, the SMR was lower in the Adventists (SMR = 0.73). The SMR was also lower in males for most individual cancer sites. However, prostate cancer risk was higher. For females, the all-cancer SMR was lower but not significantly so (SMR = 92). Most site-specific SMRs were lower, although not as much as the male SMRs. The SMR for endometrial cancer was significantly higher in female Adventists.

  6. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulich, M; Reřicha, V; Reřicha, R; Shore, D L; Sandler, D P

    2011-04-01

    Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Příbram region, Czech Republic. A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  9. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Andersson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. Methods: A cohort consisting of 44,589 women...... diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977–2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC...... from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Results: Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2...

  10. Project Pocos de Caldas Plateau: cancer research and natural radioactivity - incidence and risk behavior; Projeto Planalto Pocos de Caldas: pesquisa cancer e radiacao natural - incidencia e comportamento de risco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniazzi, Berenice Navarro [Secretaria de Estado de Saude de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Avaliacao e Vigilancia do Cancer; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Cunha, Tarcisio Neves da [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Otero, Ubirani Barros [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Pocos de Caldas (RCBP), MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    It has been well established by epidemiological studies that long term exposure due to radon increases the risk of lung cancer. While smoking continues to account for the bulk of lung cancers, it is been estimated that radon accounts for around 10% of all lung cancers. There is a synergistic relationship between smoking and radon and exposure due to radon is the primary cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Recognizing the importance of radon as a source of radiation exposure, the IAEA safety standard Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (generally referred to simply as the BSS) contains requirements aimed at reducing the associated risks. The BSS requires Member States to provide information on the levels of radon indoors and the associated health effects, and if appropriate, to establish and implement a radon action plan for controlling public exposure due to radon indoors. Although not specifically stated, it is clear that in order to decide whether or not an action plan is necessary, some measurement data must be available on the concentrations of radon present indoors. To assist in the implementation of the BSS, the Agency has also developed a Safety Guide: Protection of the Public against Exposure indoors due do Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation. This Safety Guide provides guidance on establishing and implementing a national radon action plan; developing national radon policy; undertaking national and regional surveys of radon in dwellings; measurement protocols; setting a reference level for dwellings; defining radon prone areas; radon control through building codes; and evaluation of programme effectiveness. While many sources of radiation exposure are not amenable to control, proven and effective building practices exist to limit the accumulation of radon in new buildings and cost-effective corrective actions have been developed to reduce high radon concentrations in existing buildings. The

  11. Lung cancer incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution from traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.Objective: We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.Methods: We identified 592 lung cancer cases...... for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit.Results: For the highest compared with the lowest...... of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.Conclusions: This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air...

  12. A Suitable Approach to Estimate Cancer Incidence in Area without Cancer Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitton, N.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Use of cancer cases from registries and PMSI claims database to estimate Department-specific incidence of four major cancers. Methods. Case extraction used principal diagnosis then surgery codes. PMSI cases/registry cases ratios for 2004 were modelled then Department-specific incidence for 2007 estimated using these ratios and 2007 PMSI cases. Results. For 2007, only colon-rectum and breast cancer estimations were satisfactorily validated for infra national incidence not ovary and kidney cancers. For breast, the estimated national incidence was 50,578 cases and the incidence rate 98.6 cases per 100,000 person per year. For colon-rectum, incidence was 21,172 in men versus 18,327 in women and the incidence rate 38 per 100,000 versus 24.8. For ovary, the estimated incidence was 4,637 and the rate 8.6 per 100,000. For kidney, incidence was 6,775 in men versus 3,273 in women and the rate 13.3 per 100.000 versus 5.2. Conclusion. Incidence estimation using PMSI patient identifiers proved encouraging though still dependent on the assumption of uniform cancer treatments and coding.

  13. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  14. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  15. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this s...

