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Sample records for cancer incidence estimates

  1. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Quantin, C.; Benzenine, E.; M. Hägi; Auverlot, B.; Abrahamowicz, M.; J. Cottenet; Fournier, E; Binquet, C.; Compain, D.; Monnet, E; Bouvier, A. M.; Danzon, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold...

  2. Cancer estimation of incidence and survival in Algeria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Cherif M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major types of cancers has been observed in both sexes. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate is low for the severe tumors due to a difficulty in access to cancer care and an incomplete health care framework. Cancer Registry of Setif, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986 in collaboration with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. Cancer Registry of Setif is being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance in the National Cancer Plan 2015-2019, starting in January 2015. Data is recorded by means of CanReg 5 software. This software is developed and provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. It is designed specifically for cancer registration, and standardized to capture, control, and process the data. Estimation of cancer incidence in Algeria and survival rates are very important for surveillance, control, and planning of care. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the last decade. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly in the same period. Five-year survival rates for cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and childhood leukemia are relatively low compared with other countries. The aim of our study was to estimate incidence and survival by means of Setif cancer registry data.

  3. A Suitable Approach to Estimate Cancer Incidence in Area without Cancer Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Remontet; Nadine Bossard; Zoé Uhry; Stéphanie Polazzi; Anne-Marie Schott-Petelaz; Jean Iwaz; Frédéric Gomez; Béatrice Trombert; Frédéric Olive; Nicolas Mitton; Marc Colonna

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Use of cancer cases from registries and PMSI claims database to estimate Département-specific incidence of four major cancers. Methods. Case extraction used principal diagnosis then surgery codes. PMSI cases/registry cases ratios for 2004 were modelled then Département-specific incidence for 2007 estimated using these ratios and 2007 PMSI cases. Results. For 2007, only colon-rectum and breast cancer estimations were satisfactorily validated for infranational incidence not ovary and...

  4. A Suitable Approach to Estimate Cancer Incidence in Area without Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Nicolas; Colonna, Marc; Trombert, Béatrice; Olive, Frédéric; Gomez, Frédéric; Iwaz, Jean; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Schott-Petelaz, Anne-Marie; Uhry, Zoé; Bossard, Nadine; Remontet, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Use of cancer cases from registries and PMSI claims database to estimate Département-specific incidence of four major cancers. Methods. Case extraction used principal diagnosis then surgery codes. PMSI cases/registry cases ratios for 2004 were modelled then Département-specific incidence for 2007 estimated using these ratios and 2007 PMSI cases. Results. For 2007, only colon-rectum and breast cancer estimations were satisfactorily validated for infranational incidence not ovary and kidney cancers. For breast, the estimated national incidence was 50,578 cases and the incidence rate 98.6 cases per 100,000 person per year. For colon-rectum, incidence was 21,172 in men versus 18,327 in women and the incidence rate 38 per 100,000 versus 24.8. For ovary, the estimated incidence was 4,637 and the rate 8.6 per 100,000. For kidney, incidence was 6,775 in men versus 3,273 in women and the rate 13.3 per 100.000 versus 5.2. Conclusion. Incidence estimation using PMSI patient identifiers proved encouraging though still dependent on the assumption of uniform cancer treatments and coding. PMID:21527984

  5. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, D. G.; Dinse, G E

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes ...

  6. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  7. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  8. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  9. Toward determining the lifetime occurrence of metastatic brain tumors estimated from 2007 United States cancer incidence data

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Faith G; Dolecek, Therese A.; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Villano, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Few population estimates of brain metastasis in the United States are available, prompting this study. Our objective was to estimate the expected number of metastatic brain tumors that would subsequently develop among incident cancer cases for 1 diagnosis year in the United States. Incidence proportions for primary cancer sites known to develop brain metastasis were applied to United States cancer incidence data for 2007 that were retrieved from accessible data sets through Centers for Diseas...

  10. Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaper, Harry; Velders, Guus J. M.; Daniel, John S.; de Gruijl, Frank R.; van der Leun, Jan C.

    1996-11-01

    DEPLETION of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale1, and is probably related to halocarbon emissions. Ozone depletion increases the biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, which leads to a variety of adverse effects, including an increase in the incidence of skin cancer. The 1985 Vienna Convention provided the framework for international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances. The consequences of such restrictions have not yet been assessed in terms of effects avoided. Here we present a new method of estimating future excess skin cancer risks which is used to compare effects of a 'no restrictions' scenario with two restrictive scenarios specified under the Vienna Convention: the Montreal Protocol, and the much stricter Copenhagen Amendments. The no-restrictions and Montreal Protocol scenarios produce a runaway increase in skin cancer incidence, up to a quadrupling and doubling, respectively, by the year 2100. The Copenhagen Amendments scenario leads to an ozone minimum around the year 2000, and a peak relative increase in incidence of skin cancer of almost 10% occurring 60 years later. These results demonstrate the importance of the international measures agreed upon under the Vienna Convention.

  11. Cancer incidence estimates at the national and district levels in Colombia Incidencia estimada de cáncer en Colombia a nivel departamental y nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Piñeros; Jacques Ferlay; Raúl Murill

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate national and district cancer incidence for 18 major cancer sites in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National and district incidence was estimated by applying a set of age, sex and site-specific incidence/mortality ratios, obtained from a population-based cancer registry, to national and regional mortality. The work was done in Bogotá (Colombia) and Lyon (France) between May 2003 and August 2004. RESULTS: The annual total number of cases expected (all cancers but skin) w...

  12. An Estimate of the Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderemi, Adewale Victor; Iseolorunkanmi, Alexander; Oyedokun, Ayo; Ayo, Charles K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is rated the second most common cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer deaths among men globally. Reports show that African men suffer disproportionately from PCa compared to men from other parts of the world. It is still quite difficult to accurately describe the burden of PCa in Africa due to poor cancer registration systems. We systematically reviewed the literature on prostate cancer in Africa and provided a continent-wide incidence rate of PCa based on available data in the region. Methods A systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health from January 1980 to June 2015 was conducted, with additional search of Google Scholar, International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and WHO African region websites, for studies that estimated incidence rate of PCa in any African location. Having assessed quality and consistency across selected studies, we extracted incidence rates of PCa and conducted a random effects meta-analysis. Results Our search returned 9766 records, with 40 studies spreading across 16 African countries meeting our selection criteria. We estimated a pooled PCa incidence rate of 22.0 (95% CI: 19.93–23.97) per 100,000 population, and also reported a median incidence rate of 19.5 per 100,000 population. We observed an increasing trend in PCa incidence with advancing age, and over the main years covered. Conclusion Effective cancer registration and extensive research are vital to appropriately quantifying PCa burden in Africa. We hope our findings may further assist at identifying relevant gaps, and contribute to improving knowledge, research, and interventions targeted at prostate cancer in Africa. PMID:27073921

  13. Functional Time Series Models to Estimate Future Age-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rates for Women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Yasmeen[1; Sidra Zaheer[2

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Pakistan. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is about 2.5 times higher than that in the neighboring countries India and Iran. In Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan, the age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 69.1 per 100,000 women during 1998-2002, which is the highest recorded rate in Asia. The carcinoma of breast in Pakistan is an enormous public health concern. In this study, we examined the recent trends of breast cancer incidence rates among the women in Karachi. Methods: We obtained the secondary data of breast cancer incidence from various hospitals. They included Jinnah Hospital, KIRAN (Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine), and Civil hospital, where the data were available for the years 2004-2011. A total of 5331 new cases of female breast cancer were registered during this period. We analyzed the data in 5-year age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+. Nonparametric smoothing were used to obtained age-specific incidence curves, and then the curves are decomposed using principal components analysis to fit FTS (functional time series) model. We then used exponential smoothing statspace models to estimate the forecasts of incidence curve and construct prediction intervals. Results: The breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi increased with age for all available years. The rates increased monotonically and are relatively sharp with the age from 15 years to 50 years and then they show variability after the age of 50 years. 10-year forecasts for the female breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi show that the future rates are expected to remain stable for the age-groups 15-50 years, but they will increase for the females of 50-years and over. Hence in future, the newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the older women in Karachi are expected to increase. Conclusion: Prediction of age

  14. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models' uncertainties.

  15. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006. Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern.

  16. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzo, Lucia; Carere, Mario; Tisano, Francesco; Bruno, Caterina; Cernigliaro, Achille; Cicero, Maria Rita; Comba, Pietro; Contrino, Maria Luisa; De Santis, Marco; Falleni, Fabrizio; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Madeddu, Anselmo; Marcello, Ida; Regalbuto, Carlo; Sciacca, Giovanna; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Zona, Amerigo

    2016-01-01

    The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS) of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006). Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs) present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern. PMID:27087035

  17. [Future cancer incidents in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, J; Bertz, J; Görsch, B; Dölle, R; Kurth, B-M

    2006-05-01

    The future as well as the past development of cancer incidents in Germany is of continuous importance for health policy. Cancer incidence data observed over more than 20 years are analysed by log-linear models with polynomial trend components. The estimated trend models are used for a trend extrapolation until the year 2020. Since cancer registration in Germany is not complete yet and does not cover the whole area of the country national incidences are estimated by the data of the existing complete regional cancer registries. In this way it can be assessed that the number of new cancer diseases increased from 270,000 cases in 1980 to 420,000 cases in 2002. Extrapolating the trends and taking into account the demographic prognosis of the German Federal Statistical Office 570,000 (version 1) or 590,000 (version 9) annual cancer cases are predicted for the year 2020. From 1980 to 2002 a decrease of cancer mortality was observed. If this trend continues until 2020, the number of deaths caused by cancer would decrease from 209,000 in 2002 to 153,000 (or 158,000) in 2020, although the number of cancer cases are predicted to increase. Assuming constant mortality rates the number of deaths caused by cancer would be much higher. PMID:16596362

  18. Solid cancer incidence among Chinese medical diagnostic x-ray workers, 1950-1995: Estimation of radiation-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijuan; Inskip, Peter D; Wang, Jixian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhang, Liangan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Saijun

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate solid cancer risk attributable to long-term, fractionated occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Based on cancer incidence for the period 1950-1995 in a cohort of 27,011 Chinese medical diagnostic X-ray workers and a comparison cohort of 25,782 Chinese physicians who did not use X-ray equipment in their work, we used Poisson regression to fit excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) dose-response models for incidence of all solid cancers combined. Radiation dose reconstruction was based on a previously published method that relied on simulating measurements for multiple X-ray machines, workplaces and working conditions, information about protective measures, including use of lead aprons, and work histories. The resulting model was used to estimate calendar year-specific badge dose calibrated as personal dose equivalent (Sv). To obtain calendar year-specific colon doses (Gy), we applied a standard organ conversion factor. A total of 1,643 cases of solid cancer were identified in 1.45 million person-years of follow-up. In both ERR and EAR models, a statistically significant radiation dose-response relationship was observed for solid cancers as a group. Averaged over both sexes, and using colon dose as the dose metric, the estimated ERR/Gy was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.48, 1.45), and the EAR was 22 per 10(4) PY-Gy (95% CI: 14, 32) at age 50. We obtained estimates of the ERR and EAR of solid cancers per unit dose that are compatible with those derived from other populations chronically exposed to low dose-rate occupational or environmental radiation. PMID:26860236

  19. Radiobiologic risk estimation from dental radiology. Part II. Cancer incidence and fatality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of the measured absorbed doses from part I of this article, the specific radiobiologic risk to the patient from (1) five different panoramic machines with rare-earth screens, (2) a 20-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long round cone, (3) a 20-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone, (4) a 4-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long round cone, and (5) a 4-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone, was calculated. The estimated risks are expressed in two ways: the probability of radiation-induced cancer in specific organs per million examinations and the probability of expression of a fatal cancer per million examinations. The highest risks calculated were from the complete-mouth survey with the use of round collimation. The lowest risks calculated were from panoramic radiography and four interproximal radiographs with rectangular collimation

  20. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10-6, 6 x 10-4] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10-3. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  1. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  2. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  3. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this...... study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS: A...... total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.52) and...

  4. Radon exposure of the skin: II. Estimation of the attributable risk for skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preceding companion paper has reviewed the various factors which form the chain of assumptions that are necessary to support a suggested link between radon exposure and skin cancer in man. Overall, the balance of evidence was considered to be against a causal link between radon exposure and skin cancer. One factor against causality is evidence, particularly from animal studies, that some exposure of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is required-beyond the range of naturally occurring alpha particles. On this basis any skin cancer risk due to radon progeny would be due only to beta and gamma components of equivalent dose, which are 10-100 times less than the alpha equivalent dose to the basal layer. Notwithstanding this conclusion against causality, calculations have been carried out of attributable risk (ATR, the proportion of cases occurring in the total population which can be explained by radon exposure) on the conservative basis that the target cells are, as is often assumed, in the basal layer of the epidermis. An excess relative risk figure is used which is based on variance weighting of the data sources. This is 2.5 times lower than the value generally used. A latent period of 20 years and an RBE of 10 are considered more justifiable than the often used values of 10 years and 20 respectively. These assumptions lead to an ATR of ∼0.7% (0.5-5%) at the nominal UK indoor radon level of 20 Bq m-3. The range reflects uncertainties in plate-out. Previous higher estimates by various authors have made more pessimistic assumptions. There are some indications that radon progeny plate-out may be elevated out of doors, particularly due to rainfall. Although average UK outdoor radon levels (∼4 Bq m-3) are much less than average indoor levels, and outdoor residence time is on average about 10%, this might have the effect of increasing the ATR several-fold. This needs considerable further study. Ecological

  5. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against obser...

