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Sample records for cancer incidence mortality

  1. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...

  5. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Lingyou; He, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR, data submitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated. There were 72 registries’ data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012. Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer site. The top 10 common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas). The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (males 317.97/100,000, females 253.09/100,000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%. The cancer mortality

  8. Assessment of cancer incidence and mortality risks associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of cancer incidence and mortality risks associated with effective dose of computed tomography examinations. K.O. Akyea-Larbi, C Schandorf, F Hasford, S Inkoom, T.A. Sackey, G.F. Acquah ...

  9. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    Objective: The registration data of local cancer registries in 2014 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR)in 2017 to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods: The data submitted from 449 registries were checked and evaluated, and the data of 339 registries out of them were qualified and selected for the final analysis. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by area, gender, age group and cancer type, and combined with the population data of 2014 to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively. Results: Total covered population of 339 cancer registries (129 in urban and 210 in rural) in 2014 were 288 243 347 (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality verified cases (MV%) were 68.01%. Among them, 2.19% cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. There were about 3, 804, 000 new cases diagnosed as malignant cancer and 2, 296, 000 cases dead in 2014 in the whole country. The incidence rate was 278.07/100, 000 (males 301.67/100, 000, females 253.29/100, 000) in China, age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 190.63/100, 000 and 186.53/100, 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.58%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 302.13/100, 000 and 196.58/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 248.94/100, 000 and 182.64/100, 000, respectively. The cancer mortality in China was 167.89/100, 000 (207.24/100, 000 in males and 126.54/100, 000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 106.98/100, 000 and 106.09/100, 000, respectively. And

  10. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Luís; Morais, Samantha; Oliveira, Maria J; Marques, Ana P; José Bento, Maria; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to quantify thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends in Portugal. The number of thyroid cancer cases and incidence rates were retrieved from the Regional Cancer Registries for the period 1989-2011. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2012) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1988-2012 by region). Joinpoint regression of the standardized incidence and mortality rates was performed. A significant, rapid and continued increase in incidence was observed for both sexes in each of the Regional Cancer Registries, with annual per cent changes (APCs) ranging between 2 and 9. Incidence in Portuguese women is higher than estimates for the world and Europe. Mortality decreased for women (APC: -1.5), with the greatest decrease in the North, and increased marginally for men (APC: +0.2), with a greater increase in the South. The significant increases in incidence in Portugal are predominantly because of the increase in incidence among women from the North. These trends, combined with an overall low mortality and high 5-year relative survival, raise concerns on the extent to which overdiagnosis may be taking place. Further research is needed, quantifying the importance of the most likely determinants of these trends as well as the extent and potentially deleterious effects of overdiagnosis and overtreatment in the Portuguese setting.

  11. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-qing; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; Li, Ni; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guang-lin; Wu, Liang-you

    2012-01-01

    Objective Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China, which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011. Methods There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008. After checking and evaluating the data quality, total 41 registries’ data were accepted and pooled for analysis. Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed, as well as the age- and sex-specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions and cumulative rate. Results The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas. There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62. The morphological verified rate was 69.33%, and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) was of 22.27%. The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas. However, after adjusted by age, the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural. The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was of 12.89%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas. The most common cancer sites were lung, stomach, colon-rectum, liver, esophagus, pancreas, brain, lymphoma, breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence. Lung

  12. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  13. [Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Sun, K X; Xia, C F; Yang, Z X; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), and to provide support data for breast cancer prevention and control in China. Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitting female breast cancer incidence and deaths data occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of female breast cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas) in 2014. The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounted for 87.42% and 0.59% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.24. The estimates of new breast cancer cases were about 278 900 in China in 2014, accounting for 16.51% of all new cases in female. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population (ASRIC), and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population (ASRIW) of breast cancer were 41.82/100 000, 30.69/100 000, and 28.77/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 3.12%. The crude incidence rates and ASRIC in urban areas were 49.94 per 100 000 and 34.85 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 31.72 per 100 000 and 24.89 per 100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of breast cancer deaths were about 66 000 in China in 2014, accounting for 7.82% of all the cancer-related deaths in female. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population(ASRMC) and age

  14. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Observationally, high plasma urate is associated with high risk of cancer. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of plasma urate are associated with high cancer incidence and all-cause mortality observationally and genetically. Method...

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; Jin, Jing; Zhai, Jingbo; Wen, Denggui; Shan, Baoen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To estimate the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province in 2013 and to investigate the real cancer burden in Hebei province to develop strategies for cancer prevention and control. Data on new cancer cases and deaths in 2013 were collected from 31 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province. All data were checked and evaluated based on data quality criteria from the “Chinese Guideline for Cancer Registration” and “Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume IX” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer/International Association of Cancer Registration (IARC/IACR). Qualified data from 21 registries were used for analysis after evaluation. Data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group, and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and the corresponding provincial population. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. The Chinese population census in 2000 and the population of Segi were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The covered populations included 11, 185,626 people (5,709,393 in males and 5,476,233 in females) from 21 qualified cancer registries, accounting for 15.25% of Hebei provincial population. The major indicators of quality control, that is, the percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%), percentage of cancer cases identified with a death certificate only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I), were 75.56%, 3.23%, and 0.65, respectively. In 2013, it was estimated that there were approximately 164,100 newly diagnosed cancer cases and 105,200 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 225.36/100,000 (248.03/100,000 in males, 201.73/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and the world standard population (ASIRW) were 182.81/100,000 and 181

  16. Declining Bowel Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Schrotz-King, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-02-19

    In October 2002, screening colonoscopy from age 55 onward was introduced as part of the German national statutory cancer screening program. Screening colonoscopy is intended to lower both the mortality and the incidence of bowel cancer by enabling the detection and removal of precursor lesions. The authors studied trends in bowel cancer incidence and mortality in Germany from 2003 to 2012 on the basis of data from the epidemiological cancer registries and from cause-of-death statistics. Over the period of investigation, the age-standardized incidence of bowel cancer (with the European population as a standard) fell from 66.1 to 57.0 cases per 100 000 persons per year (-13.8%) in men and from 42.6 to 36.5 per 100 000 persons per year (-14.3%) in women. In parallel with these changes, the age-standardized mortality from bowel cancer fell by 20.8% in men and by 26.5% in women. In the age groups 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 years, the cumulative risk of receiving a diagnosis of bowel cancer fell by 17-26%; in persons under age 55, this risk fell by only 3% in men, but increased by 14% in women. Long-term data from the cancer registry in the German federal state of Saarland revealed that the incidence of bowel cancer, but not its mortality, had risen over the decades preceding the study; it was only during the period of investigation that the trend reversed itself. Within 10 years of the introduction of screening colonoscopy in Germany, the incidence of bowel cancer in persons over age 55 fell by 17-26%, after having risen steadily over the preceding decades.

  17. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  18. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  19. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  20. Solar ultraviolet irradiance and cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet-B (UVB)/vitamin D/cancer hypothesis was proposed by the brothers Cedric and Frank Garland in 1980. In 2002, the list was increased to 15 types of cancer using data in the 1999 version of the atlas of cancer mortality rates in the United States. Ecological studies of cancer incidence and/or mortality rates with respect to indices of solar UVB doses have also been reported for Australia, China, France, Japan, and Spain with largely similar findings. In addition, several studies using nonmelanoma skin cancer as the index of solar UVB dose have found reduced internal cancer incidence and/or mortality rates, especially in sunny countries. A study of cancer incidence with respect to 54 categories of occupation in five Nordic countries, using lip cancer less lung cancer as the UVB index, found this index inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancers for males and four for females. Observational studies with respect to UVB doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations also support the hypothesis. Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system to assess whether solar UVB and vitamin D can be considered causal in reducing risk of cancer. The primary criteria for this analysis include strength of association, consistent findings in different populations, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and experimental verification (e.g., randomized controlled trials). The totality of evidence is judged to satisfy the criteria very well for breast and colorectal cancer, and moderately well for several other types of cancer.

  1. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  2. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when...... their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50¿+¿) and 122,424 matched controls....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p¿...

  3. [Incidence and mortality of stomach cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S W; Yang, Z X; Zheng, R S; Zeng, H M; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-07-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2013, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 347 cancer registries that submitted stomach cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2013 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 255 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural), sex, and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2013, the nationwide incidence and mortality of stomach cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 255 cancer registries covered a total of 226 494 490 populations (111 595 772 in urban and 114 898 718 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified and death certificate-only cases were 76.27% and 1.98%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio was 0.72. It is estimated that there were 427 000 new cases for stomach cancer nationwide, with a crude incidence rate of 31.38 per 100 000 (42.85 per 100 000 in males, 19.33 per 100 000 in females). The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 21.40 per 100 000 and 21.32 per 100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 2.66%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates of stomach cancer in urban areas were 27.80 per 100 000 and 18.48 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 35.54 per 100 000 and 24.93 per 100 000 in rural areas. It is estimated that there were 301 000 deaths for stomach cancer nationwide, with a crude mortality rate of 22.13 per 100 000 (29.85 per 100 000 in males, 14.03 per 100 000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 14.68 per 100 000 and 14.54 per 100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 1.70%. The crude

  4. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

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    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  5. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality: an analysis of mortality change by screening intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldman, Andrew J; Phillips, Norman; Pickles, Thomas A

    2003-01-07

    The rate of death from prostate cancer has recently declined in many areas of the world. Over the past 15 years prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has increased in popularity, which has resulted in increases in the incidence of prostate cancer. Over the same period there have been changes in the management of the disease and, in particular, the use of androgen ablation. We set out to examine the relation between changes in prostate cancer incidence (a surrogate for PSA screening) and subsequent changes in mortality in regions using common treatment recommendations. We used data from prostate cancer cases and deaths reported to the British Columbia Cancer Registry during 1985-1999 to examine trends in incidence and mortality in 88 small health areas (SHAs) among men aged 50-74 years. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first we classified the SHAs by intensity of PSA screening (low, medium or high) according to their ranked age-standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer in 1990-1994 and examined subsequent trends in prostate cancer mortality. In the second analysis we examined the SHA-specific relative change in prostate cancer incidence between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 and correlated it with the relative change in mortality for cases diagnosed after 1990. Between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 the incidence of prostate cancer increased by 53.2% and 14.6% among men aged 50-74 and those 75 and over respectively. Between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 prostate cancer mortality declined by 17.6% and 7.9% in the 2 age groups respectively. Among men aged 50-74 years SHAs with low, middle and high levels of screening had respective increases in prostate cancer incidence of 5.4%, 53.6% and 70.5% between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994. Corresponding decreases in mortality between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 were 28.9%, 18.0% and 13.5%. Mortality declines were greatest in SHAs with low screening levels (p = 0.032). Before 1990 prostate cancer mortality was similar in the 3 screening groups (p

  6. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  8. Breast cancer in the world: Incidence and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Curado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the burden of breast cancer in the world, as the now most common cancer in women in the globe. Here a descriptive pattern based on information available in IARC and WHO databases describing estimated age-specific incidence is presented, both for incidence and mortality. The newer treatment modalities and screening programs have been developed to alleviate the burden of this disease, but much more needs to be done in the developing countries for the impact to reach outside of the developed nations.El objetivo de este documento es describir la carga del cáncer de mama en el mundo, puesto que es el cáncer más común entre las mujeres del planeta. Aquí se presenta un patrón descriptivo basado en la información disponible en las bases de datos de la IARC y la OMS, describiendo estimaciones de la incidencia por grupos específicos de edad, tanto para incidencia como mortalidad. Las nuevas modalidades de tratamiento y programas de tamizaje se han desarrollado para aligerar la carga de esta enfermedad, pero necesita hacerse mucho más en los países en vías de desarrollo para que el impacto alcance más allá de las naciones desarrolladas.

  9. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the 2015 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including the incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2015 was obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2016. Mortality data from 1983 to 2015 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2016, among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) for incidence, mortality and prevalence and 5-year relative survivals were also calculated. Herein, 214,701 and 76,855 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer in 2015, respectively. The ASRs for cancer incidence and mortality in 2015 were 258.9 and 82.0 per 100,000, respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate has increased significantly by 3.4% annually from 1999 to 2012, and started to decrease after 2012 (2012-2015, annual percent change, -6.1%). However, the overall cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed with cancer between 2011 and 2015 was 70.7%, an improvement from the 41.2% for patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased since 2012 and mortality rates have declined since 2002; however, the 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2011-2015 in Korea.

  10. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  11. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship to development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in Asia. It is necessary to get information on epidemiology and inequalities related to incidence and mortality of the cancer to use for planning and further research. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and inequality of incidence and mortality from lung cancer in Asia. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank [including the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components]. The incidence and mortality rates, and cancer distribution maps were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation test between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components at significant was used in the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software. A total of 1,033,881 incidence (71.13% were males and 28.87% were females. Sex ratio was 2.46) and 936,051 death (71.45% in men and 28.55% in women. The sex ratio was 2.50) recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest standardized incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were Democratic Republic of Korea, China, Armenia, Turkey, and Timor-Leste, respectively. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.345 (P=0.019), in men 0.301 (P=0.042) and in women 0.3 (P=0.043); also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.289 (P=0.052), in men 0.265 (P=0.075) and in women 0.200 (P=0.182). The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Asia. It is high in men. Along with development, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer increases. It seems necessary to study reasons and factors of increasing the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Asian countries.

  12. Incidence and mortality from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Gomes de; Curado, Maria Paula; Koechlin, Alice; Oliveira, José Carlos de; Silva, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça E

    2016-01-01

    To describe the incidence and mortality rates from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil. Data for the incidence rates were obtained from the Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) according to the available period. Mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) for the period between 1996 and 2008. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender and age groups. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint software. The age-period-cohort effects were calculated by the R software. The incidence rates for colon cancer vary from 4.49 to 23.19/100,000, while mortality rates vary from 2.85 to 14.54/100,000. For rectal cancer, the incidence rates range from 1.25 to 11.18/100,000 and mortality rates range between 0.30 and 7.90/100,000. Colon cancer mortality trends showed an increase among males in Cuiabá, Campo Grande, and Goiania. For those aged under 50 years, the increased rate was 13.2% in Campo Grande. For those aged over 50 years, there was a significant increase in the mortality in all capitals. In Goiânia, rectal cancer mortality in males increased 7.3%. For females below 50 years of age in the city of Brasilia, there was an increase of 8.7%, while females over 50 years of age in Cuiaba showed an increase of 10%. There is limited data available on the incidence of colon and rectal cancer for the Midwest region of Brazil. Colon cancer mortality has generally increased for both genders, but similar data were not verified for rectal cancer. The findings presented herein demonstrate the necessity for organized screening programs for colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil.

  13. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  14. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  15. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  16. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  17. [Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in elderly population in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; He, J

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in elderly Chinese population in 2013 based on the data from local cancer registries submitted to National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: Data from 255 cancer registries submitted to NCCR with qualified data after checked and evaluated, were selected for this estimation. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by areas, sex, age groups and cancer site, combined with population data of the year 2013 to estimate cancer epidemiology in older people in China. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for the estimation of age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: All the 255 cancer registries (88 in urban and 167 in rural areas) were selected for this estimation, covered 37 407 728 elderly subjects, accounting for 17.73% of the entire national elderly population. It was estimated about 2 171.0 thousand new cancer cases in older people in China, accounting for 58.96% of all cancer incidence, with the crude incidence rate of 1 029.16/100 000 (1 297.96 per 100 000 in male, 777.18 per 100 000 in female), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 1 019.25 per 100 000. It was estimated about 1 600.5 thousand deaths in older people in China, accounting for 67.70% of all cancer deaths, with the crude mortality of 758.72/100 000 (988.37 per 100 000 in males, 543.44 per 100 000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 730.78 per 100 000. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer were the most common cancers, accounting for about 67.70% of all cancer cases in China. Those cancers are also the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 73.45% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The cancer burden of elderly population in China is very serious. The major cancer incidence and mortality in urban and rural areas are similar

  18. Applications of Machine learning in Prediction of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.; Sarwat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths for the female population in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have used the baseline descriptive data about the incidence (new cancer cases) of in situ breast cancer among Wisconsin females. The documented data were from the most recent 12-years period for which data are available. Wiscons in cancer incidence and mortality (deaths due to cancer) that occurred were also considered in this work. Artificial Neural network (ANN) have been successfully applied to problems in the prediction of the number of new cancer cases and mortality. Using artificial intelligence (AI) in this study, the numbers of new cancer cases and mortality that may occur are predicted.

  19. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  20. [Analysis of Incidence and Mortality of Thyroid Cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Zheng, R S; Wang, N; Zeng, H M; Yuan, Y N; Zhang, S W; Li, H C; Liu, S; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and mortality status of thyroid cancer in China, 2013. Methods: Incidence and mortality data of thyroid cancer were derived from 255 population-based cancer registries in China. Age-specific and age standardized incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer in different areas (urban and rural) with different gender were calculated based on the stratification of area (urban and rural), gender, age and tumor position. Chinese census in 2000 and the world Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population data in 2013. Results: The estimates of new cancer incident cases and deaths were 143.9 thousand and 6 500, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 10.58/100 000 (Male 5.12/100 000, Female 16.32/100 000). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 8.82/100 000 and 7.67/100 000, respectively. Male to female ratio was 1∶3.2. The crude incidence rate in urban and rural areas were 15.03/100 000 and 5.41/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 2.57 times higher than that of rural areas. The crude mortality rate of thyroid cancer was 0.48/100 000 (Male 0.33/100 000, Female 0.63/100 000). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 0.33/100 000 and 0.32/100 000, respectively. The crude mortality rate in urban and rural areas were 0.57/100 000 and 0.38/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 1.41 times higher than that of rural areas. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates (0-74 years old) were 0.74% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the data from 255 cancer registries, papillary carcinoma is the main pathology type, which accounted

  1. Disparities in Cancer Incidence, Stage, and Mortality at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P.; Chang, Yuchiao; Porneala, Bianca C.; Bharel, Monica; Singer, Daniel E.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homeless people have a high burden of cancer risk factors and suboptimal rates of cancer screening, but the epidemiology of cancer has not been well described in this population. We assessed cancer incidence, stage, and mortality in homeless adults relative to general population standards. Methods We cross-linked a cohort of 28,033 adults seen at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program in 2003–2008 to Massachusetts cancer registry and vital registry records. We calculated age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs). We examined tobacco use among incident cases and estimated smoking-attributable fractions. Trend tests were used to compare cancer stage distributions with those in Massachusetts adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2015. Results During 90,450 person-years of observation, there were 361 incident cancers (SIR=1.13, 95% CI=1.02, 1.25) and 168 cancer deaths (SMR=1.88, 95% CI=1.61, 2.19) among men, and 98 incident cancers (SIR=0.93, 95% CI=0.76, 1.14) and 38 cancer deaths (SMR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14, 2.20) among women. For both sexes, bronchus and lung cancer was the leading type of incident cancer and cancer death, exceeding Massachusetts estimates more than twofold. Oropharyngeal and liver cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among men, whereas cervical cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among women. About one third of incident cancers were smoking-attributable. Colorectal, female breast, and oropharyngeal cancers were diagnosed at more-advanced stages than in Massachusetts adults. Conclusions Efforts to reduce cancer disparities in homeless people should include addressing tobacco use and enhancing participation in evidence-based screening. PMID:26143955

  2. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  3. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-11-01

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality in children in the Mexican Social Security Institute (1996-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Fajardo-Gutiérrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the cancer incidence and mortality in Mexican Social Security Institute beneficiary (MSSI-B chil- dren during 1996-2013. Materials and methods. Both cancer cases (n=4 728 and deaths (n=2 378 were analyzed in MSSI-B children who were registered in five states of the Mexican Republic. The incidence and mortality trends and the incidences (rate x 1 000 000 children / year of the type of cancer, age, sex, and place of residence were obtained. Results. For both indicators (incidence and mortality, there was a downward trend for the period of 1996-2001 and a stable trend for 2002-2013. This occurred in the over- all mortality and incidence trends of the Estado de México and Chiapas and in the leukemia and the acute lymphoid subgroups. The annual overall incidence was 128 cases per 1 000 000 children. Leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors were the principal cancer groups. Conclusions. Cancer mortality for the period of 2002-2013 did not diminish. Interinstitutional and/or international research should be designed to improve the care of these children.

  5. Associations among ancestry, geography and breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Morrison, Robert L; Lee, Tammy Y; Williams, Tanisha M; Ramnarine, Shelina; Roach, Veronica; Slovacek, Simeon; Maharaj, Ravi; Bascombe, Nigel; Bondy, Melissa L; Ellis, Matthew J; Toriola, Adetunji T; Roach, Allana; Llanos, Adana A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women in Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and BC mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, racial/ethnic trends in BC incidence, mortality and survival have been reported. However, such investigations have not been conducted in TT, which has been noted for its rich diversity. In this study, we investigated associations among ancestry, geography and BC incidence, mortality and survival in TT. Data on 3767 incident BC cases, reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT, from 1995 to 2007, were analyzed in this study. Women of African ancestry had significantly higher BC incidence and mortality rates ( 66.96; 30.82 per 100,000) compared to women of East Indian ( 41.04, MORTALITY: 14.19 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry ( 36.72, MORTALITY: 13.80 per 100,000). Geographically, women residing in the North West Regional Health Authority (RHA) catchment area followed by the North Central RHA exhibited the highest incidence and mortality rates. Notable ancestral differences in survival were also observed. Women of East Indian and mixed ancestry experienced significantly longer survival than those of African ancestry. Differences in survival by geography were not observed. In TT, ancestry and geographical residence seem to be strong predictors of BC incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, disparities in survival by ancestry were found. These data should be considered in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce BC incidence and mortality rates in TT. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  7. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Brands, Marieke T.; Geurts, Sandra M. E.; Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage

  8. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Rahu, Mati; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice Jr, John D

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. (paper)

  9. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4,810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyze the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay, and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of pharynx, oesophagus, and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1,018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together, and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. PMID:23532116

  10. Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality by area-level socioeconomic status: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Sheppard, Lianne; White, Emily

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed by measures of area-level socioeconomic status (SES); however, the extent to which these disparities are explained by individual SES is unclear. Participants included 60 756 men and women in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort, aged 50-76 years at baseline (2000-2002) and followed through 2010. We constructed a block group SES index using the 2000 US Census and fit Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between area-level SES (by quintile) and total and site-specific cancer incidence and total cancer mortality, with and without household income and individual education in the models. Lower area-level SES was weakly associated with higher total cancer incidence and lower prostate cancer risk, but was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Compared with the highest-SES areas, living in the lowest-SES areas was associated with higher lung (HR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.90) and colorectal cancer incidence (HR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.09) and total cancer mortality (HR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.93). Controlling for individual education and household income weakened the observed associations, but did not eliminate them (lung cancer HR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.91; colorectal cancer HR: 1.35, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.88; cancer mortality HR: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.48). Area-level socioeconomic disparities exist for several cancer outcomes. These differences are not fully explained by individual SES, suggesting area-level factors may play a role. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality: A cohort study in China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Zhu, Meng; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Zhibin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Shen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) was the only available source of cancer monitoring in China, even though only about 70% of cancer registration sites were qualified by now. In this study, based on a national large prospective cohort-the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), we aimed to provide additional cancer statistics and compare the difference of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. A total of 497,693 cancer-free participants aged 35-74 years were recruited and successfully followed up from 2004 to 2013 in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China. Except for traditional registration systems, the national health insurance system and active follow-up were used to determine new cancer incidents and related deaths. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) was used to compare the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. We found that cancer mortality coincided well between our cohort and NCCR, while the incidence was much higher in our cohort. Based on CKB, we found the MIR of all cancers was 0.54 in rural areas, which was approximately one-third higher than that in urban areas with 0.39. Cancer profiles in urban areas were transiting to Western distributions, which were characterized with high incidences of breast cancer and colorectal cancer; while cancers of the esophagus, liver and cervix uteri were still common in rural areas of China. Our results provide additional cancer statistics of China and demonstrate the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. © 2017 UICC.

  13. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, M.; Tekkel, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  14. The association of the human development index with global kidney cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Prasad, Sandip M; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Eggener, Scott E

    2012-06-01

    We describe contemporary worldwide age standardized incidence and mortality rates for kidney cancer, and their association with social and economic development metrics. We obtained gender specific, age standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratio on the national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with the development level of each country using the United Nations Human Development Index. The age standardized incidence rate varied twentyfold worldwide with the highest rate in North America, and the lowest in Africa and South Central Asia (11.8 vs 1.2 and 1.0/100,000 individuals, respectively). The geographic distribution of the age standardized mortality rate was similar to that of the age standardized incidence rate with the highest rates in Europe and North America (3.1 and 2.6/100,000 individuals, respectively) and the lowest rates in Asian and African regions (0.6 to 1.5). Age standardized incidence and mortality rates were 4.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, in more developed countries than in developing countries. However, the mortality-to-incidence ratio was highest in Africa and Asia, and lowest in North America (0.6 to 0.8 vs 0.2/100,000 individuals). There was a strong inverse relationship between the Human Development Index and the mortality-to-incidence ratio (regression coefficient -0.79, p<0.0001). Kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates vary widely throughout the world while the mortality-to-incidence ratio is highest in less developed nations. These observations suggest significant health care disparities and may reflect differences in risk factors, health care access, quality of care, diagnostic modalities and treatment options available. Future research should assess whether the mortality-to-incidence ratio decreases with increasing development. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  15. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjimichael, O.C.; Ostfeld, A.M.; D'Atri, D.A.; Brubaker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected; cancer of the brain was found to be significantly higher than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  16. Is personality associated with cancer incidence and mortality? An individual-participant meta-analysis of 2156 incident cancer cases among 42,843 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Batty, G D; Hintsa, T; Elovainio, M; Hakulinen, C; Kivimäki, M

    2014-04-02

    The putative role of personality in cancer risk has been controversial, and the evidence remains inconclusive. We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies (British Household Panel Survey; Health and Retirement Study; Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia; Midlife in the United Survey; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate; and Sibling samples) for an individual-participant meta-analysis to examine whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were associated with the incidence of cancer and cancer mortality in 42,843 cancer-free men and women at baseline (mean age 52.2 years, 55.6% women). During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, there were 2156 incident cancer cases. In random-effects meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, none of the personality traits were associated with the incidence of all cancers or any of the six site-specific cancers included in the analysis (lung, colon, breast, prostate, skin, and leukaemia/lymphoma). In the three cohorts with cause-specific mortality data (421 cancer deaths among 21,835 participants), none of the personality traits were associated with cancer mortality. These data suggest that personality is not associated with increased risk of incident cancer or cancer-related mortality.

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  18. Trends in incidence of and mortality from cancer in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1998.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, S.; Dijck, J.A.A.M. van; Visser, O.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises the population-based major trends in cancer incidence and mortality in the period 1989-1998 in The Netherlands. Trends of the European age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were estimated by the Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) method. Increases in incidence were

  19. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population-based mammogra......To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... and the mortality varied between the regions, with maximum differences of 22%. The analysis showed no variation in the time trends in the different regions, and thus indicates that the use of a regional comparison group would be a valid basis for evaluation of the Copenhagen programme. Our study, however, underlies...

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality around the Pan Britannica Industries pesticide factory, Waltham Abbey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P; Thakrar, B; Shaddick, G; Stevenson, S; Pattenden, S; Landon, M; Grundy, C; Elliott, P

    1997-02-01

    To examine the incidence and mortality of cancer near the Pan Britannica Industries factory, Waltham Abbey, after reports of a possible cluster of all cancers and brain cancer in the vicinity. Small area study of cancer incidence 1977-89, and mortality 1981-92, within a 7.5 km radius of the factory site. Postcoded cancer registrations and deaths in the study area were extracted from national data sets held by the Small Area Health Statistics Unit and compared with expected numbers computed by applying national rates stratified for age, sex, and deprivation to the local population (1981 and 1991 censuses). Observed/ expected (O/E) ratios were examined from 0-1 km and 0-7.5 km of the plant, and tests applied for a decline in relative risk with distance up to 7.5 km. There were 12,859 incidence cancers (1977-89) from 0-7.5 km (O/E ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02 to 1.06) and 385 from 0-1 km (O/E 1.10; 1.00 to 1.22). There was an excess of skin melanoma from 0-1 km based on 11 cases (O/E 2.13; 1.06 to 3.80), and an excess from 0-7.5 km of cancer of the lung, stomach and pancreas combined, and prostate (O/Es ranged from 1.09 to 1.13). Only the findings from lung cancer were suggestive of a decline in risk with distance, especially in the later period (1982-9). There were 9196 cancer deaths (1981-92) from 0-7.5 km (O/E 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06) and 308 from 0-1 km (O/E 1.24; 1.11 to 1.39); and 25507 non-cancer deaths (O/E 1.02; 1.01 to 1.04) from 0-7.5 km and 745 (O/E 1.14; 1.06 to 1.22) from 0-1 km. There was evidence of a decline in mortality with distance for all cancers combined, lung cancer (P = 0.001 for each), and colorectal cancer (P < 0.05), and also for non-cancers (P = 0.001). Proportional mortality analyses suggested a decline in risk with distance for lung cancer (P = 0.003) but not for all cancers or the site specific cancers examined. There was no evidence of an excess in the incidence or mortality from brain cancer. For cancer mortality

  1. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjimichael, O.C.; Ostfeld, A.M.; D'Atri, D.A.; Brubaker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  3. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  4. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G

    2004-01-01

    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy.

  5. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  6. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health

  7. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

  8. Collaborative modeling of the impact of obesity on race-specific breast cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaojen; Schechter, Clyde B; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Near, Aimee M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Levy, David; de Koning, Harry J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2012-12-01

    Obesity affects multiple points along the breast cancer control continuum from prevention to screening and treatment, often in opposing directions. Obesity is also more prevalent in Blacks than Whites at most ages so it might contribute to observed racial disparities in mortality. We use two established simulation models from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) to evaluate the impact of obesity on race-specific breast cancer outcomes. The models use common national data to inform parameters for the multiple US birth cohorts of Black and White women, including age- and race-specific incidence, competing mortality, mammography characteristics, and treatment effectiveness. Parameters are modified by obesity (BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) in conjunction with its age-, race-, cohort- and time-period-specific prevalence. We measure age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality and cases and deaths attributable to obesity. Obesity is more prevalent among Blacks than Whites until age 74; after age 74 it is more prevalent in Whites. The models estimate that the fraction of the US breast cancer cases attributable to obesity is 3.9-4.5 % (range across models) for Whites and 2.5-3.6 % for Blacks. Given the protective effects of obesity on risk among women obesity in this age group could increase cases for both the races, but decrease cases for women ≥ 50 years. Overall, obesity accounts for 4.4-9.2 % and 3.1-8.4 % of the total number of breast cancer deaths in Whites and Blacks, respectively, across models. However, variations in obesity prevalence have no net effect on race disparities in breast cancer mortality because of the opposing effects of age on risk and patterns of age- and race-specific prevalence. Despite its modest impact on breast cancer control and race disparities, obesity remains one of the few known modifiable risks for cancer and other diseases, underlining its relevance as a public health target.

  9. Prostate cancer trends in Latvia during 1990-2012: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S.; McClure, Laura A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Cockburn, Myles G.; John, Esther M.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer rates are well documented, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed among African-Americans followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Whether socioeconomic status (SES) can account for these differences in risk has been investigated in previous studies, but with conflicting results. Furthermore, previous studies have focused primarily on the differences between African-Americans and non-H...

  11. Time Trends in the Incidence and Mortality of Ovarian Cancer in Ireland, Northern Ireland, and Israel, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Silverman, Barbara G; Walsh, Paul M; Gavin, Anna T; Hayes, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to compare time trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in populations with (1) similar genetics but different health care systems (Ireland and Northern Ireland [NI]) and (2)different genetics but similar health care system (Israeli Jews and Arabs) and to interpret the results. Age-standardized rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality for 1994-2013 in the 3 countries were obtained from national cancer registries and national statistics. Time trends in incidence, mortality, and incidence-to-mortality ratio were assessed by linear regression models applied to each country and between populations (Ireland-NI, Ireland-Israeli Jews, Israeli Jews-Arabs). Joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the annual percentage change (APC). Ovarian cancer incidence and mortality rates in 1994 were similar in the countries studied. Thereafter a reduction in incidence and mortality was observed in Ireland (incidence APC1994-2013 = -0.75%, P Trends in Israeli Arabs remained stable. Significant incidence trend differences between Ireland and Israeli Jews (P = 0.009) and between Israeli Jews and Arabs (P = 0.004) were observed. The only significant trend difference for mortality was between Israeli Jews and Arabs (P = 0.038). Incidence-to-mortality ratios showed stable trends in all groups except for Israeli Jews (APC1994-2013 = -1.0%, P trends in ovarian cancer incidence (decreasing) and mortality (decreasing) were similar in Ireland, NI, and Israeli Jews, following global trends, with a more prominent incidence decline in Israeli Jews. Decreasing mortality trends are driven by falling incidence in the countries studied rather than improved survival.