  16. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  17. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  18. Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2014-12-01

    During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003. After adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index. Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Incidence of ovarian cancer after hysterectomy: a nationwide controlled follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, A; Lidegaard, O; Tabor, A

    1997-11-01

    To estimate the risk of developing ovarian cancer after abdominal (total or subtotal) hysterectomy on benign indication. Prospective historical cohort study with 12.5 years of follow up. Denmark, nationwide. All Danish women (aged 0 to 99 years) having undergone hysterectomy with conservation of at least one ovary for a benign indication from 1977 to 1981 (n = 22,135). Follow up was conducted from 1977 to 1991. The reference group included all Danish women who had not undergone hysterectomy, age-standardised according to the hysterectomy group (n = 2,554,872). Registry data derived from the Danish National Register of Patients (diagnoses and operation codes) and the Civil Registration System (information about general population, including time of death). Incidence rate of ovarian cancer, lifetime risk of ovarian cancer, relative risk of ovarian cancer. Seventy-one women developed ovarian cancer on average 7.0 years after hysterectomy and 10,659 women in the reference group had ovarian cancer diagnosed after on average 6.4 years. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer was 0.27 per 1000 person-years in the group that had undergone hysterectomy and 0.34 per 1000 person-years in the general population (age-standardised). The extrapolated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer was 2.1% after hysterectomy and 2.7% in the general population (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.60-0.96). The risk of ovarian cancer is lower among women who have undergone hysterectomy compared with those who have not. The protection seems to decrease with time.

  20. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Reduced incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis treated with pirfenidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yukiko; Saito, Takefumi; Tanaka, Toru; Takoi, Hiroyuki; Yatagai, Yohei; Inomata, Minoru; Nei, Takahito; Saito, Yoshinobu; Gemma, Akihiko; Azuma, Arata

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a worse prognosis than some types of cancer. In patients with IPF, lung cancer is critical because of the associated high mortality rate from its progression and fatal complications from anticancer treatments. Therefore, preventing lung cancer in patients with IPF is primordial. Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent that reduces the decline in forced vital capacity. This study aimed to assess the effect of pirfenidone in the development of lung cancer in patients with IPF. Data from 261 patients with IPF with and without pirfenidone were retrospectively reviewed, and the incidence of lung cancer was analyzed. In the pirfenidone group, the incidence of lung cancer was significantly lower than in the non-pirfenidone group (2.4% vs. 22.0%, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that pirfenidone decreased the risk of lung cancer (hazard ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.46; P = 0.003), whereas coexisting emphysema increased the incidence of lung cancer (hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.35 to 7.70; P = 0.009). Pirfenidone might correlate with a decreased risk of lung cancer in patients with IPF. However, no definite conclusion can be drawn from this retrospective study, and a multicenter, prospective cohort study is still warranted to confirm the effect of pirfenidone on lung cancer in patients with IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  14. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  16. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  17. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  18. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  19. Weight Cycling and Cancer Incidence in a Large Prospective US Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Patel, Alpa V.; Sun, Juzhong; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Campbell, Peter T.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Weight cycling, which consists of repeated cycles of intentional weight loss and regain, is common among individuals who try to lose weight. Some evidence suggests that weight cycling may affect biological processes that could contribute to carcinogenesis, but whether it is associated with cancer risk is unclear. Using 62,792 men and 69,520 women enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992, we examined the association between weight cycling and cancer incidence. Weight cycles were defined by using baseline questions that asked the number of times ≥10 pounds (4.54 kg) was purposely lost and later regained. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cancer and 15 individual cancers were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression. During up to 17 years of follow-up, 15,333 men and 9,984 women developed cancer. Weight cycling was not associated with overall risk of cancer in men (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.11 for ≥20 cycles vs. no weight cycles) or women (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.08) in models that adjusted for body mass index and other covariates. Weight cycling was also not associated with any individual cancer investigated. These results suggest that weight cycling, independent of body weight, is unlikely to influence subsequent cancer risk. PMID:26209523

  20. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last period in participants arm, and 72.6 (58.5-87.9) between 1999-2001, 12.6 (7.9-17.4) between 2001-2005, and 8.6 (6.5-10.6) in the last period in the non-participant arm. Participating in the breast cancer screening program analyzed increased the in situ cumulative cancer incidence, but not the invasive and total incidence. Diagnoses were earlier in the participant arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Issues in cervical cancer incidence and treatment in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Phaëton, Rébécca