  6. Carcinogenesis model analysis for breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors and the implications for cancer risk estimate for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer incidence is the highest risk due to radiation among atomic bomb survivors. The excess relative risk of the early-onset breast cancer seems to be remarkably high for the youngest age-at-exposure groups. The cancer risk estimate of breast cancer is a current issue in radiological protection. We used a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis to analyze the breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors (Kai, et al. Radiat. Res. 1997). Our purpose is to examine the dependence of radiation risk on age at exposure using the two-stage model and how to transfer it to other populations for radiological protection. We fitted the model assuming that radiation acts as an initiator and that the rate of radiation-induced mutation and background initiation mutation leading to baseline cancer are additive. We took two age-dependence, not attained age but age at exposure, of the spontaneous process into account. First, age-dependence of spontaneous initiation was expressed by a linear model. We also modeled the age-dependence of spontaneous net growth rate of initiated cells by a linear function. As far as radiation-induced initiation is concerned, we took a stepwise function other than a liner function into account. The analysis did not show that the radiation mutation for the youngest age-at-exposure groups below age 10 was higher than for the older groups. Furthermore, the incidence of female breast cancer in Japan is increasing and the birth cohort effect can be observed in atomic bomb survivors. Our model assumed that an acute exposure to atomic radiation can only initiate cancers and do not influence other stages of carcinogenesis, whereas spontaneous initiation and promotion are age-dependent to consider birth cohort effects. When these cohort effects are properly accounted for, the shape of the age-specific incidence curve in Japan is remarkably similar to the age-specific incidence in western populations (shown in figure). Recently Little and

  7. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Fazzo; Mario Carere; Francesco Tisano; Caterina Bruno; Achille Cernigliaro; Maria Rita Cicero; Pietro Comba; Maria Luisa Contrino; Marco De Santis; Fabrizio Falleni; Vincenzo Ingallinella; Anselmo Madeddu; Ida Marcello; Carlo Regalbuto; Giovanna Sciacca

    2016-01-01

    The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS) of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006). Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province ...

  8. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans;

    2005-01-01

    : 1.26 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected...

  9. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  10. Cancer incidence estimates at the national and district levels in Colombia Incidencia estimada de cáncer en Colombia a nivel departamental y nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Piñeros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate national and district cancer incidence for 18 major cancer sites in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National and district incidence was estimated by applying a set of age, sex and site-specific incidence/mortality ratios, obtained from a population-based cancer registry, to national and regional mortality. The work was done in Bogotá (Colombia and Lyon (France between May 2003 and August 2004. RESULTS: The annual total number of cases expected (all cancers but skin was 17 819 in men and 18 772 in women. Among males the most frequent cancers were those of the prostate (45.8 per 100 000, stomach (36.0, and lung (20.0. In females the most frequent were those of the cervix uteri (36.8 per 100 000, breast (30.0, and stomach (20.7. Districts with the lowest death certification coverage yielded the highest incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of national population-based cancer registry data, estimates of incidence provide valuable information at national and regional levels. As mortality data are an important source for the estimation, the quality of death certification should be considered as a possible cause of bias.OBJETIVOS: Determinar la incidencia nacional y departamental para 18 tipos de cáncer en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estimaron casos y tasas de incidencia ajustadas por edad a partir de razones incidencia/mortalidad según edad, sexo y tipo de cáncer. Los casos se tomaron de un registro poblacional y se usó la información oficial de mortalidad. El trabajo se realizó en Bogotá (Colombia y en Lyon (Francia entre mayo de 2003 y agosto de 2004. RESULTADOS: El número anual de casos esperados (todos los cánceres fue 17 819 en hombres y 18 772 en mujeres. Los principales cánceres en hombres fueron los de próstata (45.8 por 100 000, estómago (36.0 y pulmón (20.0; en mujeres fueron los de cuello uterino (36.8 por 100 000, mama (30.0 y estómago (20.7. Los departamentos con baja cobertura del

  11. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  12. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  13. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  14. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabl Ari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Methods Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. Results For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3 for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Conclusions Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our

  15. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  16. Changing incidence of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid cancer was examined temporally and geographically by age and sex from data provided by tumor registries in the United States and abroad. The temporal trends in Connecticut showed an increase in annual incidence after 1945, with an especially sudden increase in incidence in females. The increase occurred predominantly in older males and younger females. The increase in young females was confirmed by cohort analysis. The rates rose with age in both sexes, but recently females have developed a secondary peak in the fourth decade of life. The same phenomenon was observed in other U.S. data but not as clearly in data from ten foreign registries. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck in childhood was a factor in the increased incidence of thyroid cancer in U.S. females, but some other etiologic or modifying factor should be sought to explain the increased incidence in U.S. males

  17. Estimation of Incident Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is the results found by Aalborg University in the calculations of the incident wave heights hm0 and the reflection coefficients α from the LIP-MAST investigations in the Vinje-Basin during May to July 1994....

  18. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Comba; Paolo Ricci; Ivano Iavarone; Roberta Pirastu; Carlotta Buzzoni; Mario Fusco; Stefano Ferretti; Lucia Fazzo; Roberto Pasetto; Amerigo Zona; Emanuele Crocetti

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs) was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined ...

  19. Incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang-Rong Wei; Xia Yu; Rong-Shou Zheng; Xia-Biao Peng; Si-Wei Zhang; Ming-Fang Ji; Zhi-Heng Liang; Zhi-Xiong Ou; Wan-Qing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is a common malignant tumor in China and a major health concern. We aimed to estimate the liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2010 using liver cancer data from some Chinese cancer registries and provide reference for liver cancer prevention and treatment. We col ected and evaluated the incidence and mortality data of liver cancer in 2010 from 145 cancer registries, which were included in the 2013 Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report, calculated crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities, and estimated new liver cancer cases and deaths from liver cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2010 from Chinese practical population. The estimates of new liver cancer cases and deaths were 358,840 and 312,432, respectively, in China in 2010. The crude incidence, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR China), and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR world) were 27.29/100,000, 21.35/100,000, and 20.87/100,000, respectively;the crude, ASR China, and ASR world mortalities were 23.76/100,000, 18.43/100,000, and 18.04/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality were the highest in western regions, higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and higher in males than in females. The age-specific incidence and mortality of liver cancer showed a rapid increase from age 30 and peaked at age 80-84 or 85+. Our results indicated that the 2010 incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, especial y in undeveloped rural areas and western regions, were among high levels worldwide. The strategy for liver cancer prevention and treatment should be strengthened.

  20. Cancer incidence in the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, A J; Elsby, B; Qiao, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Falkland Islands, 1989–2000, was compared with rates in England and Wales, from which most Islanders originate. Colon and rectum cancer incidence was significantly raised 1989–93 but greatly reduced after 1994, when colonoscopic screening in high-risk families and sigmoidoscopic screening in the general population were introduced. http://www.bjcancer.com © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

  1. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang; Hong-Mei Zeng; Xiao-Nong Zou

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China evaluated data for the year of 2010 from 145 qualified cancer registries covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The percentage of morphologically verified cases were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certification only, with the mortality to incidence ratio of 0.61. The crude incidence was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males and 200.21/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The crude cancer mortality was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality of 12.78%. Lung, breast, gastric, liver, esophageal, colorectal, and cervical cancers were the most common cancers. Lung, liver, gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers were the leading causes of cancer deaths. The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.

  2. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Hong-mei Zeng; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age,sex and geographic area in 2007.Methods:In 2010,48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China.Of them,38 registries' data met the national criteria.Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites,age,gender,and area.Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population.Results:The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural).Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively.The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural).Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000,respectively.The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung,stomach,colon and rectum,liver,breast,esophagus,pancreas,bladder,brain and lymphoma,accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases.The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung,liver,stomach,esophagus,colon and rectum,pancreas,breast,leukemia,brain and lymphoma,accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths.Conclusion:Cancer remains a major disease threatening people's health in China.Prevention and control should be enhanced,especially for the main cancers.

  3. Incidence of Cancer: Alarming Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Lourdes Iglesias Armenteros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem worldwide. It affects all of the countries, independently of the race, culture, level of economical development and political system. Around 10 million of new cases of cancer are detected every year. At present approximately 50 000 women died because of this disease.

  4. Prostate Cancer Incidence Rates in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah M. Quraishi; Hsing, Ann W.; Hongmei Zhang; Jamie Ritchey; Devesa, Susan S.; Chu, Lisa W.

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973–2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC sh...

  5. Incidence of cancer among Norwegian boiler welders.

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, T E; Langård, S; Andersen, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The cancer incidence among 2957 boiler welders was investigated. The subjects were registered electrical welders from 1942 to 1981. A subcohort of 606 stainless steel welders was studied separately. METHODS: The investigation was a historical prospective cohort study based on a national registry. The loss of follow up was 4.9%. RESULTS: There were 625 deaths (659 expected). There were 269 cancer cases (264 expected). An excess of lung cancer was found; 50 cases v 37.5 expected. Th...

  6. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney L. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008–2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp. and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.. Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates.

  7. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer incidence and prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cancer in persons with MS and review the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge...... inconsistencies in study design, and the relative paucity of age, sex and ethnicity-specific risk estimates from which the strong impact of age on the incidence of cancers can be assessed....

  8. The Spatial Distribution of Cancer Incidence in Fars Province: A GIS-Based Analysis of Cancer Registry Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Goli; Mahbobeh Oroei; Mehdi Jalalpour; Hossein Faramarzi; Mehrdad Askarian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major health problem in the developing countries. Variations of its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. This study was performed to assess the spatial patterns of cancer incidence in the Fars Province, based on cancer registry data and to determine geographical clusters. Methods: In this cross sectional study, the new cases of cancer were recorded from 2001 to 2009. Crude incidence rate was estimated based on age groups ...

  9. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  10. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90SrCl2, which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238PuO2, which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90Sr-, 239Pu-, and 226Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226Ra or were injected with 224Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  12. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2007-01-01

    , the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may......BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may influence the recipients' cancer risks both through transmission of biologic agents and by modulation of the immune system. However, cancer occurrence in transfusion recipients remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We used computerized files from Scandinavian...... blood banks to identify a cohort of 888,843 cancer-free recipients transfused after 1968. The recipients were followed from first registered transfusion until the date of death, emigration, cancer diagnosis, or December 31, 2002, whichever came first. Relative risks were expressed as ratios...

  14. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  15. Estimated HIV Incidence in California, 2006–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Scheer; Shoshanna Nakelsky; Trista Bingham; Mark Damesyn; Dan Sun; Chi-Sheng Chin; Anthony Buckman; Mark, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial for prioritizing, targeting, and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. Using the methodology the CDC used to estimate national HIV incidence, we estimated HIV incidence in Los Angeles County (LAC), San Francisco (SF), and California's remaining counties. METHODS: We estimated new HIV infections in 2006-2009 among adults and adolescents in LAC, SF and the remaining California counties using the Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent Se...

  16. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  17. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  18. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Medizinische Physik in der Strahlentherapie; Schneider, Uwe [Triemli Hospital and Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Poppe, Bjoern [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Medizinische Strahlenphysik

    2009-07-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  19. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and...

  20. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  1. Characteristics of breast cancer in an incident cancer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of film mammography is a source of concern to radiologists because neither the ribs nor retromammary space is included on the films in good quality examinations. One hundred seven incident cancers were detected in 10,034 self-referred women followed at the University of Michigan Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (UM-BCDDP) for 5 years. These cancers were analyzed for location on the film, method of detection, size, histology, and the number of films required for detection. Mammography alone detected 52 (49%) of the cancers, whereas physical examination alone detected 15 (14%). The other 40 cancers were detectable on both examinations. All of the 92 cancers detected by mammography were visible in both the mediolateral and the craniocaudal views. Mammography consistently detected cancer in the breast, regardless of tumor size, histologic type, or location within the breast

  2. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alò Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area. Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In

  3. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob;

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  4. Applicability of available methods for incidence estimation among blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shtmian Zou; Edward P.Notari IV; Roger Y.Dodd

    2010-01-01

    @@ Abstract Incidence rates of major transfusion transmissible viral infections have been estimated threugh widely used sereconversion approaches and recently developed methods.A quality database for blood donors and donations with the capacity to track donation history of each donor is the basis for incidence estimation and many other epidemiological studies.Depending on available data,difierent ways have been used to determine incidence rates based on conversion from uninfected to infected status among repeat donors.

  5. Cancer incidence in Arkhangelskaja Oblast in northwestern Russia. The Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkatsjov Anatolij V

    2005-07-01

    major cancer types, except stomach, appear to be relatively low in Russian populations. The AKR provides quality data for estimations and insight to the cancer incidence in a northern Russian population, and we consider the reported incidence rates to reflect the cancer situation in AO well.

  6. Effects of residential radon on cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon activity concentrations of 1077 homes were surveyed in two villages of Northern Hungary to obtain the yearly averages. The distribution of indoor radon activity concentrations covered a wide range. Cancer incidences of all the 2680 inhabitants for the last 30 years were also studied in these villages in order to establish a possible correlation with radon exposure. The methods applied in the analysis allow to draw up statistically supported statements concerning the relative cancer risks of different radon level groups. The results show that among non-smoking middle-aged women the frequency of cancer, regardless to tumor types, is lower for those who live in residential radon activity concentrations of a level between 110 and 185 Bq x m-3 compared to those living in radon levels outside this range. A minimum value in the cancer frequency exists at a level of significance p<0.008 (determined with the help of Fisher's test). In general, the present study corroborates the outcome of other studies demonstrating the existence of a biopositive effect, and suggests a wider concept of radon health effects. (author)

  7. Penetrance of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 families : high cancer incidence at older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Dorina M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Leegte, Beike K.; Schaapveld, Michael; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Vries, J; van der Hout, Annemieke H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimations of lifetime risks of breast and ovarian cancer are crucial for counselling women from BRCA1/2 families. We therefore determined breast and ovarian cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation families in the northern Netherlands and compared them with the incidence of cancers in the ge

  8. Cervical cancer incidence in Denmark over six decades (1943-2002)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe developments in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Denmark, focusing on histological types, over a period of 60 years. We also describe developments in the incidence of carcinoma in situ and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study...... is based on the Danish Cancer Registry database of 39,623 reported cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed among Danish women in the period 1943-2002. The most important variables and measures are age-specific and age-standardized incidence and estimated annual percent changes in incidence. RESULTS...

  9. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  10. Incidence rate of lung cancer in urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 with prevention implication

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Denggui; Li, Shumei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yi YANG; Fen, Cheng; WANG, SHIJIE; Shan, Baoen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Pollution has been established as an environmental factor in the development of lung cancer; however, the incidence rate in Shijiazhuang, one of China's most heavily polluted cities, is unknown. Methods As Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, we estimated the lung cancer incidence rate among registered citizens of urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. Results In Shijiazhuang, lung cancer was...