  12. The cancer mortality and incidence experience of workers at British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1946–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Michael; Haylock, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate cancer mortality and incidence risk associated with external radiation exposure in the BNFL cohort of nuclear workers and to determine if these risks are modified by potential for internal exposure. The cohort comprised 64 956 individuals who were employed at the four study sites between 1946 and 2002, followed up to 2005. External radiation exposures as measured by personal dosimeters (generally ‘film badges’) were available for 42 431 individuals classified as ‘radiation workers’. Poisson regression models were used to investigate cancer mortality and incidence in relation to cumulative external radiation exposure using relative risk models. The cohort showed the expected ‘healthy worker’ effect. This analysis found an increased risk of all cancers associated with external occupational radiation exposure (ERR/Gy = 0.34 90% CI: 0.07; 0.64), with significant excess risks observed for all solid cancers (ERR/Gy = 0.29 90% CI: 0.02; 0.59) and leukaemia excluding CLL (ERR/Gy = 2.60 90% CI: 0.28; 7.01). The overall cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used by national and international bodies in setting radiation protection standards. The slopes of the dose response relationships for all cancer mortality and incidence were found to be significantly less steep for workers exposed to both external radiation and potentially to internal radiation (ERR/Gy = 0.09 90% CI: −0.17; 0.39) when compared to those workers only exposed to external radiation (ERR/Gy = 1.14 90% CI: 0.49; 1.89). Analyses of individual cancer types indicate that this overall result is mainly driven by that for digestive cancers and in particular cancers of the oesophagus. Categorical analyses also revealed that the difference in the dose response relationship between the two groups is only apparent for those exposed to cumulative external doses in excess of 200 mGy. Such differences have also been observed for non-cancer mortality

  13. Lack of Any Relationship of Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaFiei, Elahe; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer, and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. This ecological study was conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian countries. We assessed the correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of stomach cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS18. A total of 696,231 cases (68.7% in males and 31.3% in females, ratio of 2.19:1) and 524,465 deaths (67.1% in men and 33.0% in women, ratio 2.03:1) were included in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR of stomach cancer were Republic Korea, Mongolia, Japan, China and Tajikistan. Five countries with the highest SMR of stomach cancer were Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and China. Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.241 (p = 0.106), in men 0.236 (p = 0.114) and in women -0.250 (p = 0.094). Also between HDI and SMR -0.250 (p = 0.871) in men -0.018 (p = 0.903) and in women -0.014 (p = 0.927). No significant correlation was observed between the SIR of stomach cancer, and the HDI and its dimensions, such as life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and income level of the population.

  14. Effect of organized screening on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Madsen, Mette; Engholm, G

    1989-01-01

    Pap smears were used only on a limited scale in Denmark until the late 1960s. Since then smears have been taken both in organized screening programs and outside the programs by general practitioners, private gynecologists, and hospital wards. The present smear-taking activity is equivalent...... multiplicative Poisson models on county-based incidence and mortality data for women aged 30-59 years in 1963-1982 showed a statistically significant effect of organized screening in reducing both the incidence (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73), and the mortality (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.78) of cervical cancer...... to an average of one smear every second year per woman. As the responsibility for health care rests with the counties in Denmark, differences are found between the counties both concerning organization of screening programs, and concerning the overall level of the smear-taking activity. An analysis using...

  15. Prostate-specific antigen and long-term prediction of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, David D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-01-01

    It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population.......It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population....

  16. The colorectal cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio as an indicator of global cancer screening and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Vasu; Hébert, James R

    2015-05-15

    Disparities in cancer screening, incidence, treatment, and survival are worsening globally. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) has been used previously to evaluate such disparities. The MIR for colorectal cancer is calculated for all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using the 2012 GLOBOCAN incidence and mortality statistics. Health system rankings were obtained from the World Health Organization. Two linear regression models were fit with the MIR as the dependent variable and health system ranking as the independent variable; one included all countries and one model had the "divergents" removed. The regression model for all countries explained 24% of the total variance in the MIR. Nine countries were found to have regression-calculated MIRs that differed from the actual MIR by >20%. Countries with lower-than-expected MIRs were found to have strong national health systems characterized by formal colorectal cancer screening programs. Conversely, countries with higher-than-expected MIRs lack screening programs. When these divergent points were removed from the data set, the recalculated regression model explained 60% of the total variance in the MIR. The MIR proved useful for identifying disparities in cancer screening and treatment internationally. It has potential as an indicator of the long-term success of cancer surveillance programs and may be extended to other cancer types for these purposes. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  18. The effects of height and BMI on prostate cancer incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Neil M; Gaunt, Tom R; Lewis, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    scores that summed each man's number of height and BMI increasing alleles across multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms robustly associated with each phenotype from published genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: The genetic risk scores explained 6.31 and 1.46% of the variability in height and BMI......, respectively. There was only weak evidence that genetic variants previously associated with increased BMI were associated with a lower prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in BMI genetic score 0.98; 95% CI 0.96, 1.00; p = 0.07). Genetic variants associated with increased height were...... not associated with prostate cancer incidence (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.97, 1.01; p = 0.23), but were associated with an increase (OR 1.13; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.20) in prostate cancer mortality among low-grade disease (p heterogeneity, low vs. high grade BMI were...

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  20. Making the Case for Investment in Rural Cancer Control: An Analysis of Rural Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Funding Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Moss, Jennifer L; Gaysynsky, Anna; Srinivasan, Shobha; Croyle, Robert T

    2017-07-01

    Estimates of those living in rural counties vary from 46.2 to 59 million, or 14% to 19% of the U.S. Rural communities face disadvantages compared with urban areas, including higher poverty, lower educational attainment, and lack of access to health services. We aimed to demonstrate rural-urban disparities in cancer and to examine NCI-funded cancer control grants focused on rural populations. Estimates of 5-year cancer incidence and mortality from 2009 to 2013 were generated for counties at each level of the rural-urban continuum and for metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan counties, for all cancers combined and several individual cancer types. We also examined the number and foci of rural cancer control grants funded by NCI from 2011 to 2016. Cancer incidence was 447 cases per 100,000 in metropolitan counties and 460 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan counties ( P investment is needed to disentangle the effects of individual-level SES and area-level factors to understand observed effects of rurality on cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 992-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarises the outcome of follow-up surveys on mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 1791 A-bomb survivors, and 1534 (85.7%) of these came from Hiroshima. According to uterus absorption doses, these A-bomb survivors could be divided into the 0 Gy exposed group (n=772) and the ≥0.01 Gy (a mean, 0.302 Gy) exposed group (n=1019). The number of proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (2,000 m or less) was approximately 3 times larger in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, probably due to various socioeconomical factors. When the mortality rate was examined according to uterus absorption doses, it was higher at infancy and at the age of 15-39 in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. For infants, it was 3 times higher in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. The 1950-1984 survey on cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors have revealed that cancer incidence tended to increase among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors with increasing uterus absorption doses in their mothers. Since A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or younger at the time of A-bombing are characterized by developing leukemia 5-10 years after A-bombing, leukemia is unlikely to be increased among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  2. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    , significant excess risks were found for cancer of the lung (O/E 1.80; 95% CI 1.54-2.10), pleura (O/E 5.46; 95% CI 2.62-10.05), mediastinum (O/E 5.00; 95% CI 1.01-14.61), stomach (O/E 1.43; 95% CI 1.03-1.93), and other male genital organs (O/E 3.03; 95% CI 1.11-6.60). The mortality was significantly increased......In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... times over the present Danish threshold limit value of 0.5 fibre/ml. In 1973 more than 41% of personal samples were higher than 2 f/ml. About 76% of the workforce left the factory within five years of starting employment. A total of 1346 deaths and 612 cases of cancer were observed in the cohort between...

  3. Colorectal cancer incidence, mortality and survival in Cali, Colombia, 1962-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the colorectal cancer (CRC behavior in Cali, Colombia, during the 1963-2012 period using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Materials and methods. An ecological time series analysis to study the CRC incidence (1962-2007 and mortality (1984-2012 rate trends; and a survival analysis of CRC cases registered in Cali between 1995 and 2004 were conducted. The age-standardized temporal trend of incidence (I-ASR and mortality (M-ASR rates were studied using an annual percent change (APC. The 5-year relative survival was estimated and a multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results. During the 1962-2007 period, CRC TTIR increased in men and women living in Cali [APC= 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-3.0 and APC= 2.2% (95% CI 1.8-2.7, respectively]. In the 1984-2012 period, the TTMR remained stable in women but increased in men in all age groups [APC= 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-2.8]. The 5-year relative survival was independent of sex and increased from 29.7% in 1995-1999 to 39.8% in 2000- 2004. The risk of dying from CRC was higher in people of lower socio-economic status (SES vs higher SES [HR= 2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.6], among people older than 70 years of age vs younger than 50 years [HR= 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9-2.9], and for the 1995-1999 period vs 2000-2004 period [HR= 1.5(95% CI 1.3-1.7]. Conclusion. CRC is beginning to take a prominent place among the most important cancers in Cali, Colombia.

  4. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50...... the introduction of screening was visible after seven to 12 years of screening in any of the three capitals where significant effects of the screening on the breast cancer mortality had already been demonstrated by using other analytical methods for the evaluation. No visible effect on mortality reduction...... was expected in Oslo due to too short an observation period. The study showed that the population-based breast cancer mortality trend is too crude a measure to detect the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality during the first years after the start of a programme....

  5. Recent trends of cancer in Europe: A combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; de Vries, Esther; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lemmens, Valery; Siesling, Sabine; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive overview of most recent European trends in population-based incidence of, mortality from and relative survival for patients with cancer since the mid 1990s. Methods Data on incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival from the mid 1990s to early 2000 for

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in populations living near uranium milling and mining operations in grants, New Mexico, 1950-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2010-11-01

    In a previous cohort study of workers engaged in uranium milling and mining activities near Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico, we found lung cancer mortality to be significantly increased among underground miners. Uranium mining took place from early in the 1950s to 1990, and the Grants Uranium Mill operated from 1958-1990. The present study evaluates cancer mortality during 1950-2004 and cancer incidence during 1982-2004 among county residents. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, with observed numbers of cancer deaths and cases compared to expected values based on New Mexico cancer rates. The total numbers of cancer deaths and incident cancers were close to that expected (SMR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; SIR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02). Lung cancer mortality and incidence were significantly increased among men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; SIR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.64) but not women (SMR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10; SIR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.29). Similarly, among the population of the three census tracts near the Grants Uranium Mill, lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated among men (SMR 1.57; 95% CI 1.21-1.99) but not women (SMR 1.12; 95% CI 0.75-1.61). Except for an elevation in mortality for stomach cancer among women (SMR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.63), which declined over the 55-year observation period, no significant increases in SMRs or SIRs for 22 other cancers were found. Although etiological inferences cannot be drawn from these ecological data, the excesses of lung cancer among men seem likely to be due to previously reported risks among underground miners from exposure to radon gas and its decay products. Smoking, socioeconomic factors or ethnicity may also have contributed to the lung cancer excesses observed in our study. The stomach cancer increase was highest before the uranium mill began operation and then decreased to normal levels. With the exception of male lung cancer, this study provides no

  7. A web tool for age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Philip S; Check, David P; Anderson, William F

    2014-11-01

    Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly Web tool. Input data for the Web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates, period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift), and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The Web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats, including R and Excel. APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely available user-friendly Web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. The Web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. Methods We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. Results For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females, gallbladder (stronger in females than males, and thyroid (only seen in females. No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. Conclusion This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer

  9. National economic and development indicators and international variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Bray, Freddie; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-06-01

    Macroeconomic indicators are likely associated with prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality globally, but have rarely been assessed. Data on PCa incidence in 2003-2007 for 49 countries with either nationwide cancer registry or at least two regional registries were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol X and national PCa mortality for 2012 from GLOBOCAN 2012. We compared PCa incidence and mortality rates with various population-level indicators of health, economy and development in 2000. Poisson and linear regression methods were used to quantify the associations. PCa incidence varied more than 15-fold, being highest in high-income countries. PCa mortality exhibited less variation, with higher rates in many low- and middle-income countries. Healthcare expenditure (rate ratio, RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.45-1.47) and population growth (RR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.14-1.16), as well as computer and mobile phone density, were associated with a higher PCa incidence, while gross domestic product, GDP (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.93-0.95) and overall mortality (RR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.71-0.73) were associated with a low incidence. GDP (RR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.46-0.66) was also associated with a low PCa mortality, while life expectancy (RR 3.93, 95 % CI 3.22-4.79) and healthcare expenditure (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.09-1.32) were associated with an elevated mortality. Our results show that healthcare expenditure and, thus, the availability of medical resources are an important contributor to the patterns of international variation in PCa incidence. This suggests that there is an iatrogenic component in the current global epidemic of PCa. On the other hand, higher healthcare expenditure is associated with lower PCa death rates.

  10. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Swedish Sterilant Workers Exposed to Ethylene Oxide: Updated Cohort Study Findings 1972–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess whether cancer incidence, mainly from lymphohaematopoietic tumours and breast cancer, and mortality were increased in a cohort of Swedish sterilant workers exposed to low levels of ethylene oxide (EtO, updated with 16 more years of follow up. Methods: The mortality and cancer incidence 1972–2006 experienced by a cohort of 2,171 male and female workers employed for at least one year in two plants producing medical equipment sterilised with EtO were investigated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO was assessed by occupational hygienists. Cause-specific standardized rate ratios were calculated using the regional general population as a comparison for mortality (SMR and cancer incidence (SIR. Internal Poisson-regression analyses were performed for selected causes. Results: The median cumulative exposure to EtO was 0.13 ppm-years. The overall cancer incidence was close to unity (SIR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82–1.08. Eighteen cases of lymphohaematopoietic cancer were observed (SIR 1.25, 95% CI 0.74–1.98. A healthy worker effect was indicated from a significantly decreased overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Internal analyses found significantly increased rate ratios for breast cancer for the two upper quartiles of cumulative exposure as compared to the lowest 50% of the cohort (IRR 2.76, 95% CI 1.20–6.33 and IRR 3.55, 95% CI 1.58–7.93. Conclusions: The findings from this updated study indicate limited or low risks for human cancer due to occupational exposure from ethylene oxide at the low cumulative exposure levels in this cohort. However a positive exposure-response relation with breast cancer was observed though.

  11. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950–2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in US mortality, incidence, and survival rates from all-cancers combined and major cancers from 1950 to 2014. Census-based deprivation indices were linked to national mortality and cancer data for area-based socioeconomic patterns in mortality, incidence, and survival. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study was used to analyze individual-level socioeconomic and racial/ethnic patterns in mortality. Rates, risk-ratios, least squares, log-linear, and Cox regression were used to examine trends and differentials. Socioeconomic patterns in all-cancer, lung, and colorectal cancer mortality changed dramatically over time. Individuals in more deprived areas or lower education and income groups had higher mortality and incidence rates than their more affluent counterparts, with excess risk being particularly marked for lung, colorectal, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer. Education and income inequalities in mortality from all-cancers, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer increased during 1979–2011. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality widened as mortality in lower socioeconomic groups/areas declined more slowly. Mortality was higher among Blacks and lower among Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics than Whites. Cancer patient survival was significantly lower in more deprived neighborhoods and among most ethnic-minority groups. Cancer mortality and incidence disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, alcohol use, screening, and treatment.

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2013: an analysis based on urbanization level

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Zuo, Tingting; Xia, Changfa; Yang, Zhixun; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the cancer patterns in areas with different urbanization rates (URR) in China with data from 255 population-based cancer registries in 2013, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods There were 347 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2013 to NCCR. All those data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality, and qualified data from 255 registries were used for this analysis. According to the p...

  13. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent; Anttila, Ahti; Hakama, Matti; Nystroem, Lennarth

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50-69 starting in 1989 in Stockholm, 1991 in Copenhagen, and 1996 in Oslo. Prevalence peaks in breast cancer incidence depended on the age groups covered by the screening, the length of the implementation of screening, and the extent of background opportunistic screening. No mortality reduction following the introduction of screening was visible after seven to 12 years of screening in any of the three capitals where significant effects of the screening on the breast cancer mortality had already been demonstrated by using other analytical methods for the evaluation. No visible effect on mortality reduction was expected in Oslo due to too short an observation period. The study showed that the population-based breast cancer mortality trend is too crude a measure to detect the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality during the first years after the start of a programme

  14. Long-Term Impact of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program on Cancer Incidence and Mortality-Model-Based Exploration of the Serrated Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marjolein J. E.; Demirel, Erhan; Lew, Jie-Bin; Berkhof, Johannes; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Canfell, Karen; Dekker, Evelien; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Coupé, Veerle M. H.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to predict the long-term colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and colonoscopy demand of the recently implemented Dutch colorectal cancer screening program. The Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal Cancer model was set up to simulate the Dutch screening program consisting of

  15. Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality Cáncer de mama en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy L. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the increasing incidence of breast cancer world-wide and the increasing burden of breast cancer deaths experienced by lower-income countries. The causes of increasing incidence have been attributed to changes in the prevalence of reproductive risk factors, lifestyle changes, and genetic and biological differences between ethnic and racial groups. All these factors may contribute, but data linking etiological factors to increased risk in developing countries is lacking. The challenge for lower-income countries is developing effective strategies to reverse the trend of increasing mortality. Down-staging of breast cancer by early detection is a promising long-term strategy for preventing disease-related deaths but it is difficult to make the economic investment required to carry out broad screening programs. Successful strategies for addressing the growing breast cancer burden will therefore take political will, reliable data, public and medical community awareness, and partnerships between community advocates, governments, non-governmental organizations and biotechnology.Se destaca el aumento en la incidencia de cáncer de mama (CaMa en el mundo y la creciente carga de muertes por la enfermedad en países en desarrollo. El aumento en la incidencia se atribuye a cambios en la prevalencia de factores de riesgo reproductivo, estilo de vida, y a diferencias biológicas entre grupos étnicos y raciales. Sin embargo, aún faltan datos que relacionen los factores etiológicos al incremento en el riesgo en países en desarrollo. El desafío es generar estrategias efectivas que reviertan la tendencia en la mortalidad. La detección en etapas más tempranas es una estrategia prometedora de largo plazo pero la inversión necesaria para los programas de tamizaje es muy alta. Las estrategias exitosas para hacer frente a la creciente carga de CaMa deben tener voluntad política, evidencia confiable, reconocimiento de la comunidad p

  16. Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Lian; Brown, Linda M; Li, Ji-You; Shen, Lin; Pan, Kai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Han, Zhong-Xiang; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J; Fraumeni, Joseph F; You, Wei-Cheng; Gail, Mitchell H

    2012-03-21

    In the Shandong Intervention Trial, 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori reduced the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions, whereas 7.3 years of oral supplementation with garlic extract and oil (garlic treatment) or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium (vitamin treatment) did not. Here we report 14.7-year follow-up for gastric cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among 3365 randomly assigned subjects in this masked factorial placebo-controlled trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of gastric cancer incidence, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative hazard of cause-specific mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 3.0% of subjects who received H pylori treatment and in 4.6% of those who received placebo (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.96, P = .032). Gastric cancer deaths occurred among 1.5% of subjects assigned H pylori treatment and among 2.1% of those assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.28). Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014).

  17. Serum Uric Acid Increases Risk of Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushan Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SUA is a potent antioxidant and thus may play a protective role against cancer. Many epidemiological studies have investigated this hypothesis but provided inconsistent and inconclusive findings. We aimed to precisely elucidate the association between SUA levels and cancer by pooling all available publications. Totally, 5 independent studies with 456,053 subjects and 12 with 632,472 subjects were identified after a comprehensive literature screening from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The pooled RRs showed that individuals with high SUA levels were at an increased risk of total cancer incidence (RR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05, P=0.007. Positive association between high SUA levels and total cancer incidence was observed in males but not females (for men: RR=1.05, 95% CI 1.02–1.08, P=0.002; for women, RR=1.01, 95% CI 0.98–1.04, P=0.512. Besides, high SUA levels were associated with an elevated risk of total cancer mortality (RR=1.17, 95% CI 1.04–1.32, P=0.010, particularly in females (RR=1.25, 95% CI 1.07–1.45, P=0.004. The study suggests that high SUA levels increase the risk of total cancer incidence and mortality. The data do not support the hypothesis of a protective role of SUA in cancer.

  18. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in male smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G Y; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; McGlynn, K A; Virtamo, J; Sinha, R; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease as reported in previous studies, including prospective ones conducted in Asian populations where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) and hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) are the dominant risk factors. Yet, prospective studies in Western populations with lower HBV and HCV prevalence are sparse. Also, although preparation methods affect coffee constituents, it is unknown whether different methods affect disease associations. Methods: We evaluated the association of coffee intake with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in 27 037 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, who recorded their coffee consumption and were followed up to 24 years for incident liver cancer or chronic liver disease mortality. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Coffee intake was inversely associated with incident liver cancer (RR per cup per day=0.82, 95% CI: 0.73–0.93; P-trend across categories=0.0007) and mortality from chronic liver disease (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63; P-trendcoffee. Conclusion: These findings suggest that drinking coffee may have benefits for the liver, irrespective of whether coffee was boiled or filtered. PMID:23880821

  19. Incidence and Mortality of Nasopharynx Cancer and Its Relationship With Human Development Index in the World in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Pakzad, Reza; Moini, Ali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Lotfi, Sarah; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most common cancers in head and neck is nasopharynx. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study, better planning and prevention. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with human development index (HDI) in the world in 2012. Methods This study was an ecological study conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of World Health Organization (WHO) for the countries in world. The correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIRs) and standardized mortality rates (SMRs) of nasopharynx cancer with HDI and its components was assessed with correlation coefficient by using SPSS 15. Results In 2012, 86,691 nasopharynx cancer cases occurred in the world, so that 60,896 new cases were seen in men and 25,795 new cases in women (sex ratio = 2.36). SIR of the cancer was 1.2 per 100,000 (1.7 in men and 0.7 in women per 100,000) in the world. In 2012, 50,831 nasopharynx death cases occurred in the world, so that 35,756 death cases were seen in men and 15,075 death cases in women (sex ratio = 2.37). SIR of mortality from the cancer was 0.7 per 100,000 (0.7 in women and 1 in men per 100,000) in the world. The results of correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the SIR and HDI (r = -0.037, P = 0.629), and also the results of correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the SMR and HDI (r = -0.237, P = 0.002). Conclusion Nasopharyngeal cancer is native to Southeast Asia and the highest incidence and mortality were seen in countries with moderate and low HDI. It is suggested that studies are conducted on determining the causes of the cancer incidence and mortality in the world and the differences between various regions. PMID:28983375

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  1. Oral primary care: an analysis of its impact on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Staton, Catherine Ann; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-10-30

    Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease, especially when diagnosed in advanced stages. In Brazil, the primary health care (PHC) system is responsible for promoting oral health in order to prevent oral diseases. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess whether actions of the PHC system have some effect on the morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of PHC structure and work processes on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer after adjusting for contextual variables. An ecological, longitudinal and analytical study was carried out. Data were obtained from different secondary data sources, including three surveys that were nationally representative of Brazilian PHC and carried out over the course of 10 years (2002-2012). Data were aggregated at the state level at different times. Oral cancer incidence and mortality rates, standardized by age and gender, served as the dependent variables. Covariables (sociodemographic, structure of basic health units, and work process in oral health) were entered in the regression models using a hierarchical approach based on a theoretical model. Analysis of mixed effects with random intercept model was also conducted (alpha = 5%). The oral cancer incidence rate was positively association with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.59; p = 0.010) and adult smokers (β = 0.29; p = 0.010). The oral cancer related mortality rate was positively associated with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.24; p oral cancer (β = 0.02; p = 0.002). Mortality was inversely associated with the coverage of primary care teams (β = -0.01; p work processes have been shown to help reduce the mortality rate of oral cancer, but not the incidence rate of the disease. We recommend expanding investments in PHC in order to prevent oral cancer related deaths.

  2. Gastric cancer incidence and mortality is associated with altitude in the mountainous regions of Pacific Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Herrero, Rolando; Cavazza-Porro, Maria; Dominguez, Ricardo; Morgan, Douglas

    2013-02-01

    In Latin America, gastric cancer is a leading cancer, and countries in the region have some of the highest mortality rates worldwide, including Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia. Geographic variation in mortality rates is observed both between neighboring countries and within nations. We discuss epidemiological observations suggesting an association between altitude and gastric cancer risk in Latin America. In the Americas, the burden of gastric cancer mortality is concentrated in the mountainous areas along the Pacific rim, following the geography of the Andes sierra, from Venezuela to Chile, and the Sierra Madre and Cordillera de Centroamérica, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Altitude is probably a surrogate for host genetic, bacterial, dietary, and environmental factors that may cluster in the mountainous regions. For example, H. pylori strains from patients of the Andean Nariño region of Colombia display European ancestral haplotypes, whereas strains from the Pacific coast are predominantly of African origin. The observation of higher gastric cancer rates in the mountainous areas is not universal: the association is absent in Chile, where risk is more strongly associated with the age of H. pylori acquisition and socio-economic determinants. The dramatic global and regional variations in gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates offer the opportunity for scientific discovery and focused prevention programs.

  3. Mortality and cancer incidence in workers in two Australian prebake aluminium smelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M. R.; del Monaco, A.; Hoving, J. L.; MacFarlane, E.; McKenzie, D.; Benke, G.; de Klerk, N.; Fritschi, L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposures in the aluminium production industry have been declining and this study aimed to investigate cancer and mortality in two Australian prebake aluminium smelters. METHODS: The cohort included 4396 males who had worked in a prebake smelter for at least 3 months. They were matched

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality among young adults aged 20-39 years worldwide in 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Gupta, Sumit; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Ferlay, Jacques; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Bray, Freddie

    2017-12-01

    To date, the burden of cancer among young adults has rarely been studied in depth. Our aim was to describe the scale and profile of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide among 20-39 year-olds, highlighting major patterns by age, sex, development level, and geographical region. We did a population-based study to quantify the burden of young adult cancers worldwide. We defined young adult cancers as those occurring between the ages of 20 and 39 years because these individuals will have passed puberty and adolescence, but not yet experienced the effects of hormonal decline, immune response deterioration, or organ dysfunction associated with chronic health conditions. Global, regional, and country-specific (n=184) data estimates of the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths that occurred in 2012 among young adults were extracted in four 5-year bands from the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 for all cancers combined and for 27 major types as defined by the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision. We report the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths overall and by sex alongside corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) per 100 000 people per year. We also present results using four levels of the Human Development Index (HDI; low [least developed], medium, high, and very high [most developed]), which is a composite indicator for socioeconomic development comprising life expectancy, education, and gross national income. 975 396 new cancer cases and 358 392 cancer-associated deaths occurred among young adults worldwide in 2012, which equated to an ASR of 43·3 new cancer cases per 100 000 people per year and 15·9 cancer-associated deaths per 100 000 people per year. The burden was disproportionally greater among women and the most common cancer types overall in terms of new cases were female breast cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, leukaemia, and colorectal cancer; in terms of

  5. Prostate cancer in Denmark 1978-2009 - trends in incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Brasso, Klaus; Martinussen, Nick

    2013-01-01

    with localised disease. Conclusion. The observed increase in PC incidence during the period 1993-2009 in Denmark may be attributed primarily to increasing unsystematic use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. The mortality rates remained stable during the same period suggesting that there is not yet any...... major influence of intensified PSA screening and more frequent use of curatively intended therapy on the overall prognosis of PC....

  6. Association of N-Linked Glycoprotein Acetyls and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette D Chandler

    Full Text Available Acute phase proteins highlight the dynamic interaction between inflammation and oncogenesis. GlycA, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR inflammatory marker that identifies primarily circulating N-acetyl glycan groups attached to acute phase proteins, may be a future CRC risk biomarker.We examined the association between GlycA and incident CRC and mortality in two prospective cohorts (N = 34,320; Discovery cohort: 27,495 participants from Women's Health Study (WHS; Replication cohort: 6,784 participants from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Multivariable Cox models were adjusted for clinical risk factors and compared GlycA to acute phase proteins (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], fibrinogen, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1].In WHS (median follow-up 19 years, 337 cases, 103 deaths, adjusted HRs (95% CIs per SD increment of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality were 1.19 (1.06-1.35; p = 0.004 and 1.24 (1.00-1.55; p = 0.05, respectively. We replicated findings in MESA (median follow-up 11 years, 70 cases, 23 deaths; HRs (95% CIs per SD of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality were 1.32 (1.06-1.65; p = 0.01 and 1.54 (1.06-2.23; p = 0.02, respectively, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Pooled analysis, adjusted HR (95% CI per SD of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality was 1.26 (1.15-1.39; p = 1 x 10-6. Other acute phase proteins (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and sICAM-1 had weaker or no association with CRC incidence, while only fibrinogen and GlycA were associated with CRC mortality.The clinical utility of GlycA to personalize CRC therapies or prevention warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov: WHS NCT00000479, MESA NCT00005487.

  7. Vegetable intake, but not fruit intake, is associated with a reduction in the risk of cancer incidence and mortality in middle-aged Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Li, Zhong-Min; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Moo-Song; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Shin, Myung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the preventive role of fruit and vegetable intakes against cancer in Asian populations. This prospective study evaluated the associations between total fruit intake, total vegetable intake, and total fruit and vegetable intake and total cancer incidence and mortality. This prospective cohort study included 14,198 men 40-59 y of age enrolled in the Seoul Male Cohort Study from 1991 to 1993. Fruit and vegetable intakes were assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute RR ratios and 95% CIs. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2008, 1343 men were diagnosed with cancer, and 507 died of cancer. Total vegetable intake was linearly associated with cancer incidence but was nonlinearly associated with cancer mortality; by comparing ≥ 500 g/d with Korean men. However, total fruit intake is not associated with total cancer incidence or mortality. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Cancer mortality and incidence of mesothelioma in a cohort of wives of asbestos workers in Casale Monferrato, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniela; Bertolotti, Marinella; Todesco, Annalisa; Mirabelli, Dario; Terracini, Benedetto; Magnani, Corrado

    2007-10-01

    Family members of asbestos workers are at increased risk of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Although the hazard is established, the magnitude of the risk is uncertain, and it is unclear whether risk is also increased for other cancers. Few cohort studies have been reported. The "Eternit" factory of Casale Monferrato (Italy), active from 1907 to 1986, was among the most important Italian plants producing asbestos-cement (AC) goods. In this article we present updated results on mortality and MM incidence in the wives of workers at the factory. We studied a cohort of 1,780 women, each married to an AC worker during his employment at the factory but not personally occupationally exposed to asbestos. Cohort membership was defined starting from the marital status of each worker, which was ascertained in 1988 from the Registrar's Office in the town where workers lived. At the end of follow-up (April 2003), 67% of women were alive, 32.3% dead, and 0.7% lost to follow-up. Duration of exposure was computed from the husband's period of employment. Latency was the interval from first exposure to the end of follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for pleural cancer [21 observed vs. 1.2 expected; SMR = 18.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 11.14-27.52] was significantly increased. Mortality for lung cancer was not increased (12 observed vs. 10.3 expected; SMR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.60-2.04). Eleven incident cases of pleural MM were observed (standardized incidence ratio = 25.19; 95% CI, 12.57-45.07). Household exposure, as experienced by these AC workers' wives, increases risk for pleural MM but not for lung cancer.

  9. Monocyte number associated with incident cancer and mortality in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Ahmad; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Selmer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    of cancer and mortality. METHODS: To test this hypothesis monocyte number was measured in a sample of 669 Danish men (59%) and women (41%) aged 55 to 75years who were free of any known prevalent cancer or cardiovascular disease. The population was followed for 6.3years, during which period incident cancers...... and deaths were compiled from validated national registries. RESULTS: Fifty-two subjects developed cancer and 83 subjects died during follow-up. The upper quintile of monocyte number (median 0.44×10(9)/L, lower quintile 0.60) was associated with an increased risk of cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 2.00 [95% CI 1.......30 [0.78-2.16]). COX regression models, with inclusion of the aforementioned explanatory variables and added heart rate variability, alcohol use, and CRP, revealed monocyte count (per 0.1×10(9)/L increase) to be independently associated with incident cancer (HR 1.12 (1.05-1.19)) and death (HR 1.13 (1...

  10. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P Afghanistan had the highest SMR. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI.

  11. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  12. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M; Ferrer, S; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G; Salas, M D; Cuevas, M D

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10 -6 , 6 x 10 -4 ] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10 -3 . The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  13. Mortality and cancer incidence 1952-1998 in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Bingham, D.; Haylock, R.G.E.; O'Hagan, J.A.; Goodill, A.A.; Berridge, G.L.C.; English, M.A.; Hunter, N.; Kendall, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    An updated analysis has been conducted of mortality and cancer incidence among men from the United Kingdom who took part in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes in Australia and the Pacific between 1952 and 1967. Rates of multiple myeloma, leukaemia, other cancers, and non-cancer causes of death were studied, as in previous analyses of these men. Based on a total of 21,357 test participants and 22,333 controls identified from the same Ministry of Defence (MOD) archives, information was obtained on deaths and cancer registrations up to the end of 1998. Compared with national mortality rates, rates of deaths from all causes increased to a similar extent in both test participants and controls with longer follow-up, with Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) of 89 and 88 respectively over the full follow-up period and a relative risk of 1.01 (90% confidence interval (Cl) 0.98-1.05). For all cancers, the corresponding SMRs were 93 for test participants and 92 for controls, with a relative risk of 1.01 (90% Cl 0.96-1.08) for all cancers. Mortality from multiple myeloma was consistent with national rates both for test participants and controls, and the relative risk of myeloma incidence among test participants relative to controls was 1.14 (90% Cl 0.74-1.74) over the full follow up period and 0.79 (90% Cl 0.45-1.38) during the extended period of follow up (1991-98). Over the full follow-up period, leukaemia mortality among test participants was consistent with national rates, whilst rates among controls were significantly lower (SMR 68), and there was a suggestion of a raised risk among test participants relative to controls (relative risk 1.45 (0.96-2.17), one-sided p=0.07, two-sided p=0.14); the corresponding relative risk for leukaemia incidence was 1.33 (0.97-1.84), one-sided p==0.07, two-sided p=0.14. After excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), which is not thought to be radiation-inducible, the relative risk of leukaemia

  14. Comparing CISNET Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Predictions to Observed Clinical Trial Results of Mammography Screening from Ages 40 to 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Jeroen J; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Huang, Hui; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Xu, Cong; Li, Yisheng; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Lee, Sandra J; Stout, Natasha K; Song, Juhee; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Moss, Sue M; de Koning, Harry J

    2018-04-01

    The UK Age trial compared annual mammography screening of women ages 40 to 49 years with no screening and found a statistically significant breast cancer mortality reduction at the 10-year follow-up but not at the 17-year follow-up. The objective of this study was to compare the observed Age trial results with the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) breast cancer model predicted results. Five established CISNET breast cancer models used data on population demographics, screening attendance, and mammography performance from the Age trial together with extant natural history parameters to project breast cancer incidence and mortality in the control and intervention arm of the trial. The models closely reproduced the effect of annual screening from ages 40 to 49 years on breast cancer incidence. Restricted to breast cancer deaths originating from cancers diagnosed during the intervention phase, the models estimated an average 15% (range across models, 13% to 17%) breast cancer mortality reduction at the 10-year follow-up compared with 25% (95% CI, 3% to 42%) observed in the trial. At the 17-year follow-up, the models predicted 13% (range, 10% to 17%) reduction in breast cancer mortality compared with the non-significant 12% (95% CI, -4% to 26%) in the trial. The models underestimated the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality at the 10-year follow-up. Overall, the models captured the observed long-term effect of screening from age 40 to 49 years on breast cancer incidence and mortality in the UK Age trial, suggesting that the model structures, input parameters, and assumptions about breast cancer natural history are reasonable for estimating the impact of screening on mortality in this age group.