    2010-09-01

    Cervical disease burden continues to be especially high in HIV-infected women, even in the era of effective antiretroviral medications. This review discusses the multiple issues surrounding HIV-associated cervical cancer. Also, the unique treatment-related issues in HIV-associated cervical cancer are addressed. The incidence of invasive cervical cancer has remained stable in industrialized nations; however, it is only estimated in developing countries secondary to a relative lack of data collection and registries. Trends in HIV-associated cervical cancer have changed in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recent molecular pathways suggest that the natural progression of human papillomavirus infection, the causal agent in all cervical cancers, may be related to immune system dysfunction as well as HIV/human papillomavirus synergistic mechanisms. When highly active retroviral therapies are used, invasive cervical cancer treatments are impacted by concomitant drug toxicities that could potentially limit therapeutic benefit of either HAART or the standard of care treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer, concomitant chemoradiotherapy. The significance and care of the patient with invasive cervical cancer is becoming a geographically relevant phenomenon such that it may be time to re-address the global definition. Further studies in treatment issues and drug-drug interactions with cervical cancer treatments in the setting of HIV are paramount.

  4. Dietary habits and breast cancer incidence among Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P K; Beeson, W L; Phillips, R L; Fraser, G E

    1989-08-01

    Breast cancer incidence was monitored in a cohort of 20,341 California Seventh-day Adventist women who completed a detailed lifestyle questionnaire in 1976, and who were followed for 6 years. There were 215 histologically confirmed primary breast cancer detected among some 115,000 person-years of follow-up. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, indicating a primarily postmenopausal case series. Established risk factors for breast cancer showed strong relationships to risk in these data. Age at first live birth, maternal history of breast cancer, age at menopause, educational attainment, and obesity were all significantly related to risk. However, increasing consumption of high fat animal products was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer in a consistent fashion. Nor were childhood and early teenage dietary habits (vegetarian versus nonvegetarian) related to subsequent, adult risk of developing breast cancer. Also, a derived index of percent of calories from animal fat in the adult years was not significantly related to risk. These results persisted after simultaneously controlling for other, potentially confounding variables, utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression models.

  5. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, E. [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Auvinen, A. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Wahlberg, G. [Finnish Flight Attendants Association, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-09

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi`s sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author).

  6. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A.; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi's sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author)

  7. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  8. Breast cancer after bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, A-B; Crüger, Dorthe Gylling; Gerster, M

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer after risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in healthy BRCA mutation carriers. This study is a long-term follow-up of 307 BRCA mutation carriers of whom 96 chose RRM. None of the study participants had a previous history of breast or ovarian...... cancer nor had they undergone RRM or risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) prior to the time of BRCA testing. The annual incidence of post-mastectomy breast cancer was 0.8% compared with 1.7% in the non-operated group. Implications of these findings in relation to genetic counseling...

  9. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  10. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  11. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, M.; Rericha, V.; Rericha, R.; Shore, D.L.; Sandler, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: → Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. → We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. → No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. → Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  12. Bladder cancer incidence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Kromhout, Hans; Johansen, Christoffer; Langard, Sverre; Kauppinen, Timo; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the association between exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that arises during asphalt paving, and risk of bladder cancer. 7298 men included in the historical cohort were first employed between 1913 and 1999 in companies applying asphalt in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Israel. The minimal duration of employment for inclusion in the cohort was two seasons of work. Occupational histories were extracted from personnel files. A follow-up for cancer incidence was conducted through national cancer registries. The authors estimated exposures to benzo(a)pyrene as a marker for 4-6 ring PAH. Exposures were reconstructed by using information about changes in asphalt paving technology in each company over time, the modelled relation between production characteristics and exposure levels, and job histories. Relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression. 48 bladder cancers among asphalt paving workers were detected; of these, 39 cases were exposed at least 15 years before the diagnosis. Cumulative exposure to PAH was not associated with the incidence of bladder cancer. The association with average exposure became stronger when 15-year lag was considered, revealing a twofold increase in relative bladder cancer risk in the two higher exposure categories. There was an indication of exposure-response association with lagged averaged exposure. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, country, duration of employment and calendar period, did not show heterogeneity among countries and did not materially change when re-estimated after excluding non-primary cancers from follow-up. Previously conducted sensitivity analysis indicates that confounding by cigarette smoking is an unlikely explanation for the observed exposure-response trends. The authors were unable to control for all possible sources of confounding and bias. The results do not allow conclusion on the presence or absence of a causal link between

  13. Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Can