  11. Cancer incidence in Rabat, Morocco: 2006–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No population-based data of cancer incidence from Morocco have been published before. This is the first report of cancer incidence in Rabat from a population-based cancer registry for the period 2006–2008. Materials and methods The cancer registry collects data on all new cases of cancer diagnosed in the resident population of the Rabat area. Data collection is an active process involving visits by registry staff to all data sources, essentially hospitals, pathological laboratori...

  12. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012,and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.Methods.:On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR,data subrnitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated.There were 72 registries' data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012.Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural),sex,age group and cancer site.The top 10 common cancers in different groups,proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated.Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.Results:All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas).The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%,and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000(males 317.97/100,000,females 253.09/100,000),age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%.The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas,they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000,respectively.The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer regist-ation areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females),age-standardized umortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%.The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 181

  13. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  14. Estimating the incidence of the acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Foldspang, Anders; Larsen, Mogens L.; Gerdes, Lars U.; Rasmussen, Søren; Færgeman, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of incidence are crucial to the planning of public health measures, but most studies of incidence of, for example, acute myocardial infarction (MI) are troubled by methodological problems such as; (i) selection biases of the patients being included for study, (ii) lack of id...

  15. Socioeconomic disparities in the decline in invasive breast cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence in the United States has declined dramatically since the year 2002. To improve our understanding of the underlying factors driving breast cancer trends, we explored potential socioeconomic disparities in the recent decline in incidence. We examined the decline in breast cancer incidence according to county-level socioeconomic indicators using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Since socioeconomic status is associated with mammograp...

  16. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer is...

  17. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    In 2012,the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China collected cancer registration information for the year 2009 from local cancer registries and analyzed it to describe the incidences and mortalities of cancers in China.Based on the data quality criteria from NCCR,data from 104 registries covering 85,470,522 people (57,489,009 in urban areas and 27,981,513 in rural areas) were checked and evaluated.The data from 72 registries were qualified and accepted for the cancer registry annual report in 2012.The total cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphologically verified cases accounted for 67.23% and 3.14% of the incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (317.97/100,000 in males and 253.09/100,000 in females).The age-standardized rates for incidences based on the Chinese standard population (ASRIC) and the world standard population (ASRIW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000,respectively,with a cumulative incidence of 22.08%.The cancer mortality in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females).The age-standardized rates for mortalities based on the Chinese standard population (ASRMC) and the world standard population (ASRMW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,respectively,and the cumulative mortality was 12.94%.Lung cancer,gastric cancer,colorectal cancer,liver cancer,esophageal cancer,pancreatic cancer,encephaloma,lymphoma,female breast cancer,and cervical cancer were the most common cancers,accounting for 75% of all cancer cases.Lung cancer,gastric cancer,liver cancer,esophageal cancer,colorectal cancer,pancreatic cancer,breast cancer,encephaloma,leukemia,and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths.The cancer registration's population coverage has been increasing,and its data quality is improving.As the basis of the

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality in the municipality of Pasto, 1998 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yépez, María Clara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Colombia, information on cancer morbidity at the population level is limited. Incidence estimates for most regions are based on mortality data. To improve the validity of these estimates, it is necessary that other population-based cancer registries, as well as Cali, provide cancer risk information.Objective: To describe the incidence and cancer mortality in the municipality of Pasto within the 1998-2007 period.Methodology: The study population belongs to rural and urban areas of the municipality of Pasto. Collection, processing, and systematization of the data were performed according to internationally standardized parameters for population-based cancer registries. The cancer incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age, and tumor site.Results: During the 1998-2007 period 4,986 new cases of cancer were recorded of which 57.7% were in female. 2,503 deaths were presented, 52% in female. Neoplasm-associated infections are the leading cause of cancer morbidity in Pasto: stomach cancer in males and cervical cancer in females.Discussion: Cancer in general is a major health problem for the population of the municipality of Pasto. The overall behavior of the increasing incidence and cancer mortality in relation to other causes of death show the need to implement and strengthen prevention and promotion programs, focusing especially on tumors that produce greater morbidity and mortality in the population

  19. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Ni Li; Ping Zhao; Guang-lin Li; Liang-you Wu; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China,which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.Methods:There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008.After checking and evaluating the data quality,total 41 registries' data were accepted and pooled for analysis.Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed,as well as the age-and sex-specific rates,age-standardized rates,proportions and cumulative rate.Results:The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas.There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62.The morphological verified rate was 69.33%,and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only.The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000,respectively.The cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) was of 22.27%.The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas.However,after adjusted by age,the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural.The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female),and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000,respectively.The cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was of 12.89%.Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas.The most common cancer sites were lung,stomach,colon-rectum,liver,esophagus,pancreas,brain,lymphoma,breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence.Lung cancer was the leading cause of

  20. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  1. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  2. Study on environmental etiology of high incidence areas of liver cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Feng Lin; Jie Tang; Hoteyi S. Mohamed Ismael

    2000-01-01

    China is a country with a high incidence of liver cancer in some areas[1]. Liver cancer has a wide distribution and threatens human health seriously. A rough estimation shows that out of a population of 1.2 × 108 in liver cancer areas patients are more than 1.0 × 105. The environment of the liver cancer area is very complicated and has different characteristics in different regions. But the epidemic regularity of liver cancer is obvious, and the environment in the cancer areas has also distinct characteristics that contribute to the study on the environmental etiology of liver cancer[2-5].

  3. Incidence estimates of hand and upper extremity injuries in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to estimate the incidence rates of upper extremity injuries and to give an overview of the most frequent diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two population databases were queried for all injuries in the upper extremities, the SINIACA-IDB (S-IDB: Emergency Department Injury Database in Italy and the Hospital Discharge Register (HDR. The diagnoses codes of hand trauma were selected from both databases in order to estimate the national incidence rate. RESULTS: According to the S-IDB data of year 2011, total 1 479 510 ED attendances per year in Italy were estimated with an upper extremity injury (incidence rate: 2491 per 100 000 persons/year. About 880 816 Emergency Department (ED attendances per year are due to hand injuries, while over 653 336 attendances per year concern arm injuries. The incidence rates are 1483 and 1100 per 100 000 person/year respectively. About 201 940 hospitalizations are observed in the HDR because of upper extremity injuries (incidence rate: 340 per 100 000 persons/year. Males have higher incidence rate (387 vs 280 per 100 000 persons per year. The trend in the incidence rates for the age group of inpatients shows two peaks: at age 12 (400 cases per 100 000 persons/year, and in the older age groups (700 cases per 100 000 persons/year.

  4. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  5. Multiple regression analysis of cancer incidence around nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a multiple regression analysis of cancer incidence in the vicinity of a nuclear plant are presented. No dependence on radiation factors (natural background, radioactive releases, total dose of all types of medical examinations) is established. At the same time a relationship between general cancer incidence, turmors of lungs, trashea, bronchi and hematopoictic tissue carcimona incidence and releases of dangerous chemical substances is revealed

  6. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Cancer Incidence: The Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboya, Toru; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Although experimental studies have shown that gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has a role in tumor progression, epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between GGT and cancer incidence is limited. The present study investigated the association between GGT and cancer incidence and assessed the role of alcohol consumption in this association. Methods We examined a cohort of 15 031 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years who attended a health checkup in 1995 and were free of cancer at th...

  7. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August

    2016-01-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rate...

  8. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to sunlight exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Musselman, J R B; Spector, L G

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the possible association between cancer incidence and vitamin D through its role as a regulator of cell growth and differentiation. Epidemiological studies in adults and one paediatric study suggest an inverse association between sunlight exposure and cancer incidence. Methods: We carried out an ecological study using childhood cancer registry data and two population-level surrogates of sunlight exposure, (1) latitude of the registry city or populat...

  9. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date. PMID:26317384

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in the municipality of Pasto, 1998 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Yepez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Introduction: In Colombia, information on cancer morbidity at the population level is limited. Incidence es­timates for most regions are based on mortality data. To improve the validity of these estimates, it is necessary that other population-based cancer registries, as well as Cali, provide cancer risk information. Objective: To describe the incidence and cancer mortality in the municipality of Pasto within the 1998-2007 period. Methodology: The study population belongs to rural and urban areas of the municipality of Pasto. Collection, processing, and systematization of the data were performed according to internationally standardized parame­ters for population-based cancer registries. The cancer incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age, and tumor site. Results: During the 1998-2007 period 4,986 new cases of cancer were recorded of which 57.7% were in female. 2,503 deaths were presented, 52% in female. Neoplasm-associated infections are the leading cause of cancer morbidity in Pasto: stomach cancer in males and cervical cancer in females. Discussion: Cancer in general is a major health problem for the population of the municipality of Pasto. The overall behavior of the increasing incidence and cancer mortality in relation to other causes of death show the need to implement and strengthen prevention and promotion programs, focusing especially on tumors that produce greater morbidity and mortality in the population.

  11. Cancer incidence among workers in the Norwegian ferroalloy industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S; Knudsen, K E

    1986-01-01

    The total mortality and the incidence of cancer was studied among a cohort of employees at the six oldest ferrosilicon and ferromanganese plants in Norway. The cohort consisted of 6494 men employed for more than 18 months before 1970 and has been followed up from 1953 to 1982. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer (all sites) was 0.94. The observed number of cancers was as expected for lung cancer (SIR = 0.99) and for most of the other cancer sites studied. A statistically signifi...

  12. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates, Oklahoma 2005–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mowls, Dana S.; McCaffree, D. Robert; Beebe, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and women in the United States. With cigarette smoking causing the majority of cases, patterns in lung cancer are often monitored to understand the impact of anti-tobacco efforts. The purpose of this research was to investigate trends in lung cancer incidence rates for the period 2005–2010 in Oklahoma. Methods Data on Oklahoma’s incident cases of lung cancer (2005–2010) were obtained from the Centers for Disease Cont...

  13. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  14. Liver cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer is a common cancer and a leading cause of cancer deaths in China.To aid the government in establishing a control plan for this disease,we provided real-time surveillance information by analyzing liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2009 reported by the National Central Cancer Registry.Liver cancer incidence and cases of death were retrieved from the national database using the ICD-10 topography code "C22".Crude incidence and mortality were calculated and stratified by sex,age,and location (urban/rural).China's population in 1982 and Segi (world) population structures were used for age-standardized rates.In cancer registration areas in 2009,the crude incidence of liver cancer was 28.71/100,000,making it the fourth most common cancer in China,third most common in males,and fifth most common in females.The crude mortality of liver cancer was 26.04/100,000,making it the second leading cause of cancer death in China and urban areas and the third leading cause in rural areas.Incidence and mortality were higher in males than in females and were higher in rural areas than in urban areas.The age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low among age groups under 30years but dramatically increased and peaked in the 80-84 years old group.These findings confirm that liver cancer is a common and fatal cancer in China.Primary and secondary prevention such as health education,hepatitis B virus vaccination,and early detection should be carried out both in males and females,in urban and rural areas.

  15. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Temkin, Sarah M.; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decrea...

  16. Africa’s Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Torin Schaafsma; Jon Wakefield; Rachel Hanisch; Freddie Bray; Joachim Schüz; Joy, Edward J. M.; Watts, Michael J.; Valerie McCormack

    2015-01-01

    Background The aetiology of Africa’s easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies. Methods Across Africa we assessed associations between a country’s oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean nati...

  17. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence among atomic-bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Lönn, Stefan; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Egawa, Hiromi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2010-01-01

    While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958–1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were utilized to investigate the joint effects of radiati...

  18. Familial aggregation of lung cancer in a high incidence area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Y. T.; Xu, Y C; Yang, R D; Huang, C. F.; Xu, C W; He, X Z

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether lung cancer clusters in families in a high incidence county of China, an analysis was conducted using data on domestic fuel history and tobacco use for family members of 740 deceased lung cancer probands and 740 controls (probands' spouses). Lung cancer prevalence was compared among first-degree relatives of probands and of controls, taking into account various factors using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. First-degree relatives of probands, co...

  19. A method for analysis of cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors, with application to acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some statistical methodology developed for the analysis of the effect of radiation on cancer incidence is described. The methods presented make use of grouped data for estimation of and testing hypotheses about temporal aspects of the radiogenic effects on cancer incidence. The suggested approach is reviewed by its application to recent data on acute leukemia incidence in the RERF Life Span Study sample. The results of these analyses suggest that, although the temporal pattern of the radiogenic excess differs markedly by age at the time of the bomb (ATB), there is no statistically significant evidence of differences in total excess leukemia by age ATB throughout the study period. (author)

  20. Burden of cancer in Malawi; common types, incidence and trends: National population-based cancer registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msyamboza Kelias

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a majority of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While cancer of the lung, breast, colorectum, stomach and prostate are the most common types of cancer globally, in east and southern Africa these are less common and comprehensive data to inform policies are lacking. Methods Nationwide cancer registry was conducted between September and October 2010 in Malawi. New cancer cases registered from 2007 to 2010 were identified from hospital and clinic registers of 81 out of 84 health facilities providing cancer diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. Demographic and cancer data were extracted from registers and case notes using a standard form. Results A total of 18,946 new cases of cancer were registered in Malawi from 2007-2010. Of these 55.9% were females, 7.2% were children aged less than 15 years, 76.5% were adults aged 15-59 years and 16.4% were elderly aged 60 years or more. Only 17.9% of the cases had histologically verified diagnosis, 33.2% were diagnosed clinically and 49.6% based on clinical and some investigations. Amongst females, cancer of the cervix was the commonest accounting for 45.4% of all cases followed by Kaposi sarcoma (21.1%, cancer of the oesophagus (8.2%, breast (4.6% and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.1%. In males, Kaposi sarcoma was the most frequent (50.7% then cancer of oesophagus (16.9%, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.8, prostate (4.0% and urinary bladder (3.7%. Age-standardised incidence rate per 100,000 population for all types of cancer in males increased from 31 in 1999-2002 to 56 in 2007-2010. In females it increased from 29 to 69. Kaposi sarcoma and cancer of the oesophagus, cervical cancer and Kaposi sarcoma were the main causes for the increased incidence in males and females respectively. It was estimated that, annually at least 8,151 new cases of cancer (all types occur in Malawi. Conclusions This study provided

  1. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Method Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific ...