  15. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Leticia Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  16. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  17. Patterns and Trends in Age-Specific Black-White Differences in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality - United States, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lisa C; Henley, S Jane; Miller, Jacqueline W; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C

    2016-10-14

    Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among U.S. women (1). Compared with white women, black women historically have had lower rates of breast cancer incidence and, beginning in the 1980s, higher death rates (1). This report examines age-specific black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence during 1999-2013 and mortality during 2000-2014 in the United States using data from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) (2). Overall rates of breast cancer incidence were similar, but death rates remained higher for black women compared with white women. During 1999-2013, breast cancer incidence decreased among white women but increased slightly among black women resulting in a similar average incidence at the end of the period. Breast cancer incidence trends differed by race and age, particularly from 1999 to 2004-2005, when rates decreased only among white women aged ≥50 years. Breast cancer death rates decreased significantly during 2000-2014, regardless of age with patterns varying by race. For women aged ≥50 years, death rates declined significantly faster among white women compared with black women; among women aged death rates decreased at the same rate among black and white women. Although some of molecular factors that lead to more aggressive breast cancer are known, a fuller understanding of the exact mechanisms might lead to more tailored interventions that could decrease mortality disparities. When combined with population-based approaches to increase knowledge of family history of cancer, increase physical activity, promote a healthy diet to maintain a healthy bodyweight, and increase screening for breast cancer, targeted treatment interventions could reduce racial disparities in breast cancer.

  18. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality among persons having been exposed to ionizing waves in a school in Val-de-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germonneau, P.; Castor, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Marie Curie School of Nogent-Sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne, France) was built in 1969 on the site of a former radium extracting plant. Due to remaining radioactive waste in the subsoil, school staff and students who attended the school have been exposed to radiation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the 3,403 persons who had attended the school regularly until it closed down in 1998. The national health insurance register was used to trace people. Incidence of cancers, leukaemia and mortality were analysed. In the population of the pupils a significant excess risk for leukaemia was observed (Standardized Incidence Ratio = 4.6 IC 95% [1.66 - 9.89]). These results are not conclusive because of the high proportion of those who could not be traced and were lost to any opportunity for follow-up (42%), and because of preferential recruitment due to a bias generated by the query of the records being centered on searching specifically for those who were sick. The difficulties met by the authors justify that when faced with similar problems in the future, greater attention should be paid to the feasibility study before any involvement or action. (authors)

  20. Cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), have conducted mortality surveillance on a fixed sample, the Life Span Study (LSS), of 82,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 nonexposed residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1950. The results of the most recent analysis of the LSS are summarized

  1. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  2. Effectiveness of a Protective Environment implementation for cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia on fever and mortality incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Paula; Silla, Lúcia Mariano da Rocha; Cola, Caroline Mioto Menegat; Splitt, Bruno Ismail; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2013-04-01

    In a quasiexperimental study conducted to evaluate the impact of a Protective Environment implementation, febrile neutropenia (P = .009), overall mortality (P = .001), and 30-day adjusted mortality (P = .02) were reduced in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Our study highlights the potential success of a set of prevention measures mainly designed to reduce invasive environmental fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients, in reducing fever and mortality among neutropenic cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults: Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2016-06-26

    To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults (20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. We identified a total of 301923 cancers (breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297 (0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung (10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver (1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast (0.6%) and prostate (1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments (P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63 (0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers (P = 0.02), breast (P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer (P = 0.097). There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers. The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  4. [Health evaluation of the population of the city of Trino Vercellese: epidemiological study on cancer incidence and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, C; Bagnasco, G; Trovato, A M; Panella, M

    2009-01-01

    The study includes an analysis of the state of health of the inhabitants of the City of Trino, County of Vercelli, 15 km south-west of the capital town. With industries making a significant environmental impact and an old nuclear centre under dismantlement, in recent years, the City has often been mentioned in local newspapers and pressurised by residents and local associations. Hence the drawing up of this study to describe the state of health of residents and cancer pathologies (incidence and mortality rate) and, consequently, to evaluate the need for further epidemiological analysis. The rates (SIR and SMR) were obtained by calculating the expected results compared with those of the Local Health Authority of Vercelli and the Airtum registries of Northern Italy: the results (divided by sex) highlight significant excesses in neoplasias of the mouth, nervous system, peritoneum in addition to eukaemias and mesoteliomas. Furthermore, the analysis by age shows epidemiological anomalies both at paediatric (0-14 years) and young people (0-44 years) levels: these results certainly require further epidemiological research through aetiological studies, including an ad hoc questionnaire.

  5. [Analysis of incidence and mortality for upper digestive tract cancers and results of early detection and treatment program in Feicheng, Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L; Zhao, T; Li, Y Y; Chen, W Q; Zhao, D L

    2017-05-06

    Objective: To investigate the trend of esophageal and stomach cancer incidence and mortality in Feicheng during 2000 to 2013, and to evaluate the effects of the national project of screening for upper digestive tract cancers from 2006 to 2015 in Feicheng. Methods: We collected 26 569 cases, which were coded of C15 and C16 in the 10th edition of international classification of diseases (ICD) during the period of 2000-2013. The data came from cancer registration system of Feicheng, Shandong Province, China. These cases already covered 21 679 882 person-year. The annual percent change (APC) of incidence and mortalit were analyzed. The risk factors of upper gastrointestinal cancer were investigated and evaluated for people aging 40-69 in three street offices and eleven townships of Feicheng, and endoscopic screening was conducted among people who was in high risk. The corresponding data were used to analyze the early detection project of upper gastrointestinal cancer screening and early diagnosis, with the index of detection rate, early diagnosis rate, early treatment rate and other indicators. Result: There were 26 569 new cases of esophageal cancer and gastric cancer occurred in Feicheng from 2000 to 2013. The incidence of esophageal cancer gradually increased since 2000 with 76.06 per 100 000 people (575/756 005) and reached the peak in 2010 with incidence rate of 118.76 per 100 000 people (852/717 429), with the annual percent change at about 4.3% (95 %CI: 2.7%-5.9%) and showed a downward trend after then but has no significance, with APC about-7.1% (95 %CI: -15.8%-2.5%). The incidence of gastric cancer was increased from 2000 with an incidence rate of 37.70 per 100 000 people (285/756 005) to 2013 with an incidence rate of 54.59 per 100 000 (538/985 512), with an annual percent change of about 3.3% (95 %CI: 2.1%-4.5%). Esophageal cancer and gastric cancer mortality showed a relatively stable trend during 2000 to 2013, esophageal cancer with APC about 0.1% (95 %CI

  6. [Municipal distribution of the incidence of the most common tumours in an area with high cancer mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas Casasola, Manuel Jesús; Fernández Navarro, Pablo; Fajardo Rivas, María Luisa; Gurucelain Raposo, José Luis; Alguacil Ojeda, Juan

    To describe the geographic distribution patterns of the municipal incidence of the most common tumours in the Huelva province (Spain) as compared to the estimated incidence for all of Spain. Relative risk (RR) was computed based on the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié by applying the INLA tool to the cancer data for 2007-2011 for the following tumour locations: colon, rectum and anus (men and women); trachea, bronchia, and lungs, prostate and bladder in men; and breasts in women. The RR was presented in in choropleth and isopleth (with kriging interpolation) risk maps. RR for bladder cancer in men was greater than 1.0 in all municipalities, with confidence intervals over 1.0 in four municipalities; Madrid having a 1.56 RR (95%CI 1.30-1.67). For prostate cancer, a posteriori probabilities were below 0.1 in 68 of the 79 municipalities. For lung cancer, nine municipalities had confidence limits below 1.0, almost all of them in western Spain. For women, the RR for breast cancer was significantly higher in the capital of province area. The cancer incidence rates for the Huelva province were, in general, similar to those estimated for Spain, standing out bladder cancer in men (35% higher) and prostate cancer (30% lower). In the Huelva province, there is a geographical municipal distribution of cancer incidence with well-defined patterns for some specific tumour locations, with overall incidence rates very similar to those in the rest of Spain. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Europe-a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Adam; Andersson, Emelie; Ahlberg, Ida

    2016-01-01

    literature review and meta-analysis on studies on association between socioeconomic status and breast cancer outcomes in Europe, with a focus on effects of confounding factors. Summary relative risks (SRRs) were calculated. RESULTS: The systematic review included 25 articles of which 8 studied incidence, 10...

  8. Study on the Relationship between Manganese Concentrations in Rural Drinking Water and Incidence and Mortality Caused by Cancer in Huai’an City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer is a significant disease burden in the world. Many studies showed that heavy metals or their compounds had connection with cancer. But the data conflicting about the relationship of manganese (Mn to cancer are not enough. In this paper, the relationship was discussed between Mn concentrations in drinking water for rural residents and incidence and mortality caused by malignant tumors in Huai’an city. Methods. A total of 158 water samples from 28 villages of 14 towns were, respectively, collected during periods of high flow and low flow in 3 counties of Huai’an city, along Chinese Huai’he River. The samples of deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water were simultaneously collected in all selected villages. Mn concentrations in all water samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS 7500a. The correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the Mn concentration and cancer incidence and mortality. Results. Mn concentrations detectable rate was 100% in all water samples. The mean concentration was 452.32 μg/L ± 507.76 μg/L. There was significant difference between the high flow period and low flow period (t=-5.23, P<0.05 and also among deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water (F=5.02, P<0.05. The ratio of superscale of Mn was 75.32%. There was significant difference of Mn level between samples in the high flow period and low flow period (χ2=45.62,  P<0.05 and also among deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water (χ2=10.66, P<0.05. And also we found that, during the low flow period, Mn concentration has positive correlation with cancer incidence and mortality; for a 1 μg/L increase in Mn concentration, there was a corresponding increase of 0.45/100000 new cancer cases and 0.35/100000 cancer deaths (P<0.05. Conclusions. In Huai’an city, the mean concentration of Mn in drinking water was very high. Mn concentration

  9. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  10. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  11. An epidemiological study of cancer incidence and mortality among nuclear industry workers at Lucas Heights Science and Technology centre in collaboration with IARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, R.R.; Kaldor, J.

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological study is being undertaken at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) where the only nuclear reactor in Australia has been in operation since 1958. The study is part of an international collaborative study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and has dual objectives, first to assess whether workers at LHSTC have had different levels of mortality or cancer incidence from the New South Wales and the Australian populations, and second, as part of the IARC study, to estimate as precisely as possible, through collaboration with IARC, the risk of contracting cancer from low-level, long-term exposure to ionising radiation. The research project is a retrospective cohort study based on records of employment and exposure to radiation kept at LHSTC since 1957. Electronic linkage of all the available dosimetry and employment information with national registers of cancer incidence and mortality is being undertaken for the cohort of LHSTC workers, to allow for a passive follow-up of more than 7000 workers employed from 1957 onwards

  12. Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Christina; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M; Barregard, Lars; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Brenner, Hermann; Dicker, Daniel J; Chimed-Orchir, Odgerel; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Hancock, Jamie; Hay, Roderick J; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Huynh, Chantal; Hosgood, H Dean; Johnson, Catherine O; Jonas, Jost B; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kumar, G Anil; Kutz, Michael; Lan, Qing; Larson, Heidi J; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lopez, Alan D; MacIntyre, Michael F; Marczak, Laurie; Marquez, Neal; Mokdad, Ali H; Pinho, Christine; Pourmalek, Farshad; Salomon, Joshua A; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Sartorius, Benn; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shackelford, Katya A; Shibuya, Kenji; Stanaway, Jeff; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sun, Jiandong; Takahashi, Ken; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A; Wang, Haidong; Westerman, Ronny; Zeeb, Hajo; Zoeckler, Leo; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alabed, Samer; Alam, Noore K; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alem, Girma; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Ali, Raghib; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Amare, Azmeraw; Amoako, Yaw; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Atnafu, Niguse; Awasthi, Ashish; Saleem, Huda Ba; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Boneya, Dube; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chiang, Peggy; Chibueze, Chioma; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Choi, Jee-Young; Cowie, Benjamin; Damtew, Solomon; das Neves, José; Dey, Suhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath; Dhillon, Preet; Ding, Eric; Driscoll, Tim; Ekwueme, Donatus; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Farvid, Maryam; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao; Fischer, Florian; G/Hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebru, Alemseged; Gopalani, Sameer; Hailu, Alemayehu; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huybrechts, Inge; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; James, Spencer; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jee, Sun Ha; Kasaeian, Amir; Kedir, Muktar Sano; Khader, Yousef S; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Leigh, James; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Markos, Desalegn; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meles, Kidanu G; Mendoza, Walter; Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese; Meretoja, Tuomo J; Miller, Ted R; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Nagel, Gabriele; Nand, Devina; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nolte, Sandra; Ogbo, Felix A; Oladimeji, Kelechi E; Oren, Eyal; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Pereira, David M; Plass, Dietrich; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rana, Saleem M; Søreide, Kjetil; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, Jun; Shiue, Ivy; Shore, Hirbo Roba; Shrime, Mark G; So, Samuel; Soneji, Samir; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadese, Fentaw; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J S; Tran, Bach Xuan; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S Chudi; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wubshet Terefe, Mamo; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Murray, Christopher J L; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in

  13. Calculation of stricken to mortality and incidence cancers due to beyond design basis accidents of the Esfahan Fuel Production Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari Azar, A.; Shahshahani, M.; Roshanzamir, M.; Sabouhi, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation the amount of absorbed doses by the different pathways of Cloud shine, Ground shine, deposition of radioactive materials on skin and cloths, ingestion, inhalation and the consequences of radioactive material releases due to Beyond Design Basis Accidents such as fire, sintering furnace explosion, criticality and earthquake in Esfahan Fuel Production factory by the residents are evaluated. The calculations related to atomic cloud distribution, estimation of delivered dose and decay chains are performed by PCCOSYMA dose. These computations are based on radioactive source terms, distribution height of radioactive materials. actions for reducing the absorbed dose, human body physiological characteristics, metrological condition and population distribution. Finally, the number of peoples who are stricken to mortality and morbidity cancers and risk values are calculated for 1 year and 50 years

  14. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013: an analysis of population-based data in relation to socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banas T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Banas,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,2 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Dorota Nieweglowska,1 Artur Ludwin,1 Aleksandra Czerw2 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC, corpus uteri cancer (CUC, and ovarian cancer (OC in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.Materials and methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013 were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013 were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC.Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21, with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66. During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93 was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74. After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49, as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66.Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in

  15. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  16. Incidence, etiology and mortality of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Fialla, Annette; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B; Touborg Lassen, Annmarie

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the prognosis among patients with cirrhosis is mainly based on clinical trials with selected patient groups as well as population-based register studies with suboptimal diagnostic reliability. The aim of the study was to describe incidence, etiology, and mortality of well-validated c......Knowledge on the prognosis among patients with cirrhosis is mainly based on clinical trials with selected patient groups as well as population-based register studies with suboptimal diagnostic reliability. The aim of the study was to describe incidence, etiology, and mortality of well...

  17. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  18. Incidência de mortalidade por câncer no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Cancer: incidente and mortality in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Borges Barcelos

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se estudo dos casos e óbitos de câncer notificados à Unidade de Informática da Secretaria da Saúde e do Meio Ambiente do do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil no ano de 1979. A distribuição etária da morbimortalidade apresentou tendência, acentuadamente crescente com a idade. No sexo masculino, as localizações anatômicas de maior mortalidade, em ordem decrescente, foram: traquéia, brônquios e pulmão; estômago; esôfago; próstata e leucemias. Na incidência repetiram-se as mesmas localizações com introdução da pele em segundo lugar e saída das leucemias. No sexo feminino, mama; estômago; útero, outras localizações especificadas e as não especificadas; traquéia, brônquios e pulmão; e colo do útero, foram as cinco primeiras localizações de maior mortalidade. As neoplasias malignas da mama foram as que apresentaram maior incidência. Seguiram-se as neoplasias malignas da pele, do colo do útero, das outras localizações especificadas e as não especificadas do útero e do estômago. A distribuição geográfica mostrou uma morbimortalidade maior na 1ª, 3ª, 7ª, 10ª e 13ª Delegacia Regional de Saúde, em regiões caracterizadas ou por um elevado índice de industrialização ou pela existência de grandes propriedades rurais onde é praticada a pecuária extensiva. Uma vez feita a padronização, as neoplasias malignas de esôfago e laringe, apresentaram-se com coeficientes elevados, superando, no caso do esôfago, os coeficientes de outros países.A study of the incidence of, and deaths from, cancer as reported to the Welfare Ministry of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1979, is presented. The distribution of morbimortality showed an accentuated increase with age. In males the anatomic sites associated with higher mortality were (in decreasing order: trachea, bronchi and lungs, stomach, esophagus, prostate and leukemias. In incidence related to the same sites, however, skin cancer moved into second place and

  19. Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Latin America Incidencia y mortalidad de cáncer cervical en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Arrossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 2000 are presented for the 21 Latin American countries, using estimates from the statistical package GLOBOCAN 2000. Additional data on time-trends are also presented, using the WHO mortality database. By the year 2000, some 76 000 cervical cancer and almost 30 000 deaths were estimated for the whole region, which represent 16% and 13% of the world burden, respectively. Thus, Latin American countries are among those with highest incidence rates in the world, together with countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South East Asia. Variation in incidence among countries is large. Very high rates are found in Haiti (ASR 93.9 per 100 000, Nicaragua (ASR 61.1 per 100 000 and Bolivia (ASR 58.1 per 100 000. It seems unlikely that differences in risks in the region can be explained as the result of screening activities. Several descriptive studies carried out to evaluate the screening programmes in Latin America have pointed out problems related to insufficient coverage and frequency of screening. Other related problems include inadequate collection and reading of cytological samplings as well as incomplete follow-up of women after the test. The main challenge for Latin America countries remains on how to organize effective screening programmes, and for this, a real and urgent commitment from public health services and decision-makers in the region is needed.Se presentan estimaciones de la incidencia y de la mortalidad por cáncer cervical para los 21 países latinoamericanos en el año 2000. Se utilizaron el paquete estadístico GLOBOCAN 2000 y las bases de datos de mortalidad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el año 2000, al menos 76 000 casos incidentes de cáncer cervical y 30 000 muertes se estimaron para la Región en general, lo cual representa 16 y 13% del total del mundo, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los países de América Latina se encuentran en un área geográfica con

  20. Cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in HIV-positive patients in Northeastern Algeria before and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Since 1998, the proportion of HIV-positive patients treated with HAART increased, reaching 84% in 2010, all-cause mortality decreased, and cancer remained rare. However, almost all patients who died during the study seemed to be diagnosed at a late stage of the disease, emphasizing the need for earlier diagnosis of HIV in Algeria.

  1. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L.

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil; Avaliacao da incidencia e mortalidade por cancer na populacao residente em regiao com anomalia geologica na ocorrencia de uranio: estudo de caso: Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Leticia Rodrigues

    2009-04-15

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  3. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  4. Has Medical Innovation Reduced Cancer Mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Frank R. Lichtenberg

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the effects of four types of medical innovation and cancer incidence on US cancer mortality rates during the period 2000–2009, by estimating difference-in-differences models using longitudinal (annual) data on ∼60 cancer sites (breast, colon, etc.). The outcome measure used is not subject to lead-time bias. I control for mean age at diagnosis, the stage distribution of patients at time of diagnosis, and the sex and race of diagnosed patients. Under the assumption that there were no ...

  5. Association of Clinical Benign Prostate Hyperplasia with Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality Revisited: A Nationwide Cohort Study of 3 009 258 Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E; Nielsen, Sune F

    2011-01-01

    with an increased risk of PCa incidence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using designs with individual participant data from five national registries, we studied the entire Danish male population from 1980 through 2006, a total of 3 009 258 Danish men. We collected PCa diagnoses (n=53 315......-adjusted HRs for PCa incidence were 2.22 (95% confidence interval, 2.13-2.31) in men hospitalized and 3.26 (3.03-3.50) in men operated on for clinical BPH versus general population controls. Corresponding HRs for PCa mortality were 2.00 (1.91-2.08) for hospitalization and 7.85 (7.40-8.32) for surgery. For age......-matched cohort studies, corresponding HRs for PCa incidence were 3.04 (2.96-3.13) for hospitalization, 2.60 (2.47-2.73) for surgery, 4.49 (4.33-4.65) for a-adrenergic receptor antagonist use, and 2.54 (2.40-2.68) for 5-ARI use. Each category of clinical BPH has limitations, but limitations differ between...

  6. The impact of atmospheric particulate matter on cancer incidence and mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Influência do material particulado atmosférico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer no município de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Yanagi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the impact of inhalable particulate matter (PM10 on cancer incidence and mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Statistical techniques were used to investigate the relationship between PM10 on cancer incidence and mortality in selected districts. For some types of cancer (skin, lung, thyroid, larynx, and bladder and some periods, the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 for incidence. Lung cancer mortality showed more correlations during the overall period. Spatial analysis showed that districts distant from the city center showed higher than expected relative risk, depending on the type of cancer. According to the study, urban PM10 can contribute to increased incidence of some cancers and may also contribute to increased cancer mortality. The results highlight the need to adopt measures to reduce atmospheric PM10 levels and the importance of their continuous monitoring.O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência do poluente atmosférico material particulado inalável (MP10 na incidência e na mortalidade por câncer, no Município de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram utilizadas técnicas estatísticas para verificar a relação do MP10 sobre a incidência e a mortalidade de alguns tipos de câncer nos distritos onde são monitorados este poluente. Pele, pulmão, tireoide, laringe e bexiga apresentaram coeficientes de correlação estatística entre 0,60 e 0,80, em alguns períodos, para a incidência. Para a mortalidade, o câncer de pulmão apresentou mais correlações nesse intervalo. A análise espacial mostrou que distritos distantes do centro da cidade apresentaram risco relativo acima do esperado. O estudo mostrou que o MP10 urbano pode contribuir para o aumento da incidência de alguns tipos de câncer e pode contribuir também para o crescimento da mortalidade por esta causa. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de se adotar medidas que visem à redução da concentração desse poluente

  7. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  8. Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor's influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Neuhouser, Marian L; Banack, Hailey R; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ho, Gloria Y F; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Strickler, Howard D; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Saquib, Nazmus; Nassir, Rami; Anderson, Garnet; Caan, Bette J

    2017-12-01

    Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative with weight and height measured at enrollment (1993-1998). Using Cox regression models, we contrast hazard ratios (HR) from two time-scales and corresponding study subpopulations: time to cancer death after enrollment among all women and time to cancer death after diagnosis among only cancer survivors. Median follow-up from enrollment to diagnosis/censoring was 13 years for both breast (7,633 cases) and colorectal cancer (2,290 cases). Median follow-up from diagnosis to death/censoring was 7 years for breast and 5 years for colorectal cancer. In analyses of time from enrollment to death, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 versus 18.5-cancer mortality: HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.56 for breast cancer (p trend colorectal cancer (p trend = 0.05). However, in analyses of time from diagnosis to cancer death, trends indicated no significant association (for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 , HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.67 for breast [p trend = 0.33] and HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.86 for colorectal cancer [p trend = 0.39]). We conclude that a risk factor that increases disease incidence will increase disease-specific mortality. Yet, its influence on postdiagnosis survival can vary, and requires consideration of additional design and analysis issues such as selection bias. Quantitative tools allow joint modeling to compare an exposure's influence on time from enrollment to disease incidence and time from diagnosis to death. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Incidence and hospital mortality of vascular surgery patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) and prognostically relevant myocardial injury following non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases perioperative mortality. Studies in vascular patients show an increased incidence and mortality from PMI. However, there remains limited data on the relative prognostic ...

  10. Vitamin D and melanoma incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Marianne; Erdei, Eszter O

    2013-01-01

    The role of vitamin D (25-OH-D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and its potential confounders in relationship to melanoma risk and mortality is discussed. The paradox that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the major environmental risk factor for melanoma etiology as well as a major source of vitamin D might be explained by viewing vitamin D levels as the result of a healthy lifestyle rather than a cause of health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Changing pattern of incidence, aetiology and mortality from acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Literature reports from Western countries suggest an increasing incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) and changing pattern over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to document the incidence, aetiology and mortality from AP over two decades and to examine any emerging trends. Methods: A ...

  12. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Funen/rest of Denmark. As multidisciplinary teams were introduced gradually in the rest of Denmark from 1994, the screening effect was slightly underestimated. RESULTS: Over 14 years, women targeted by screening in Funen experienced a 22% (95% confidence interval 11%-32%) reduction in breast cancer......OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...

  13. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this s......American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco...

  14. A situação do câncer de mama em Goiás, no Brasil e no mundo: tendências atuais para a incidência e a mortalidade Breast cancer in Goiás, in Brazil and in the World: current incidence and mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Resende Paulinelli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de mama apresenta elevada incidência e mortalidade em todo o mundo, representando um grave problema de saúde pública. A incidência dessa neoplasia vem aumentando nas últimas décadas, mesmo em áreas de tradicional baixa incidência, em grande parte devido às mudanças nos hábitos de vida e no perfil epidemiológico da população. Vários países desenvolvidos têm conseguido, apesar desse aumento na incidência, reduzir a sua mortalidade, através de um diagnóstico mais precoce e de um tratamento mais eficaz. Nesse artigo comentamos as tendências atuais para o câncer de mama em vários locais do mundo, de forma comparativa, bem como os possíveis fatores envolvidos nessas mudanças. Dispensamos particular atenção à situação do Brasil, e da cidade de Goiânia.Breast cancer has the highest incidence and mortality rates in the whole World, and is a severe public health issue. This type of neoplasia has been increasing in the last decades, even in areas of traditional low incidence in part due to changes in the lifestyle and epidemiological profile of the population. Various developed countries, notwithstanding this incidence increase, have succeeded to reduce mortality through early diagnosis and more efficacious treatment. This paper compares current breast cancer trend in various parts of World, as well as the possible factors involved in this change of pattern. Especial emphasis is placed on the problem in our country Brazil, and in our city, Goiânia.

  15. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    .19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  16. Improvement in 5-year mortality in incident rheumatoid arthritis compared with the general population-closing the mortality gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille, Diane; Avina-Zubieta, J Antonio; Sayre, Eric C; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Excess mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to have improved over time, due to improved treatment. Our objective was to evaluate secular 5-year mortality trends in RA relative to general population controls in incident RA cohorts diagnosed in 1996-2000 vs 2001-2006. We conducted a population-based cohort study, using administrative health data, of all incident RA cases in British Columbia who first met RA criteria between January 1996 and December 2006, with general population controls matched 1:1 on gender, birth and index years. Cohorts were divided into earlier (RA onset 1996-2000) and later (2001-2006) cohorts. Physician visits and vital statistics data were obtained until December 2010. Follow-up was censored at 5 years to ensure equal follow-up in both cohorts. Mortality rates, mortality rate ratios and HRs for mortality (RA vs controls) using proportional hazard models adjusting for age, were calculated. Differences in mortality in RA versus controls between earlier and later incident cohorts were tested via interaction between RA status (case/control) and cohort (earlier/later). 24 914 RA cases and controls experienced 2747 and 2332 deaths, respectively. Mortality risk in RA versus controls differed across incident cohorts for all-cause, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer mortality (interactions pyears was observed in people with RA onset before, but not after, 2000. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study......, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68...... single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across...

  18. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...

  19. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  20. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States, 1973-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud; Devine, Erin E

    2017-10-31

    To analyze oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States for the years 1973 through 2013. Cross-sectional study using a large population-based cancer database. Data on incidence and mortality rates were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Database. Annual percentage change in rates was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Incidence rates increased (annual percent change [APC]; 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 2.88) from 1973 to 1983, remained stable (APC -0.52, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.26) from 1983 to 1997, and increased (APC 1.32, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.81) from 1997 to 2013. Overall, incidence rates increased for males (APC 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.25) but not females (APC -0.77, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.82). Incidence rates increased in the white population (APC 0.79, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25) but decreased in the black population (APC -0.72, 95% CI -1.41 to -0.02). The incidence rates increased for tongue-base tumors (APC 1.17, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.92) and tonsil tumors (APC 0.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.96) but decreased for other sites. Incidence-based mortality decreased (APC -0.78, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.42) from 1993 to 2013. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rates increased in a nonlinear fashion from 1973 to 2013, whereas mortality rates declined. This, along with variation in trends by demographic and tumor factors, suggest that human papilloma virus is the main driver of the recent rise in incidence. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  2. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...

  3. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  4. Age transition of tuberculosis incidence and mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Chaimowicz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Before the Aids pandemic, demographic transition and control programs prompted a shift in the age of incidence of tuberculosis from adults to older people in many countries. The objective of the study is to evaluate this transition in Brazil. METHODS: Tuberculosis incidence and mortality data from the Ministry of Health and population data from the Brazilian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate age-specific incidence and mortality rates and medians. RESULTS: Among reported cases, the proportion of older people increased from 10.5% to 12% and the median age from 38 to 41 years between the period of 1986 and 1996. The smallest decrease in the incidence rate occurred in the 30--49 and 60+ age groups. The median age of death increased from 53 to 55 years between 1980 and 1996. The general decline in mortality rates from 1986 to 1991 became less evident in the 30+ age group during the period of 1991 to 1996. A direct correlation between age and mortality rates was observed. The largest proportion of bacteriologically unconfirmed cases occurred in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of tuberculosis has begun to shift to the older population. This shift results from the decline in the annual risk of infection as well as the demographic transition. An increase in reactivation tuberculosis in older people is expected, since this population will grow from 5% to 14% of the Brazilian population over the next 50 years. A progressive reduction in HIV-related cases in adults will most likely occur. The difficulty in diagnosing tuberculosis in old age leads to increased mortality.

  5. Lung cancer mortality risk among breast cancer patients treated with anti-estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Benhamou, Simone; Schaffar, Robin; Verkooijen, Helena M; Fioretta, Gerald; Schubert, Hyma; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Soria, Jean-Charles; Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2011-03-15

    The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trial reported that menopausal hormone therapy increases lung cancer mortality risk. If this is true, use of anti-estrogens should be associated with decreased lung cancer mortality risk. The authors compared lung cancer incidence and mortality among breast cancer patients with and without anti-estrogen therapy. Our study included all 6655 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1980 and 2003 and registered at the Geneva Cancer Registry. Among these women, 46% (3066) received anti-estrogens. All women were followed for occurrence and death from lung cancer until December 2007. The authors compared incidence and mortality rates among patients with and without anti-estrogens with those expected in the general population by Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs). After a total of 57,257 person-years, 40 women developed lung cancer. SIRs for lung cancer were not significantly decreased among breast cancer patients with and without anti-estrogens (0.63, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.33-1.10; and 1.12, 95% CI, 0.74-1.62, respectively) while SMR was decreased among women with anti-estrogens (0.13, 95% CI, 0.02-0.47, P<.001) but not for women without anti-estrogens (0.76, 95% CI, 0.43-1.23). Compared with expected outcomes in the general population, breast cancer patients receiving anti-estrogen treatment for breast cancer had lower lung cancer mortality. This study further supports the hypothesis that estrogen therapy modifies lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  6. Strategies for reducing cancer incidence and mortality in African American and Arab American and Chaldean communities in the Detroit metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicini, Frank A; Shah, Chirag; Wallace, Michelle; Jones, Pamela; Dykes, Vicky; Tull, Joyce; Akhtar, Adil; Ballouz, Samer; Boxwala, Iqbal; Douglas-Nikitin, Vonda; Rivers, Aeisha; Clark, Roxanne; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael; Fakhouri, Monty

    2012-08-01

    We studied the feasibility of implementing a community-based participatory process (CBPP) that addressed cancer education, prevention, and screening in 2 ethnic minority populations by evaluating the improvement in rates of cancer screening compared with historical benchmarks. From 2003 to 2009, 2281 community members participated in CBPPs conducted by the Beaumont Cancer Institute in cooperation with the Arab American and Chaldean (AAC) Council, the National Cancer Institute, and the American Cancer Society. The study population consisted of 1067 individuals who completed a postcancer forum survey: 642 from the African American (AA) and 425 from the AAC forums. Data were collected on participants' screening history and participation in subsequent screening tests after the previous year's CBPP. Following attendance of at least one cancer forum the previous year, 329 (30.8%) of the 1067 participant respondents underwent some type of cancer screening, 32% in the AA forums and 28.9% in the AAC forums. Compared with published controls, the CBPPs led to a 38.6% increase in mammographic screening and a 28.7% increase in prostate-specific antigen screening; the AA cohort had 39.7% and 28.4% increases whereas the AAC cohort had 36.3% and 28.9% increases in mammographic and prostate-specific antigen screening, respectively. The results of this study suggest that implementing CBPPs are feasible in underscreened ethnic minority populations. Further studies need to be performed to determine the absolute benefit of CBPPs compared with baseline levels of screening within these ethnic minority populations.

  7. Bladder cancer mortality after spinal cord injury over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Laura S; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Lloyd, L Keith

    2015-06-01

    We estimate bladder cancer mortality in people with spinal cord injury compared to the general population. Data and statistics were retrieved from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the National Center for Health Statistics. The mortality experience of the 45,486 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model System or Shriners Hospital was compared to the general population using a standardized mortality ratio. The standardized mortality ratio data were further stratified by age, gender, race, time since injury and injury severity. Our study included 566,532 person-years of followup between 1960 and 2009, identified 10,575 deaths and categorized 99 deaths from bladder cancer. The expected number of deaths from bladder cancer would have been 14.8 if patients with spinal cord injury had the same bladder cancer mortality as the general population. Thus, the standardized mortality ratio is 6.7 (95% CI 5.4-8.1). Increased mortality risk from bladder cancer was observed for various ages, races and genders, as well as for those injured for 10 or more years and with motor complete injuries. Bladder cancer mortality was not significantly increased for ventilator users, those with motor incomplete injuries or those injured less than 10 years. Individuals with a spinal cord injury can potentially live healthier and longer by reducing the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. Study findings highlight the need to identify at risk groups and contributing factors for bladder cancer death, leading to the development of prevention, screening and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Disparities and Cancer: Racial Disparities in Cancer Mortality in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Eileen B.; Meltzer, Jeremy P.; Bethea, Traci N.

    2015-01-01

    Declining cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States (U.S.) have continued through the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reductions in tobacco use, greater uptake of prevention measures, adoption of early detection methods, and improved treatments have resulted in improved outcomes for both men and women. However, Black Americans continue to have the higher cancer mortality rates and shorter survival times. This review discusses and compares the cancer mortality rates and mortality trends for Blacks and Whites. The complex relationship between socioeconomic status and race and its contribution to racial cancer disparities is discussed. Based on current trends and the potential and limitations of the patient protection and affordable care act with its mandate to reduce health care inequities, future trends, and challenges in cancer mortality disparities in the U.S. are explored. PMID:25932459

  9. Recent trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M.; Alonso, R.; Musetti, C.; Barrios, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: The National Cancer Registry (NCR) collects information from cancer mortality from the death certificates: 147 631 deaths were identified in the period from cancer, which was recorded topography, sex and age. They were calculated for each year mortality rates adjusted for age (TMAE) using as standard the world population. Trends were assessed using the method and calculated the joinpoint Estimated Annual Percent Change (ESPP). Results: The TMAE presents downward trend in both sexes (ESPP = significant -0.60 in men and -0.49 In women). In the period studied, mortality presented decreasing trend when it comes to cancer breast cancer in women (ESPP -0.79, significant), and increased for prostate cancer (ESPP = 0.70) and kidney (ESPP = 1.82 and 1.71 in men and women respectively). As regards the digestive system decreased mortality observed for esophageal cancer (ESPP in = -1.93 men and women = -1.78) and stomach (ESPP = -2.22 men and women -2.24 ). Mortality for cancer of colorectum is stable in men (ESPP = 0.35 No significant (NS)) and shows a decline slight but steady in women (ESPP -0.5). As for cancers that show strong association with smoking, decreased mortality observed lung and laryngeal cancer in men (ESPP = -1.11 and -2.05 respectively), confirming the trend found between 1990 and 2001; in women there is increased mortality from lung cancer (ESPP = 2.76) that is not accompanied by increased mortality from laryngeal cancer (-0.1 ESPP = NS). Mortality from cancers oral cavity and pharynx is stable, but in women a significant increase (ESPP = 1.84) is observed when the oral cavity is analyzed in isolation (lip, tongue, gums, palate). As cervical cancer, mortality trends in 20 years is to increase (ESPP = 1.14), however, if consider only the past decade, mortality appears stabilized (ESPP = 0.57 NS). Conclusions: The overall trend of cancer mortality (all sites

  10. Reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women treated with an oral bisphosphonate-Danish National Register Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, M; Abrahamsen, B; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    whether alendronate acts as chemopreventive. INTRODUCTION: When bisphosphonates are given by mouth, around 99% remains non-absorbed in the intestine. Based on their biochemical actions, we predicted that oral bisphosphonates might prevent colon cancers. METHODS: This is a Danish national register...

  11. Cancer mortality in Ireland, 1976-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.; Herity, B.; Moriarty, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume brings together in easily accessible form up-to-date mortality statistics for cancer for the Republic of Ireland. Because of small numbers in many of the malignant neoplasms studied rates and standardised mortality ratios have been calculated for the 11 year period 1976-86. Basic data only is presented, based on cancer type, location, sex and age group

  12. Incidence and risk of treatment-related mortality with mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus in cancer patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Xiang Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two novel mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus are now approved by regulatory agencies and have been widely investigated among various types of solid tumors, but the risk of fatal adverse events (FAEs with these drugs is not well defined. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases for relevant trials. Eligible studies included prospective phase II and III trials evaluating everolimus and temsirolimus in patients with all malignancies and data on FAEs were available. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 3322 patients with various advanced solid tumors from 12 trials were included. The overall incidence of mTOR inhibitors associated FAEs was 1.8% (95%CI: 1.3-2.5%, and the incidences of everolimus related FAEs were comparable to that of temsirolimus (1.7% versus 1.8%. Compared with the controls, the use of mTOR inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of FAEs, with a RR of 3.24 (95%CI: 1.21-8.67, p = 0.019. On subgroup analysis, a non-statistically significant increase in the risk of FAEs was found according to different mTOR inhibitors, tumor types or controlled therapy. No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: With the present evidence, the use of mTOR inhibitors seems to increase the risk of FAEs in patients with advanced solid tumors. More high quality trials are still needed to investigate this association.

  13. Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2012-08-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.

  14. Incidence of cancer and overall risk of mortality in individuals treated with raltegravir-based and non-raltegravir-based combination antiretroviral therapy regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Zangerle, R; Machala, L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are currently few data on the long-term risk of cancer and death in individuals taking raltegravir (RAL). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether there is evidence for an association. METHODS: The EuroSIDA cohort was divided into three groups: those starting RAL......)] compared with 3787 (4472 PYFU) and 4467 (10 691 PYFU) in the HIST and CONC cohorts, respectively. The prevalence of non-AIDS-related malignancies prior to baseline tended to be higher in the RAL cohort vs. the HIST cohort [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-1.80] and vs...

  15. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  16. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  17. Mortality and secular trend in the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. All first......-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates......, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased...

  18. Epidemiologic panorama of stomach cancer mortality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Guzmán, V; Hernández-Girón, C; Barquera, S; Rodríguez-Salgado, N; López-Carrillo, L

    2001-01-01

    Annually, there are more than 6 million deaths from a type of malignant neoplasia worldwide. In developing countries, the highest rates of incidence of malignant neoplasias are uterine cervical cancer, stomach, lung, esophagus, pharynx, and liver cancers. Recent estimates on the incidence of cancer worldwide show that, in 1990, stomach cancer (SC) was the second most frequent type of cancer (900,000 new cases annually). Rates of incidence have decreased consistently in nearly all areas of the world. In Mexico, however, rates of incidence and mortality have increased gradually between 1980 and 1997; in 1995, 4,685 people died of SC in Mexico. This report presents a descriptive analysis of SC mortality in Mexico. A mortality database edited from the electronic files of the National Institute of Informatics, Statistics and Geography (INEGI) in Mexico was used; population denominators were edited by the Mexican National Population Council (Conapo). Adjusted mortality rates, taking as standard of reference the population of Mexico City by sex, year, and 10-year age groups were calculated as well as the sex ratio for the 1980-1997 period. To evaluate the magnitude of risks by state, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated; prematurity was evaluated through the potential lost-life years index (PLLYI). The analysis was carried out using the Excel and Stata 5.0 software programs. During the years from 1980 to 1997, in Mexico the total number of deaths from SC was 76,315. The male:female ratio was 1.2:1.0. SMR by state showed that the states of Yucatán, Sonora, Zacatecas, Michoacán, and Chiapas had higher mortality rates. The PLLYI was higher for males in the states of Chiapas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Zacatecas, and Southern Baja California, and higher for females in Chiapas, Oaxaca, Yucatán, Puebla, and Campeche. World statistics on mortality caused by SC suggest a decreasing trend. Findings for this study show an increase in the adjusted mortality rates by SC

  19. Cancer Incidence in Appalachia, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Reda J; Ryerson, A Blythe; Singh, Simple D; King, Jessica B

    2016-02-01

    Limited literature is available about cancer in the Appalachian Region. This is the only known analysis of all cancers for Appalachia and non-Appalachia covering 100% of the US population. Appalachian cancer incidence and trends were evaluated by state, sex, and race and compared with those found in non-Appalachian regions. US counties were identified as Appalachian or non-Appalachian. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, standard errors, and confidence intervals were calculated using the most recent data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2004 to 2011. Generally, Appalachia carries a higher cancer burden compared with non-Appalachia, particularly for tobacco-related cancers. For all cancer sites combined, Appalachia has higher rates regardless of sex, race, or region. The Appalachia and non-Appalachia cancer incidence gap has narrowed, with the exception of oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung and bronchus, and thyroid cancers. Higher cancer incidence continues in Appalachia and appears at least in part to reflect high tobacco use and potential differences in socioeconomic status, other risk factors, patient health care utilization, or provider practices. It is important to continue to evaluate this population to monitor results from screening and early detection programs, understand behavioral risk factors related to cancer incidence, increase efforts to reduce tobacco use and increase cancer screening, and identify other areas where effective interventions may mediate disparities. Surveillance and evaluation of special populations provide means to monitor screening and early detection programs, understand behavioral risk factors, and increase efforts to reduce tobacco use to mediate disparities. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Diagnosed hypertension in Canada: incidence, prevalence and associated mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Cynthia; Dai, Sulan; Waters, Chris; Loukine, Lidia; Bancej, Christina; Quach, Susan; Ellison, Joellyn; Campbell, Norman; Tu, Karen; Reimer, Kim; Walker, Robin; Smith, Mark; Blais, Claudia; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were to examine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada and compare mortality among people with and without diagnosed hypertension. Methods: We obtained data from linked health administrative databases from each province and territory for adults aged 20 years and older. We used a validated case definition to identify people with hypertension diagnosed between 1998/99 and 2007/08. We excluded pregnant women from the analysis. Results: This retrospective population-based study included more than 26 million people. In 2007/08, about 6 million adults (23.0%) were living with diagnosed hypertension and about 418 000 had a new diagnosis. The age-standardized prevalence increased significantly from 12.5% in 1998/99 to 19.6% in 2007/08, and the incidence decreased from 2.7 to 2.4 per 100. Among people aged 60 years and older, the prevalence was higher among women than among men, as was the incidence among people aged 75 years and older. The prevalence and incidence were highest in the Atlantic region. For all age groups, all-cause mortality was higher among adults with diagnosed hypertension than among those without diagnosed hypertension. Interpretation: The overall prevalence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada from 1998 to 2008 was high and increasing, whereas the incidence declined during the same period. These findings highlight the need to continue monitoring the effectiveness of efforts for managing hypertension and to enhance public health programs aimed at preventing hypertension. PMID:22105752

  1. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  2. The Effect of Gynecologic Oncologist Availability on Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Cooney, Darryl; Hirsch, Shawn; Westervelt, Lauren; Richards, Thomas B.; Rim, Sun Hee; Thomas, Cheryll C.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the distribution of gynecologic oncologist (GO) and population-based ovarian cancer death rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data on ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in the United States (U.S.) was supplemented with U.S. census data, and analyzed in relation to practicing GOs. GO locations were geocoded to link association between county variables and GO availability. Logistic regression was used to measure areas of high and low ovarian cancer mortality, adjusting for contextual variables. RESULTS Practicing GOs were unevenly distributed in the United States, with the greatest numbers in metropolitan areas. Ovarian cancer incidence and death rates increased as distance to a practicing GO increased. A relatively small number (153) of counties within 24 miles of a GO had high ovarian cancer death rates compared to 577 counties located 50 or more miles away with high ovarian cancer death rates. Counties located 50 or more miles away from a GO practice had an almost 60% greater odds of high ovarian cancer mortality compared to those with closer practicing GOs (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.18–2.15). CONCLUSION The distribution of GOs across the United States appears to be significantly associated with ovarian cancer mortality. Efforts that facilitate outreach of GOs to certain populations may increase geographic access. Future studies examining other factors associated with lack of GO access (e.g. insurance and other socioeconomic factors) at the individual level will assist with further defining barriers to quality ovarian cancer care in the United States. PMID:26478860

  3. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  4. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Mortality and incidence in women with 47,XXX and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2010-02-01

    47,XXX syndrome is among the most common sex chromosomal disorders; however, apart from screening surveys, epidemiological data are limited. We report data on 136 women diagnosed with 47,XXX or a compatible karyotype in Denmark during 1963-2008. We identified an incidence of 10.7 per 100,000 liveborn girls, which was lower than expected and was stable during the study period. Age at diagnosis ranged from 0 to 73 years, with a diagnostic delay of 18.2 years or more in half the 47,XXX persons. We compared persons with 47,XXX with an age-matched cohort of the female background population (born same year and month), identified in Statistics Denmark (n = 13,400). Mortality was significantly increased in total with a hazard ratio of 2.5 (1.6-3.9), corresponding to a difference in median survival of 7.7 years. When we divided causes of death into 19 chapters according to the International Classification of Diseases, a generally increased mortality was identified in all informative chapters. Furthermore, we identified significantly increased mortality in cardiovascular diseases, in the chapter concerning chromosomal and congenital defects, and in the chapter of unspecified diseases. Better delineation of the clinical phenotype of 47,XXX is needed; available information does not readily explain the increased mortality. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Antoine, Jerome; Bray, Freddie I; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Arbyn, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The burden of corpus uteri cancer varies in the European Union (EU). We analysed trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in 26 EU member states from 1970 onward. Population numbers and number of uterine cancer deaths were extracted from the World Health Organisation mortality database. Corpus uteri cancer mortality rates were corrected for certification problems using different reallocation rules for deaths registered as uterine cancer not otherwise specified, or using mixed disease codes. Join point regression was used to study the annual percentage change of age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates. Changes in corpus uteri cancer mortality rates by calendar period and standardised cohort mortality ratios were also estimated. In 2008, 12,903 women died from corpus uteri cancer in the EU. Corrected age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates have decreased significantly over the past decades in most member states, with exception of Malta and Bulgaria, where rates increased; Greece, where rates remained low but stable; and Sweden, where rates have been stable since 1970. Original member states showed a steeper decrease than newer member states. The standardised cohort mortality ratios indicated that corpus uteri cancer mortality does not decrease further, nor does it increase, among women born after 1940, although these birth cohorts may still be too young for corpus uteri cancer incidence to be fully evaluated. Our corrected corpus uteri cancer mortality rates showed a decrease in most EU member states among women born before 1940. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... regression analysis in relation to location, gender, age, and calendar year at diagnosis. Results: Altogether, 8299 patients with oral cancer were identified, 5062 (61%) of whom were males and 3237 (39%) were females. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The AAIR of patients with OC increased from 1.......9 per 100,000 in 1980 to 3.5 per 100,000 in 2014, and we observed a significant increase in 5-year OS of 12% points (a relative increase of 38%) from the period 1980–1984 to 2005–2009. Women were found to have a better prognosis than men. Conclusions: We found an unexpected increase in the age...

  8. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...

  9. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  10. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  11. Appraisal of snakebite incidence and mortality in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Postigo, Jorge R

    2014-06-01

    No information has been yet published on snakebite in Bolivia. The country includes very different ecological situations leading to various epidemiological risks. A study has been carried out to evaluate the incidence and location of snakebite, particularly in relation with altitude, in order to improve management. Investigations on snakebite epidemiology were based on a) cases treated in health facilities as reported by health authorities and b) household surveys carried out in areas with high variations of altitude, in various regions of Bolivia. An average of 700 bites was treated each year in Bolivia (national annual incidence = 8 bites per 100,000 people) with a great disparity between districts. Household surveys showed annual incidences ranged from 30 to 110 bites per 100,000 inhabitants depending on location. Annual mortality ranged 0.1-3.9 per 100,000 people. A significant and constant inverse correlation was shown between snakebite incidence and altitude, which may be explained by both snake and human distributions and activities. Notification of snakebite is useful for improving patient management and informing antivenom distribution. It should also involve the report of deaths and clinical details of envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK: a general population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeever Tricia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acute and chronic leukaemias constitute about 2.5% of all newly diagnosed malignancies and kill over 4000 people/year in the UK, yet there is little accurate up-to-date data on how the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias vary with socio-economic status in the UK. We aimed to quantify the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK and their variation with gender, age, year of diagnosis as well as socio-economic status. Methods All incident cases of leukaemia were identified in 'The Health Improvement Network' (THIN General Practice dataset. Crude incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (using Poisson Regression stratified by age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic status were calculated. Median survival and hazard ratios for risk of death (using Cox regression were then calculated, and stratified in a similar manner. Results A total of 4162 cases of leukaemia were identified, 2314 (56% of whom were male. The overall incidence of leukaemia was 11.25 per 100 000 person-years. The age and gender distributions of ALL, AML, CLL and CML were similar to UK cancer registry data. The incidence of leukaemias was independent of socio-economic class. Median survival from leukaemia was 6.58 years and mortality increased with increasing age at diagnosis. The prognosis in AML was dismal and worsened with increasing socio-economic deprivation. For other leukaemias mortality was independent of socio-economic status. Conclusion This is the first general population study to describe the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK by socio-economic status. Similar mortality across socio-economic gradients in the leukaemias studied suggests equal access to and uptake of services. The exception to this was in AML, where poorer survival in AML patients from lower socio-economic classes may represent a class bias in treatment offered and/or greater co-morbidity in these patients, and warrants further

  13. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  14. Early estimates of SEER cancer incidence, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Cockburn, Myles G; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Stroup, Antoinette M; Midthune, Douglas N; Zou, Zhaohui; Krapcho, Martin F; Miller, Daniel G; Feuer, Eric J

    2017-07-01

    Cancer incidence rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2014 using data reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in February 2016 and a validation of rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2013 and submitted in February 2015 using the November 2015 submission are reported. New cancer sites include the pancreas, kidney and renal pelvis, corpus and uterus, and childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years inclusive. A new reporting delay model is presented for these estimates for more consistent results with the model used for the usual November SEER submissions, adjusting for the large case undercount in the February submission. Joinpoint regression methodology was used to assess trends. Delay-adjusted rates and trends were checked for validity between the February 2016 and November 2016 submissions. Validation revealed that the delay model provides similar estimates of eventual counts using either February or November submission data. Trends declined through 2014 for prostate and colon and rectum cancer for males and females, male and female lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Thyroid cancer and liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer increased. Pancreas (male and female) and corpus and uterus cancer demonstrated a modest increase. Slight increases occurred for male kidney and renal pelvis, and for all childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years. Evaluating early cancer data submissions, adjusted for reporting delay, produces timely and valid incidence rates and trends. The results of the current study support using delay-adjusted February submission data for valid incidence rate and trend estimates over several data cycles. Cancer 2017;123:2524-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Cancer incidence, hospital morbidity, and mortality in young adults in Brazil Incidencia, morbilidad hospitalaria y mortalidad por cáncer en adultos jóvenes en Brasil Incidência, morbidade hospitalar e mortalidade por câncer em adultos jovens no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Jorge Koifman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There are still relatively few studies in the world on cancer incidence and mortality in young adults. The current study aimed to explore cancer distribution in young adults in Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted on cancer incidence (selected State capitals, hospital morbidity, and mortality (Brazil and selected capitals in the 20-24-year age strata in 2000-2002, and trends in cancer mortality rates in Brazil in 1980-2008 in the same population. Testicular cancer was the principal anatomical site in young adult males; in young adult women, the main sites were thyroid, uterine cervix, and Hodgkin disease. Brain cancer was the principal cause of death from cancer in both sexes, and time trends in mortality showed an increase in mortality from brain cancer in men and from lymphocytic leukemia in both sexes. As a whole, the results show an epidemiological pattern of cancer in young adults with regional distribution characteristics.En el mundo todavía son relativamente pocos los estudios sobre la incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer en adultos jóvenes. El objetivo fue explorar la distribución de cáncer en adultos jóvenes en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de la incidencia (capitales seleccionadas, de la morbilidad hospitalaria y de la mortalidad (Brasil y capitales seleccionadas por cáncer a los 20-24 años, en el período de 2000-2002, y de la evolución de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer en Brasil en el período de 1980-2008, en la misma población. El cáncer de testículo fue la principal localización anatómica en hombres, y las neoplasias de la glándula tiroides, del cuello de útero y la enfermedad de Hodgkin en las mujeres. El cáncer de encéfalo fue la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en ambos sexos y la tendencia temporal de la mortalidad muestra un aumento en la mortalidad por cáncer de encéfalo en hombres y por la leucemia linfoide en ambos sexos. En conjunto, los resultados presentados retratan un padr

  16. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth.Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31 on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43, while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43. Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP per capita.The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  17. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  18. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  19. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  20. Cause-specific mortality in adults with unprovoked seizures. A population-based incidence cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, V; Olafsson, E; Hauser, W A; Gudmundsson, G

    2001-10-01

    To determine the cause-specific mortality relative to that expected in a population-based incidence cohort of people with unprovoked seizures. The cohort comprises 224 inhabitants of Iceland first diagnosed as suffering from unprovoked seizures during a 5-year period from 1960 to 1964. The expected number of deaths was calculated by multiplying person-years of observation within 5-year age categories for each year from diagnosis through 1995 by cause-specific and sex-specific national death rates for those aged 20 years and above. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All-cause mortality was increased among men (SMR 2.25, 95% CI 1.56-3.14) but not women (SMR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38-1.46). Among men, there were 8 deaths from accidents, poisoning and violence observed versus 2.82 expected (SMR 2.84, 95% CI 1.22-5.59) and 4 deaths from suicide versus 0.69 expected (SMR 5.80, 95% CI 1.56-14.84). All-cause mortality for men was still elevated after restriction of analysis to those with seizures of unknown etiology (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.05-2.67) with the excess deaths attributable to suicide (SMR 5.26, 95% CI 1.06-15.38). Both males and females with remote symptomatic unprovoked seizures had an increase in all-cause mortality due to excess mortality from all cancers, cerebrovascular disease and accidents. When compared with the age-, time-period- and gender-specific mortality in the general population, there is excess mortality in men but not women. The increased mortality for men is partly attributable to excess mortality from accidents and suicides. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  2. Pericarditis as a Marker of Occult Cancer and a Prognostic Factor for Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Ehrenstein, Vera; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-09-12

    Pericarditis may be a serious complication of malignancy. Its significance as a first symptom of occult cancer and as a prognostic factor for cancer survival is unknown. Using Danish medical databases, we conducted a nationwide cohort study of all patients with a first-time diagnosis of pericarditis during 1994 to 2013. We excluded patients with previous cancer and followed up the remaining patients for subsequent cancer diagnosis until November 30, 2013. We calculated risks and standardized incidence ratios of cancer for patients with pericarditis compared with the general population. We assessed whether pericarditis predicts cancer survival by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression using a matched comparison cohort of cancer patients without pericarditis. Among 13 759 patients with acute pericarditis, 1550 subsequently were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. The overall cancer standardized incidence ratio was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.5), driven predominantly by increased rates of lung, kidney, and bladder cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and unspecified metastatic cancer. The pericarditis was 2.7%, and the standardized incidence ratio was 12.4 (95% CI, 11.2-13.7). The 3- to pericarditis, respectively, and the hazard ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.8). One-year survival was 65% and 70%, respectively, corresponding to a 3- to Pericarditis may be a marker of occult cancer and augurs increased mortality after a cancer diagnosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  4. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may influence the recipients' cancer risks both through transmission of biologic agents and by modulation of the immune system. However, cancer occurrence in transfusion recipients remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We used computerized files from Scandinavian...... blood banks to identify a cohort of 888,843 cancer-free recipients transfused after 1968. The recipients were followed from first registered transfusion until the date of death, emigration, cancer diagnosis, or December 31, 2002, whichever came first. Relative risks were expressed as ratios......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  5. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site; Etude de mortalite et d'incidence des cancers autour du site de stockage de dechets radioactifs de faible et de moyenne activite de l'Aube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  6. Incidence and mortality of relapsing polychondritis in the UK: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Nisha; Dregan, Alex; Charlton, Judith; Gulliford, Martin C; D'Cruz, David P

    2015-12-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare disease characterized by cartilage inflammation. Our aim was to estimate the incidence, prevalence and mortality of relapsing polychondritis and describe the clinical features of relapsing polychondritis in a large population. All participants diagnosed with relapsing polychondritis were sampled from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Prevalence and incidence rates for 1990-2012 were estimated. Relative mortality rates were estimated in a time-to-event framework using reference UK life tables. A questionnaire validation study assessed diagnostic accuracy. There were 117 participants with relapsing polychondritis ever recorded. Fifty (82%) of 61 cases were validated by a physician and unconfirmed cases were excluded. The analysis included 106 participants (42 men, 64 women) diagnosed with relapsing polychondritis. The mean age (range) at diagnosis in men was 55 (range 17-81) years and in women 51 (range 11-79) years. The median interval from first symptom to diagnosis was 1.9 years. The incidence of relapsing polychondritis between 1990 and 2012 was 0.71 (95% CI 0.55, 0.91) per million population per year. There were 19 deaths from any cause. There were 16 observed deaths eligible for survival analysis and 7.4 deaths expected for the UK population of the same age, sex and period. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.16 (95% CI 1.24, 3.51), P < 0.01. Respiratory disease, cardiac conditions and cancer were the most frequent causes of death. The incidence of relapsing polychondritis may be lower than previously estimated, and diagnostic misclassification and delay are common. Mortality in relapsing polychondritis is more than twice that of the general population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Incidence of cancer in Chilean HIV-infected children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlllarroel, Julia; Álvarez, Ana M; Chávez, Ana; Cofré, José; Galaz, M Isabel; Ledesma, Patricio; Peña, Anamaría; Vizueta, Eloisa; Wu, Elba

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric HIV (+) patients have a 100 times greater risk of cancer than HIV (-) children. To describe in Chilean HIV (+) children, cancer types, its appearance in relation to the stages of HIV disease and mortality. A protocol was created to know some characteristics of these patients from the point of view of their HIV infection and cancer pathology. Of 360 HIV (+) children confirmed by the Institute of Public Health to May 2014, 9 patients with neoplastic disease (2.5%) were diagnosed. All the children were on ART, had more than three years of evolution of HIV infection and were in moderate to severe clinical/immunological stages. Lymphoma was the most common cancer. Five children, has received therapy according to Programa Infantil Nacional de Drogas Antineoplásicas (PINDA). There was no interaction between cancer treatment and antiretroviral therapy. Mortality was 13.8 x 1000 (5 cases). The incidence and type of neoplasia is consistent with the international literature, with less survival than HIV (+) children without tumors. The occurrence of cancer was observed in children with moderate to severe clinical and immunological compromise.

  8. Cancer mortality of Swiss men by occupation, 1979-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, C E; Beer-Porizek, V

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of male cancer mortality are presented by occupation. The data base consisted of the 1979-1982 mortality register and 1980 census data from Switzerland. In a novel approach, a linked subset of death certificates and census records was used to correct the numerator-denominator bias of standardized mortality ratios and their confidence intervals. Agricultural occupations exhibited low cancer mortality (exception: stomach cancer). Electricians suffered excess mortality from cancer of several sites. Foundry and chemical workers had elevated mortality risks for digestive tract cancers. Other metal workers suffered from high mortality from cancers of the respiratory organs. Construction workers were subject to high mortality from cancers of the upper digestive tract and lungs. Innkeepers, cooks, and owners or managers of guest houses had high rates of cancers of the digestive system. Occupations using combustion-powered equipment suffered from excess lung cancer mortality. In general the results of the study agree with those of several other studies.

  9. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  10. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. METHODS: A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted......, the Danish National Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Register were used. A historical cohort of 1450 kidney recipients transplanted in 1995-2005 was followed up with respect to post-transplant cancer and death until 31 December 2011. RESULTS: Compared with Center 1 the adjusted post...... to examine whether post-transplant cancer and all-cause mortality differed between Danish renal transplantation centres using standard immunosuppressive protocols including steroids (Centres 2, 3, 4) or a steroid-free protocol (Centre 1). The Danish Nephrology Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System...

  11. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  12. Incidence and risk of treatment-related mortality with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    Full Text Available Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs cetuximab and panitumumab have emerged as an effective targeted therapy in the treatment of cancer patients, but the overall incidence and risk of fatal adverse events (FAEs associated with these agents is still unclear.Databases from PubMed, Web of Science and abstracts presented at ASCO meeting up to May 31, 2013 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating MoAbs in cancer patients with adequate data on FAEs. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies.A total of 14,776 patients with a variety of solid tumors from 21 clinical trials were included in our analysis. The overall incidence of MoAbs associated FAEs was 1.7% (95%CI: 1.1-2.5%, and the incidence of cetuximab-related FAEs was higher than that of panitumumab (2.0% versus 0.9%. Compared with the controls, the use of MoAbs was associated with a significantly increased risk of FAEs, with an OR of 1.37 (95%CI: 1.04-1.81, p=0.024. Subgroup analysis based on EGFR-MoAbs drugs, phase of trials and tumor types demonstrated a tendency to increase the risk of FAEs, but the risk did not increase in breast cancer, esophagus cancer and phase II trials.With present evidence, the use of EGFR-MoAbs is associated with an increased risk of FAEs in patients with advanced solid tumors.

  13. The distribution of lung cancer mortality in Cape Town and related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cartographic representation of standardised mortality ratios shows that the incidence of lung cancer mortality in Cape Town is appreciably higher in men than women, and in coloured people than in white people. Coloured men are the group most at risk. Despite the important role smoking habits play in the aetiology of ...

  14. Effect of depression before breast cancer diagnosis on mortality among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Margolis, Karen L; Hendryx, Michael; Reeves, Katherine; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Weitlauf, Julie; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Caan, Bette; Qi, Lihong; Lane, Dorothy; Lavasani, Sayeh; Luo, Juhua

    2017-08-15

    Few previous studies investigating depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer-specific mortality have examined depression measured at more than 1 time point. This study investigated the effect of depression (combining depressive symptoms alone with antidepressant use) measured at 2 time points before the diagnosis of breast cancer on all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality among older postmenopausal women. A large prospective cohort, the Women's Health Initiative, was used. The study included 3095 women with incident breast cancer who had measures of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use before their diagnosis at the baseline and at year 3. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) between depression at the baseline, depression at year 3, and combinations of depression at these time points and all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality. Depression at year 3 before a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with higher all-cause mortality after adjustments for multiple covariates (HR, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.78). There was no statistically significant association of baseline depression and all-cause mortality or breast cancer-specific mortality whether or not depression was also present at year 3. In women with late-stage (regional- or distant-stage) breast cancer, newly developed depression at year 3 was significantly associated with both all-cause mortality (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.56) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.24-4.70). Women with newly developed depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer had a modestly but significantly increased risk for death from any cause and for death from breast cancer at a late stage. Cancer 2017;123:3107-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. The Role of Smoking and Diet in Explaining Educational Inequalities in Lung Cancer Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Kunst, Anton E.; Dalton, Susanne O.; Vineis, Paolo; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hermann, Silke; Ferrari, Pietro; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Kosti, Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Buchner, Frederike L.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Braaten, Tonje; Gram, Inger T.; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Hallmans, Goran; Rasmuson, Torgny; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2009-01-01

    Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

  16. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  17. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  18. Cancer mortality and saccharin consumption in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, B; Lea, A J; Adelstein, A M; Donovan, J W; White, G C; Ruttle, S

    1976-09-01

    The mortality experience of 5971 members of the British Diabetic Association (BDA) was followed-up for between five and eight years to mid-1973. Overall, 1207 deaths occurred compared with 778 expected from the mortality of the population of England and Wales in 1972. This excess of deaths was due almost entirely to diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease. Deaths from cancer (128) were significantly fewer than expected (168), mainly because of a deficit in the number of deaths from cancers related to smoking (cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, respiratory system, and bladder). There was also a lower than expected mortality from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Data on saccharin consumption by BDA members showed that more than half of them used saccharin tablets daily, with an overall daily intake of three to six tablets, depending on age and sex. Information on a small sample of survivors from the mortality study suggested that about 23% of them would have taken saccharin daily for 10 years or more and 10% for 25 years or more by the end of the follow-up. It was concluded that these relatively high levels of saccharin intake had not increased the risk of cancer in general among BDA members.

  19. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  20. Pancreatic cancer: Incidence, clinical profile, and frequency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hana T. Al-Majed

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. Diabetes has been postulated to be both a risk factor and a consequence of pancreatic cancer, but the degree of risk ...