  2. Milk consumption and cancer incidence: a Norwegian prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ursin, G.; Bjelke, E.; Heuch, I; Vollset, S E

    1990-01-01

    Relationships between milk intake and cancer incidence were investigated after 11 1/2 years of follow-up of 15,914 individuals. A diagnosis of cancer was made in a total of 1,422 individuals. No association was established with total cancer incidence, in analyses adjusted for sex, age and residential characteristics. However, a strong positive association with milk consumption was observed for cancers of the lymphatic organs (odds ratio 3.4 for greater than or equal to 2 glasses per day vs le...

  3. Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Christensen, Jane;

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet...... included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer......., Cancer and Health cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrollment in 1993-1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was derived from self-administered questionnaires. The incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on a Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 24,418 women...

  4. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug;

    2012-01-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this...... study, we investigated whether the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population....

  5. Ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence: an integrated modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Slaper H; den Elzen MGJ; de Woerd HJ; Greef J de

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in stratospheric ozone, probably caused by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, has been observed over large parts of the globe. The incidence of skin cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion. An integrated source-risk model is developed and applied to evaluate the increased skin cancer incidence related to various CFC emission scenarios. The source-risk model is an independent submodule within the framework of IMAGE, an integrated source-effect-model for climate change...

  6. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 104 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  7. Asymptotically robust variance estimation for person-time incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scosyrev, Emil

    2016-05-01

    Person-time incidence rates are frequently used in medical research. However, standard estimation theory for this measure of event occurrence is based on the assumption of independent and identically distributed (iid) exponential event times, which implies that the hazard function remains constant over time. Under this assumption and assuming independent censoring, observed person-time incidence rate is the maximum-likelihood estimator of the constant hazard, and asymptotic variance of the log rate can be estimated consistently by the inverse of the number of events. However, in many practical applications, the assumption of constant hazard is not very plausible. In the present paper, an average rate parameter is defined as the ratio of expected event count to the expected total time at risk. This rate parameter is equal to the hazard function under constant hazard. For inference about the average rate parameter, an asymptotically robust variance estimator of the log rate is proposed. Given some very general conditions, the robust variance estimator is consistent under arbitrary iid event times, and is also consistent or asymptotically conservative when event times are independent but nonidentically distributed. In contrast, the standard maximum-likelihood estimator may become anticonservative under nonconstant hazard, producing confidence intervals with less-than-nominal asymptotic coverage. These results are derived analytically and illustrated with simulations. The two estimators are also compared in five datasets from oncology studies. PMID:26439107

  8. Race-specific geography of prostate cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samociuk Holly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated geographic distribution of race-specific prostate cancer incidence in Connecticut and Massachusetts. This cross-sectional analysis of census and cancer registry data included records of 29,040 Whites and 1,647 African Americans diagnosed with incident prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998. A spatial scan statistic was used to detect and test significance of the geographic variation in race-specific incidence rates within the two-state area. Results Significant geographic variation in age-adjusted incidence rates among both White and African American men was observed, with little overlap noted between distributions. Identified locations reflected patterns of residential segregation and socio-economic conditions. Among Whites, places with higher than expected incidence had higher socioeconomic status than places with lower than expected incidence. No discernable relationship between social indicators and rate variation among African Americans was evident. Conclusion Differences in race-specific geographic distribution of prostate cancer incidence do not suggest a shared environmental etiology. Furtherstudyof genetic, behavioral and health carefactors affecting the occurrence and/or reporting of the disease is warranted. This study highlights the need for race- and geographic-specific interventions to better control disease within at-risk communities and for on-going analysis into social and contextual factors that contribute to observed disparities between African Americans and Whites in the occurrence of cancer.

  9. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and incident cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thyssen, J P; Meldgaard, M; Thuesen, B H; Pisinger, C; Jørgensen, T; Carlsen, K; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Szecsi, P B; Stender, S; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) could have opposing effects on cancer risk, as mutations are associated with both 10% higher serum vitamin D levels, which may protect against cancer, and with impaired skin barrier function, which may lead to higher cancer...... susceptibility. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of the FLG genotype and cancer types in four population-based cohorts. METHODS: A total of 13,376 individuals were genotyped for FLG mutations. Information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Persons with a history of cancer at...... baseline were excluded from prospective analyses. RESULTS: There were 1339 incident cancers (median follow-up 11·4 years). The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FLG mutation carriers vs. wild types were: for any cancer (HR 0·95, 95% CI 0·78-1·16), any cancer excluding nonmelanoma...

  10. A prospective ascertainment of cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Kaposi sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey; Wenger, Megan; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Maurer, Toby; McCalmont, Timothy; LeBoit, Philip; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Lukande, Robert; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Laker-Oketta, Miriam; Kambugu, Andrew; Glidden, David; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, problems in accurate cancer case ascertainment and enumeration of the at-risk population make it difficult to estimate cancer incidence. We took advantage of a large well-enumerated healthcare system to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a cancer which has become prominent in the HIV era and whose incidence may be changing with the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To achieve this, we evaluated HIV-infected adults receiving care between 2007 and 2012 at any of three medical centers in Kenya and Uganda that participate in the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium. Through IeDEA, clinicians received training in KS recognition and biopsy equipment. We found that the overall prevalence of KS among 102,945 HIV-infected adults upon clinic enrollment was 1.4%; it declined over time at the largest site. Among 140,552 patients followed for 319,632 person-years, the age-standardized incidence rate was 334/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 314-354/100,000 person-years). Incidence decreased over time and was lower in women, persons on ART, and those with higher CD4 counts. The incidence rate among patients on ART with a CD4 count >350 cells/mm(3) was 32/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 14-70/100,000 person-years). Despite reductions over time coincident with the expansion of ART, KS incidence among HIV-infected adults in East Africa equals or exceeds the most common cancers in resource-replete settings. In resource-limited settings, strategic efforts to improve cancer diagnosis in combination with already well-enumerated at-risk denominators can make healthcare systems attractive platforms for estimating cancer incidence. PMID:26823008

  11. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela I Andreoni

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics, who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo. The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. RESULTS: Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. CONCLUSIONS: The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  12. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoni Gisela I

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics, who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo. The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. RESULTS: Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. CONCLUSIONS: The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

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    Uribe, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition.Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007.Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1.Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  14. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PB­CRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Objetive: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative De­partment of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  15. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  17. Choropleth Map Design for Cancer Incidence, Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Richards, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information system mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, especially for comprehensive cancer control planning and evaluation purposes. In this 2-part series, we answer frequently asked questions about choropleth map design to display cancer incidence data. We recommend that future initiatives consider more advanced mapping, spatial analysis, and spatial statistics techniques and include usability testing with representatives of state and local programs and other cancer prevention partners.

  18. Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18.

  19. Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach

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    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies for cancer reduction and management are targeted at both individual and area levels. Area-level strategies require careful understanding of geographic differences in cancer incidence, in particular the association with factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and accessibility. This study aimed to identify the complex interplay of area-level factors associated with high area-specific incidence of Australian priority cancers using a classification and regression tree (CART approach. Methods Area-specific smoothed standardised incidence ratios were estimated for priority-area cancers across 478 statistical local areas in Queensland, Australia (1998-2007, n = 186,075. For those cancers with significant spatial variation, CART models were used to identify whether area-level accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity were associated with high area-specific incidence. Results The accessibility of a person's residence had the most consistent association with the risk of cancer diagnosis across the specific cancers. Many cancers were likely to have high incidence in more urban areas, although male lung cancer and cervical cancer tended to have high incidence in more remote areas. The impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on these associations differed by type of cancer. Conclusions These results highlight the complex interactions between accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity in determining cancer incidence risk.

  20. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can find better ways to prevent it. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer may include— A personal or family history of gallstones. Older age. Being female. Having an American Indian, Alaska Native, or black ...

  1. Incidence and Management of Colorectal Cancer in Liver Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihori, Taiga; Strazzabosco, Mario; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplant recipients are at an increased risk of developing de novo malignancies because of the prolonged immunosuppression necessary to avoid acute and chronic rejections. Skin cancers and lymphoproliferative diseases are the most common malignancies, but the overall incidence of colon cancer in this patient population does differ from that of the general population. Therefore, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern in liver transplant recipients. Furthermore, there are uni...

  2. Study of mortality and cancer incidence among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. 1946-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality and cancer incidence among offspring of atomic bomb survivors whose exposure dose was estimated in DS86 (Dose System 1986) were studied as one of means to evaluate the genetic influence of atomic bomb radiation. Big malformation incidence and mortality of subjects with the malformation were also studied. Death and its cause were traced from the city register and certificate of death of 67,586 offspring born in 1946-1984. Cancer was confirmed by certificate of death until 1957 and by cancer registration after 1958. Big malformation and the mortality were traced from clinical diagnostic records at birth or at necropsy, of 9-month examination after birth and of certificate of death. Comparisons were made in general and the offspring's age-related mortalities and in mortality or cancer incidence in relation to the radiation doses the parents had been exposed to. The comparisons showed no statistically significant relationships in those examined parameters. (K.H.)

  3. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

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    Yinan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  4. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  5. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Campos, Miriam; Ansótegui, Emilio; Molina-Molina, María; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Pollán, Marina; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rates for the period 2000-2014. Immunohistochemical studies and exome sequence analysis were performed in two and one tumors, respectively. All cohorts revealed breast cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) ≥ 2.25. The combined analysis of all cases or restricted to pre-menopausal age groups revealed significantly higher incidence of breast cancer: SIR = 2.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-5.57, P = 0.009; and SIR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 2.29-9.99, P = 0.0007, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses showed positivity for known markers of lung metastatic potential. This study suggests the existence of increased breast cancer risk among LAM patients. Prospective studies may be warranted to corroborate this result, which may be particularly relevant for pre-menopausal women with LAM. PMID:26951504

  6. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  7. Association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with incidence of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Guinó, Elisabeth; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Altzibar, Jone M.; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; Martín, Vicente; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Tardón, Adonina; Caballero, Francisco Javier; Puig-Vives, Montse; Guevara, Marcela; Villa, Tania Fernández; Salas, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods Histologically confirmed incident cases of postmenopausal breast (N = 916) cancer were recruited from 23 Spanish public hospitals. Population-based controls (N = 1094) were randomly selected from primary care center lists within the catchment areas of the participant hospitals. ORs (95 % CI) were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression mode...

  8. Association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with incidence of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a-Esquinas, Esther; Casta??o Vinyals, Gemma; Sala Serra Maria, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollan, Marina

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. METHODS: Histologically confirmed incident cases of postmenopausal breast (N = 916) cancer were recruited from 23 Spanish public hospitals. Population-based controls (N = 1094) were randomly selected from primary care center lists within the catchment areas of the participant hospitals. ORs (95 % CI) were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression mo...

  9. Spatial Analysis of Breast Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Pakzad, Reza; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Moudi, Asieh; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in females (27% of the total) and the main cause of death (16%) due to cancer in women in developed and developing countries. Variations in its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present spatial analysis of breast cancer incidence in Iran in 2009 was conducted using data from the national cancer registry system. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized according to the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then data was inserted into the GIS software and finally, using the Hot Spot Analysis (Geties-Ord Gi), high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces with incidences 1.96 SD higher or lower than the national average were considered as hot spots or cold spots, at the significance level of 0.05%. In 2009, a total of 7,582 cases of BC occurred in Iran. The annual incidence was 33.2 per hundred thousand people. Our study showed that the highest incidence of BC in women occurred in the central provinces of the country, Tehran, Isfahan, Yazd, Markazi and Fars. The results of hot spots analysis showed that the distribution of high-risk BC was focused in central parts of Iran, especially Isfahan province (p <0.01). The other provinces were not significantly different from the national average. The higher incidence in central provinces may be due to greater exposure to carcinogens in urban areas, a Western lifestyle and high prevalence of other risk factors. Further epidemiological studies about the etiology and early detection of BC are essential. PMID:27165209

  10. Cancer incidence in the first-degree relatives of ovarian cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Auranen, A; Pukkala, E.; Mäkinen, J.; Sankila, R.; Grénman, S.; Salmi, T.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer incidence was studied among 3072 first-degree relatives of 559 unselected ovarian cancer patients. Among cohort members there were 306 cancer cases. The overall cancer incidence was not increased: the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) in males was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.1) and in females 1.0 (0.8-1.1). The female relatives had a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer (SIR 2.8, 1.8-4.2). The excess was attributable to sisters only (SIR 3.7, 2.3-5.7). The relative r...

  11. Incidence and Trend of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers in Yazd, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, F; Hashemi, A; VakilI, M; Shakeri, MM; Masoumi Dehshiri, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on childhood and adolescent malignant tumors incidence are skimp in developing countries. In this study, we analyzed the incidence and trend of childhood and adolescent cancers in Yazd city, center of Iran between Jan 2004 and Dec 2013. Material and Methods The various types of malignant tumors were grouped pursuant to the International Classification for Cancer in Children. To analyze the data, descriptive and illative statistical methods were used. Results Two hundred twenty-two patients with a malignancy aged less than 18 years were studied with a male to female ratio of 1.36.The mean age of patients was 9.88 (±5.7) years. Leukemia with the frequency of 84 (37.8%) and after that lymphoid malignancies with the frequency of 49 (22.1%) were the most common cancers. There was a low range of oscillation in the incidence rate of malignancies during this period of time (P value= 0.081). Malignancies were mostly in males (P value=0.057) but the whole process of malignancy incidence had gone toward the higher rate of incidence in females. Incidence rate of cancers types was steady. Malignancy incidence was 3-7 cases in hundred of thousands except a year of which this incidence rate was estimated 13.4. Conclusion Leukemias and lymphomas were the main cancers in the center of Iran. Childhood and adolescent malignancies may be considerably under-recorded in our province .A childhood and adolescent cancer registry is necessary for exact analysis of these types of malignancies. PMID:27222698

  12. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

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    Olsen Jens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish National Cancer Register using ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Resource use in the health care sector was estimated for the year prior to diagnosis, and for the first, second and third years after diagnosis. Hospital resource use was defined in terms of registered hospital contacts, using DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups and DAGS (Danish Outpatient Groups System charges as cost estimates for inpatient and outpatient contacts, respectively. Health care consumption by cancer patients diagnosed in 2004–2007 was compared with that by an age- and sex-matched cohort without cancer. Hospital costs attributable to four anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of new cases of these four cancers in Denmark is about 270 per year. In comparison, the total number of new cases cervical cancer is around 390 per year. The total cost of anogenital cancer to the hospital sector was estimated to be 7.6 million Euros per year. Costs associated with anal and vulvar cancer constituted the majority of the costs. Conclusions Anogenital cancer incurs considerable costs to the Danish hospital sector. It is expected that the current

  13. Incidence of craniopharyngioma in Denmark (n = 189) and estimated world incidence of craniopharyngioma in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eigil Husted; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Poulsgaard, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Registry, the Danish Cancer Registry and regional registries. Medical records were reviewed. Danish population data were obtained from Statistics Denmark. European and World population data were obtained from EU and WHO homepages. Prior studies providing data on craniopharyngioma IRs were identified via...... PubMed and, if appropriate, were included in a weighted analysis estimating overall and children's IRs of craniopharyngioma. IRs are given as new cases per million per year. We identified 189 patients with new verified (162) or probable craniopharyngioma. The overall WHO World-standardised incidence...... rate was 1.86 (1.60-2.14) for all ages and 2.14 (1.53-2.92) for children (age...

  14. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  15. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose

  16. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone;

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age...

  17. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, "Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact", will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  18. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  19. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-feng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype, led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. Methods DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022 suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. Results The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%, FYa + FYb- (33.2%, FYa-FYb + (45.6% and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001. Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%, FYa + FYb- (36.9%, FYa-FYb + (41.0% and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005. There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022 of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05, histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05 or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05 between every each DBGP group. Conclusions DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype

  20. Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension in Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy H. Fraeman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate incidence rates of new-onset hypertension in adult cancer patients identified from the Varian Medical Oncology outpatient database. Incidence rates of increasing levels of hypertension severity were calculated overall and for periods of chemotherapy exposure and nonexposure. Cox models sought predictors of new-onset hypertension severity among baseline and chemotherapy exposure variables. New-onset hypertension was observed in about one-third of 25,090 patients with various cancer types. The incidence rates (IR of severe and crisis-level hypertension, respectively, were the highest in patients with gastric (18.5 cases per 100 person-years (PY, 5.6 per 100 PY and ovarian cancer (20.2 per 100 PY, 4.8 per 100 PY. The highest IR of moderate hypertension was observed in patients with renal cancer (46.7 per 100 PY. Across all cancers, chemotherapy exposure was associated with a 2–3.5-fold increase in risk of any degree of hypertension compared to periods of no chemotherapy; higher hypertension levels showed greater variability in relative risks by type and line of therapy but indicated an overall increase associated with chemotherapy exposure. These results help to elucidate the factors influencing HTN among cancer patients and the incidence of HTN relative to chemotherapy exposure.

  1. Influence of diagnostic radiography on the incidence of breast cancer and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little accurate information is available on the influence of diagnostic radiography on the incidence of cancer in the general population, largely because of a lack of knowledge of the numbers and the age distributions of patients undergoing radiographic examinations. We used such information from a closed population in Maine that was followed for a year, along with data from the literature on the absorbed dose from typical examinations and a mathematical model linking dose to the incidence rate of cancer, to estimate the numbers of cases of radiologically induced cancer of the bone marrow and breast. Our data indicate that about 1 percent of all cases of leukemia and less than 1 percent of all cases of breast cancer result from diagnostic radiography. In addition, such tumors generally occur late in life; the incidence of radiation-induced leukemia was highest at 69 years, and the incidence of radiation-induced breast cancer was highest at 76 years. Thus, diagnostic radiography has only a small influence on the occurrence of leukemia and breast cancer

  2. Ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence: an integrated modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; den Elzen MGJ; de Woerd HJ; de Greef J

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in stratospheric ozone, probably caused by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, has been observed over large parts of the globe. The incidence of skin cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion. An integrated source-risk model is developed and applied to evaluate the increased

  3. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Obel, Niels; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in...... hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are...

  4. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  5. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirko, Kelly A; Soliman, Amr S.; Ahmed Hablas; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Mohamed Ramadan; Mousumi Banerjee; Harford, Joe B.; Chamberlain, Robert M; Sofia D. Merajver

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC) measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads...

  6. An International Comparison of Male and Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Diana; Forman, David; Ferlay, Jacques; Brinton, Louise A.; Cook, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Global international trends in female breast cancer incidence have been described previously but no comparable analysis of male breast cancer incidence rates has been conducted. We obtained male and female case and population data using Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5). We calculated age-adjusted sex-specific incidence rates and female-to-male incidence rate ratios (FMIRRs) and compared trends of such for the period 1988–2002. This analysis included 8,681 male breast cancer cases and...

  7. Diagnostic strategies and the incidence of prostate cancer:reasons for the low reported incidence of prostate cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhang; Shan Wu; Li-Rong Guo; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We have analysed the reasons for the low reported incidence of prostate cancer in China and argue for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.According to the 2002 database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),the age-standardized incidence of prostate cancer in China is 1.6/105 person years (PY),with a mortality rate of 1.0/105PY and mortality-to-incidence rate ratio (MR/IR)=0.63.The MR/IR ratio of prostate cancer in China was found to be higher than the average in Asia (MR/IR=0.57) and much higher than that in North America (MR/IR=0.13).These data indicate that in China most prostate cancers were in the advanced stages at the time of diagnosis,and that patients had a short survival time thereafter.In 2004,Stamey et al.reported a retrospective American study of prostate cancer for the years 1983-2003.It was shown that most cases of prostate cancer detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening were in the advanced stage at the start of this 20-year period.These early follow-up data are quite similar to the results obtained from mass PSA screening of elderly men in Changchun,China.However,after the American programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were accepted,tumours were diagnosed at earlier stages.On the basis of these findings,mass screening should be performed in the whole of China using serum PSA to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  9. Blood donation and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although blood donations may reduce body iron stores, to date, prospective data on frequent blood donation and colorectal cancer risk are limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether frequent blood donation is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We prospectively followed 35,121 men who provide the information on lifetime number of blood donations in 1992 through 2008. Serum ferritin levels were measured in a random sample of 305 men. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the multivariable relative risks (RRs, 95%CIs after adjusting for age and other established colorectal cancer risk factors. We documented 684 incident colorectal cancer cases and 224 deaths from colorectal cancer. The mean serum ferritin levels varied from 178 µg/L for men who did not donate blood to 98 µg/L for men who had at least 30 donations. Age-adjusted results for both incidence and mortality were essentially the same as the multivariable-adjusted results. Comparing with non-donors, the multivariable RRs (95%CIs for colorectal cancer incidence were 0.92 (0.77, 1.11 for 1-5 donation, 0.85 (0.64, 1.11 for 6-9 donations, 0.96 (0.73, 1.26 for 10-19 donations, 0.91 (0.63, 1.32 for 20-29 donations, and 0.97 (0.68, 1.38 for at least 30 donations (P(trend = 0.92. The multivariable RRs for colorectal cancer mortality were 0.99 (0.72, 1.36 for 1-5 donation, 0.93 (0.57, 1.51 for 6-9 donations, 0.85 (0.50, 1.42 for 10-19 donations, and 1.14 (0.72, 1.83 for at least 20 donations (P(trend = 0.82. The results did not vary by cancer sub-sites, intake levels of total iron, heme iron, or family history of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Frequent blood donations were not associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in men. Our results do not support an important role of body iron stores in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  11. Trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Cali, Colombia. 50 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali aims to report all new cases in permanent residents within the limits of the city of Cali. Time trends of cancer incidence and mortality are described. The registry has been in continuous operation for 50 years. Methods: Cancer cases reports are obtained actively by visiting all sources of information: hospitals, pathology departments, hematology laboratories, radiotherapy centers, government offices where death certificates are processed and physician’s offices. It is estimated that the reporting is at least 95% complete. Results: Drastic decreases are documented in rates for tumors causally related to infectious agents, especially cancers of the uterine cervix and the stomach. Gradual increases are documented in rates of tumors linked to affluence and the metabolic syndrome, especially cancers of the colon and the female breast. An unexpected increase in the incidence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in women is reported. Tobacco-related cancers, especially cancer of the lung, showed marked increase in incidence rates around 1970, apparently the beginning of an epidemic similar to the one reported in Western societies. But the increase in incidence stopped around 1980, resulting from a strong anti-smoking campaign launched in Colombia in the 1970s. Conclusions: The findings have influenced prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities, specially the establishment of a city-wide program to prevent cervix cancer via widespread use of vaginal cytology and anti-smoking campaigns. Also, new population-based cancer registries have been established in other Colombian cities as well as in Ecuador.

  12. Trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Cali, Colombia. 50 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose :The Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali aims to report all new cases in permanent residents within the limits of the city of Cali. Time trends of cancer incidence and mortality are described. The registry has been in continuous operation for 50 years. Methods: Cancer cases reports are obtained actively by visiting all sources of information: hospitals, pathology departments, hematology laboratories, radiotherapy centers, government offices where death certificates are processed and physician’s offices. It is estimated that the reporting is at least 95% complete. Results: Drastic decreases are documented in rates for tumors causally related to infectious agents, especially cancers of the uterine cervix and the stomach. Gradual increases are documented in rates of tumors linked to affluence and the metabolic syndrome, especially cancers of the colon and the female breast. An unexpected increase in the incidence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in women is reported. Tobacco-related cancers, especially cancer of the lung, showed marked increase in incidence rates around 1970, apparently the beginning of an epidemic similar to the one reported in Western societies. But the increase in incidence stopped around 1980, resulting from a strong anti-smoking campaign launched in Colombia in the 1970s. Conclusions: The findings have influenced prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities, specially the establishment of a city-wide program to prevent cervix cancer via widespread use of vaginal cytology and anti-smoking campaigns. Also, new population-based cancer registries have been established in other Colombian cities as well as in Ecuador.

  13. Incidence and etiology of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohata, T; Fukuda, K

    1979-11-01

    Incidence of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin was either compiled from published reports or computed by the authors. The results showed a great variation in age-standardized annual incidence rates of lung cancer among 10 countries and 17 areas in the Pacific Basin where tumor registry statistics are available. For males the incidence rates ranged from 10 to over 70 and for females from less than 5 to over 30/100,000 population. The reason(s) for the great variation is unclear. Ionizing radiation, carcinogenic chemical substances (e.g., chromium, arsenic compounds, asbestos, etc.), or air pollution are unlikely to be responsible. Because cigarette smoking is known to be a major cause of lung cancer, the authors have suggested that surveys on cigarette smoking be conducted among various populations in the Pacific Basin so that etiologic significance of cigarette smoking for the noted variation can be assessed. In Hawaii such a survey is underway, and a preliminary analysis was made to examine the association between lung cancer and cigarette smoking among five races. PMID:537621

  14. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadda Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. Findings The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy; and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  15. Incidence and survival differences of differentiated thyroid cancer among younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltz MM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melissa M Boltz,1 Laura M Enomoto,1,2 Rollyn M Ornstein,3 Brian D Saunders,1,4 Christopher S Hollenbeak1,2,51Department of Surgery, 2Division of Outcomes Research and Quality, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine and Eating Disorders, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey Children’s Hospital, 4Division of General Surgery Specialties and Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an estimated 60,220 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013. For reasons that are unclear, differentiated thyroid cancer is three times more common in females than in males. However, among adolescent and young adult females between ages 15–39 years, differentiated thyroid cancer remains under-recognized. The disparity in cancer incidence and outcomes in this population may be secondary to the tumor's biology, and risk factors unique to women. This review summarizes the incidence and survival rates of thyroid cancer in women younger than 45 years of age, as well as the pathophysiology, etiology, risk factors, prognosis, and current and emerging treatment options for this patient population.Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, young adult women, adolescents, incidence, risk factors, treatment

  16. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  17. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pelzer, U.; Klein, F.(Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Bonn, 53115, Germany); M. Bahra; M. Sinn; Dörken, B.; Neuhaus, P.; Meyer, O; H. Riess

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1-q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: One hundred and sixty-six patients who under...

  18. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    UwePelzer; MarcusBahra; OliverMeyer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1 - q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: 166 patients who underwent a re...

  19. Estimating environmental and occupational contribution to cancer in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in Radiation and Isotopes Center of Khartoum (RICK) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) University of Gazeria. It focused on cancer patients who were treated by radiation therapy in the period between 2008 and 2009. The study investigator the risk and causative factors and geographical distribution over the sudan states and the relationship of incidence with some patient's customs and dietary habits. This study summarizes recent scientific evidence of environmental and occupational links to nearly 30 types of cancer. the discussion of each cancer type is introduced by highlights of trends in incidence. The study considers additional indication that involuntary exposures are linked to cancers, such as patterns observed in different geographic areas and among different population patterns of cancer in children. The purpose of this study is to review scientific evidence, particular y epidemiologic evidence. regarding the contribution of environmental and occupational exposures to the overall cancer incidence in the Sudan. The study discussed that the widespread exposures from air and water pollution, the work environment, exposure resulting form personal habits such as smoking and drinking and the diet are major contributors to cancer in human. In the past three decades, there have been several efforts to estimate the proportion of caner due to these involuntary exposure, starting with an ambitious effort by different scientists. This study provided and alternative interpretation of the evidence of cancer incidence to particular factors. We conclude the study by recommending the significance of giving environmental and occupational links to cancer serious consideration by individuals and institutions concerned with cancer prevention, particularly those involved in research and education. (Author)

  20. Incidence of childhood cancer in Preston and South Ribble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatrell, A.C.; Whitelegg, J.

    1993-09-01

    Using data from the Manchester Childrens Tumour Register, extending back to 1954, the authors have examined the evidence for clustering of various childhood cancers in Preston and South Ribble, and conclude that incidence in the Penwortham district of Preston is not detectably higher than in other parts of the study areas. Neoplasms studied were leukaemias, lymphomas and those affecting the central and sympathetic nervous system, kidneys, liver and bone and soft tissues. (Author).

  1. Incidence of craniopharyngioma in Denmark (n = 189) and estimated world incidence of craniopharyngioma in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Poulsgaard, L;

    2011-01-01

    We studied the incidence of craniopharyngioma in Denmark during the period 1985-2004 and estimated worldwide incidence rates (IR) of craniopharyngioma based on a literature review. Craniopharyngioma patients diagnosed during the period 1985-2004 were identified from the Danish National Patient...... PubMed and, if appropriate, were included in a weighted analysis estimating overall and children's IRs of craniopharyngioma. IRs are given as new cases per million per year. We identified 189 patients with new verified (162) or probable craniopharyngioma. The overall WHO World-standardised incidence...