  1. Incidence estimation of stomach cancer among Koreans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Y. O.; Park, B. J.; Yoo, K. Y.; Kim, N. K.; Heo, D. S.; Lee, J. K.; Ahn, H. S.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    A series of incidence estimation studies of cancers among Koreans through a nationwide survey has been undertaken by authors since 1988. The medical records were studied of inpatients with diagnoses of either ICD-9 151 (malignant neoplasm of the stomach), or 197 (secondary malignant neoplasm of the respiratory and digestive systems), or 211 (benign neoplasm of other parts of the digestive system) in claims sent in by medical care institutions throughout the country to the Korea Medical Insura...

  2. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60 Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  3. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  4. Fabry disease and incidence of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sarah; Hadjimichael, Efthymios; Mehta, Atul; Ramaswami, Uma; Hughes, Derralynn

    2017-09-06

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A and the resulting accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its derivatives, including globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3). Increased cellular and plasma levels of Gb3 and Lyso-Gb3 affect multiple organs, with specific clinical consequences for the kidneys, heart and brain. There is growing evidence that alterations in glycosphingolipids may have an oncogenic role and this prompted a review of cases of cancer and benign lesions in a large single centre cohort of Fabry patients. We also explored whether there is a difference in the risk of cancer in Fabry patients compared to the general population. Our results suggest that Fabry patients may have a marginally reduced rate of all cancer (incidence rate ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.99) but possibly increased rates of melanoma, urological malignancies and meningiomas. Greater knowledge and awareness of cancer in patients with Fabry disease may help identify at-risk individuals and elucidate cancer mechanisms in this rare inherited disease, which may potentially be relevant to the wider cancer population.

  5. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Johansen, Christoffer; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    high daily consumption of beer is associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly cancer of colon and rectum. The cohort has previously been followed until 1972, but with our study we add further 27 years of follow-up. The cohort comprises all male members of BWU employed for 6 months or longer...... cavity, the digestive organs, the respiratory system and the urinary system. Members of the cohort were at a slightly but highly significant increased risk of both colon cancer (O/E, 1.26; 1.11-1.42) and rectum cancer (O/E, 1.31; 1.14-1.49). Our study shows that a high beer consumption is related...... in a brewery between 1939 and 1963. From the original cohort of 14,313 workers, it was possible to identify 13,051 brewery workers (91.2%). The identified brewery workers were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry for any cancer diagnoses during 1943-1999. The incidence rate of all Danish men was applied...

  6. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  7. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006 and Mortality Rates (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Babb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006 and data on mortality (1997–2009 from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma. There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  8. Demographic factors and cancer mortality. A mathematical model for cancer mortality in Denmark 1943-78

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1983-01-01

    a Poisson distribution and the mortality rate could be expressed by the function lx = bxk, where lx is the mortality rate at age x, and b and k are parameters to be estimated. With this model a straight line is obtained, when mortality and age are plotted on a double logarithmic scale. The maximum...... of the female cancers, k was found to be independent of cohort and in the last 6 cases k was found to be a linear function of cohort. For 12 out of 14 cancer sites among males the ratio of mortality in the capital to mortality in the provinces was significantly greater than one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  9. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  10. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  11. Demographic factors and cancer mortality. A mathematical model for cancer mortality in Denmark 1943-78

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1983-01-01

    young adult life into old age. One-year age-specific mortality rates between 30 and 79 years of age were computed for 14 different cancer sites among both males and females, in five ten-year birth cohorts and for the capital and provinces. The number of deaths at a particular age were found to follow......Deaths from cancer in Denmark from 1943-1978 were extracted from the Danish National Death Register at the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology. This paper illustrates the relationship between demographic factors and mortality from a large group of cancers, which increases progressively from...

  12. Cervical cancer incidence in Denmark over six decades (1943-2002)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    was largest in the period 1988-2002 as compared to 1968-1987, coinciding with an increase in the number of Danish women covered by the organized screening program. Women 20-29 years old showed a relatively stable squamous cell carcinoma incidence but an increasing adenocarcinoma incidence throughout the study......INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe developments in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Denmark, focusing on histological types, over a period of 60 years. We also describe developments in the incidence of carcinoma in situ and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study...... is based on the Danish Cancer Registry database of 39,623 reported cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed among Danish women in the period 1943-2002. The most important variables and measures are age-specific and age-standardized incidence and estimated annual percent changes in incidence. RESULTS...

  13. [Leukemia mortality and incidence of infantile leukemia near the Vatican Radio Station of Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, P; Kirchmayer, U; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Biggeri, A; Barca, A; Ancona, C; Fusco, D; Sperati, A; Papini, P; Pierangelini, A; Rondelli, R; Perucci, C A

    2001-01-01

    Some recent epidemiological studies suggest an association between lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers and residential exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields (100 kHz-300 GHz) generated by radio and television transmitters. Vatican Radio, a very powerful radio station transmitting all over the world (up to 600 kW) is located in Santa Maria di Galeria, in the northern suburbs of the city of Rome. Electric field measurements in the proximity of the radio station ranged between 1.5 and 25 V/m. In the 10 km area around the station, with 60.182 residents (1999), leukaemia mortality among adults (> 14 years, 40 cases) in the period 1987-98 and childhood leukaemia incidence in the period 1987-99 (8 cases) were evaluated. The analysis (Stone's conditional test) was performed computing observed and expected cases (reference: population of Rome) in 5 bands of increasing radius (2 km width). The risk of childhood leukaemia was higher than expected within 6 km from the station (Standardized Incidence Ratio = 217; 95% Confidence Interval 99-405). Stone's test showed a significant decrease in risk with increasing distance both for male adult mortality (p-value = 0.03) and for childhood incidence (p-value = 0.04). A Score test, showed a significant decrease in risk of childhood incidence as function of the distance. The main limitations of this study are the small number of observed cases and the use of distance as a proxy for RF exposure. Further research will require a systematic campaign of electromagnetic field measurements to allow better assessment of the population exposure.

  14. A prospective study of the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The association between aging and falls risk, and the morbidity and mortality resulting from falls in older persons, is well documented. Results from a small number of studies of patients with cancer in inpatient settings suggest that patients with advanced cancer may be at high risk of falling. We present preliminary results pertaining to the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer from an ongoing study of risk factors for falls.

  15. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  16. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Statin use and reduced cancer-related mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    A reduction in the availability of cholesterol may limit the cellular proliferation required for cancer growth and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that statin use begun before a cancer diagnosis is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality....

  18. Cancer-Attributable Mortality Among People With Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Yanik, Elizabeth L; Wheeler, Willian; Gill, M John; Shiels, Meredith S; Dubrow, Robert; Althoff, Keri N; Silverberg, Michael J; Brooks, John T; Kitahata, Mari M; Goedert, James J; Grover, Surbhi; Mayor, Angel M; Moore, Richard D; Park, Lesley S; Rachlis, Anita; Sigel, Keith; Sterling, Timothy R; Thorne, Jennifer E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2017-08-15

    Cancer remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWHIV) on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Estimates of cancer-attributable mortality can inform public health efforts. We evaluated 46956 PWHIV receiving ART in North American HIV cohorts (1995-2009). Using information on incident cancers and deaths, we calculated population-attributable fractions (PAFs), estimating the proportion of deaths due to cancer. Calculations were based on proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, race, HIV risk group, calendar year, cohort, CD4 count, and viral load. There were 1997 incident cancers and 8956 deaths during 267145 person-years of follow-up, and 11.9% of decedents had a prior cancer. An estimated 9.8% of deaths were attributable to cancer (cancer-attributable mortality rate 327 per 100000 person-years). PAFs were 2.6% for AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 2.0% of deaths) and 7.1% for non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs: lung cancer, 2.3%; liver cancer, 0.9%). PAFs for NADCs were higher in males and increased strongly with age, reaching 12.5% in PWHIV aged 55+ years. Mortality rates attributable to ADCs and NADCs were highest for PWHIV with CD4 counts <100 cells/mm3. PAFs for NADCs increased during 1995-2009, reaching 10.1% in 2006-2009. Approximately 10% of deaths in PWHIV prescribed ART during 1995-2009 were attributable to cancer, but this fraction increased over time. A large proportion of cancer-attributable deaths were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and liver cancer. Deaths due to NADCs will likely grow in importance as AIDS mortality declines and PWHIV age. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Abdominal injuries after high falls: high incidence and increased mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hensbroek, P. Boele; van Ooijen, M.; Lamers, A. B. G. N.; Ponsen, K.-J.; Goslings, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Falls from height are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Injuries to the extremities and head are common. However, little has been reported on abdominal injuries or their treatment. This study aims to assess the abdominal injuries, treatment, and mortality after falls from height. We searched

  20. Incidence of second primary malignancies and related mortality in patients with imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotta, Gabriele; Castagnetti, Fausto; Breccia, Massimo; Albano, Francesco; Iurlo, Alessandra; Intermesoli, Tamara; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Levato, Luciano; D'Adda, Mariella; Pregno, Patrizia; Cavazzini, Francesco; Stagno, Fabio; Martino, Bruno; La Barba, Gaetano; Sorà, Federica; Tiribelli, Mario; Bigazzi, Catia; Binotto, Gianni; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Caracciolo, Clementina; Soverini, Simona; Foà, Robin; Cavo, Michele; Martinelli, Giovanni; Pane, Fabrizio; Saglio, Giuseppe; Baccarani, Michele; Rosti, Gianantonio

    2017-09-01

    The majority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are successfully managed with life-long treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In patients in chronic phase, other malignancies are among the most common causes of death, raising concerns on the relationship between these deaths and the off-target effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We analyzed the incidence of second primary malignancies, and related mortality, in 514 chronic myeloid leukemia patients enrolled in clinical trials in which imatinib was given as first-line treatment. We then compared the observed incidence and mortality with those expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian general population, calculating standardized incidence and standardized mortality ratios. After a median follow-up of 74 months, 5.8% patients developed second primary malignancies. The median time from chronic myeloid leukemia to diagnosis of the second primary malignancies was 34 months. We did not find a higher incidence of second primary malignancies compared to that in the age- and sex-matched Italian general population, with standardized incidence ratios of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.57-1.54) and 1.61 (95% CI: 0.92-2.31) in males and females, respectively. Overall, 3.1% patients died of second primary malignancies. The death rate in patients with second primary malignancies was 53% (median overall survival: 18 months). Among females, the observed cancer-related mortality was superior to that expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population, with a standardized mortality ratio of 2.41 (95% CI: 1.26 - 3.56). In conclusion, our analysis of patients with imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia did not reveal a higher incidence of second primary malignancies; however, the outcome of second primary malignancies in such patients was worse than expected. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00514488, NCT00510926. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  3. [Incidence of melanoma and changes in stage-specific incidence after implementation of skin cancer screening in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, N; Waldmann, A; Katalinic, A

    2014-01-01

    A pilot project in skin cancer screening (SCREEN) was conducted in Schleswig-Holstein from July 2003 to June 2004. Although the impact of this screening on the stage-specific incidence of melanoma is of great importance for screening evaluation, it remains unknown. In theory, an effective skin cancer screening program should result in a medium-term incidence decrease of melanomas with a prognostically unfavorable stage. This is studied on a population-based level by using cancer registry data. Based on data from the Cancer Registry of Schleswig-Holstein for 1999-2009, stage-specific (T-category of the TNM-classification system) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. After implementation of the SCREEN project, the incidence of prognostically favorable melanomas (in situ and T1) was higher than before, while the incidence of advanced melanomas (T2, T3, and for women also T4) decreased considerably. The classification of tumor stages changed during the project period, which may have contributed to an artificial decrease of the stages with a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement with the observed decrease of melanoma mortality in the screening region.

  4. Understanding differences in cervical cancer incidence in Western Europe: comparing Portugal and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Mesher, David; Pista, Angela; Baguelin, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer incidence has decreased over time in England particularly after the introduction of organized screening. In Portugal, where opportunistic screening has been widely available with only slightly lower coverage than that of the organized programme in England, rates of cervical cancer have been higher than in England. We compared the burden of cervical cancer, risk factors and preventive interventions over time in both countries, to identify elements hindering the further decline in incidence and mortality in Portugal. We used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in rate time-trends. We also analyzed individual-level Portuguese data on sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus prevalence, and recent aggregate data on organized and opportunistic screening coverage. We compared published estimates of survival, risk factors and historical screening coverage for both countries. Despite stable incidence, cervical cancer mortality has declined in both countries in the last decade. The burden has been 4 cases and 1 death per 100 000 women annually higher in Portugal than in England. Differences in human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors for infection and disease progression do not explain the difference found in cervical cancer incidence. Significant mortality declines in both countries followed the introduction of different screening policies, although England showed a greater decline than Portugal over nearly 2 decades after centralizing organized screening. The higher rates of cervical cancer in Portugal compared to England can be explained by differences in screening quality and coverage.

  5. Incidence, timing and risk factors associated with 1-year mortality after hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuz, Jordi; Viasus, Diego; Jiménez-Martínez, Emilio; Isla, Pilar; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    To identify the incidence, causes, timing and risk factors associated with 1-year mortality in CAP patients after hospital discharge. Adult patients with CAP who were admitted to a tertiary hospital from 2007 to 2011 were prospectively recruited and followed up for 1 year after hospital discharge. Of the 1284 patients discharged, 93 (7.2%) died within 1-year of leaving hospital. Sixty eight (73.1%) patients died in the first six months. The main reasons for 1-year mortality after hospital discharge were infectious diseases, mainly pneumonia, followed by acute cardiovascular events. Mortality from infectious diseases was higher during the first 6 months (86.1%), while the number of deaths from cardiovascular causes was stable throughout the months of follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia, rehospitalization within 30 days of hospital discharge and nursing home were independently associated with 1-year mortality. The incidence of long-term mortality increased >50% when ≥4 risk factors were present (P risk of long-term mortality in CAP patients. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Background radiation and childhood cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer estimated an ''extra'' cancer risk of 572 per million man-rad of juvenile cancer deaths under 10 years of age. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki 36.9 juvenile cancers were expected out of 64,490 man-rad of exposed mothers. Observed cancer was, however, only one. The discrepancy was explained partly by possible overlapping of confidence intervals of two samples and partly by excessive doses received by exposed fetuses in Japan. If A-bomb radiation sterilized preleukemic cells induced in fetuses, it must also killed those cells in irradiated adults. Leukemogenic efficiency in adults, about 2.10 -5 per rad, is not different either in A-bomb survivors or in irradiated patients. We examined a dose-effect relationship in childhood cancer mortality (0 - 4 yrs) in Miyagi Prefecture Japan. Ninety two cancers were detected out of 1,214,157 children from 1968 to 1975. They were allocated to 8 districts with different background levels. Population at risk was calculated every year for every district. About 4 deaths occurred every 10,000 man-rad, which is comparable with 572 per million man-rad in Oxford Survey. One out of one thousand infants died from severe malformation in every year when they received 9.8 rad in embryonic stage, the doubling dose is estimated as 20 rad. Clinical and biological significance of the statistical data must be examined in future. Fetal death decreased significantly from 110/1,000 in 1962 to 55/1,000 in 1975. Background radiation plays no role in fetal death in Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  7. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.J.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Reyes-Waxweiler, M.; Key, C.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  8. Childhood cancer mortality trends in Brazil, 1979-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ferman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Childhood cancer mortality has substantially declined worldwide as a result of significant advances in global cancer care. Because limited information is available in Brazil, we analyzed trends in childhood cancer mortality in five Brazilian regions over 29 years. METHODS: Data from children 0-14 years old were extracted from the Health Mortality Information System for 1979 through 2008. Age-adjusted mortality rates, crude mortality rates, and age-specific mortality rates by geographic region of Brazil and for the entire country were analyzed for all cancers and leukemia. Mortality trends were evaluated for all childhood cancers and leukemia using joinpoint regression. RESULTS: Mortality declined significantly for the entire period (1979-2008 for children with leukemia. Childhood cancer mortality rates declined in the South and Southeast, remained stable in the Middle West, and increased in the North and Northeast. Although the mortality rates did not unilaterally decrease in all regions, the age-adjusted mortality rates were relatively similar among the five Brazilian regions from 2006-2008. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood cancer mortality declined 1.2 to 1.6% per year in the South and Southeast regions.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  10. High cancer-related mortality in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2013-04-24

    To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.

  11. The role of smoking and diet in explaining educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Kunst, Anton E.; Dalton, Susanne O.; Vineis, Paolo; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hermann, Silke; Ferrari, Pietro; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Kosti, Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Büchner, Frederike L.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Braaten, Tonje; Gram, Inger T.; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Tormo, Maria-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Rasmuson, Torgny; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. METHODS: To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391,251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into

  12. The role of smoking and diet in explaining educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); H.C. Boshuizen (Hendriek); A.E. Kunst (Anton); S.O. Dalton (Susanne); P. Vineis (Paolo); M.M. Bergmann (Manuela); S. Hermann (Silke); P. Ferrari (Pietro); O. Raaschou-Nielsen (Ole); A. Tjønneland (Anne); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); J. Linseisen (Jakob); M. Kosti (Maria); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); V. Dilis (Vardis); D. Palli (Domenico); V. Krogh (Vittorio); S. Panico (Salvatore); R. Tumino (Rosario); F.L. Büchner (Frederike); C.H. van Gils (Carla); P.H.M. Peeters; T. Braaten (Tonje); I.T. Gram (Inger); E. Lund (Eiliv); L. Rodriguez (Laudina); A. Agudo (Antonio); M.J. Sánchez; M.J. Tormo; E. Ardanaz (Eva); J. Manjer (Jonas); E. Wirfält (Elisabet); G. Hallmans (Göran); T. Rasmuson (Torgny); S. Bingham (Sheila); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); N.E. Allen (Naomi); T. Key (Tim); P. Boffetta (Paolo); E.J. Duell (Eric); N. Slimani (Nadia); V. Gallo (Valentina); E. Riboli (Elio); H.B. Bueno-De-Mesquita (Bas)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Methods: To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391 251 participants in the European Prospective

  13. Predictions and estimations of colorectal cancer mortality, prevalence and incidence in Aragon, Spain, for the period 1998-2022 Estimaciones y proyecciones de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad del cáncer colorrectal en Aragón, España, para el periodo de 1998 a 2022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego Leandro Bezerra-de-Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: estimate colorectal cancer incidence and prevalence in Aragón, Spain, based on mortality and survival data from the period 1998-2007, and provide projections of incidence, prevalence and mortality until the year 2022. Methods: general and colorectal cancer mortality rates were obtained from the National Statistics Institute and survival data was obtained from the EUROCARE study. Estimations were carried out through the program MIAMOD. The joinpoint program was used to quantify the annual change expected in the projections. Results: in men, an increase in prevalence is expected, from 237.2 (Crude Rate - CR = 303.5 to 237.7 (CR = 412.7 per 100.000 inhabitants/year in 2022. Incidence rates would increase from 48.2 (CR = 61.6 in 2007 to 55.2 (CR = 83.1, and mortality would increase from 22.7 (CR = 29.4 to 26.0 (CR = 39.6 when comparing 2007 and 2022. In women, a reduction in prevalence is expected from 181.5 (CR = 268.3 to 167.9 (CR = 286.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Incidence would change from 25.0 (CR = 38.0 in 2007 to 22.7 (CR = 39.2, and for mortality there is also an expected decrease, from 11.3 (CR =18.0 to 10.3 (CR = 18.5. Conclusion: the projections indicate that colorectal cancer in Spain follows an increasing trend in incidence, mortality and prevalence in men, in opposition to corresponding decreasing trends in women. These projections must be considered in order to plan more effective prevention and treatment measures.Objetivo: estimar la incidencia y la prevalencia del cáncer colorrectal en Aragón, España, basándose en datos de mortalidad y supervivencia del periodo de 1998 a 2007, y proporcionar proyecciones de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad hasta el año 2022. Métodos: la mortalidad por todas las causas y para el cáncer colorrectal se obtuvo del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y los datos de supervivencia del estudio EUROCARE. Las estimaciones han sido realizadas utilizándose el programa MIAMOD. El

  14. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  15. Demographic changes in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and age associated with population-based mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdial, Francys C; Etzioni, Ruth; Duggan, Catherine; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality are influenced by early-detection methods, including mammographic screening. Demographic changes in US statistics serve as a model for changes that can be anticipated in countries where mammographic screening has not been implemented. SEER statistics (1973-2013) for breast cancer mortality, incidence, stage at diagnosis, and age at diagnosis were examined. Temporal associations between screening changes and breast cancer demographics in the US were documented. Before 1982 (pre-screening), breast cancer incidence in the US remained stable, with similar incidence of localized and regional cancers, and with in-situ disease comprising breast cancer incidence increased. In 1991, breast cancer age-adjusted mortality rates began decreasing and have continued to decrease. In the post-screening phase, stage distribution stabilized, but now with localized and in-situ disease representing the majority of diagnosed cases. The median age at diagnosis has increased to 61 years. Mammographic screening increases breast cancer incidence, shifts the stage distribution toward earlier stage disease, and in high-income countries, is associated with improved survival. Whether similar improvement in breast cancer survival can be achieved in the absence of mammographic screening has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cancer incidence following long-term consumption of drinking water with high inorganic selenium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Vicentini, Massimo; Wise, Lauren A; Sacchettini, Claudio; Malagoli, Carlotta; Ballotari, Paola; Filippini, Tommaso; Malavolti, Marcella; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2018-04-16

    Selenium, a trace element to which humans are exposed mainly through diet, has been involved in the etiology of human cancer. We investigated the long-term effects of selenium exposure on cancer incidence using data from a natural experiment in Northern Italy. During the 1970s-1980s, in a part of the Italian municipality of Reggio Emilia, residents were inadvertently exposed to unusually high levels of inorganic hexavalent selenium (selenate) through drinking water. We followed the exposed residents for 28years, generating data on incidence (when available) and mortality rates for selected cancer sites; the remaining municipal residents comprised the unexposed (reference) group. We observed no substantial difference in overall cancer incidence comparing exposed and unexposed cohorts. We detected, however, a higher incidence of cancer at some sites, and for a few of them, namely cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, melanoma, urinary tract and lymphoid tissue, the excess incidence was particularly evident in the first period of follow-up but decreased over time. Overall, these results suggest that consumption of water with levels of selenium in its inorganic hexavalent form close to the European standard, 10μg/L, may have unfavourable effects on cancer incidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  18. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  19. Incidence and hospital mortality of vascular surgery patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective was to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of PMI and MINS in vascular surgical patients admitted to ... Keywords: brain natriuretic peptide, critical illness, myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery, perioperative myocardial infarction .... cerebrovascular accident, smoking within six months) were.

  20. Cancer incidence in Holocaust male survivors-An Israeli cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Goldbourt, Uri

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939). Vital status and cancer incidence in the cohort were determined based on national registries. Socioeconomic level, health behaviors and cancer incidence were compared between the groups and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed hazard risk ratios for cancer by exposure status. All-cause mortality was studied as a competing risk. In total, 241, 682, and 522 cancer cases were diagnosed in the E, PE, and NE, respectively. Compared with the NE, all-site cancer incidence was higher in the E (HR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.97-1.32) but not in the PE. All-cause mortality competed with all-site invasive cancer incidence in the E group (HR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.38). Colorectal and lung cancer seemed to be positively though non-significantly associated with the exposure while prostate cancer was not. Male Holocaust survivors may be at a weakly increased risk for all-site, colorectal and lung cancer. The role of age at exposure and residual confounding should be further investigated. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality (1950–1999) and incidence (1969–1999) in the Eldorado uranium workers cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zablotska, Lydia B., E-mail: Lydia.Zablotska@ucsf.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Lane, Rachel S.D. [Radiation and Health Sciences Division, Directorate of Environmental and Radiation Protection and Assessment, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1P 5S9 (Canada); Frost, Stanley E. [Frost and Frost Consultants, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7H 0A1 (Canada); Thompson, Patsy A. [Radiation and Health Sciences Division, Directorate of Environmental and Radiation Protection and Assessment, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Uranium workers are chronically exposed to low levels of radon decay products (RDP) and gamma (γ) radiation. Risks of leukemia from acute and high doses of γ-radiation are well-characterized, but risks from lower doses and dose-rates and from RDP exposures are controversial. Few studies have evaluated risks of other hematologic cancers in uranium workers. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiation-related risks of hematologic cancers in the cohort of Eldorado uranium miners and processors first employed in 1932–1980 in relation to cumulative RDP exposures and γ-ray doses. The average cumulative RDP exposure was 100.2 working level months and the average cumulative whole-body γ-radiation dose was 52.2 millisievert. We identified 101 deaths and 160 cases of hematologic cancers in the cohort. Overall, male workers had lower mortality and cancer incidence rates for all outcomes compared with the general Canadian male population, a likely healthy worker effect. No statistically significant association between RDP exposure or γ-ray doses, or a combination of both, and mortality or incidence of any hematologic cancer was found. We observed consistent but non-statistically significant increases in risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) mortality with increasing γ-ray doses. These findings are consistent with recent studies of increased risks of CLL and NHL incidence after γ-radiation exposure. Further research is necessary to understand risks of other hematologic cancers from low-dose exposures to γ-radiation. - Highlights: • We analyzed long-term follow-up for hematologic cancers of the Eldorado uranium workers. • Workers were exposed to a unique combination of radon decay products (RDP) and gamma (γ) ray doses. • Exposures to RDP and γ-ray doses were not associated with significantly increased risks of cancers. • Radiation risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and

  2. Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Hans Wijbrand

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature on the incidence and prevalence of and mortality associated with eating disorders. Recent findings General-practice studies shove that the overall incidence rates of anorexia nervosa remained stable during the 1990s,

  3. Females\\' esophagus cancer incidence in Golestan Province, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophagus cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and therefore represents a major problem in public health. The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer ...

  4. Perioperative Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery: Incidence, Mortality, and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelacher, Christian; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Seeberger, Daniela; Sazgary, Lorraine; Marbot, Stella; Lampart, Andreas; Espinola, Jaqueline; Kindler, Christoph; Hammerer, Angelika; Seeberger, Esther; Strebel, Ivo; Wildi, Karin; Twerenbold, Raphael; du Fay de Lavallaz, Jeanne; Steiner, Luzius; Gurke, Lorenz; Breidthardt, Tobias; Rentsch, Katharina; Buser, Andreas; Gualandro, Danielle M; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2018-03-20

    Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) seems to be a contributor to mortality after noncardiac surgery. Because the vast majority of PMIs are asymptomatic, PMI usually is missed in the absence of systematic screening. We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who had a planned postoperative stay of ≥24 hours and were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients received a systematic screening using serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in clinical routine. PMI was defined as an absolute high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T increase of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. Furthermore, mortality was compared among patients with PMI not fulfilling additional criteria (ischemic symptoms, new ECG changes, or imaging evidence of loss of viable myocardium) required for the diagnosis of spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those that did. From 2014 to 2015 we included 2018 consecutive patients undergoing 2546 surgeries. Patients had a median age of 74 years and 42% were women. PMI occurred after 397 of 2546 surgeries (16%; 95% confidence interval, 14%-17%) and was accompanied by typical chest pain in 24 of 397 patients (6%) and any ischemic symptoms in 72 of 397 (18%). Crude 30-day mortality was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-12.0) in patients with PMI versus 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.0) in patients without PMI ( P PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction (280/397, 71%) versus those with at least 1 additional criterion (10.4%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.7, versus 8.7%; 95% CI, 4.2-16.7; P =0.684). PMI is a common complication after noncardiac surgery and, despite early detection during routine clinical screening, is associated with substantial short- and long-term mortality. Mortality seems comparable in patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for

  5. Dynamics and forecast of morbidity and mortality from prostate cancer in St. Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Petrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of primary disease incidence, prevalence and mortality from prostate cancer among men's population of St. Petersburg (normal and age-standardized rates; analyzed their dynamics for 20 years; shows the calculated trend of these indicators up to 2020.

  6. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.  PMID:25119941

  7. [Child mortality from cancer in Colombia, 1985-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Marion; Gamboa, Oscar; Suárez, Amaranto

    2011-07-01

    Determine the magnitude of child mortality from cancer in Colombia and evaluate the trends in its evolution from 1985 to 2008. Mortality in the Colombian population aged 0-14 years from cancer in any site (e.g., leukemia, malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, bone tumors, kidney tumors) during this period was analyzed. The mean change in the variations of cancer mortality trends in this age group was calculated. Deaths from cancer accounted for 3.5% of mortality in children under 15 years of age. During the periods 1985-1989 and 2005-2008 there was a decrease in mortality from cancer in both sexes, with figures dropping from 54.4 deaths per million to 44.8 deaths per million in boys and from 40.9 deaths per million to 37.9 deaths per million in girls. There was a statistically significant decrease in leukemia- and lymphoma-related mortality, whereas mortality associated with cancers of the CNS increased significantly. In spite of slight downward trends in mortality from leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, childhood cancer mortality rates in Colombia remain high. Significant work on treatments for childhood cancer is required to obtain greater success.

  8. [Changes in myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Iceland.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfússon, N; Sigurðsson, G; Agnarsson, U; Guðmundsdóttir, I I; Stefánsdóttir, I; Sigvaldason, H; Guðnason, V

    2001-11-01

    According to public health reports ischaemic heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in Iceland at the beginning of the last century. This death rate increased steadily until the ninety-eighties whereafter it leveled off and started to decline. The objective of the present study is to assess in detail the changes in myocardial infarction attack, incidence and death rate as well as case fatality. Crude death rate from ischaemic heart disease is available from the Statistical Bureau of Iceland from 1911 to 1996 and age and sex standardized death rate from 1951. In this paper, however, the material is mainly from the MONICA Project, a multinational study of myocardial infarction under the auspices of the World Health Organization. The study, in which Iceland has participated since 1981, registers all myocardial infarctions in people aged 25-74 years in the whole country. The registration is performed according to standardized criteria and external quality control was applied throughout by WHO designated quality control centers. The registration now covers the period 1981-1998. The crude death rate in ischaemic heart disease in both sexes combined increased steadily until about 1980 when it accounted for about 30% of deaths. Age and sex specific death rate from these diseases increased from 1951 to about 1970, leveled off for the next 10 years and has since decreased. The MONICA data show a decline of death rate from myocardial infarction of 57% in men aged 25-74 during 1981-1998 and a 51% decline in women. Incidence rate has declined by 40% and 34% in men and women respectively and attack rate by 49% and 44%. Incidence, death rate and case fatality in myocardial infarction in Iceland compares favorably with other European countries. Myocardial infarction incidence and death rates have been declining in Iceland during the last two decades. Case fatality is now among the lowest compared to other countries. Preventive measures are most likely to further reduce

  9. The incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK: a general population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhayat, Fatima; Das-Gupta, Emma; Smith, Chris; McKeever, Tricia; Hubbard, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The acute and chronic leukaemias constitute about 2.5% of all newly diagnosed malignancies and kill over 4000 people/year in the UK, yet there is little accurate up-to-date data on how the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias vary with socio-economic status in the UK. We aimed to quantify the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK and their variation with gender, age, year of diagnosis as well as socio-economic status. Methods All incident cases of leuk...

  10. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Lung Cancer Survivors May Feel Blame Women’s Perceived and Actual Risk of Getting Cancer Colorectal Cancer ... cases) and death rates by sex, racial and ethnic group, age group, U.S. Census region, state, county-level ...

  11. Incidence and histological patterns of thyroid cancer in Sri Lanka 2001-2010: an analysis of national cancer registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajah, Umesh; Fernando, Ashan; Prabashani, Saumyakala; Fernando, Eshani A; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa A

    2018-02-07

    An increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is observed in many developed countries. Increasing incidence may also reflect better reporting or increased diagnostic scrutiny. We conducted this study to examine trends in thyroid cancer incidence and histological patterns in Sri Lanka. A retrospective cohort evaluation of patients with thyroid cancer during 2001-2010 was performed using population based data published from the Sri Lanka National Cancer Registry. Trends in incidence and histological patterns were analysed by age and gender. The age-standardized incidence of thyroid cancer increased from 2.44 per 100,000 in 2001 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.21-2.67) to 5.16 per 100,000 in 2010 (95% CI: 4.85-5.47); a 2.1-fold increase (p < 0.05 for trend). A greater part of this increase is attributable to increase in incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, which increased from 1.64 to 3.61 per 100,000; a 2.2-fold increase (p < 0.05 for trend). Follicular cancer showed lesser, yet a significant increase from 0.56 to 0.95 per 100,000 (p < 0.05). Other varieties of thyroid cancer showed no significant increases in incidence. Trends in the increases in incidence of papillary cancer in females showed a much greater increase compared with males (from 2.45 to 5.60 per 100,000, a 2.28-fold increase in females compared with from 0.82 to 1.55; a 1.89-fold increase in males, p < 0.001). Highest incidence of papillary cancer was observed in 30-39-year age group, which has increased from 5.56 to 12.9 per 100,000; a 2.32-fold increase (p < 0.001). The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Sri Lanka is predominantly due to the increasing incidence of papillary cancers. These trends may reflect increased detection and better reporting, although an inherent increase in the incidence is the likely main contributor. Further studies including tumour stage and mortality may help answer these questions.