  2. Trends in lung cancer incidence and survival: studies based on cancer registries

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis trends in the incidence and survival of patients with lung cancer since 1960 in the southeastern part of the Netherlands are described and interpreted. These trends may provide an insight into changes in mortality due to lung cancer in a region with the oldest cancer registlY in the Netherlands. Chapter 1.2 contains a review of literature on trends in the incidence and survival of lung cancer. The methods used for the studies of this thesis are described in chapter ...

  3. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical......, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  4. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folsom Jeffrey A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3 for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9 for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8% fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27 and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98. Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women.

  5. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  6. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  7. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  8. Cancer incidence and novel therapies developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Iwasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the ministry of Health, Labour and welfare of Japan, Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. [1] As per the data in 2010, in Japan, one in every three deaths was due to cancer. [2] The Japanese Government has introduced so far, three terms of 10 years strategies for Cancer control since 1984 till date. The budget allocated for cancer control in 2009 was 52.5 billion yen in Japan. [3] Lung is the leading site for cancer in both males and females in Japan. In males, following the lung, stomach, liver, colon and pancreas are other leading sites while in the females, stomach, colon, pancreas and breast are the other leading sites.[1] In 2006, the cancer incidence was 694,000 and the male cancer incidence was 1.4 times as large as that of females. The peak age for cancer deaths in males is their fifties while in the females it is the sixties among Japanese. In addition to the conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some of other therapies in practice in Japan are the Hyperthermia [4] that uses high temperatures to kill or damage the cancer cells, the Ion Beam therapy using proton beams [5] to damage the DNA of the cells as cancer cells have high rate of cell divisions and lesser ability to repair DNA damage, the molecular targeted therapies that interfere with a specific molecular target involved in tumour growth and progression [6] and most importantly the autologous cell based Immunotherapies. Modern Cancer Immunotherapy started in the 1970s in Japan. The immunopotentiators using compounds from Bacteria, Beta Glucans from fungi were the first forms of modern Immunotherapy. Then was the era of direct injection of cytokines such as Interleukins, Interferons etc. The adverse effects associated with the injection of cytokines led to development of cell based Immunotherapies in the 1980s. [7] Immuno-cell therapies involve isolation of immune cells which are then processed and re

  9. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Canada, 1970–1996: time trends and age-period-cohort effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S; Semenciw, R; Ugnat, A-M; Mao, Y.(State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, China)

    2001-01-01

    We examined time trends in thyroid cancer incidence in Canada by age, time period and birth cohort between 1970 and 1996. Age-specific incidence rates by time period and birth cohort were calculated and age-period-cohort modelling used to estimate effects underlying the observed trends. Overall age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancer doubled, from 3.3 and 1.1 per 100 000 in 1970–72 to 6.8 and 2.2 per 100 000 in 1994–96, among females and males respectively. Almost all the increase betw...

  10. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26766789

  11. Time trends of incidence of digestive system cancers in changle of China during :1988-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Jian-Shun Chen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the incidence of digestive system cancer in Changle of China over a 15-year period.METHODS: The datasets were presented as timeseries of China-standardized annual incidence during 1988-2002. Linear regression model was used to analyze the incidence of stomach, liver, esophagus and colorectal cancers.RESULTS: Linear regression models for the time-series of stomach and esophagus cancer incidences for both men and women were statistically significant (P<0.05);Regression models for liver cancer and for colorectal cancer were statistically significant for men (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of stomach and esophagus cancers for both men and women had down tendencies. For men, liver cancer had a down trend of the incidence and colorectal cancer had an upward trend of the incidence rate.

  12. The Spatial Distribution of Cancer Incidence in Fars Province: A GIS-Based Analysis of Cancer Registry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Ali; Oroei, Mahbobeh; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major health problem in the developing countries. Variations of its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. This study was performed to assess the spatial patterns of cancer incidence in the Fars Province, based on cancer registry data and to determine geographical clusters. Methods: In this cross sectional study, the new cases of cancer were recorded from 2001 to 2009. Crude incidence rate was estimated based on age groups and sex in the counties of the Fars Province. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) per 100,000 was calculated in each year. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed in measuring the geographic patterns and clusters using geographic information system (GIS). Also, comparisons were made between ASRs in each county. Results: A total of 28,411 new cases were diagnosed with cancer during 2001-2009 in the Fars Province, 55.5% of which were men. The average age was 61.6 ± 0.5 years. The highest ASR was observed in Shiraz, which is the largest county in Fars. The Moran's Index of cancer was significantly clustered in 2004, 2005, and 2006 in total, men, and women. The type of spatial clustering was high-high cluster, that to indicate from north-west to south-east of Fars Province. Conclusions: Analysis of the spatial distribution of cancer shows significant differences from year to year and between different areas. However, a clear spatial autocorrelation is observed, which can be of great interest and importance to researchers for future epidemiological studies, and to policymakers for applying preventive measures. PMID:24319551

  13. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Mellemkjaer

    Full Text Available A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08 adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77. Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66. There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.

  14. Africa's Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin Schaafsma

    Full Text Available The aetiology of Africa's easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies.Across Africa we assessed associations between a country's oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, iodine (I, magnesium (Mg, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn. We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI. Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR cut-point approach.Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29-0.82; Mg 0.58 (0.31-1.08; Se 0.40 (0.18-0.90; and Zn 0.29 (0.11-0.74. There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries.Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are needed to elucidate their causal role in this

  15. Baseline C-reactive protein is associated with incident cancer and survival in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had CRP...

  16. A new approach of nonparametric estimation of incidence and lifetime risk based on birth rates and incident events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mei-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence and lifetime risk of diabetes are important public health measures. Traditionally, nonparametric estimates are obtained from survey data by means of a Nelson-Aalen estimator which requires data information on both incident events and risk sets from the entire cohort. Such data information is rarely available in real studies. Methods We compare two different approaches for obtaining nonparametric estimates of age-specific incidence and lifetime risk with emphasis on required assumptions. The first and novel approach only considers incident cases occurring within a fixed time window–we have termed this cohort-of-cases data–which is linked explicitly to the birth process in the past. The second approach is the usual Nelson-Aalen estimate which requires knowledge on observed time at risk for the entire cohort and their incident events. Both approaches are used on data on anti-diabetic medications obtained from Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database, which covers a population of approximately 470,000 over the period 1993–2003. For both methods we investigate if and how incidence rates can be projected. Results Both the new and standard method yield similar sigmoidal shaped estimates of the cumulative distribution function of age-specific incidence. The Nelson-Aalen estimator gives somewhat higher estimates of lifetime risk (15.65% (15.14%; 16.16% for females, and 17.91% (17.38%; 18.44% for males than the estimate based on cohort-of-cases data (13.77% (13.74%; 13.81% for females, 15.61% (15.58%; 15.65% for males. Accordingly the projected incidence rates are higher based on the Nelson-Aalen estimate–also too high when compared to observed rates. In contrast, the cohort-of-cases approach gives projections that fit observed rates better. Conclusion The developed methodology for analysis of cohort-of-cases data has potential to become a cost-effective alternative to a traditional survey based study of incidence. To

  17. Thyroid cancer incidence due to technogenic exposure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshurnikova, Nina Alexandrovna; Kaigorodova, Larissa Y; Rabinovich, Evgenya I; Martinenko, Irina I; Okatenko, Pavel A; Khokhryakov, Victor V; Mosharova, Elena P; Mokrov, Juri; Fomin, Evgeny; Alekseyev, Valery S; Panteleyev, Nikolay T; Sannikova, Lubov A; Ryzhykh, Tatyana V

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence was studied in the cohort of residents of Ozyorsk and Kyshtym, the nearest upwind cities to the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Russia's first plutonium production facility, which has been in operation since 1948. Radioactive contamination of areas around the Mayak PA were from unmonitored releases of inert gases produced by industrial reactors and also from the release of uranium fission products from a radiochemical plant stack where irradiated uranium blocks were refined. Iodine-131 (131I) was the main contributor to the technogenic dose from atmospheric releases. Routine monitoring of gaseous releases began in the mid-1960s, when a gas purification system was perfected. Children were a critical group due to their higher radiosensitivity and specific diet (dairy products and vegetables). Both cities maintain Registries containing over 100,000 individuals born from 1934-2006. Among this group, more than 100 cases of thyroid cancer were registered during 1948-2009. The relative risk of thyroid cancer incidence is 1.5 times higher than in the Chelyabinsk. PMID:22647908

  18. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard;

    2014-01-01

    between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition...

  19. NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH study offers insight into why cancer incidence increases with age The accumulation of age-associated changes ... of many types of cancer, but why aging increases cancer risk remains unclear. Researchers suspect that DNA ...

  20. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amal S. Ibrahim; Khaled, Hussein M.; Nabiel NH Mikhail; Hoda Baraka; Hossam Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data ...

  1. Further statement on the incidence of childhood cancer in Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1999 the Welsh Office asked COMARE to examine two unpublished studies. The first by Busby et al of ''Green Audit'' concluded that there was a significant excess of childhood leukaemia in North Wales associated with residential proximity to the coast. The second study, carried out by Steward et al of the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), did not support this conclusion. We were asked to advise as to whether we considered that there was a real raised incidence of childhood leukaemia near the coast of North Wales and whether further study was required. To do this we initially organised a comparison of the figures quoted by both the Green Audit and WCISU with the database held by the Childhood Cancer Research Group (CCRG) in Oxford. This group maintains the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT), data for which are supplied from a variety of sources including cancer registries but also directly from medical cancer specialists as well as from death certificates. As a consequence this provides an independent check on much of the data on childhood cancer held by cancer registries in Great Britain and is clinically validated. After carrying out the independent check on the number of cases of childhood leukaemia in these Welsh counties it was immediately apparent that the data held by Green Audit, on which the analysis by Busby et al was based, were incorrect. These data were received from the Welsh Cancer Registry (WCR) in 1995. A further data set was received from WCR in 1996 but was not used in the analysis by Busby et al. In June 1999 we issued a statement to the Welsh Office. In that statement we noted that Dr Busby and his colleagues appeared to have used erroneous data in their study. On the basis of the Steward et al data, COMARE also stated that we found no evidence to support the contention that there is an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia or other childhood cancers amongst the Welsh population living close to the

  2. Impact of diet on long-term decline in gastric cancer incidence in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miros(l)aw Jarosz; W(l)odzimierz Seku(l)a; Ewa Rychlik; Katarzyna Figurska

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To examine the relationship between the trends in food consumption and gastric cancer morbidity in Poland.METHODS:The study was based on gastric cancer incidence rates and consumption of vegetables,fruit,vitamin C and salt in Poland between 1960 and 2006.Food consumption data were derived from the national food balance sheets or household budget surveys.Spearman correlation coefficients were used to estimate the relationship between the variables.RESULTS:A negative correlation was found between vegetables(-0.70 both for men and women;P < 0.0001),fruit(-0.65 and -0.66;P < 0.0001)and vitamin C(-0.75 and -0.74;P < 0.0001)consumption and stomach cancer incidence rates.The same applied to the availability of refrigerators in the household(-0.77 and -0.80;P < 0.0001).A decline in these rates could also be linked to reduction in salt intake.CONCLUSION:The decline of gastric cancer incidence probably resulted from increased consumption of vegetables,fruit and vitamin C and a decrease in salt consumption.

  3. Differences in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival between African Americans and whites.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, B.; Figgs, L.W.; Zahm, S H

    1995-01-01

    This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of b...

  4. Incidence of multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: association with radiation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Soda, Midori; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Matsuo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPC), we analyzed the association between the incidence of second primary cancers in survivors of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, and exposure distance. The incidence rate (IR) of a second primary cancer was calculated and stratified by the distance from the hypocenter and age at the time of bombing for the years 1968 through 1999. The IR of the first primary cancer was also calculated and compared wi...

  5. Low tobacco-related cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Skytthe, Axel; McGue, Matt;

    2015-01-01

    , observed numbers of cancers were compared with expected numbers based on gender-, calendar period-, and age-specific incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: During the 41-year-follow-up period, a total of 423 cancers occurred in 397 individuals. The standardized incidence ratios (95% confidence......-lived families compared with non-tobacco-related cancers suggests that health behavior plays a central role in lower early cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings in Denmark....