  12. Trend analysis of cancer incidence in Japan using data from selected population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Ajiki, Wakiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ioka, Akiko; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2012-02-01

    Population-based cancer registries are operated by over 80% of prefectures in Japan. However, only a limited proportion of the registries can provide long-term incidence data. Here, we aimed to establish a method for monitoring cancer incidence trends in Japan using data from selected prefectures. Based on the availability of long-term (≥ 20 years) high-quality data, we collected incidence data from five prefectures (Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, Osaka, and Nagasaki), which included an annual average of 54,539 primary cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 2004. Cancer mortality data for 1995-2004 were obtained from the vital statistics. Representativeness and homogeneity of the trends were examined by funnel plot analysis of log-linear regression coefficients calculated for the most recent 10 years of data (1995-2004) of age-standardized rates (ASR). The ASR of incidence for five prefectures in total (5-pref total) showed a significant decrease, with an annual percent change (APC) of -1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.4: -0.6) for males and -0.4 (95% CI -0.8: -0.1) for females. Excluding data from Osaka (4-pref total) reversed the decreasing trend; the corresponding APC was +0.4 (95% CI -0.2: +1.0) for males and +0.7 (95% CI +0.5: +0.9) for females. The APCs for the ASR of mortality for the 4-pref total (males, -1.5; females, -1.3) were more representative of nationwide data (males, -1.4 [95% CI -1.7: -1.2]; females, -1.1 [95% CI -1.4: -0.9]) than those for the 5-pref total (males, -1.7; females, -1.4). We conclude that using data from Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, and Nagasaki prefectures, with continuous monitoring of the representativeness of the data, is a provisionally relevant way to evaluate cancer incidence trends in Japan. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Pneumonia after kidney transplant: incidence, risk factors, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sitki; Ersoy, Alparslan; Akalin, Halis

    2014-06-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in recipients of solid-organ transplant. We aimed to determine risk factors for development of pneumonia and associated deaths in kidney transplant recipients. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for all kidney transplant recipients from December 1988, to April 2011. The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was made from symptoms, clinical findings, and chest radiography. The diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia was made according to published criteria. Laboratory and serologic tests, radiographic findings, cultures of respiratory specimens, and tissue biopsies were reviewed. In 406 kidney transplant recipients, there were 82 patients (20%) who had 111 episodes of pneumonia, including 49 nosocomial episodes of pneumonia (44%). Bacterial infections were the most common cause (34 episodes [31%]). In multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with pneumonia episodes were older age, hypertension, cardiac disease, history of acute graft rejection, and not using everolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/prednisolone protocol. There were 28 episodes that resulted in death (25%), including 20 nosocomial episodes (71%). In multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with death from pneumonia episodes were antibiotic use in the previous 3 months, high C-reactive protein, and low albumin. Cutoff values for increased risk of death from pneumonia included C-reactive protein > 10 mg/dL and procalcitonin > 8.8 ng/mL. Recipients of kidney transplant may be at risk for pneumonia and associated death. Nosocomial pulmonary infections may be associated with marked morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients.

  14. Trends in breast cancer mortality in Sweden before and after implementation of mammography screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Haukka

    Full Text Available Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s.We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start.Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22% in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20% in women 40 to 79 years of age.Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.

  15. Predicting mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men by characteristics related to sarcopenia and frailty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, C; Goemaere, S; De Buyser, S

    2018-01-01

    and bone mineral density scores were the most important predictors. INTRODUCTION: Machine learning principles were used to predict 5-year mortality and 3-year incident severe immobility in a population of older men by frailty and sarcopenia characteristics. METHODS: Using prospective data from 1997 on 264......There is an increasing awareness of sarcopenia in older people. We applied machine learning principles to predict mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men through sarcopenia and frailty characteristics. Mortality could be predicted with good accuracy. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...... the most important predictors of immobility. Sarcopenia assessed by lean mass estimates was relevant to mortality prediction but not immobility prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Using advanced statistical models and a machine learning approach 5-year mortality can be predicted with good accuracy using a Bayesian...

  16. Cancer risk and all-cause mortality among Norwegian military United Nations peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Leif Aage; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Borud, Einar Kristian

    2014-08-01

    Media reports of leukaemia and other cancers among European United Nations (UN) peacekeepers who served in the Balkans, and a scientific finding of excess Hodgkin lymphoma among Italian UN peacekeepers who served in Bosnia, suggested a link between cancer incidence and depleted uranium (DU) exposure. This spurred several studies on cancer risk among UN peacekeepers who served in the Balkans. Although these studies turned out to be negative, the debate about possible cancers and other health risks caused by DU exposure continues. The aim of the present study was to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 6076 (4.4% women) Norwegian military UN peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011. The cohort was followed for cancer incidence and mortality from 1999 to 2011. Standardised incidence ratios for cancer (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated from national rates. Sixty-nine cancer cases and 38 deaths were observed during follow-up. Cancer incidence in the cohort was similar to that in the general Norwegian population. No cancers in the overall cohort significantly exceeded incidence rates in the general Norwegian population, but there was an elevated SIR for melanoma of skin in men of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.40). A fivefold increased incidence of bladder cancer was observed among men who served in Kosovo for ≥ 1 year, based on 2 excess cases (SIR=5.27; 95% CI 1.09-15.4). All-cause mortality was half the expected rate (SMR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.67). Our study did not support the suggestion that UN peacekeeping service in Kosovo is associated with increased cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Incidence of childhood cancer among Mexican children registered under a public medical insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Correa-González, Cecilia; Altamirano-Alvarez, Eduardo; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocio; Escamilla-Asian, Gabriela; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Bautista-Marquez, Aurora; Aguilar-Romo, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Prior to 2005, 51% of children in Mexico diagnosed with cancer received no standardized optimal multidisciplinary medical care. A government-subsidized national cancer treatment program was therefore created for these patients and a National Cooperative Childhood Cancer Treatment Group was consequently formed for these patients. Pediatric patients with a proven diagnosis of leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumor and who were registered in the Popular Medical Insurance (PMI) program from January 2007 to December 2010, are described in this report. These patients had been enrolled and registered in one of the 49 nationwide certified medical institutions in Mexico. The national incidence and frequency data for childhood cancers were analyzed for the whole program. At the end of a 4-year study, the analysis revealed that 8,936 children from across Mexico had been diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rate for the PMI patients was 150.3/million/year (2010) for children of 0-18 years. The highest age incidence rate was 51.9 between 0 and 4 years and boys were the predominant group for all types of cancer. The leukemia incidence was 75.3/million/year (2010), and an average frequency of 50.75% throughout the 4 years. The overall mortality rate was measured at 5.4/100,000/year (2010). This study demonstrates a high frequency and incidence of childhood cancer and a beneficial impact of the PMI program over the quality of life in these children. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. The association of breast density with breast cancer mortality in African American and white women screened in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting

  20. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  1. Smoking and mortality in women diagnosed with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollie, Martin; Bille, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is evident that smoking is causing disease and increased mortality in general. Recently published data are now suggesting that smoking might increase both the overall mortality in women diagnosed with breast cancer but also increase their risk of dying from their breast cancer. Met...

  2. Causes of death and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Australian pesticide-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Benke, Geza; Del Monaco, Anthony; Sim, Malcolm R

    2010-04-01

    To determine the rates of mortality and of cancer incidence in a cohort of pesticide-exposed Australian workers. The study cohort was assembled using records of former government occupational health surveillance programs. The cohort was then linked to the Australian national registries of cancer and mortality and analyzed in comparison with the general Australian population. Consistent with a healthy worker effect, we found no overall excesses in mortality or incident cancer. Non-injury-related causes of death were less than expected; however, non-intentional poisoning and suicide mortality were significantly elevated. All types of suicide were elevated, and firearm suicide deaths were significantly in excess. The suicides by poisoning were predominantly associated with pesticides, although other published research suggests this pattern is more often associated with developing countries. This study did not find evidence of a relationship between occupational pesticide exposure and cancer or non-injury-related mortality. However, accidental poisoning and intentional self-harm warrant further investigation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, we present historical and projected cancer incidence frequencies and rates for Canada, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (i.e. basal and squamous carcinomas, in 1983 to 2032. The information is intended to help in planning strategy and allocating resources and infrastructure for future cancer control and health care. Projected changes in cancer incidence rates: From 2003-2007 to 2028-2032, the agestandardized incidence rates (ASIRs for all cancers combined are predicted to decrease in Canadian males by 5%, from 464.8 to 443.2 per 100 000 population, and increase in Canadian females by 4%, from 358.3 to 371.0 per 100 000. The overall decrease in cancer rates in males will be driven by the decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65Endnote * or older and in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older. The overall increase in cancer rates in females reflects the predicted rise in lung cancer rates in women aged 65 or older. The increase also represents the expected increase in cancers of the uterus, thyroid, breast (in females under 45, leukemia, pancreas, kidney and melanoma. The largest changes in ASIRs projected over the 25-year forecasting horizon are increases in thyroid cancer (55% in males and 65% in females and liver cancer in males (43% and decreases in larynx cancer (47% in males and 59% in females, lung cancer in males (34% and stomach cancer (30% in males and 24% in females. The incidence rate of lung cancer in females is projected to continue to rise by 2% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2012 and then start to decrease in the last 20 projection years, by 18%. Breast cancer incidence is expected to change the least (an increase of less than 1% of all cancers in females. The predicted changes in the rates for colorectal cancer are below the medians in all cancers, with a decrease of 6% for both males and females during the entire projection period. The rates for prostate cancer are projected to be stable, based on an

  4. Influence of diabetes mellitus on mortality in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiang; Gu, Chen; Xia, Jiazeng

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumours among women worldwide. Besides, diabetes mellitus is also a major health problem in developed countries. This study explores the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer patients' survival outcomes. A systematic literature search in Embase (http://www.embase.com) and MEDLINE (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) was conducted from January 1960 to April 2014 and systematically identified clinical studies that evaluated the association between breast cancer mortality and diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies investigating the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer patients' survival outcomes were included. Twenty publications were chosen for the meta-analysis, of which 16 studies had all-cause mortality data and 12 studies had breast cancer mortality data. Published from 2001 to 2013, all 20 studies followed a total of 2,645,249 patients including more than 207,832 diabetic patients. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus was associated with a 37% increased risk for all-cause mortality in women with breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-1.41; P = 0.02). Diabetes mellitus was associated with a 17% increased risk for breast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.11-1.22; P diabetes mellitus are at higher risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality after initial breast cancer diagnosis. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  6. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  7. Cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining workers. We evaluated cancer incidence between 1988 and 2010 in a cohort of 40,720 Minnesota taconite mining workers used between 1937 and 1983. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by comparing numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. SIRs for lung cancer by histologic subtypes were also estimated. We adjusted for out-of-state migration and conducted a probabilistic bias analysis for smoking-related cancers. A total of 5700 cancers were identified, including 51 mesotheliomas and 973 lung cancers. The SIRs for lung cancer and mesothelioma were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.2-1.4) and 2.4 (95% CI = 1.8-3.2), respectively. Stomach, laryngeal, and bladder cancers were also elevated. However, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking attenuated the estimates for lung (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), laryngeal (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.6), oral (SIR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.2), and bladder cancers (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1). Taconite workers may have an increased risk for certain cancers. Lifestyle and work-related factors may play a role in elevated morbidity. The extent to which mining-related exposures contribute to disease burden is being investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer incidence in south-east Nigeria: a report from Nnewi Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is the first population based cancer incidence report from a cancer registry in south-east Nigeria. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of some invasive cancers in southeast Nigeria. Methodology: We collected all new cases of invasive cancers between 1st January and 31st December, 2013.

  9. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on mortality and lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence using data from an ongoing cohort study: the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS). The NLCS study was initiated in September 1986 with the enrollment of

  10. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  11. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  12. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%,...... vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas....

  13. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cancer mortality predictions for 2017 in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioli, G; La Vecchia, C; Bertuccio, P; Rodriguez, T; Levi, F; Boffetta, P; Negri, E; Malvezzi, M

    2017-09-01

    From most recent available data, we predicted cancer mortality statistics in selected Latin American countries for the year 2017, with focus on lung cancer. We obtained death certification data from the World Health Organization and population data from the Pan American Health Organization database for all neoplasms and selected cancer sites. We derived figures for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico and Venezuela. Using a logarithmic Poisson count data joinpoint model, we estimated number of deaths and age-standardized (world population) mortality rates in 2017. Total cancer mortality rates are predicted to decline in all countries. The highest mortality rates for 2017 are in Cuba, i.e. 132.3/100 000 men and 93.3/100 000 women. Mexico had the lowest predicted rates, 64.7/100 000 men and 60.6/100 000 women. In contrast, the total number of cancer deaths is expected to rise due to population ageing and growth. Men showed declines in lung cancer trends in all countries and age groups considered, while only Colombian and Mexican women had downward trends. Stomach and (cervix) uteri rates are predicted to continue their declines, though mortality from these neoplasms remains comparatively high. Colorectal, breast and prostate cancer rates were predicted to decline moderately, as well as leukaemias. There was no clear pattern for pancreatic cancer. Between 1990 and 2017 about 420 000 cancer deaths were avoided in 5 of the 7 countries, no progress was observed in Brazil and Cuba. Cancer mortality rates for 2017 in seven selected Latin American countries are predicted to decline, though there was appreciable variability across countries. Mortality from major cancers-including lung and prostate-and all cancers remains comparatively high in Cuba, indicating the need for improved prevention and management.

  15. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Brasso, Klaus; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients...... with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA...... determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-three patients...

  16. Competing risks of cancer mortality and cardiovascular events in individuals with multimorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bayliss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer patients with cardiovascular and other comorbidities are at concurrent risk of multiple adverse outcomes. However, most treatment decisions are guided by evidence from single-outcome models, which may be misleading for multimorbid patients. Objective: We assessed the interacting effects of cancer, cardiovascular, and other morbidity burdens on the competing outcomes of cancer mortality, serious cardiovascular events, and other-cause mortality. Design: We analyzed a cohort of 6,500 adults with initial cancer diagnosis between 2001 and 2008, SEER 5-year survival ≥26%, and a range of cardiovascular risk factors. We estimated the cumulative incidence of cancer mortality, a serious cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular mortality, and other-cause mortality over 5 years, and identified factors associated with the competing risks of each outcome using cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Following cancer diagnosis, there were 996 (15.3% cancer deaths, 328 (5.1% serious cardiovascular events, and 542 (8.3% deaths from other causes. In all, 4,634 (71.3% cohort members had none of these outcomes. Although cancer prognosis had the greatest effect, cardiovascular and other morbidity also independently increased the hazard of each outcome. The effect of cancer prognosis on outcome was greatest in year 1, and the effect of other morbidity was greater in individuals with better cancer prognoses. Conclusion: In multimorbid oncology populations, comorbidities interact to affect the competing risk of different outcomes. Quantifying these risks may provide persons with cancer plus cardiovascular and other comorbidities more accurate information for shared decision-making than risks calculated from single-outcome models.

  17. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  18. Assessing the Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Payton, Marinelle; Miele, Lucio; Fonseca, Duber D.; Lowe, Leroy; Alo, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women aged 40–55 in the United States and currently affects more than one in ten women worldwide. It is also one of the most diagnosed cancers in women both in wealthy and poor countries. Fortunately, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased in recent years due to increased emphasis on early detection and more effective treatments in White population. Although the mortality rates have declined in some ethnic populations, the overall cancer incidence among African American and Hispanic populations has continued to grow. The goal of the present review article was to highlight similarities and differences in breast cancer morbidity and mortality rates primarily among African American women compared to White women in the United States. To reach our goal, we conducted a search of articles in journals with a primary focus on minority health, and authors who had published articles on racial/ethnic disparity related to breast cancer patients. A systematic search of original research was conducted using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer may be attributed to a large number of clinical and non-clinical risk factors including lack of medical coverage, barriers to early detection and screening, more advanced stage of disease at diagnosis among minorities, and unequal access to improvements in cancer treatment. Many African American women have frequent unknown or unstaged breast cancers than White women. These risk factors may explain the differences in breast cancer treatment and survival rate between African American women and White women. New strategies and approaches are needed to promote breast cancer prevention, improve survival rate, reduce breast cancer mortality, and ultimately improve the health outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:28475137

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and mortality among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Harhay, Michael O; Harhay, Meera N

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may foster a tumor microenvironment that promotes cancer recurrence and progression. We examined the relationship between NAFLD and mortality among a sample of cancer survivors. Ultrasonography was used to assess hepatic steatosis, and standardized algorithms were used to define NAFLD. Study endpoints included all-cause, cancer-specific, and cardiovascular-specific mortality. Among 387 cancer survivors, 17.6% had NAFLD. During a median of 17.9 years of follow up, we observed 196 deaths from all causes. In multivariable-adjusted regression models, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.47-4.34; P=0.001]. We observed 86 cancer-specific deaths. In multivariable-adjusted regression models, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality [HR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.46-7.07; P=0.004]. We observed 46 cardiovascular-specific deaths. In multivariable-adjusted regression models, NAFLD was not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-specific mortality [HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.30-3.64, P=0.951]. NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality among cancer survivors. This novel observation warrants replication. Evaluating the efficacy of interventions, such as lifestyle modification through weight loss and exercise, to improve NAFLD in this population may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The incidence of disability pensions and mortality among semi-skilled construction workers in Copenhagen. A retrospective cohort study with two control groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, M; Gøth, S; Hasle, P

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to discover whether the incidence of disability pensions and mortality was higher amongst semi-skilled construction workers (SCW) in Copenhagen than in two control groups from the same geographic area. The population investigated consisted of a fixed cohort of 3537...... of musculoskeletal diseases and cancer in SCW. The number of deaths was recorded from 1/5/75 to 30/11/78. No differences in overall mortality were found among the three groups, although slightly fewer deaths from lung cancer and ischaemic heart diseases and more suicides were observed among the construction workers...

  1. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability...... and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification...

  2. Milk consumption and cancer incidence: a Norwegian prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ursin, G.; Bjelke, E.; Heuch, I.; Vollset, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Relationships between milk intake and cancer incidence were investigated after 11 1/2 years of follow-up of 15,914 individuals. A diagnosis of cancer was made in a total of 1,422 individuals. No association was established with total cancer incidence, in analyses adjusted for sex, age and residential characteristics. However, a strong positive association with milk consumption was observed for cancers of the lymphatic organs (odds ratio 3.4 for greater than or equal to 2 glasses per day vs le...

  3. Recent declines in cancer incidence: related to the Great Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to

  4. Geography of breast cancer incidence according to age & birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, David I; Ford, Chandler; Samociuk, Holly

    2017-06-01

    Geographic variation in breast cancer incidence across Connecticut was examined according to age and birth cohort -specific groups. We assigned each of 60,937 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in Connecticut, 1986-2009, to one of 828 census tracts around the state. Global and local spatial statistics estimated rate variation across the state according to age and birth cohorts. We found the global distribution of incidence rates across places to be more heterogeneous for younger women and later birth cohorts. Concurrently, the spatial scan identified more locations with significantly high rates that pertained to larger proportions of at-risk women within these groups. Geographic variation by age groups was more pronounced than by birth cohorts. Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Lope, Virginia; Vidal, Enrique; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9 th and 10 th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  6. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Model of Lung Cancer Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikhari P. Tharu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this study was to analyze the time trend for lung cancer mortality in the population of the USA by 5 years based on most recent available data namely to 2010. The knowledge of the mortality rates in the temporal trends is necessary to understand cancer burden.Methods Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model was fitted using Poisson regression with histogram smoothing prior to decompose mortality rates based on age at death, period at death, and birth-cohort.Results Mortality rates from lung cancer increased more rapidly from age 52 years. It ended up to 325 deaths annually for 82 years on average. The mortality of younger cohorts was lower than older cohorts. The risk of lung cancer was lowered from period 1993 to recent periods.Conclusions The fitted Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model with histogram smoothing prior is capable of explaining mortality rate of lung cancer. The reduction in carcinogens in cigarettes and increase in smoking cessation from around 1960 might led to decreasing trend of lung cancer mortality after calendar period 1993.

  7. An investigation of the apparent breast cancer epidemic in France: screening and incidence trends in birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Methods Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had experienced different levels of screening intensity. Results There was an 8-fold increase in the number of mammography machines operating in France between 1980 and 2000. Opportunistic and organised screening increased over time. In comparison to age-matched cohorts born 15 years earlier, recent cohorts had adjusted incidence proportion over 11 years that were 76% higher [95% confidence limits (CL 67%, 85%] for women aged 50 to 64 years and 23% higher [95% CL 15%, 31%] for women aged 65 to 79 years. Given that mortality did not change correspondingly, this increase in adjusted 11 year incidence proportion was considered as an estimate of overdiagnosis. Conclusions Breast cancer may be overdiagnosed because screening increases diagnosis of slowly progressing non-life threatening cancer and increases misdiagnosis among women without progressive cancer. We suggest that these effects could largely explain the reported

  8. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and incident cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thyssen, J P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) could have opposing effects on cancer risk, as mutations are associated with both 10% higher serum vitamin D levels, which may protect against cancer, and with impaired skin barrier function, which may lead to higher cancer...... susceptibility. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of the FLG genotype and cancer types in four population-based cohorts. METHODS: A total of 13,376 individuals were genotyped for FLG mutations. Information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Persons with a history of cancer...... at baseline were excluded from prospective analyses. RESULTS: There were 1339 incident cancers (median follow-up 11·4 years). The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FLG mutation carriers vs. wild types were: for any cancer (HR 0·95, 95% CI 0·78-1·16), any cancer excluding nonmelanoma...

  9. Incidence of thyroid cancer in residents surrounding the Three Mile Island nuclear facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J

    2008-04-01

    On March 28, 1979, the worst nuclear exposure incident in U.S. history occurred near Harrisburg, PA. Small quantities of xenon and iodine radioisotopes were released into the environment from the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant. The Pennsylvania Department of Health (PDoH) implemented a TMI Population Registry, including 32,135 individuals within a 5-mile radius of TMI, to track possible health effects to the local population. Although no increase in cancer mortality has been noted in this cohort, cancer incidence has not been tracked. Given the long latency period for the development of thyroid cancer after exposure to low-level radiation exposure, it is plausible that an increase in thyroid cancer incidence might just now be occurring. Retrospective analysis of the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for Thyroid Cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System (EpiQMS) search engine. EpiQMS is an interactive health statistics Website that can produce numbers, rates, graphs, charts, maps, and county profiles using various demographic variables (age, sex, race, etc.) from birth, death, cancer, and population datasets for the state and counties or regions of Pennsylvania. Eighteen years of data (1985-2002) on thyroid cancer incidence were obtained from the PDoH. The three at-risk counties of Dauphin, York, and Lancaster were analyzed with regard to observed numbers of thyroid cancer cases versus expected incidence. Although the nuclear accident at TMI occurred in 1979, 1985 was chosen as the starting point for data analysis because that is when the PDoH began maintaining cancer incidence records. In the first year available for evaluation (1985), there were 11 new thyroid cancer cases in each of the at-risk counties (Dauphin, York, Lancaster). By 2002, the incidence had increased to 29 in Dauphin County, 81 in Lancaster County, and 69 in York County. The increase in thyroid cancer in Dauphin County is not above what would be expected for both

  10. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  11. Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.; Egenvall, A.; Hagman, R.; Gustas, P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Meij, B.P.; Lagerstedt, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2012, Vol. 240, No. 11, Pages 1300-1309 doi: 10.2460/javma.240.11.1300 Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration–related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs Niklas Bergknut, Dr med vet, PhD; Agneta Egenvall, Dr

  12. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hecke, M.V.; Dekker, J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Polak, B.C.P.; Fuller, J.H.; Sjolie, A.K.; Kofinis, A.; Rottiers, R.; Porta, M.; Chaturvedi, N.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To study the relationship of nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in type 1 diabetic patients and, additionally, the role of cardiovascular risk factors in these associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This

  13. Acute myocardial infarction incidence and hospital mortality : routinely collected national data versus linkage of national registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, Huberdina L.; Kardaun, Jan W. P. F.; Gevers, Evelien; de Bruin, Agnes; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Reitsma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective To compare levels of and trends in incidence and hospital mortality of first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on routinely collected hospital morbidity data and on linked registers. Cases taken from routine hospital data are a mix of patients with recurrent and first

  14. Colder environments are associated with a greater cancer incidence in the female population of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Sharma, Tanu; Panwar, Mahaveer S; Sharma, Devesh; Bundel, Rashmi; Hamilton, Ryan T; Radosevich, James A; Mandal, Chandi C

    2017-10-01

    Cancer incidence and/or mortality among individuals varies with diet, socio-culture, ethnicity, race, gender, and age. Similarly, environmental temperature modulates many biological functions. To study the effect of environment temperature on cancer incidence, the US population was selected. Because, county-wise cancer incidence rate data of various anatomical site-specific cancers and different races/ethnicities for both males and females are available. Moreover, the differences amongst the aforementioned factors among individuals are much less, as compared to the world population. Statistical analysis showed a negative correlation between the average annual temperature and cancer incidence rate at all anatomical sites and individually for 13 types (out of 16 types) of anatomical site-specific cancer incidence rates (e.g. uterine, bladder, thyroid, breast, esophagus, ovary, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, brain, pancreas, etc.) for females. Further analysis found a similar inverse trend in all races/ethnicities of the female population but not in all male races/ethnicities or anatomical site-specific cancers. Moreover, the majority of the counties having the top-most cancer incidence rate in females are located above the latitude 36.5°N. These findings indicate that living in a cold county in the United States might have a higher risk of cancer irrespective of cancer type (except cervical and liver) and races/ethnicities for females but not in all such cases for the male population.

  15. Smoking and risk for diabetes incidence and mortality in Korean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sun Ha; Foong, Athena W; Hur, Nam Wook; Samet, Jonathan M

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that smoking is a cause of type 2 diabetes. We explored the association of cigarette smoking with diabetes incidence and mortality in a large cohort of Koreans. A 14-year prospective cohort study was performed on 1,236,443 Korean men and women, aged 30-95 years at baseline, who underwent standardized biennial medical examinations provided by the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC). Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of outpatient visits, hospitalization, or prescription medication treatment for diabetes, as captured in the NHIC database. Diabetes mortality was obtained through the national statistical office. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations of smoking with indicators of diabetes and diabetes mortality. Smoking was significantly associated with increased risk for diabetic outpatient treatment, hospitalization, and mortality among both men and women, and the risk among current smokers increased modestly with the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P(trend) men than in women with evidence for effect modification by sex and age (P(interaction) < 0.0001). Our study provides longitudinal evidence that smoking increases the risk of incident diabetes and mortality.

  16. Incidence of and mortality from kidney disease in over 600,000 insured Swedish dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, L; Ljungvall, I; Egenvall, A; Syme, H; Elliott, J; Häggström, J

    2015-06-20

    Kidney disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Knowledge about the epidemiology of kidney disease in the dog population is valuable and large-scale epidemiological studies are needed. The aim of the present study was to use insurance data to estimate kidney-related morbidity and mortality in the Swedish dog population. Insurance company data from insured dogs during the years 1995-2006 were studied retrospectively. Incidence and mortality were calculated for the whole group of dogs as well as divided by sex and breed. The total number of veterinary care insured dogs was 665,245. The total incidence of kidney disease in this group of dogs was 15.8 (15.3-16.2) cases/10,000 dog-years at risk. The number of dogs in the life insurance was 548,346 and in this group the total kidney-related mortality was 9.7 (9.3-10.2) deaths/10,000 dog-years at risk. The three breeds with the highest incidence of kidney disease were the Bernese mountain dog, miniature schnauzer and boxer. The three breeds with the highest mortality caused by kidney disease were the Bernese mountain dog, Shetland sheepdog and flat-coated retriever. In conclusion, the epidemiological information provided in this study concerning kidney disease in dogs can provide valuable information for future research. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Quantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both. The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data.

  18. Secular trends in incidence and mortality of bacteraemia in a Danish county 1981-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Kristensen, Brian

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the incidence and mortality of bacteraemia in the County of North Jutland and examined factors that could explain the changes observed. A population-based survey of bacteraemia was conducted in the Danish County of North Jutland during 1981-1994. Data were retrieved from a regional...... bacteraemia register. The mortality was determined through linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 7198 bacteraemias were detected, and the annual incidence increased from 76 per 100,000 person-years in 1981 to 153 in 1994. One major determining factor was a change in blood culture system...... with a higher volume of blood per sample, but annual numbers of blood cultures also increased. The 30-day mortality rate increased from 17 to 40 per 100,000 person-years during the study period, whereas the case-fatality rate remained constant (23.6%; 95% confidence intervals 22.6%-24.6%). The number...

  19. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  20. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  1. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Dalby, Tine; Weinberger, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    or expected as a part of natural, cyclical variations. METHODS: This was a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study based on the linkage of laboratory surveillance data and the Danish Civil Registration System. Changes in IPD incidence and mortality during baseline (2000-2007), 7-valent pneumococcal...... from natural cyclical patterns. Serotype 19A significantly increased following PCV7's introduction, but the incidence declined toward baseline in 2012. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13 has brought greater benefits than we had expected in our setting. We observed a further decline on IPD incidence shortly after...... the shift from PCV7 to PCV13 in the national immunization program. This decline was accompanied by a substantial population-level decline in pneumococcal-related mortality of nearly 30% among nonvaccinated persons....

  2. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare occupational variation of the risk of bladder cancer in the Nordic countries and Canada. Methods: In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 73 653 bladder cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 141.6 million person......: Elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed among hairdressers, printers, sales workers, plumbers, painters, miners and laundry workers. Teachers and agricultural workers had reduced risk of bladder cancer in both cohorts. Chimney-sweeps, tobacco workers and waiters had about 1.5-fold risk in the Nordic...... countries; no risk estimates for these categories were given from the CanCHEC cohort. Conclusion: We observed different occupational patterns in risk of bladder cancer in Nordic countries and Canada. The only occupation with similarly increased risk was observed among sales workers. Differences in smoking...

  3. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Wagner

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease.A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package.The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0. Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5, with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4.The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  4. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R; Wagner, Ryan; Twine, Rhian; Connor, Myles; Collinson, Mark; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Kakooza, Angelina; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyo-mughenyi, Donald; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Chabi, Martin; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Akpalu, Albert; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Neville, Brian; Sander, Josemir W; White, Steve; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  5. Rising incidence of breast cancer among female cancer survivors: implications for surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); W.J. Louwman; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe number of female cancer survivors has been rising rapidly. We assessed the occurrence of breast cancer in these survivors over time. We computed incidence of primary breast cancer in two cohorts of female cancer survivors with a first diagnosis of cancer at ages 30+ in the periods

  6. The mortality and cancer experience of New Zealand Vietnam war veterans: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, David; Cox, Brian; Broughton, John; Tong, Darryl

    2013-09-03

    The aim was to observe the patterns of mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand Vietnam veterans. The objectives were to assess whether the patterns of disease observed were consistent with those associated with military service in Vietnam, and similar to the patterns identified in other groups of Vietnam veterans. A historical cohort study. Veterans, identified from service records, with Vietnam service between 1964 and 1972. Of the 3322 survivors of Vietnam service, we followed up 2783 (84%). Standardised mortality and incidence ratios (SMRs and SIRs, respectively) were calculated based on the number of deaths and cancer registrations observed, those expected being based on New Zealand national rates. All cause mortality was significantly reduced (SMR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) and cancer incidence non-significantly increased (SIR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.16). The risk of mortality from cancers of the head and neck (SMR 2.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.93); oral cavity pharynx and larynx (SMR 2.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.81) and the incidence of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) (SIR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.20) were, however, significantly increased. Other lymphohaematopoietic disorders, specifically multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease, showed non-significant mortality excesses, reflected by a similar increase in incidence. Service in the Vietnam war was associated with defoliant herbicide exposure, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, picloram and cacodylic acid. Subsequent reviews of mechanistic, animal and epidemiological evidence led to certain conditions being deemed compensable. The pattern of mortality and cancer incidence is not at odds with the list of compensable conditions and consistent with that found in Australian veterans serving in the same area of Vietnam, but also consistent with smoking and the healthy soldier effect. In common with the Australian experience, this is the only veterans group to show a significant

  7. The Mediterranean Diet Reduces the Risk and Mortality of the Prostate Cancer: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Capurso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world among men, and is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among men. The aim of our review was to analyze observational and case–control studies to point out the effects of overweight and diets components on the cancer risk, particularly on risk of prostate cancer, and the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD on the reduction of risk and mortality of prostate cancer. It is known that incidence and progression of cancer is multifactorial. Cancer of the large bowel, breast, endometrium, and prostate are due also to a high body mass index and to high consumption of high carcinogenic dietary factors, as red and processed meat or saturated fats rich foods, and to a low consumption of vegetables and fruits. Previous meta-analysis suggested that high adherence to diet model based on the traditional MD pattern gives a significant protection from incidence and mortality of cancer of all types. The main component of the MD is olive oil, consumed in high amount by Mediterranean basin populations. In addition, phenolic compounds exert some strong chemo-preventive effects, which are due to several mechanisms, including both antioxidant effects and actions on cancer cell signaling and cell cycle progression and proliferation. The protective effect of the MD against the prostate cancer is also due to the high consumption of tomato sauce. Lycopene is the most relevant functional component in tomatoes; after activating by the cooking of tomato sauce, it exerts antioxidant properties by acting in the modulation of downregulation mechanisms of the inflammatory response. MD, therefore, represents a healthy dietary pattern in the context of a healthy lifestyle habits. In conclusion, our narrative review allows us to reaffirm how nutritional factors play an important role in cancer initiation and development, and how a healthy dietary pattern represented by MD and its components, especially olive oil

  8. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  9. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (pstomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  11. Reproductive factors and incidence of endometrial cancer in U.S. black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that reproductive history is a strong determinant of endometrial cancer risk among white women. Less is known about how reproductive history affects endometrial cancer risk among black women, whose incidence and mortality differ from white women. We investigated the associations of age at menarche, parity, timing of births, and menopausal age with endometrial cancer in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Every 2 years from 1995 to 2013, 47,555 participants with intact uteri at baseline in 1995 completed questionnaires on reproductive and medical history, and lifestyle factors. Self-reported cases of endometrial cancer were confirmed by medical record, cancer registry, or death certificate when available. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During 689,501 person-years of follow-up, we identified 300 incident cases of endometrial cancer. The strongest associations with endometrial cancer were found for early age at menarche (black women were generally consistent with those in studies of white women.

  12. Residential segregation and lung cancer mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayanga, Awori J; Zeliadt, Steve B; Backhus, Leah M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between race and lung cancer mortality and the effect of residential segregation in the United States. A retrospective, population-based study using data obtained from the 2009 Area Resource File and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Each county in the United States. Black and white populations per US county. A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and log link was used to examine the association between residential segregation and lung cancer mortality from 2003 to 2007 for black and white populations. Our primary independent variable was the racial index of dissimilarity. The index is a demographic measure that assesses the evenness with which whites and blacks are distributed across census tracts within each county. The score ranges from 0 to 100 in increasing degrees of residential segregation. RESULTS The overall lung cancer mortality rate was higher for blacks than whites (58.9% vs 52.4% per 100 000 population). Each additional level of segregation was associated with a 0.5% increase in lung cancer mortality for blacks (P segregation) and the highest levels of segregation (≥60% segregation), respectively. In contrast, the adjusted lung cancer mortality rates for whites decreased with increasing levels of segregation. Lung cancer mortality is higher in blacks and highest in blacks living in the most segregated counties, regardless of socioeconomic status.

  13. Incidence and frequency rates of childhood cancer in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the extent of paediatric malignancy in an African country and to compare these findings wjth paediatric cancer rates in other countries. Design. A retrospective descriptive study which calculated incidence and frequency rates from the data obtained from a 6-year survey of childhood cancer in. Namibia.

  14. Second cancer risk and mortality in men treated with radiotherapy for stage I seminoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwich, A; Fossa, S D; Huddart, R; Dearnaley, D P; Stenning, S; Aresu, M; Bliss, J M; Hall, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with stage I testicular seminoma are typically diagnosed at a young age and treatment is associated with low relapse and mortality rates. The long-term risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in this patient group are therefore particularly relevant. Methods: We identified patients and obtained treatment details from 12 cancer centres (11 United Kingdom, 1 Norway) and ascertained second cancers and mortality through national registries. Data from 2629 seminoma patients treated with radiotherapy between 1960 and 1992 were available, contributing 51 151 person-years of follow-up. Results: Four hundred and sixty-eight second cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) were identified. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–1.76, P<0.0001). The SIR was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.39–1.68, P<0.0001) when the 32 second testicular cancers were also excluded. This increase was largely due to an excess risk to organs in the radiation field; for pelvic–abdominal sites the SIR was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.43–1.83), with no significant elevated risk of cancers in organs elsewhere. There was no overall increase in mortality with a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98–1.14), despite an increase in the cancer-specific mortality (excluding testicular cancer deaths) SMR of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.30–1.65, P<0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of stage I seminoma is excellent and it is important to avoid conferring long-term increased risk of iatrogenic disease such as radiation-associated second cancers. PMID:24263066

  15. Statin use and mortality among ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, Freija; Kjær Hansen, Merete; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    Statin use has been suggested to improve prognosis in cancer patients, however, for ovarian cancer, the evidence is sparse. From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified patients aged 30–84 years with a histologically verified first diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2013....... Data on filled prescriptions, death, and potential confounding factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between post-diagnostic statin use and all......-cause or ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Among 4,419 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, post-diagnostic statin use was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.78–1.04) or ovarian cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76–1.08). There was little evidence...

  16. History of uterine leiomyomata and incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Radin, Rose G; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL), benign tumors of the myometrium, are influenced by sex steroid hormones. A history of UL diagnosis has been associated with a higher risk of uterine malignancies. The relation between UL and breast cancer, another hormonally responsive cancer, has not been studied. We investigated the association between self-reported physician-diagnosed UL and incidence of breast cancer in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. We followed 57,747 participants without a history of breast cancer from 1995 to 2013. UL diagnoses were reported at baseline and biennially. Breast cancer was reported on biennial questionnaires and confirmed by pathology data from medical records or cancer registries. Cox regression was used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) and adjust for potential confounders. There were 2,276 incident cases of breast cancer (1,699 invasive, 394 in situ, and 183 unknown) during 879,672 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable IRR for the overall association between history of UL and breast cancer incidence was 0.99 (95 % CI 0.90-1.08), with similar results for ER + (IRR = 1.03) and ER - breast cancer (IRR = 1.05). IRRs for early diagnosis of UL (before age 30) were slightly above 1.0, with IRRs of 1.14 (95 % CI 0.99-1.31) for overall breast cancer, 1.14 (95 % CI 0.93-1.40) for ER + breast cancer, and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.89-1.61) for ER - breast cancer. IRRs for early diagnosis of UL were elevated for breast cancer diagnosed before 40 years of age (IRR = 1.39, 95 % CI 0.97-1.99) and premenopausal breast cancer (IRR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.01-1.58). No consistent patterns in risk were observed across estrogen receptor subtypes, and IRRs did not differ appreciably within strata of BMI, female hormone use, mammography recency, or family history of breast cancer. The present study of US black women suggests that a history of UL diagnosis is unrelated to the incidence of breast cancer overall. The

  17. Trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Dempsey, Karen; Garling, Lindy; Guthridge, Steven

    2016-11-21

    To assess trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory. Retrospective analysis of population-based cancer registration data. New cancer diagnoses in the NT, 1991-2012. Age-adjusted incidence rates; rate ratios comparing incidence in NT Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with that for other Australians; 5-year survival; multivariable Poisson regression of excess mortality. The incidence of most cancers in the NT non-Indigenous population was similar to that for other Australians. For the NT Indigenous population, the incidence of cancer at several sites was much higher (v other Australians: lung, 84% higher; head and neck, 325% higher; liver, 366% higher; cervix, 120% higher). With the exception of cervical cancer (65% decrease), incidence rates in the Indigenous population did not fall between 1991-1996 and 2007-2012. The incidence of several other cancers (breast, bowel, prostate, melanoma) was much lower in 1991-1996 than for other Australians, but had increased markedly by 2007-2012 (breast, 274% increase; bowel, 120% increase; prostate, 116% increase). Five-year survival was lower for NT Indigenous than for NT non-Indigenous patients, but had increased for both populations between 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. The incidence of several cancers that were formerly less common in NT Indigenous people has increased, without a concomitant reduction in the incidence of higher incidence cancers (several of which are smoking-related). The excess burden of cancer in this population will persist until lifestyle risks are mitigated, particularly by reducing the extraordinarily high prevalence of smoking.

  18. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yao; Li, Shuang; Yang, Ru; Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%), "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1%) and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  19. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jia

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area.A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening.Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%, "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1% and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4% were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics.Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  20. Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ha, Eunhee; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Sungmi; Moon, Byung-In; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

  1. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney L. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008–2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp. and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.. Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates.

  2. [Incidence and mortality of children and teenagers with AIDS: challenges in the southern region of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio Cristiano de; Ferraz, Rosemeire de Olanda; Nascimento, Juliana Luporini do; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the time trend of coefficients of incidence and mortality associated with AIDS in children and adolescents. An ecological time trend study was conducted among individuals under 14 living in the regional context of high incidence of AIDS - Porto Alegre and the State of Rio Grande do Sul - from 1996 to 2012. For this purpose, a segmented regression model was adjusted for age categories and place of residence. AIDS morbidity and mortality indicators in Porto Alegre are still higher than those registered in the State, the southern region and other areas of the country. In Porto Alegre, 59.1% of cases (371/628) occurred in children under four years of age, the incidence showed peaks in the period and the mortality dropped from 9 to 2 per 100,000. A significant decreasing in annual percentage change in mortality was observed especially in children under 1 year of age in Porto Alegre. This drop may be related to prevention and treatment of pregnant women. The challenge is to identify possible fragilities of the STD/AIDS Program and its vulnerable points in order to make specific interventions and investments with a greater impact potential.

  3. Cancer incidence in the industrial corridor: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, V W; Andrews, P A; Wu, X C; Correa, C N; Fontham, E T

    1998-04-01

    Because of the high density of industries along the Lower Mississippi River, there is a concern about adverse impact on health, including cancer, among residents in these parishes. This study provides an update of cancer incidence in the Industrial Corridor for the period 1989-93. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were calculated for the seven-parish study area from Baton Rouge down to, but not including, New Orleans. Rates were also computed for the entire state of Louisiana and for the combined Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Cancer incidence rates for the Industrial Corridor are either similar to, or lower than, the combined SEER rates for most of the common cancers as well as for rare tumors. The only two exceptions are lung cancer in white males and kidney cancer in white females that are significantly elevated when compared to the SEER averages. Significantly lower rates are found among white males for cancers of kidney, brain, and nervous system, and melanoma; among black males, cancers of all sites combined, oral cavity, stomach, rectum, and prostate, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; among white females, cancers of all sites combined, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, bladder, and melanoma; and among black females, cancers of all sites combined, oral cavity, lung, breast, ovary, and melanoma. The persistent excess of lung cancer has led to the development of a multi-agency project to evaluate the impact of potential environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and their interactions on lung cancer risk. The findings also confirm the urgent need to include and strengthen tobacco prevention and cessation programs in our cancer control activities.

  4. Incidence trends and age distribution of colorectal cancer by subsite in Guangzhou, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Li, Ke; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Shen, Ji-Chuan; Dong, Hang; Gu, Yu-Ting; Liu, Hua-Zhang

    2015-08-06

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in China. The incidence of CRC has been increasing in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence trends and the age distribution of CRC by subsite in Guangzhou between 2000 and 2011. A total of 22,432 incident cases of CRC between 2000 and 2011 from Guangzhou Cancer Registry were identified. Crude incidence and age-standardized rates (ASRs), using the Segi's world standard population, were calculated for CRC and CRC subsites. The incidence trend was analyzed and the annual percentage change (APC) in incidence was calculated by using JoinPoint software. The crude incidence increased significantly from 23.4/10(5) in 2000 to 37.4/10(5) in 2011 for males and from 20.9/10(5) to 30.5/10(5) for females. The ASRs of CRC incidence stabilized during the period of 2000-2011 for both males and females. The ages at the onset of CRC for both males and females during 2010-2011 were significantly higher compared with those during 2000-2002 (males: t = 1.95, P = 0.05; females: t = 6.03, P 2000-2004 and by 1.68% annually (P = 0.03) during 2005-2011. For females aged 65 years and older, the CRC incidence increased by 5.77% annually (P = 0.03) during 2000-2004. There were no significant changes for the CRC incidences in males aged 49 and younger and 65 years and older and females aged 64 years and younger during 2000-2004, or for those in all females as well as males aged 49 years and younger and 65 years and older during 2005-2011. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly for both males and females between the periods of 2000-2002 and 2010-2011. The ASRs of descending colon and sigmoid colon cancer incidences increased significantly for females during 2005-2011 (APC, 5.51% and 1.08%, respectively, both P 2000 and 2011 because of the aging, whereas the ASRs kept stable. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly. Further surveillance

  5. Age-specific trends in incidence, mortality and comorbidities of heart failure in Denmark 1995-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mia N.; Køber, Lars; Weeke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    the incidence and the mortality rates of heart failure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the age-specific trends in the incidence and 1-year mortality rates following a first time diagnosis of heart failure in Denmark between 1995 and 2012. METHODS: -We included all Danish individuals over the age of 18 years...

  6. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  7. Surgical inpatient cancer-related mortality in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To present the cancer mortality patterns of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methods: A retrospective study of all patients who died from cancer during admission into the surgical wards of UPTH from 2007 to 2012. Data on demography and events leading to death were collected from all surgical ...

  8. Early changes in serum albumin: impact on 2-year mortality in incident hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselly Rosa Modesto Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction/objective: We evaluated the predictability of early changes in serum albumin (sAlb on the two-year mortality of incident hemodialysis patients. Methods: Observational, longitudinal retrospective study using the database of Fresenius Medical Care of Latin America. Adult patients starting dialysis from January/2000 to June/2004, from 25 centers were included. Changes in sAlb during the first 3 months on hemodialysis were used as the main predictor. The outcome was death from any cause. Results: 1,679 incident patients were included. They were 52 ± 15 years old, 58.7% male and 21.5% diabetic, with a median sAlb of 38 g/L (bromocresol green. 923 patients had sAlb 38.0 g/L (Adequate sAlb Group. The mortality was significantly higher in Low sAlb Group (17% vs. 11%, p < 0.001. Early changes in sAlb significantly affected two-year mortality. Factoring the Kaplan Meier curve of Low sAlb Group by the presence of an increase in sAlb uncovered of a statistically significant difference in mortality favoring the ones whose sAlb went up (19% vs. 15%, p = 0.043. Differently, patients from Adequate sAlb Group with a decrease in their sAlb had a statistically higher mortality rate (13% vs. 8%, p = 0.029. Conclusions: Early sAlb changes showed a significant predictive power on mortality at 2 years in incident hemodialysis patients. Those with low initial sAlb may have a better prognosis if their sAlb rises. In contrast, patients with satisfactory initial levels can have a worsening of their prognosis in the case of an early reduction in sAlb.

  9. Incidence and Mortality of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Benghazi-Libya in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik R. Elmehdawi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis and the mortality rate at Benghazi city.Methods: A cross-sectional study of the records of all patients admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis to all Benghazi hospitals (governmental and private between 1st of January and 31st of December 2007.Results: The annual incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was 41.7 episodes/100,000 populations with a mean age of 33±20.1 years (2-93. Around 52% of all the episodes occurred in males and 2.6% of adult Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in pregnant females. Type-2 diabetics were responsible for 27.7% of all episodes. The commonest precipitating factor in the whole study group was dose disruption (35%, followed by infection (20%. The most common presenting symptoms were gastrointestinal, whilst 3.5% of the patients were comatose at presentation. The overall mortality was 11.7% and there was no significant difference in mortality between males and females (11% vs. 12.6%; p=0.6; however, type-2 diabetics showed a significantly higher mortality rate (29.3% vs. 4.9%; p=0.000.Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common condition in Libya with a high mortality rate and type-2 diabetics constitute a considerable number of the cases.

  10. Postdiagnosis statin use and mortality in danish patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dehlendorff, Christian; Skriver, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    after diagnosis. Postdiagnosis statin use was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.89) for prostate cancer mortality and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.85) for all-cause mortality. Similar results were observed in 1-year and 5-year sensitivity analyses. No substantial effect measure...... modification was found with estimated dose or type of statin, clinical stage, Gleason score, or with prediagnosis statin use; however, patients who were diagnosed early in the study period or who underwent radical prostatectomy or endocrine therapy exhibited slightly lower HRs for prostate cancer mortality...... and Methods From nationwide Danish registries, we identified all patients with incident prostate adenocarcinoma from 1998 to 2011 and retrieved data on tumor and patient characteristics, drug use, and primary treatment. We defined postdiagnosis use (two or more prescriptions) of statins as a time...

  11. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic...... heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay...

  12. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  13. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Bennett, Derrick A; Krishnamurthi, Rita V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality...... incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and healthy years lost due to disability were estimated as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Data inputs included all available information on stroke incidence, prevalence and death and case fatality rates...... ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) incidence (per 100,000) in men (IS 132.77 (95% UI 125.34-142.77); HS 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)) exceeded those of women (IS 98.85 (95% UI 92.11-106.62); HS 45.48 (95% UI 42.43-48.53)). IS incidence rates were lower in 2013 compared with 1990 rates for both...

  14. Mortality and cancer morbidity in a cohort of Canadian petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R; Schnatter, A; Drummond, I; Murray, N; Thompson, F; Katz, A; Jorgensen, G; Nicolich, M; Dahlman, D; Theriault, G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess mortality and cancer morbidity in Canadian petroleum workers and explore exposure-response relations for specific petroleum agents. Methods: A total of 25 292 employees hired between 1964 and 1994 were linked to the Canadian tumour registry and national mortality database. Exposure-response trends were assessed for hydrocarbon solvents/fuels, hydrocarbon lubricants, petroleum coke/spent catalyst, and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Results: External comparison analyses (mortality and incidence) showed deficits for all causes and all malignant neoplasms combined and were consistent with expectation for most malignant and non-malignant sites analysed. Gall bladder cancer mortality was increased among males based on four deaths, but cases had no common job assignments and the increase was focused in workers employed petroleum coke/spent catalyst exposure and lung cancer. While both findings have a degree of biologic plausibility, the H2S association, which exhibited a clearer exposure-response pattern, could be subject to unmeasured confounders. Additionally, interpretation was complicated by the high correlation between hydrocarbon and H2S exposures. With regard to lung cancer, the analysis could not adequately control for smoking, was based on small numbers, and exhibited a tenuous exposure-response pattern. Conclusion: The findings for mesothelioma suggest the need for continued attention to asbestos in the petroleum industry. The relation between accidental deaths and H2S exposure deserves closer scrutiny in similarly exposed populations. Further analyses of lung cancer are underway and will be reported separately. PMID:14634182

  15. Characterization of Cancer Mortality in Cruces in the Decade 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Ayo Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer is a major health problem due its high morbidity and mortality. It presents a major social challenge, since its incidence increases with economic and industrial development of the countries. Objectives: to characterize cancer mortality in Cruces in the decade 2002-2011 and to determine mortality rates per year. Methods: a retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The universe consisted of 530 patients who died of cancer in the interval indicated. Data were obtained through the Primary Register of Deaths of the Statistics Department in the municipality. The variables were: age, sex, place of death, primary cause of death and survival time for the disease. Results: male patients aged 73-90 years who died of lung cancer in 2006 predominated. The most frequent place of death was home. Time interval between diagnosis and time of death was several years. Conclusions: cancer is a major health problem for the population in Cruces, showing increasing levels of mortality mostly related to population aging.

  16. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do s...... subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer....

  17. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  18. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  19. Opportunistic screening strategy for cutaneous melanoma does not change the incidence of nodular and thick lesions nor reduce mortality: a population-based descriptive study in the European region with the highest incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Andrea; Leoni-Parvex, Sandra; Peverelli, Simona; Mazzola, Paola; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Spitale, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present population-based descriptive study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality trends for melanoma to gain insights on the effectiveness of opportunistic secondary prevention strategies. Data on all invasive cutaneous melanoma cases occurring between 1996 and 2011 were retrieved from the Ticino Cancer Registry, southern Switzerland. The European age-standardized incidence rates were computed by the period of diagnosis, Breslow thickness and histological types. Trends in incidence and mortality rates were measured as the annual per cent change (APC). A total of 1230 patients had a diagnosis of invasive cutaneous melanoma. Cases were categorized as follows: superficial spreading melanoma (55.7%), nodular melanoma (10.0%), lentigo maligna melanoma (5.5%), melanoma not otherwise specified (25.2%) and other types (3.6%). The incidence rate of invasive melanoma rose from 17.4 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996-2003 to 20.6 in 2004-2011, with an overall APC of +2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.8%, +5.1%]. An increase in incidence was observed for superficial spreading melanoma (APC = +2.9%; 95% CI: -1.1%, +7.0%) and thin melanomas (i.e. ≤ 1.00 mm) (APC = +3.4%; 95% CI: +0.2%, +6.7%), whereas we detected a descriptive growing incidence of thick melanomas (APC = +2.1%; 95% CI: -1.4%, +5.8%). Mortality trend analysis revealed constant rates throughout the study period (APC = -1.0%; 95% CI: -5.5%, +3.7%). This population-based study confirms that in a country with the highest incidence of cutaneous melanomas, that is, Switzerland, the opportunistic screening strategy does not change the incidence of thick melanomas nor the overall mortality. This study suggests there is still a need for public health efforts in primary and secondary prevention.

  20. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  1. A statewide investigation of geographic lung cancer incidence patterns and radon exposure in a low-smoking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Judy Y; Fowler, Brynn; Ding, Qian; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Akerley, Wallace; Wu, Yelena; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Harding, Garrett; Kepka, Deanna

    2018-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Utah despite having the nation's lowest smoking rate. Radon exposure and differences in lung cancer incidence between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas may explain this phenomenon. We compared smoking-adjusted lung cancer incidence rates between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties by predicted indoor radon level, sex, and cancer stage. We also compared lung cancer incidence by county classification between Utah and all SEER sites. SEER*Stat provided annual age-adjusted rates per 100,000 from 1991 to 2010 for each Utah county and all other SEER sites. County classification, stage, and sex were obtained from SEER*Stat. Smoking was obtained from Environmental Public Health Tracking estimates by Ortega et al. EPA provided low ( 4 pCi/L) indoor radon levels for each county. Poisson models calculated overall, cancer stage, and sex-specific rates and p-values for smoking-adjusted and unadjusted models. LOESS smoothed trend lines compared incidence rates between Utah and all SEER sites by county classification. All metropolitan counties had moderate radon levels; 12 (63%) of the 19 nonmetropolitan counties had moderate predicted radon levels and 7 (37%) had high predicted radon levels. Lung cancer incidence rates were higher in nonmetropolitan counties than metropolitan counties (34.8 vs 29.7 per 100,000, respectively). Incidence of distant stage cancers was significantly higher in nonmetropolitan counties after controlling for smoking (16.7 vs 15.4, p = 0.02*). Incidence rates in metropolitan, moderate radon and nonmetropolitan, moderate radon counties were similar. Nonmetropolitan, high radon counties had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer compared to nonmetropolitan, moderate radon counties after adjustment for smoking (41.7 vs 29.2, p National studies should account for geographic and environmental factors when examining nonmetropolitan/metropolitan differences in lung

  2. Socioeconomic position and mortality among patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Men with low socioeconomic position experience higher mortality after a prostate cancer diagnosis compared to men with a higher socioeconomic position, however, the specific mediators of this association are unclear. We therefore evaluated the influence of potential mediators...... on the association between socioeconomic position, and prostate cancer-specific and all-cause death in prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of prostate cancer patients in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. All patients completed questionnaires and anthropometric...... ratios (HR) for all-cause and prostate cancer-specific death according to socioeconomic position and potential mediators. RESULTS: We included 953 prostate cancer patients identified among 27 179 male participants in the Diet, Cancer and Health study who were followed for a median of 6.5 years...

  3. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  4. Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; Malvezzi, Matteo; Rosso, Tiziana; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; Chatenoud, Liliane; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The remarkable geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Oleas, Nadia; Núñez-González, Solange; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used. The annual percentage rate change (APC) and the average annual percent change (AAPC) was computed for each province. Spatial age-adjusted analysis was used to detect high risk clusters of gastric cancer mortality, from 2010 to 2015, using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. In Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015, gastric cancer caused a total of 19,115 deaths: 10,679 in men and 8436 in women. When crude rates were analyzed, a significant decline was detected (AAPC: -1.8%; p<0.001). ISMR also decreased, but this change was not statistically significant (APC: -0.53%; p=0.36). From 2004 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 the province with the highest ISMR was Carchi; and, from 2012 to 2015, was Cotopaxi. The most likely high occurrence cluster included Bolívar, Los Ríos, Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi provinces, with a relative risk of 1.34 (p<0.001). There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term cancer mortality projections: a comparative study of prediction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry C K; Dean, C B; Semenciw, Robert

    2011-12-20

    This paper provides a systematic comparison of cancer mortality and incidence projection methods used at major national health agencies. These methods include Poisson regression using an age-period-cohort model as well as a simple log-linear trend, a joinpoint technique, which accounts for sharp changes, autoregressive time series and state-space models. We assess and compare the reliability of these projection methods by using Canadian cancer mortality data for 12 cancer sites at both the national and regional levels. Cancer sites were chosen to provide a wide range of mortality frequencies. We explore specific techniques for small case counts and for overall national-level projections based on regional-level data. No single method is omnibus in terms of superior performance across a wide range of cancer sites and for all sizes of populations. However, the procedures based on age-period-cohort models used by the Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries tend to provide better performance than the other methods considered. The exception is when case counts are small, where the average of the observed counts over the recent 5-year period yields better predictions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Stomach cancer mortality among workers exposed to asbestos: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-jia; Jia, Xian-jie; Wei, Bing-gan; Yang, Lin-sheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between asbestos and stomach cancer is not well understood because of small number of cases. This study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer among workers exposed to asbestos based on a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Relevant English electronic databases were systematically searched for published studies characterizing the risk of developing stomach cancer as a result of asbestos exposure. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) for stomach cancer with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled using a fixed-/random-effect model in STATA. A total of 32 independent studies were included for the analysis. The overall SMR for stomach cancer was 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity across the studies (I(2) = 37.6%, P = 0.011). Being male, exposure to crocidolite, miners, studies conducted in Europe and Oceania, and long study follow-up (≥ 25 years) all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Significant publication bias was observed. Elevated risk of stomach cancer mortality was evidenced among workers exposed to crocidolite, especially male miners.

  8. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975-2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-11-05

    Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Cancer incidence data for 1975-2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975-2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975-2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%-1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%-0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%-0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied.

  9. AIDS incidence and mortality in injecting drug users: the AjUDE-Brasil II Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Mauro Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents AIDS incidence and mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs reached by the AjUDE-Brasil II Project. From a cross-sectional survey, 478 IDUs were interviewed in three Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre, São José do Rio Preto, and Itajaí. The cohort was followed up in the Brazilian surveillance database for AIDS and mortality during 2000 and 2001. AIDS incidence was 1.1 cases per 100 person-years, and the mortality rate was 2.8 deaths per 100 person-years. AIDS cases only occurred in IDUs who reported ever having shared injecting equipment. Female gender (RR = 5.30, homelessness (RR = 6.16, and report of previous sexual relations with same-sex partners (RR = 6.21 were associated with AIDS. Deaths occurred only among males. Homelessness (RR = 3.00, lack of income (RR = 2.65, HIV seropositive status (RR = 4.52, and no history of incarceration (RR = 3.71 were also associated with death. These findings support evidence that gender and socioeconomic conditions are both determinants of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian IDUs.

  10. AIDS incidence and mortality in injecting drug users: the AjUDE-Brasil II Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mauro Nogueira; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents AIDS incidence and mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs) reached by the AjUDE-Brasil II Project. From a cross-sectional survey, 478 IDUs were interviewed in three Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre, São José do Rio Preto, and Itajaí. The cohort was followed up in the Brazilian surveillance database for AIDS and mortality during 2000 and 2001. AIDS incidence was 1.1 cases per 100 person-years, and the mortality rate was 2.8 deaths per 100 person-years. AIDS cases only occurred in IDUs who reported ever having shared injecting equipment. Female gender (RR = 5.30), homelessness (RR = 6.16), and report of previous sexual relations with same-sex partners (RR = 6.21) were associated with AIDS. Deaths occurred only among males. Homelessness (RR = 3.00), lack of income (RR = 2.65), HIV seropositive status (RR = 4.52), and no history of incarceration (RR = 3.71) were also associated with death. These findings support evidence that gender and socioeconomic conditions are both determinants of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian IDUs.

  11. Elevated incidence of fractures in women with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B J; Gradishar, W J; Smith, M E; Pacheco, J A; Holbrook, J; McKoy, J M; Nardone, B; Tica, S; Godinez-Puig, V; Rademaker, A W; Helenowski, I B; Bunta, A D; Stern, P H; Rosen, S T; West, D P; Guise, T A

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the incidence of bone fractures in women with BC.We found that women with invasive breast cancer are at an increased risk for bone fractures, with fractures most commonly occurring at lower extremity and vertebral sites. The risk is further increased in women undergoing cancer therapy. Bone loss and fractures in breast cancer have generally been attributed to aromatase inhibitor use. This study assessed the incidence of fractures after invasive breast cancer diagnosis and evaluated bone density and FRAX risk calculation at time of fracture occurrence. Retrospective cohort study of women with invasive breast cancer [June 2003-December 2011] who participated in an academic hospital based genetic biobank. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from the electronic medical record (EMR). A total of 422 women with invasive breast cancer were assessed; 79 (28 %) sustained fractures during the observation period; fractures occurred at multiple skeletal sites in 27 cases (116 fractures). The incidence of fractures was 40 per 1000 person-years. Women who sustained fractures were mostly white and had a family history of osteoporosis (36.9 %, p = 0.03) or history of a prior fracture (6/79, p = 0.004). Fractures occurred 4.0 years (range 0-12 years) after cancer diagnosis. Fracture cases had femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) of 0.72 + 0.12 g/cm(2), T-score of -1.2, that is, within the low bone mass range. Fractures most commonly occurred in lower extremities, vertebral, and wrist sites. Hip fractures accounted for 11 % of fractures, occurring at a median age of 61 years. Fractures occur shortly after commencing cancer therapy. Rapid bone loss associated with cancer therapy may precipitate fractures. Fractures occur at relatively higher BMD in BC. Occurrence of fractures in invasive breast cancer raises the possibility of cancer-induced impairment in bone quality.

  12. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  14. FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN BREAST CANCER MORTALITY IN NORTHWEST PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by genetic mutation of cellular DNA, and breast cancer usually painless. The objective was to analyze the behavior of mortality from breast cancer in women living in Maringá-PR in the period 2000 to 2009. We used the Information System of the Unified Health System (DATASUS for variables related to race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, place of occurrence of death. Data were analyzed descriptively and by chi-square Yates Fixed considering a confidence interval of 95% with a significance level of 5%. There were 216 deaths from breast cancer with a higher prevalence in women 60-80 years (58.4%, race white (90.2% and married (53.8%. Women over 60 with low education were more likely to breast cancer mortality was statistically significant (OR95% = 4.45, p = <0.0001

  15. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between population density and cancer mortality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Hsieh, Y L

    1998-04-01

    Many investigators have examined urbanization gradients in cancer rates. The purpose of this report was to identify urban-rural trends in cancer mortality rates (1982-1991) for municipalities in Taiwan. For this purpose, Taiwan's municipalities were classified as rural, suburban, urban, or metropolitan, using population density as an ordinal indicator of the degree of urbanization. Average annual age-adjusted, site-specific cancer mortality rates were calculated for both sexes within each population density group. Significant increasing trends with more urbanization were observed in mortality rates for cancers of the lung, pancreas, and kidney among both males and females, as well as male prostate cancer, and female breast and ovary cancer. In addition, this study revealed a significant rural excess for nonmelanoma skin cancer among both males and females, as well as male non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the female bone, and female connective tissue. Analytic studies for sites with consistent urban-rural trends may be fruitful in identifying the aspect of population density, or other unmeasured factors, that contribute to these trends.

  17. [MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY FROM PROSTATE CANCER IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN FROM 2007 TO 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanov, Е; Adylkhanov, Т; Tokanova, Sh; Semenova, Yu; Dauletyarova, М; Bolsynbekova, S; Zhumykbaeva, N

    2017-11-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer is the second most common male malignancy after lung cancer. However, prostate cancer is less common for the Asian population. We performed statistical analysis of official data on newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer based on the annual reports of cancer hospitals in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period of 10 years (2007-2016). We observed an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer among the population of Kazakhstan for the period of 2007-2016, which may be due to the screening program, which started in 2013. In the country as a whole, there has been a decrease in mortality over the past two years. The peak incidence of prostate cancer falls at the age of 70 years and older, while at the age of below 40 years this disease is seen only sporadically. Since 2009, there has been an increase in the detection of prostate cancer in the early (I-II) stages, which is associated with screening tests based on evaluation of serum PSA levels.

  18. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact, will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  19. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  1. Sarcopenia is not associated with morbidity, mortality, or recurrence after esophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Steve R; Dolan, James P; Dewey, Elizabeth N; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Tieu, Brandon H; Schipper, Paul H; Hunter, John G

    2018-05-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hepatic, pancreatic and colorectal cancer. We examined the effect of sarcopenia on morbidity, mortality, and recurrence after resection for esophageal cancer. Retrospective review of consecutive esophagectomies from 2010 to 2015. Computed tomography studies were analyzed for sarcopenia. Morbidity was analyzed using Fischer's test and survival data with Kaplan Meier curves. The sarcopenic group (n = 127) had lower BMI, later stage disease, and higher incidence of neoadjuvant radiation than those without sarcopenia (n = 46). There were no differences in morbidity or mortality between the groups (p = .75 and p = .31, respectively). Mean length of stay was similar (p = .70). Disease free and overall survival were similar (p = .20 and p = .39, respectively). There is no association between sarcopenia and increased morbidity, mortality and disease-free survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer. Sarcopenia in esophageal cancer may not portend worse outcomes that have been reported in other solid tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in mortality from cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, esophagus, and stomach in East Asia: role of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Zhao, Zijin; Li, Lang

    2012-09-01

    Although substantial nutrition transition, characterized by an increased intake of energy, animal fat, and red meats, has occurred during the last several decades in East Asia, few studies have systematically evaluated temporal trends in cancer incidence or mortality among populations in this area. Therefore, we sought to investigate this question with tremendous public health implications. Data on mortality rates of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, esophagus, and stomach for China (1988-2000), Hong Kong (1960-2006), Japan (1950-2006), Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1963-2006) were obtained from WHO. Joinpoint regression was used to investigate trends in mortality of these cancers. A remarkable increase in mortality rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancers and a precipitous decrease in those of esophageal and stomach cancers have been observed in selected countries (except breast cancer in Hong Kong) during the study periods. For example, the annual percentage increase in breast cancer mortality was 5.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.8, 7.3%) for the period 1985-1993 in Korea, and mortality rates for prostate cancer significantly increased by 3.2% (95% confidence interval: 3.0, 3.3%) per year from 1958 to 1993 in Japan. These changes in cancer mortality lagged ∼ 10 years behind the inception of the nutrition transition toward a westernized diet in selected countries or regions. There have been striking changes in mortality rates of breast, colon, prostate, esophageal, and stomach cancers in East Asia during the last several decades, which may be at least in part attributable to the concurrent nutrition transition.