  6. An overview of skin cancers. Incidence and causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R

    1995-01-15

    The incidence and mortality rates of skin cancer are rising in the United States and in many other countries. Concerns about stratospheric ozone depletion adding to the problem have made many organizations look at public and professional health programs as a possible solution. Early detection can reduce the problem in the short term, because mortality due to melanoma is clearly related to the depth of invasion of the tumor when it is removed. This is the factor which is amenable to change in an education program on early detection. Exposure to sunlight is clearly related to risk of development of skin cancer, including both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. This is the component of the equation of constitutional predisposition plus exposure to environmental risk factors leading to skin cancer that is amenable to change as a result of educational programs. On the basis of available data, there is a case for further development, provision, and evaluation of public and professional education programs designed to control what is becoming a major public health problem in the community. PMID:7804986

  7. Effect of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui-Liang; Chen, Ting-Song; Ma, Chen-Yun; Meng, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Observational studies have suggested that vitamin B supplementation is associated with cancer risk, but this association remains controversial. A pooled data-based meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality. Methods: PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify trials to fit our analysis through August 2015. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of vitamin B supplementation on the risk of cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality using a random-effect model. Cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, heterogeneity tests, and tests for publication bias were also conducted. Results: Eighteen RCTs reporting the data on 74,498 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen of these trials included 4103 cases of cancer; in 6 trials, 731 cancer-related deaths occurred; and in 15 trials, 7046 deaths occurred. Vitamin B supplementation had little or no effect on the incidence of cancer (RR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98–1.10; P = 0.216), death due to cancer (RR, 1.05; 95% CI: 0.90–1.22; P = 0.521), and total mortality (RR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94–1.06; P = 0.952). Upon performing a cumulative meta-analysis for cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality, the nonsignificance of the effect of vitamin B persisted. With respect to specific types of cancer, vitamin B supplementation significantly reduced the risk of skin melanoma (RR, 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23–0.94; P = 0.032). Conclusion: Vitamin B supplementation does not have an effect on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, or total mortality. It is associated with a lower risk of skin melanoma, but has no effect on other cancers. PMID:27495015

  8. Relationship between Urbanization and Cancer Incidence in Iran Using Quantile Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenyan, Somayeh; Sadeghifar, Majid; Sarvi, Fatemeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ebrahim; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Quantile regression is an efficient method for predicting and estimating the relationship between explanatory variables and percentile points of the response distribution, particularly for extreme percentiles of the distribution. To study the relationship between urbanization and cancer morbidity, we here applied quantile regression. This cross-sectional study was conducted for 9 cancers in 345 cities in 2007 in Iran. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the relationship between urbanization and cancer morbidity was investigated using quantile regression and least square regression. Fitting models were compared using AIC criteria. R (3.0.1) software and the Quantreg package were used for statistical analysis. With the quantile regression model all percentiles for breast, colorectal, prostate, lung and pancreas cancers demonstrated increasing incidence rate with urbanization. The maximum increase for breast cancer was in the 90th percentile (β=0.13, p-valueskin cancers, with increasing urbanization, the incidence rate was decreased. The maximum decrease for gastric cancer was in the 90th percentile(β=0.003, p-valueskin cancer also the 95th (β=0.145, p-value=0.071). The AIC showed that for upper percentiles, the fitting of quantile regression was better than least square regression. According to the results of this study, the significant impact of urbanization on cancer morbidity requirs more effort and planning by policymakers and administrators in order to reduce risk factors such as pollution in urban areas and ensure proper nutrition recommendations are made. PMID:27165247

  9. Rare Helicobacter pylori Infection May Explain Low Stomach Cancer Incidence: Ecological Observations in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mulyadi, I Ketut; Moestikaningsih; Oka, Tjok Gede; Soeripto; Triningsih, Fx Ediati; Triyono, Teguh; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Hosono, Akihiro; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence rate of stomach cancer in Bali, Indonesia, is estimated to be strikingly lower than that in Japan. We conducted an on-site ecological study to investigate the association between the stomach cancer incidence and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Recruiting 291 healthy persons (136 men and 155 women) from the general population in Bali, Indonesia, we conducted a urea breath test (UBT) to examine H. pylori infection, along with a pepsinogen test to detect chronic atrophic gastritis and urine analysis to estimate sodium and potassium excretion. UBT positivities were 9% (2-15, 95% confidence interval) for men and 7% (1-12) for women, and positive cases for H. pylori IgG antibodies were 1% (0-3) for men and 3% (0-5) for women, significantly lower than the respective values in Japan. Positive pepsinogen tests in Bali were 0% (0-0) for men and 1% (0-4) for women, also significantly lower than the Japanese figures. Computed values for daily salt excretion were 13.3±4.1 g (mean ± SD) for men and 11.1±3.1 g for women, as high as corresponding Japanese consumption values. Moreover, the estimated potassium excretion was 3.2±0.7 g for men and 2.8±0.6 g for women in Bali, significantly higher than the figures in Japan. There were no associations across genetic polymorphisms of IL-beta, TNF-alpha, and PTPN11 with UBT positivity. The low incidence of stomach cancer in Bali may thus mainly be due to the rare H. pylori infection. Namely, the bacterium infection seems to be a critical factor for gastric cancer rather than host or other environmental factors. PMID:27039823

  10. Estimating the Incidence of Road Traffic Fatalities and Injuries in Sri Lanka Using Multiple Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla, K; Navaratne, K. V.; Shahraz, S.; BARTELS, D.; Abraham, J.; Dharmaratne, S.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from multiple sources to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in Sri Lanka in 2005. We validated the accuracy of the data from the national traffic police by comparing with estimates based on national death registration. For estimating the incidence and patterns of non-fatal injuries, we used a nationally represented health survey (World Health Survey), and data on hospital admissions from a rural setting (Galle district). We estimate that in the ye...

  11. Cancer incidence rate after diagnostic X-ray exposure in 1976-2003 among patients of a university children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is well known, knowledge gaps persist on the health effects of low-dose radiation, especially in children. The cancer incidence rate in a cohort of 92,957 children diagnosed using X-rays in the years 1976-2003 in the radiology department of a large university clinic was studied. Materials and Methods: Individual radiation doses per examination were reconstructed using an algorithm taking into account the dose area product and other exposure parameters together with conversion factors computed specifically for the equipment and protocols used in the radiology department. Incident cancer cases in the period 1980-2006 were identified via record linkage to the German Childhood Cancer Registry using pseudonymized data. Results: A total of 87 cancers occurred in the cohort between 1980 and 2006: 33 leukemia, 13 lymphoma, 10 brain tumors, and 31 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.79 1.22). A dose-response relationship was not observed for all cancers, leukemia and lymphoma or solid tumors. The cancer risks for boys and girls did not differ. Conclusion: No increase in the cancer incidence risk in relation to very low doses of diagnostic ionizing radiation was observed in this study. However, the results are compatible with a broad range of risk estimates. (orig.)

  12. Estimation of incidences of infectious diseases based on antibody measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, J; Mølbak, K; Falkenhorst, G;

    2009-01-01

    Owing to under-ascertainment it is difficult if not impossible to determine the incidence of a given disease based on cases notified to routine public health surveillance. This is especially true for diseases that are often present in mild forms as for example diarrhoea caused by foodborne bacter...

  13. Incidence of primary breast cancer in Iran: Ten-year national cancer registry data report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Saadat, Soheil; Ramezani, Rashid; Kaviani, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the leading type of malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The screening programs and advances in the treatment of patients with breast cancer have led to an increase in overall survival. Cancer registry systems play an important role in providing basic data for research and the monitoring of the cancer status. In this study, the results of the 10-year national cancer registry (NCR) of Iran in breast cancer are reviewed. NCR database records were searched for primary breast cancer records according to ICD-O-3 coding and the cases were reviewed. A total of 52,068 cases were found with the coding of primary breast cancer. Females constituted 97.1% of the cases. Breast cancer was the leading type of cancer in Iranian females, accounting for 24.6% of all cancers. The mean age of the women with breast cancer was 49.6 years (95%CI 49.5-49.6). Most of the cases (95.7%) were registered as having invasive pathologies (behavior code 3). The most common morphology of primary breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma (ICD-O 8500/3) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ICD-O 8520/3) with relative frequencies of 77.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The average annual crude incidence of primary breast cancer in females was 22.6 (95%CI 22.1-23.1) per 100,000 females, with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 27.4 (95%CI 22.5-35.9). There were no data on survival, staging or immunohistochemical marker(s) of the breast-cancer-registered cases. The incidence of breast cancer in Iran is lower than in low-middle-income neighboring countries. The NCR data registry of breast cancer is not accurate in monitoring the effect of screening programs or determining the current status of breast cancer in Iran. Screening programs of breast cancer in Iran have failed to enhance the detection of the patients with in situ lesion detection. A quality breast cancer registry and a screening program for breast cancer are both needed. PMID:26070507

  14. Increased Incidence of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer in Arizona: A Comprehensive 15-year Analysis of the Arizona Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; DiGiovanni, Ryan M.; Ohlson, Eric; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Jandova, Jana; Nfonsam, Valentine N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in Arizona, using the Arizona Cancer Registry. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with colorectal cancer reported in the Arizona Cancer Registry from 1995-2010. Outcome measure: incidence of CRC in patients younger than 50 years. Results 39,623 cases of colorectal cancer were reported to the Arizona Cancer Registry during a period of 15 years. Overall, there was a 17% decrease in the incidence of CRC. However, there was a 23% increase in incidence among patients in the age group 10-50. During the same time period, 15% and 41% increase in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was observed, respectively. The most significant increase (102%) in overall CRC incidence was seen in the age group 10-29. The highest increase (110%) in incidence of colon cancer was observed in the same age group, while the most significant increase in incidence rates (225%) of rectal cancer was seen in the age group 30-34. Conclusion Although there is an overall decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer in Arizona, alarming increase in incidence of early-onset CRC was observed; mirroring the national trends.

  15. Widening socio-economic inequalities in oral cancer incidence in Scotland, 1976–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, D.I.; Brewster, D H; McKinney, P. A.; Stark, J.; McMahon, A.D.; Macpherson, L.M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Oral cancer incidence was investigated among 10 857 individuals using Scottish Cancer Registry data. Since 1980 the incidence of oral cancer among males in Scotland has significantly increased, the rise occurring almost entirely in the most deprived areas of residence.

  16. Calculation of lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands by smoking and radon exposure. Implications for the effect of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the main cause of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes, part of the cases are subscribed to radon exposure, in particular α-radiation from daughter products. However, the relation between lung cancer and radon exposure is rather insecure. Based on international reports (e.g. BEIR VI) and extrapolation of lung cancer incidence in uranium mine workers to the population of the USA and subsequently to the Netherlands, the number of lung cancer cases in the Netherlands is estimated to be circa 800 per year, varying between 200-2000. Results of the analysis are summarized in this article. 10 refs

  17. Dose distribution and lung cancer incidence in thorotrast patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For German thorotrast patients, the application of lung cancer risk factors derived from radon daughter inhalation in uranium miners would predict the induction of lung tumors in about 10% of the patients surveyed. However, no increase of lung cancer incidence as compared to the control group has been observed by now. In order to refine the currently used dosimetric model, 1st the Landahl morphometry was replaced by Weibel model, and 2nd instead of assuming a homogeneous dose distribution around cylindrical airways with a constant depth, doses were calculated for bronchial stem cells located at generation-specific depths in epithelial tissue. This re-evaluation leads to a significant reduction of radiation doses in upper bronchial air passages, without, however, resolving the apparent discrepancy between observed and predicted lung cancer risk. This suggests that lung doses for radon daughter inhalation may have been underestimated; e.g. taking into account enhanced deposition at bronchial airway bifurcations would increase the radiation dose at such sites for inhalation, but not for exhalation. (orig.)

  18. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

  19. Joint and independent effect of alcohol and tobacco use on the risk of subsequent cancer incidence among cancer survivors: A cohort study using cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Ozaki, Koken; Ioka, Akiko; Miyashiro, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco are major modifiable risk factors for cancer. However, little is known about whether these modifiable factors of cancer survivors are associated with subsequent primary cancer (SPC) incidence, regardless of the first cancer sites. 27,762 eligible cancer survivors diagnosed between 1985 and 2007 were investigated for SPC until the end of 2008, using hospital-based and population-based cancer registries. The association between drinking, smoking and combined drinking and smoking (interaction) at the time of the first cancer diagnosis and incidence of SPCs (i.e., all SPCs, alcohol-related, smoking-related and specific SPCs) was estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with never-drinker/never-smoker, the categories ever-drinker/ever-smoker, current-drinker/current-smoker and heavy-drinker/heavy-smoker had 43-108%, 51-126% and 167-299% higher risk for all, alcohol-related and tobacco-related SPCs, respectively. The interaction of drinking and smoking had significantly high incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for SPCs among ever-drinker/ever-smoker and current-drinker/current-smoker, although ever drinking did not show a significant risk. Ever-drinker/ever-smoker had also significantly higher IRRs for esophageal and lung SPCs than never-drinker/never-smoker. Among comprehensive cancer survivors, ever and current drinkers only had a SPC risk when combined with smoking, while ever and current smokers had a SPC risk regardless of drinking status. Heavy drinking and heavy smoking were considered to be independent additive SPC risk factors. To reduce SPC incidence, it may be necessary (i) to reduce or stop alcohol use, (ii) to stop tobacco smoking and (iii) dual users, especially heavy users, should be treated as a high-risk population for behavioral-change intervention. PMID:25904109

  20. Estimating HIV incidence among adults in Kenya and Uganda: a systematic comparison of multiple methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1 Epidemic Projections Package (EPP and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics (ANC and national population-based surveys (NPS in Kenya (2003, 2007 and Uganda (2004/2005; 2 a survey-derived model to infer age-specific incidence between two sequential NPS; 3 an assay-derived measurement in NPS using the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay, adjusted for misclassification using a locally derived false-recent rate (FRR for the assay; (4 community cohorts in Uganda; (5 prevalence trends in young ANC attendees. EPP/Spectrum-derived and survey-derived modeled estimates were similar: 0.67 [uncertainty range: 0.60, 0.74] and 0.6 [confidence interval: (CI 0.4, 0.9], respectively, for Uganda (2005 and 0.72 [uncertainty range: 0.70, 0.74] and 0.7 [CI 0.3, 1.1], respectively, for Kenya (2007. Using a local FRR, assay-derived incidence estimates were 0.3 [CI 0.0, 0.9] for Uganda (2004/2005 and 0.6 [CI 0, 1.3] for Kenya (2007. Incidence trends were similar for all methods for both Uganda and Kenya. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Triangulation of methods is recommended to determine best-supported estimates of incidence to guide programs. Assay-derived incidence estimates are sensitive to the level of the assay's FRR, and uncertainty around high FRRs can significantly impact the validity of the estimate. Systematic evaluations of new and existing incidence assays are needed to the study the level, distribution, and determinants of the FRR to guide whether incidence assays can produce reliable estimates of national HIV incidence.

  1. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  2. Cancer incidence in migrants to New South Wales from England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    McCredie, M; Coates, M. S.; Ford, J M

    1990-01-01

    Cancer incidence in migrants to New South Wales (NSW) from individual countries within the British Isles has been compared with that in the Australian-born population using data from the NSW Central Cancer Registry for the period 1972-84. Indirectly age-standardised incidence ratios (SIR) showed that, for cancer at all sites combined, Scottish migrants had a significantly higher, and English migrants a lower, incidence than the native-born Australians. Melanoma of skin was less common in migr...

  3. Geographic Differences in Gastric Cancer Incidence Can be Explained by Differences between Helicobacter pylori Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Kato, Mototsugu; Asaka, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Certain populations with high incidences of Helicobacter pylori infection, such as those in East Asian countries, have high incidences of gastric cancer, while other highly infected populations, such as those in Africa and South Asia, do not. The various rates of gastric cancer associated with different geographic areas can be explained, at least in part, by the differences in the genotypes of H. pylori cagA and vacA. Populations expressing a high incidence of gastric cancer are mostly identi...