  3. Platelet count is associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    count (100-450×10(9)/L) and mortality, development of future cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or peripheral vascular disease), venous thromboembolism, bleeding or cancer in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a register-based cohort study of 21...... as reference group, platelet count 301-450×10(9)/L was associated with mortality, adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.42(95% CI 1.06-1.90) and cardiovascular disease, adjusted HR=1.32 (95% CI 1.03-1.69). Platelet count 100-200×10(9)/L was associated with future cancer, adjusted HR=1.28(95% CI 1.......05-1.57), but not with future bleeding or venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet count is associated with mortality, future cardiovascular disease, and future cancer....

  4. The breast cancer incidence risk among females and a hazards in the microenvironments of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the earlier examinations on the Silesia voivodeship territory was found ultimately that in the districts with greatest development of industry the incidence of breast cancer was significantly greater in native females (stationary population than in immigrants (no stationary population, which suggests that there is a harmful influence of industrial pollutants in the female population (a longer time living in such conditions. It is possible that various chemical compounds especially from industrial-communal emissions and in the place of work – in the atmosphere contribute to a rise in the incidence of breast cancer in females as well. Material and methods. In analyse case-control type two women populations, i.e. natives – 540 cases with a breast cancer and 687 cases of control (women born within Silesia voivodeship, and immigrants – 319 cases of ills for breast cancer and 446 not-ills (all ones born outside Silesia voivodeship – were examinated. Anywhere in this case checking thesis whether character and long-time of hazards in microenvironment of work is significant in a risk of breast cancer. Results. The females that manually working without hazards in the place of work were characterized a bigger breast cancer risk – independently from place of birth (natives, immigrants, age group (30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 60 and total age and the endemic areas about statistically significantly high or low incidence and mortality (tab. II, III. It can not distinguished in this study no bigger females group with any characteristic impurities in the place of work comparatively suffering groups to controls ones. Conclusions. In this study the occupational risk factors are small significant mark in the incidence for female breast cancer.

  5. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  6. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  7. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  8. Chronic Bronchitis Before Age 50 Years Predicts Incident Airflow Limitation and Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sherrill, Duane L.; Venker, Claire; Ceccato, Christina M.; Halonen, Marilyn; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the relation of chronic bronchitis to incident airflow limitation and all-cause mortality have provided conflicting results, with positive findings reported mainly by studies that included populations of young adults. We sought to determine whether having chronic cough and sputum production in the absence of airflow limitation is associated with onset of airflow limitation, all-cause mortality, and serum levels of CRP and IL-8, and whether subjects’ age influences these relations. Methods We identified 1412 participants in the long-term Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease who at enrollment (1972–73) were 21–80 years old and had FEV1/FVC≥70% and no asthma. Chronic bronchitis was defined as cough and phlegm production on most days for ≥three months in ≥two consecutive years. Incidence of airflow limitation was defined as the first follow-up survey with FEV1/FVC<70%. Serum IL-8 and CRP levels were measured in cryopreserved samples from the enrollment survey. Results After adjusting for covariates, chronic bronchitis at enrollment increased significantly the risk for incident airflow limitation and all-cause mortality among subjects <50 years old (Hazard Ratios, 95% CI: 2.2, 1.3–3.8; and 2.2, 1.3–3.8; respectively), but not among subjects ≥50 years old (0.9, 0.6–1.4; and 1.0, 0.7–1.3). Chronic bronchitis was associated with increased IL-8 and CRP serum levels only among subjects <50 years old. Conclusions Among adults <50 years old, chronic bronchitis unaccompanied by airflow limitation may represent an early marker of susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoking on systemic inflammation and long-term risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and all-cause mortality. PMID:19581277

  9. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiao-feng; Li, Lian-fang; Ou, Zhou-luo; Shen, Rong; Shao, Zhi-min

    2012-01-01

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  10. Incidence of cancer among bookbinders, printers, photoengravers, and typesetters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, V

    2001-08-01

    To to study the risk of cancer, particularly of lung cancer and bladder cancer, among workers in the printing industry according to different occupations. This is a population based retrospective cohort study. The cohort comprised 1332 men and 426 women employed in the printing industry in Iceland according to a published union registry. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cases of cancer were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and specific incidences of cancer sites for men and women provided by the Cancer Registry. Among the men (36 217.5 person-years at risk) there were 125 observed cancers versus 123.66 expected, standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.84 to 1.20. The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 1.97 (0.55 to 5.20) and the SIR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 2.26 (0.96 to 4.41). No excess risk for cancer was found among women (8631.0 person-years at risk). The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 4.21 (0.47 to 15.20) and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma it was 4.99 (1.61 to 11.63) among the typesetters. A survey on smoking habits among active and retired union members showed that they smoked less than a random sample of the general population. The cancer site most often reported to show excess risk among printing industry workers has been the lung and the urinary bladder; however, this was not found in the present study. This may be explained by difference in smoking habits among union members compared with the general population. There is a high occurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, particularly among typesetters, which warrants further studies.

  11. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Cancer mortality among reproductive age women in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Saibi, Alaa; Saidi, Olfa; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2016-01-01

    Cause-of-death data are critical to formulating good public health programs. In Tunisia, the mortality surveys of reproductive age women are specifically interested in maternal mortality and we do not have data on deaths from noncommunicable diseases including cancer. To identify the main cancers causing death among Tunisian women in reproductive age. A retrospective   national RAMOS survey (Reproductive Age Mortality Study). This survey was conducted in 2010 and included all deaths of women aged 15-49 years which occurred in 2008 and were due to cancer. Data collection was based on the verbal autopsy method. In Tunisia, cancer is the leading cause of death among reproductive age women, especially breast cancer. The most exposed women are housewives (64.4%), aged 40-49 years (55.3%), living in urban areas (62.2%), belonging to the middle tercile classification of households (45.4%) and reaching a level of basic education (44.2%). Cancer should receive priority funding of health care for this population in order to improve its diagnosis and treatment, with a special motion for breast cancer.

  13. INCREASE INCOME AND MORTALITY OF COLORRECTAL CANCER IN BRAZIL, 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonca GUIMARAES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Several international studies have observed a correlation between the improvement of socio-demographic indicators and rates of incidence and mortality from cancer of the colon and rectum. Objective The objective of this study is to estimate the correlation between average per capita income and the rate of colorectal cancer mortality in Brazil between 2001 and 2009. Methods We obtained data on income inequality (Gini index, population with low incomes (½ infer the minimum wage/month, average family income, per capita ICP and mortality from colon cancer and straight between 2001-2009 by DATASUS. A trend analysis was performed using linear regression, and correlation between variables by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results There was a declining trend in poverty and income inequality, and growth in ICP per capita and median family income and standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer in Brazil. There was also strong positive correlation between mortality from this site of cancer and inequality (men r = -0.30, P = 0.06, women r = -0.33, P = 0.05 income low income (men r = -0.80, P<0.001, women r = -0.76, P<0.001, median family income (men r = 0.79, P = 0.06, women r = 0.76, P<0.001 and ICP per capita (men r = 0.73, P<0.001, women r = 0.68, P<0.001 throughout the study period. Conclusion The increase of income and reducing inequality may partially explain the increased occurrence of colorectal cancer and this is possibly due to differential access to food recognized as a risk factor, such as red meat and high in fat. It is important therefore to assess the priority of public health programs addressing nutrition in countries of intermediate economy, as is the case of Brazil.

  14. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age......Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...

  15. Breast cancer incidence following low-dose rate environmental exposure: Techa River Cohort, 1956–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, E; Preston, D L; Ron, E; Krestinina, L; Davis, F G; Kossenko, M; Akleyev, A

    2008-01-01

    In the 1950s, the Mayak nuclear weapons facility in Russia discharged liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River causing exposure of riverside residents to protracted low-to-moderate doses of radiation. Almost 10 000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external γ-exposure and 137Cs incorporation. We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence. A significant linear radiation dose–response relationship was observed (P=0.01) with an estimated excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) of 5.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80, 12.76). We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation. PMID:19002173

  16. Cancer mortality following radium treatment for uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, P.D.; Monson, R.R.; Wagoner, J.K.; Stovall, M.; Davis, F.G.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer mortality in relation to radiation dose was evaluated among 4153 women treated with intrauterine radium (226Ra) capsules for benign gynecologic bleeding disorders between 1925 and 1965. Average follow up was 26.5 years (maximum = 59.9 years). Overall, 2763 deaths were observed versus 2687 expected based on U.S. mortality rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.03]. Deaths due to cancer, however, were increased (SMR = 1.30), especially cancers of organs close to the radiation source. For organs receiving greater than 5 Gy, excess mortality of 100 to 110% was noted for cancers of the uterus and bladder 10 or more years following irradiation, while a deficit was seen for cancer of the cervix, one of the few malignancies not previously shown to be caused by ionizing radiation. Part of the excess of uterine cancer, however, may have been due to the underlying gynecologic disorders being treated. Among cancers of organs receiving average or local doses of 1 to 4 Gy, excesses of 30 to 100% were found for leukemia and cancers of the colon and genital organs other than uterus; no excess was seen for rectal or bone cancer. Among organs typically receiving 0.1 to 0.3 Gy, a deficit was recorded for cancers of the liver, gall bladder, and bile ducts combined, death due to stomach cancer occurred at close to the expected rate, a 30% excess was noted for kidney cancer (based on eight deaths), and there was a 60% excess of pancreatic cancer among 10-year survivors, but little evidence of dose-response. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Gray were 0.006 for uterus, 0.4 for other genital organs, 0.5 for colon, 0.2 for bladder, and 1.9 for leukemia. Contrary to findings for other populations treated by pelvic irradiation, a deficit of breast cancer was not observed (SMR = 1.0). Dose to the ovaries may have been insufficient to protect against breast cancer

  17. College athletics, body size, and cancer mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1976-07-01

    Data are presented on mortality from neoplasms as determined from death certificates in a cohort of 8393 college men, according to athletic status in college. Major athletes (lettermen) died significantly more often from neoplasms than nonathletes. Mean age at death from neoplasms (underlying cause) was significantly lower in major athletes than in both minor athletes and nonathletes. After matching major athletes with nonathletes of comparable body size (height and weight), differences in proportional mortality and mean age at death from neoplasms persisted, although not statistically significant for the smaller samples. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) and partial r's between weight in college and age at death from neoplasms were negative but of low magnitude. Some possible explanations for the differences between major athletes and nonathletes are discussed.

  18. INCIDENCE OF RECTAL CANCER IN THE POPULATION OF THE MOSCOW REGION IN 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Balkanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer ranks the third among all cancer incidence rates. Rectal neoplasms are frequently considered as a separate nosological entity. The incidence of rectal cancer (RC can be influenced by patient age, gender, lifestyle, diet, genetic factors, as well as by the organization and quality of preventive activities in medical institutions focused on the early cancer diagnosis. Aim: To study changes in RC incidence among residents of the Moscow Region from 2010 to 2014. Materials and methods: The incidence rate of RC was estimated based on the state statistical report data on newly diagnosed cancers in the population of the Moscow Region in 2010–2014. The intensive incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 of respective population in six age and gender groups. Results: From 2010 to 2014, 6079 new RC cases were identified in the Moscow Region, among them 47% men and 53% women. More than half of all RC cases were in the age group of 60 to 79 years old (61.7% of men and 59.2% of women. During the 5-year period, the incidence rate of RC decreased from 18.3 to 17 per 100,000 of the male population and increased from 15.7 to 17.5 per 100,000 among the female population. There was a clear correlation between the RC incidence and the patient age. The peak incidence in men and women was seen in the age group of 70 to 79 years. From the age group of 50 to 59 years and on, the incidence of RC in men was higher than that in women. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to optimize activities in the public healthcare system aimed at reduction of morbidity and mortality related to RC. Among the priority actions should be allocated to the development and implementation of primary prevention measures, in particular, undergo screening tests (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy in age groups at high risk.

  19. Lung cancer incidence attributable to residential radon exposure in Alberta in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Brand, Kevin; Khandwala, Farah; Poirier, Abbey; Tamminen, Sierra; Friedenreich, Christine M; Brenner, Darren R

    2017-06-28

    Radon is carcinogenic, and exposure to radon has been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to quantify the proportion and number of lung cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to residential radon exposure. We estimated the population attributable risk of lung cancer for residential radon using radon exposure data from the Cross-Canada Survey of Radon Concentrations in Homes from 2009-2011 and data on all-cause and lung cancer mortality from Statistics Canada from 2008-2012. We used cancer incidence data from the Alberta Cancer Registry for 2012 to estimate the total number of lung cancers attributable to residential radon exposure. Estimates were also stratified by sex and smoking status. The mean geometric residential radon level in Alberta in 2011 was 71.0 Bq/m3 (geometric standard deviation 2.14). Overall, an estimated 16.6% (95% confidence interval 9.4%-29.8%) of lung cancers were attributable to radon exposure, corresponding to 324 excess attributable cancer cases. The estimated population attributable risk of lung cancer due to radon exposure was higher among those who had never smoked (24.8%) than among ever smokers (15.6%). However, since only about 10% of cases of lung cancer occur in nonsmokers, the estimated total number of excess cases was higher for ever smokers (274) than for never smokers (48). With about 17% of lung cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 attributable to residential radon exposure, exposure reduction has the potential to substantially reduce Alberta's lung cancer burden. As such, home radon testing and remediation techniques represent important cancer prevention strategies. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  20. Depression as a prognostic factor for breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, Karen; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Keiding, Niels

    2003-01-01

    It is unclear if depression or depressive symptoms have an effect on mortality in breast cancer patients. In this population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study in Denmark, depression was defined as affective or anxiety disorders that necessitated psychiatric hospital admission. All...... of data from three central registers and found that breast cancer patients with depression had a modestly but significantly higher risk of mortality depending on stage of breast cancer and time of depression. The same result was found after censoring unnatural causes of death such as accident, suicide...... the affective and anxiety disorders were divided and categorized into five ordinal diagnostic groups. Early-stage (N=10382) and late-stage (N=10211) breast cancer patients were analyzed separately with Cox's regression adjusted for well-documented somatic prognostic variables. The authors used survival analysis...

  1. Ecological study of solar radiation and cancer mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    Geographic observation of the increased mortality of some cancers at higher latitudes has led to a hypothesis that vitamin D produced after exposure to solar radiation has anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it is unclear whether such association would be observed in countries like Japan, where fish consumption, and therefore dietary vitamin D intake, is high. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between averaged annual solar radiation levels for the period from 1961 through 1990 and cancer mortality in the year 2000 in 47 prefectures in Japan, with adjustments for regional per capita income and dietary factors. A moderate, inverse correlation with solar radiation was observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and gallbladder and bile ducts in both sexes (correlation coefficient, ranging from -0.6 to -0.3). The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased exposure to solar radiation reduces the risk of cancers of the digestive organs.

  2. Depression as a prognostic factor for breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, Karen; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Keiding, Niels

    2003-01-01

    It is unclear if depression or depressive symptoms have an effect on mortality in breast cancer patients. In this population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study in Denmark, depression was defined as affective or anxiety disorders that necessitated psychiatric hospital admission. All...... the affective and anxiety disorders were divided and categorized into five ordinal diagnostic groups. Early-stage (N=10382) and late-stage (N=10211) breast cancer patients were analyzed separately with Cox's regression adjusted for well-documented somatic prognostic variables. The authors used survival analysis...... of data from three central registers and found that breast cancer patients with depression had a modestly but significantly higher risk of mortality depending on stage of breast cancer and time of depression. The same result was found after censoring unnatural causes of death such as accident, suicide...

  3. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  4. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla 1Department of. Histopathology, University of ... ovarian cancer giving an incidence rate of 1/405 gynecological admissions per year or 0.3% (95% .... not found in the records. Follow up of patients was by clinical examination and.

  5. Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoan, L T; Mizoue, T; Fujino, Y; Tokui, N; Yoshimura, T

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between stomach cancer and the low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables and/or a high intake of pickled, preserved or salted foods and frequent use of cooking oil. During 139?390 person?year of follow-up of over 13?000 subjects, 116 died from stomach cancer. Using a Cox proportional hazards?regression analysis of relative risk (RR, 95% CI) controlling for age, sex, smoking and other dietary factors, a significant decline was found with a high consum...

  6. Municipal distribution of bladder cancer mortality in Spain: Possible role of mining and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolar-Pujolar Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain shows the highest bladder cancer incidence rates in men among European countries. The most important risk factors are tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to a range of different chemical substances, such as aromatic amines. Methods This paper describes the municipal distribution of bladder cancer mortality and attempts to "adjust" this spatial pattern for the prevalence of smokers, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè, with relative risk of lung cancer mortality as a surrogate. Results It has been possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk for bladder cancer adjusted for lung cancer mortality, on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 towns. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Towns that registered the highest relative risks for both sexes were mostly located in the Provinces of Cadiz, Seville, Huelva, Barcelona and Almería. The highest-risk area in Barcelona Province corresponded to very specific municipal areas in the Bages district, e.g., Suría, Sallent, Balsareny, Manresa and Cardona. Conclusion Mining/industrial pollution and the risk entailed in certain occupational exposures could in part be dictating the pattern of municipal bladder cancer mortality in Spain. Population exposure to arsenic is a matter that calls for attention. It would be of great interest if the relationship between the chemical quality of drinking water and the frequency of bladder cancer could be studied.

  7. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  8. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea.Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope.During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4% and 5,579 (0.7% newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women.In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  9. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on premature cancer mortality in Canada, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2015-09-01

    The premature cancer mortality rate has been declining in Canada, but there has been considerable variation in the rate of decline across cancer sites. I analyze the effect that pharmaceutical innovation had on premature cancer mortality in Canada during the period 2000-2011, by investigating whether the cancer sites that experienced more pharmaceutical innovation had larger declines in the premature mortality rate, controlling for changes in the incidence rate. Premature mortality before age 75 is significantly inversely related to the cumulative number of drugs registered at least 10 years earlier. Since mean utilization of drugs that have been marketed for less than 10 years is only one-sixth as great as mean utilization of drugs that have been marketed for at least a decade, it is not surprising that premature mortality is strongly inversely related only to the cumulative number of drugs that had been registered at least ten years earlier. Premature mortality before age 65 and 55 is also strongly inversely related to the cumulative number of drugs that had been registered at least ten years earlier. None of the estimates of the effect of incidence on mortality are statistically significant. Controlling for the cumulative number of drugs, the cumulative number of chemical subgroups does not have a statistically significant effect on premature mortality. This suggests that drugs (chemical substances) within the same class (chemical subgroup) are not therapeutically equivalent. During the period 2000-2011, the premature (before age 75) cancer mortality rate declined by about 9 %. The estimates imply that, in the absence of pharmaceutical innovation during the period 1985-1996, the premature cancer mortality rate would have increased about 12 % during the period 2000-2011. A substantial decline in the "competing risk" of death from cardiovascular disease could account for this. The estimates imply that pharmaceutical innovation during the period 1985-1996 reduced

  11. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  12. Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoan, L T; Mizoue, T; Fujino, Y; Tokui, N; Yoshimura, T

    2002-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between stomach cancer and the low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables and/or a high intake of pickled, preserved or salted foods and frequent use of cooking oil. During 139,390 person-year of follow-up of over 13,000 subjects, 116 died from stomach cancer. Using a Cox proportional hazards-regression analysis of relative risk (RR, 95% CI) controlling for age, sex, smoking and other dietary factors, a significant decline was found with a high consumption of green and yellow vegetables (RR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2-0.9). Reductions of between 40 and 50% were also observed with a high consumption of fresh foods (fruit, cuttle fish, tofu, and potatoes), but these associations were not statistically significant. The risk was significantly increased by the high consumption of processed meat (RR=2.7, 95% CI=1.0-7.4) and by the frequent use of cooking oil (RR=4.0, 95% CI=1.3-11.8). The high consumption of pickled food and traditional soups also increased risk, but not significantly. The findings suggest that a diet high in salt and low in vitamins may be associated with an increase in stomach cancer. . Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK

  13. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  14. Seasonal variation of cancer mortality in Hungary between 1984 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virág, Katalin; Nyári, Tibor András

    2017-11-01

    Despite decreasing trends, Hungary is the leader in cancer mortality among European countries. We examined the seasonal variation of cancer mortality in Hungary between 1984 and 2013. Hungarian monthly cancer mortality and population data were used in the analysis. The Walter-Elwood method was used to determine seasonal variation in both mortality rates and proportionate mortality. Significant winter-peak seasonality was found in all-cancer mortality. A similar seasonal trend with a peak from November to January was observed in death rates from colorectal, lung, female breast, prostate, bladder, brain, lymphoid and hematopoietic cancers. However, no more cyclical variation was identified in the mortality rates from other cancers. In addition, significant seasonal variation in proportionate mortality was shown for all cancer sites examined, with a peak in August or September. This study presents the seasonality pattern of different types of cancer mortality which might be related to environmental factors (e.g. infections).

  15. Race-specific impact of natural history, mammography screening, and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer mortality rates in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); A.M. Near (Aimee); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); M.A. Stoto (Michael); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: U.S. Black women have higher breast cancer mortality rates than White women despite lower incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of the mortality disparity can be attributed to racial differences in natural history, uptake of mammography screening, and

  16. The geography of prostate cancer incidence in Norway: Are the patterns real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Aase

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe etiology of prostate cancer is to a large extent unknown. There are striking international variations inincidence, which may indicate that factors that show geographical variations can provide further cluesabout etiology. A problem with using incidence data for comparisons in time and space is that the numberof cases reported may be affected by the intensity of diagnosing, since many of the cases are latent andasymptomatic. The purpose of this study is to adjust the observed pattern of prostate cancer in communesand counties of Norway for variations which may be due to diagnostic artefacts. It is assumed that a largeproportion of local cancers may be an indication of more intensive diagnosing. Data of prostate cancerincidence for 1982-91 with tumours specified by degree of spread were provided by the Cancer Registry. Aregression function relating total incidence to % local tumours was used to predict the SIRs adjusted forvariations in % local tumours. The maps comparing incidence patterns before and after adjustement showthat a large part of the significant deviations from the national mean persists, and that the pattern of negativedeviations in the far north is even strengthened. A significant positive correlation between the ratio ofincidence to mortality against % local tumours is found, which supports the main hypothesis of the study.

  17. Ninety-Day Mortality After Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lobectomy: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Dinesh, Padma; Woodcock-Shaw, Joshua; Littlechild, Duncan; Pompili, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of 90-day mortality rate after video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy. Retrospective analysis on 733 VATS lobectomies or segmentectomies (January 2012 to February 2016), including 66 operations converted to open operation. Several patient-related and surgical variables were tested to verify their association with 90-day mortality using univariable and logistic regression analyses. A score was assigned to each variable in the final model by proportionally weighting the regression odds ratios (ORs) and assigning 1 point to the smallest one. A total score was generated for each patient by adding the individual points. The patients were finally grouped into classes of risk. In-hospital/30-day mortality rate was 1.9% (14 patients). Additionally, 4 patients died after discharge between 30 and 90 days. Total 90-day mortality rate was 2.5% (18 patients). Regression analysis showed that factors significantly associated with 90-day mortality were male sex (OR 12, p = 0.001), carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity (Dlco) less than 60% (OR 4.8, p =0.001), and operative time longer than 150 minutes (OR 4.2, p = 0.03). A score was developed assigning 1 point to the variables Dlco and operative time and 3 points to the variable male sex. The total score ranged from 0 (155 patients) to 5 points (32 patients). Patients were grouped into five risk classes showing an incremental 90-day mortality rate (class A, 0; class B, 0.38%; class C, 0.93%; class D, 5.65%; class E, 18.75%, p < 0.0001). Our results represent important information to be shared with the patients during surgical counseling. It can also assist multidisciplinary tumor board discussion about treatment selection. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The Nordic cervical screening programmes through 1995. Evaluation of incidence and mortality rates, targeted age groups and screening intervals.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-11-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. The Nordic countries have a long experience in cervical cancer screening. Based on this experience this study evaluates the UICC and EC guidelines regarding the effectiveness of organized vs. spontaneous screening, targeted age groups and screening intervals. The study analyses the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programmes and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. It also analyses the trends for cytologic preinvasive lesions at first visit and at second and later visits after a normal test(s). The frequency of histologic lesions was calculated for the birth cohort 1920-1926 from the age of 60 and among women referred for colposcopic examination in 1994. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries except Norway soon after 1960. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland. All countries intensified the screening intervals after 1985. The reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland and Finland, intermediate in Sweden and Denmark, and lowest in Norway but in that country organized screening started in 1994. The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno-and adenosquamous carcinomas. The prevalence of preinvasive disease has increased significantly since 1980. The rate of moderate to high-grade cytologic changes begins increasing as early as at 20 years of age and moderate to high-grade histologic lesions start to accumulate at 24 to 36 months after a normal smear. The rate of these lesions decreases with the number of negative smears taken. Moderate to high-grade histologic lesions and invasive cancer are

  19. Monthly variations in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage incidence and mortality: Correlation with weather and pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hoon Han

    Full Text Available Although the effect of weather and air pollution on the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH has been investigated, results have remained inconsistent. The present study aimed to determine the seasonality of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurrence and mortality.We used the National Inpatient Sample database to evaluate the effect of meteorological factors and air pollutants on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage in Korea between 2011 and 2014. Monthly variations in SAH occurrence and mortality were analyzed using locally weighted scatter plot smoothing curves. Multivariate Poisson generalized linear regression models were used to evaluate potential independent meteorological and pollutant variables associated with SAH occurrence and mortality.In total, 21,407 patients who underwent clip or coil treatment owing to aneurysmal SAH in Korea from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014, were included. The crude incidence rate of SAH in Korea was 10.5 per 100,000 people per year. An approximately 0.5% lower risk of SAH was observed per 1°C increase in mean monthly temperature (relative risk, 0.995; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.992-0.997; p < 0.001, while an approximately 2.3% higher risk of SAH was observed per 1°C increase in mean monthly diurnal temperature.We showed distinct patterns of seasonal and monthly variation in the occurrence and mortality of SAH. Our findings suggest that meteorological factors may play an important role in monthly variations in the occurrence of aneurysmal SAH.

  20. European seasonal mortality and influenza incidence due to winter temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó, X.; Ballester, J.; Robine, J. M.; Herrmann, F. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have vividly emphasized the lack of consensus on the degree of vulnerability (sensu IPCC) of European societies to current and future winter temperatures. Here we consider several climate factors, influenza incidence and daily numbers of deaths to characterize the relationship between winter temperature and mortality in a very large ensemble of European regions representing more than 400 million people. Analyses highlight the strong association between the year-to-year fluctuations in winter mean temperature and mortality, with higher seasonal cases during harsh winters, in all of the countries except the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium. This spatial distribution contrasts with the well-documented latitudinal orientation of the dependency between daily temperature and mortality within the season. A theoretical framework is proposed to reconcile the apparent contradictions between recent studies, offering an interpretation to regional differences in the vulnerability to daily, seasonal and long-term winter temperature variability. Despite the lack of a strong year-to-year association between winter mean values in some countries, it can be concluded that warmer winters will contribute to the decrease in winter mortality everywhere in Europe. More information in Ballester J, et al. (2016) Nature Climate Change 6, 927-930, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE3070.

  1. Incidence, morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of diabetes in Denmark, 2000-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: As part of the Danish Diabetes Impact Study 2013, we present trends in the incidence, morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of diabetes in Denmark for the period 2000 through 2011. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Danish National Diabetes Register was established in 2006 and is assumed to cover...... of diabetes increased approximately 5% annually. During the same period, decreasing trends were observed for both the rates of progression in complications and of the complication-specific mortality. During the same period, the prevalence of diabetes doubled. CONCLUSION: The increasing prevalence of diabetes...... all patients with diabetes, alive as of the end of 1996, and all subsequent new cases. The present study is based on the content of the register as of July 3, 2013 (n=497,232 patients). Using the personal identification code assigned to all Danish inhabitants, all available supplementary information...

  2. WITHDRAWN: Monocytes associate to incident cancer and mortality in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Ahmad; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Selmer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.......This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy....

  3. The mortality after surgery in primary lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Hauge, Jacob; Iachina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study has been performed to investigate the mortality within the first year after resection in patients with primary lung cancer, together with associated prognostic factors including gender, age, tumour stage, comorbidity, alcohol abuse, type of surgery and post-surgical complica...

  4. Incidence of Infection and Inhospital Mortality in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkocak, Omer F; Yoo, Joanne Y; Restrepo, Camilo; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2016-11-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) may require total joint arthroplasty (TJA) to treat degenerative joint disease, fractures, osteonecrosis, or amyloid arthropathy. There have been conflicting results, however, regarding outcomes of TJA in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of this case-controlled study was to determine the outcome of TJA in patients with CRF, with particular interest in the incidence of infections and inhospital mortality. We queried our electronic database to determine which patients among the 29,389 TJAs performed at our institution between January 2000 and June 2012 had a diagnosis of CRF. A total of 359 CRF patients were identified and matched for procedure, gender, age (±4 years), date of surgery (±2 years), and body mass index (±5 kg/m 2 ) in a 2:1 ratio to 718 control patients. The incidence of infection and inhospital mortality was not significantly different between the nondialysis CRF patients and controls, whereas it was significantly higher in dialysis-dependent end-stage renal failure patients compared to controls. Of the 50 CRF patients receiving hemodialysis, 10 (20%) developed surgical site infection, of which 4 (8%) were periprosthetic joint infection, and 4 (8%) died during hospital stay. The odds ratio for infection in the dialysis group was 7.54 (95% confidence interval: 2.83-20.12) and 10.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.67-65.34) for the inhospital mortality. We conclude that end-stage renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis have higher postoperative infection and inhospital mortality rates after an elective TJA procedure, whereas nondialysis CRF patients have similar outcomes compared with the general TJA population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between body mass index and mortality in incident dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badve, Sunil V; Paul, Sanjoy K; Klein, Kerenaftali; Clayton, Philip A; Hawley, Carmel M; Brown, Fiona G; Boudville, Neil; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; McDonald, Stephen P; Johnson, David W

    2014-01-01

    To study the body mass index (BMI) trajectory in patients with incident end-stage kidney disease and its association with all-cause mortality. This longitudinal cohort study included 17022 adult patients commencing hemodialysis [HD] (n = 10860) or peritoneal dialysis [PD] (n = 6162) between 2001 and 2008 and had ≥6-month follow-up and ≥2 weight measurements, using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry data. The association of time-varying BMI with all-cause mortality was explored using multivariate Cox regression models. The median follow-up was 2.3 years. There was a non-linear change in the mean BMI (kg/m2) over time, with an initial decrease from 27.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.5, 27.7) to 26.7 (95% CI: 26.6, 26.9) at 3-month, followed by increments to 27.1 (95% CI: 27, 27.2) at 1-year and 27.2 (95% CI: 26.8, 27.1) at 3-year, and a gradual decrease subsequently. The BMI trajectory was significantly lower in HD patients who died than those who survived, although this pattern was not observed in PD patients. Compared to the reference time-varying BMI category of 25.1-28 kg/m2, the mortality risks of both HD and PD patients were greater in all categories of time-varying BMI time-varying BMI >28.1 kg/m2 among HD patients, but only in the category 28.1-31 kg/m2 among PD patients. BMI changed over time in a non-linear fashion in incident dialysis patients. Time-varying measures of BMI were significantly associated with mortality risk in both HD and PD patients.

  6. The association between body mass index and mortality in incident dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil V Badve

    Full Text Available To study the body mass index (BMI trajectory in patients with incident end-stage kidney disease and its association with all-cause mortality.This longitudinal cohort study included 17022 adult patients commencing hemodialysis [HD] (n = 10860 or peritoneal dialysis [PD] (n = 6162 between 2001 and 2008 and had ≥6-month follow-up and ≥2 weight measurements, using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry data. The association of time-varying BMI with all-cause mortality was explored using multivariate Cox regression models.The median follow-up was 2.3 years. There was a non-linear change in the mean BMI (kg/m2 over time, with an initial decrease from 27.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.5, 27.7 to 26.7 (95% CI: 26.6, 26.9 at 3-month, followed by increments to 27.1 (95% CI: 27, 27.2 at 1-year and 27.2 (95% CI: 26.8, 27.1 at 3-year, and a gradual decrease subsequently. The BMI trajectory was significantly lower in HD patients who died than those who survived, although this pattern was not observed in PD patients. Compared to the reference time-varying BMI category of 25.1-28 kg/m2, the mortality risks of both HD and PD patients were greater in all categories of time-varying BMI 28.1 kg/m2 among HD patients, but only in the category 28.1-31 kg/m2 among PD patients.BMI changed over time in a non-linear fashion in incident dialysis patients. Time-varying measures of BMI were significantly associated with mortality risk in both HD and PD patients.

  7. Mortality, Cancer, and Comorbidities Associated With Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Benfield, Thomas; Hyldstrup, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to assess the risk of death, cancer, and comorbidities among patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: We performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study, collecting data from Danish registries from 1995 through 2010. We evaluated...... cases (10.2%) and controls (3.3%). Cancer (particularly pancreatic cancer) was a frequent cause of death among cases; the HR was 6.9 (95% CI, 7.5-11.8). Alcoholic CP did not produce a higher risk for cancer or death than nonalcoholic CP. Cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), chronic...... on a Danish nationwide cohort study, individuals with CP are at higher risk for death from cancer (particularly pancreatic cancer) and have a higher incidence of comorbidities than people without CP....

  8. The incidence of eating disorders in a Danish register study: Associations with suicide risk and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark...... between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR......, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years–22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent...

  9. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of