  4. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92.

    OpenAIRE

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. DESIGN--Record linkage study. SETTING--Finland. SUBJECTS-1577 female and 187 male cabin attendants who had worked for the Finnish airline companies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Standardised incidence ratio; expected number of cases based on national cancer incidences. RESULTS--A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interva...

  5. Incidence of cancer among female flight attendants: a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tokumaru, Osamu; Haruki, Kosuke; Bacal, Kira; Katagiri, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Taisuke; Sakurai, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Cancer type: malignant melanoma; breast cancerStudy design: cohort study. Study size: 15433 individuals. Description of cohort(s) studied: Only cohort studies of cancer incidence in female commercial airline female flight attendants (FA), which compared each incidence with that of a national or state reference population data [ie, standardized incidence ratio (SIR)], were included.Exposure(s) evaluated: exposure to known or suspected carcinogens and mutagens such as ionizing radiation,ozone, ...

  6. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  7. Light at night co-distributes with incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Haim, Abraham; Stevens, Richard G; Barchana, Micha; Portnov, Boris A

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies of shift-working women have reported that excessive exposure to light at night (LAN) may be a risk factor for breast cancer. However, no studies have yet attempted to examine the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer incidence on a population level with the goal to assess the coherence of these earlier findings with population trends. Coherence is one of Hill's "criteria" (actually, viewpoints) for an inference of causality. Nighttime satellite images were used to estimate LAN levels in 147 communities in Israel. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between LAN and breast cancer incidence rates and, as a test of the specificity of our method, lung cancer incidence rates in women across localities under the prediction of a link with breast cancer but not lung cancer. After adjusting for several variables available on a population level, such as ethnic makeup, birth rate, population density, and local income level, a strong positive association between LAN intensity and breast cancer rate was revealed (p<0.05), and this association strengthened (p<0.01) when only statistically significant factors were filtered out by stepwise regression analysis. Concurrently, no association was found between LAN intensity and lung cancer rate. These results provide coherence of the previously reported case-control and cohort studies with the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer on a population basis. The analysis yielded an estimated 73% higher breast cancer incidence in the highest LAN exposed communities compared to the lowest LAN exposed communities. PMID:18293150

  8. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks. PMID:26330316

  9. Estimating Time of Infection Using Prior Serological and Individual Information Can Greatly Improve Incidence Estimation of Human and Wildlife Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe; Leirs, Herwig; Reijniers, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of humans and wildlife are typically tracked and studied through incidence, the number of new infections per time unit. Estimating incidence is not without difficulties, as asymptomatic infections, low sampling intervals and low sample sizes can introduce large estimation errors. After infection, biomarkers such as antibodies or pathogens often change predictably over time, and this temporal pattern can contain information about the time since infection that could improve incidence estimation. Antibody level and avidity have been used to estimate time since infection and to recreate incidence, but the errors on these estimates using currently existing methods are generally large. Using a semi-parametric model in a Bayesian framework, we introduce a method that allows the use of multiple sources of information (such as antibody level, pathogen presence in different organs, individual age, season) for estimating individual time since infection. When sufficient background data are available, this method can greatly improve incidence estimation, which we show using arenavirus infection in multimammate mice as a test case. The method performs well, especially compared to the situation in which seroconversion events between sampling sessions are the main data source. The possibility to implement several sources of information allows the use of data that are in many cases already available, which means that existing incidence data can be improved without the need for additional sampling efforts or laboratory assays. PMID:27177244

  10. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-07-15

    Vehicular traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with breast cancer incidence in epidemiologic studies, including our own. Because PAHs damage DNA by forming adducts and oxidative lesions, genetic polymorphisms that alter DNA repair capacity may modify associations between PAH-related exposures and breast cancer risk. Our goal was to examine the association between vehicular traffic exposure and breast cancer incidence within strata of a panel of nine biologically plausible nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) genotypes. Residential histories of 1,508 cases and 1,556 controls were assessed in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project between 1996 and 1997 and used to reconstruct residential traffic exposures to benzo[a]pyrene, as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs. Likelihood ratio tests from adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess multiplicative interactions. A gene-traffic interaction was evident (p = 0.04) for ERCC2 (Lys751); when comparing the upper and lower tertiles of 1995 traffic exposure estimates, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.09 (1.13, 3.90) among women with homozygous variant alleles. Corresponding odds ratios for 1960-1990 traffic were also elevated nearly 2-3-fold for XRCC1(Arg194Trp), XRCC1(Arg399Gln) and OGG1(Ser326Cys), but formal multiplicative interaction was not evident. When DNA repair variants for ERCC2, XRCC1 and OGG1 were combined, among women with 4-6 variants, the odds ratios were 2.32 (1.22, 4.49) for 1995 traffic and 2.96 (1.06, 8.21) for 1960-1990 traffic. Our study is first to report positive associations between traffic-related PAH exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with select biologically plausible DNA repair genotypes. PMID:26946191

  11. Childhood cancer: Overview of incidence trends and environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahm, S.H.; Devesa, S.S. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An estimated 8000 children 0 to 14 years of age are diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Leukemia and brain tumors are the most common childhood malignancies, accounting for 30 and 20% of newly diagnosed cases, respectively. From 1975 to 1978 to 1987 to 1990, cancer among white children increased slightly from 12.8 to 14.1/100,000. Increases are suggested for leukemia, gliomas, and, to a much lesser extent, Wilms` tumor. There are a few well-established environmental causes of childhood cancer such as radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and diethylstilbestrol. Many other agents such as electromagnetic fields, pesticides, and some parental occupational exposures are suspected of playing roles, but the evidence is not conclusive at this time. Some childhood exposures such as secondhand cigarette smoke may contribute to cancers that develop many years after childhood. For some exposures such as radiation and pesticides data suggest that children may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects than similarly exposed adults. 143 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Proportional incidence and radiological review of large (T2+) breast cancers as surrogate indicators of screening programme performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, S.; Bernardi, D.; Pellegrini, M.; Borsato, G.; Peterlongo, P. [APSS, U.O. Senologia Clinica e Screening Mammografico, Dipartimento di Radiodiagnostica, Trento (Italy); Gentilini, M.A. [APSS, Servizio Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Direzione promozione ed educazione alla salute, Trento (Italy); Caumo, F. [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, Verona (Italy); Frigerio, A. [CRR, Centro di Riferimento Regionale per lo Screening Mammografico, Torino (Italy); Houssami, N. [University of Sydney, Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Surrogate measures of screening performance [e.g. interval cancer (IC) proportional incidence] allow timely monitoring of sensitivity and quality. This study explored measures using large (T2+) breast cancers as potential indicators of screening performance. The proportional incidence of T2+ cancers (observed/expected cases) in a population-based screening programme (Trento, 2001-2009) was estimated. A parallel review of 'negative' preceding mammograms for screen-detected T2+ and for all ICs, using 'blinded' independent readings and case-mixes (54 T2+, 50 ICs, 170 controls) was also performed. T2+ cancers were observed in 168 screening participants: 48 at first screen, 67 at repeat screening and 53 ICs. The T2+ estimated proportional incidence was 68% (observed/expected = 168/247), corresponding to an estimated 32% reduction in the rate of T2+ cancers in screening participants relative to that expected without screening. Majority review classified 27.8% (15/54) of T2+ and 28% (14/50) of ICs as screening error (P = 0.84), with variable recall rates amongst radiologists (8.8-15.2%). T2+ review could be integrated as part of quality monitoring and potentially prove more feasible than IC review for some screening services. circle Interval breast cancers, assumed as screening failures, are monitored to estimate screening performance circle Large (T2+) cancers at screening may also represent failed prior screening detection circle Analysis of T2+ lesions may be more feasible than assessing interval cancers circle Analysis of T2+ cancers is a potential further measure of screening performance. (orig.)

  13. Incidence and Outcome of BRCA Mutations in Unselected Patients with Triple Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the incidence of germline and somatic BRCA1\\/2 mutations in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and determine the prognostic significance of carrying a mutation. Methods: DNA was obtained from 77 TNBC and normal tissues. BRCA1\\/2 exons\\/flanking regions were sequenced from tumor and patients classified as mutant or wild type (WT). Sequencing was repeated from normal tissue to identify germline and somatic mutations. Patient characteristics were compared with chi-square. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of mutation status with outcome.

  14. Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and incidence of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and breast cancer incidence among members of the California Teachers Study cohort, a large study of professional school employees with extensive information on breast cancer risk factors, followed for cancer incidence since 1995. We identified 1552 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1996 and 1999, among 114,835 cohort members. We used California Pesticide Use Reporting data to select pesticides for analysis based on use volume, carcinogenic potential, and exposure potential; a Geographic Information System was used to estimate pesticide applications within a half-mile radius of subjects' residences. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard rate ratios (HR) for selected pesticides, adjusting for age, race, and socioeconomic status. We saw no association between residential proximity to recent agricultural pesticide use and invasive breast cancer incidence. HR estimates for the highest compared to the lowest exposure categories for groups of agents were as follows: probable or likely carcinogens (1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.32), possible or suggestive carcinogens (1.06, 95% CI: 0.87-1.29), mammary carcinogens (1.15, 95% CI: 0.90-1.48), and endocrine disruptors (1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.25). HR estimates for other groups and individual pesticides did not differ from unity, nor was there a trend for any groupings of or individual pesticides examined. Stratifying by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer did not substantially affect our results. Our analyses suggest that breast cancer incidence is not elevated in areas of recent, high agricultural pesticide use in California

  15. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. PMID:23859763

  16. Pneumonitis after radiotherapy of lung cancer - incidence and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The most important side effect in radiotherapy of lung cancer is pneumonitis. The incidence of pneumotitis was evaluated in a retrospective study in the patient collective of the University of Heidelberg. Therapy related and therapy independent factors have been evaluated. Results: Regarding the treatment prior to irradiation patients with primary irradiation were affected in 26.5% (17% slight, 9.5% severe), with postoperative irradiation in 14% (9.3% slight, 4.7% severe), with radiochemotherapy of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 15.4% (12% slight, 3.4% severe) by this side effect. These differences were not significant (p=0.32). The median onset of pneumonitis was 31 days after end of irradiation (severe 23 days, slight 44 days, p=0.026). By a univariate analysis the total dose at the prescription point was the most important factor (30 to 50.5 Gy 11%, 52 to 59 Gy 15%, 60 to 74 Gy 26%, p=0.007). High single doses (2.5 Gy) were only applied within a study of radiochemotherapy with a randomised sequential and alternating schedule. So that the increased rate of pneumonitis (42%) is not clearly separable from other influencing variables. A correlation between the applied techniques and the irradiated volume (measured by planimetric methods) was not demonstrable. Regarding the independent factors a high age, female sex and a low FeV1 were unfavourable. However, age and sex corrected FeV1 was not predictive. (orig./AJ)

  17. Cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcome in registered nurses potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Nhu D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the relationships of potential occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs with cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a historical prospective cohort study of female registered nurses (RNs from British Columbia, Canada (BC. Methods Female RNs registered with a professional regulatory body for at least one year between 1974 and 2000 formed the cohort (n = 56,213. The identifier file was linked to Canadian cancer registries. An RN offspring cohort from 1986 was created by linkages with the BC Birth and Health Status Registries. Exposure was assessed by work history in oncology or cancer agencies (method 1 and by estimating weighted duration of exposure developed from a survey of pharmacists and nursing unit administrators of all provincial hospitals and treatment centers and the work history of the nurses (method 2. Relative risks (RR were calculated using Poisson regression for cancer incidence and odds ratios (OR were calculated for congenital anomaly, stillbirth, low birth weight, and prematurity incidence, with 95% confidence intervals. Results In comparison with other female RNs, method 1 revealed that RNs who ever worked in a cancer center or in an oncology nursing unit had an increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.03 - 3.23, 12 cases and their offspring were at risk for congenital anomalies of the eye (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.08 - 11.14, 3 cases. Method 2 revealed that RNs classified as having the highest weighted durations of exposure to antineoplastic drugs had an excess risk of cancer of the rectum (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07 - 3.29, 14 cases. No statistically significant increased risks of leukemia, other cancers, stillbirth, low birth weight, prematurity, or other congenital anomalies in the RNs' offspring were noted. Conclusions Female RNs having had potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs were not found to have an excess risk of leukemia, stillbirth, or congenital

  18. A Study of MCA Learning Algorithm for Incident Signals Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many signal subspace-based approaches have already been proposed for determining the fixed Direction of Arrival (DOA of plane waves impinging on an array of sensors. Two procedures for DOA estimation based neural network are presented. Firstly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA is employed to extract the maximum eigenvalue and eigenvector from signal subspace to estimate DOA. Secondly, Minor component analysis (MCA is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will modify a MCA learning algorithm to enhance the Convergence, where a Convergence is essential for MCA algorithm towards practical applications. The learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Simulation results will be furnished to illustrate the theoretical results achieved.

  19. Projecting prevalence by stage of care for prostate cancer and estimating future health service needs: protocol for a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xue Q; Smith, David P; Clements, Mark S; Patel, Manish I; McHugh, Bill; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Current strategies for the management of prostate cancer are inadequate in Australia. We will, in this study, estimate current service needs and project the future needs for prostate cancer patients in Australia. Methods and analysis First, we will project the future prevalence of prostate cancer for 2010–2018 using data for 1972–2008 from the New South Wales (NSW) Central Cancer Registry. These projections, based on modelled incidence and survival estimates, will be estimated us...

  20. Spatio-temporal analysis of female breast cancer incidence in Shenzhen, 2007–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Lei, Lin; Chen, Zhong-Wei; Peng, Ji; Yang, Ying-Zhou; Liu, Xiao-li

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a leading tumor with a high mortality in women. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution of the incidence of female breast cancer in Shenzhen between 2007 and 2012. Methods The data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Shenzhen Cancer Registry System. To describe the temporal trend, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) was analyzed using a joinpoint regression model. Spatial autocorrelation and a retrospective spatio-temporal scan ...

  1. Impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on anal cancer incidence in French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Lounes, Rachid; Clémençon, Stéphan

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 are found to be involved in 80% of anal cancers. Two vaccines against HPV infections are currently available, and vaccination policies aim to decrease mainly, incidence of cervical cancers. Moreover, an impact of HPV vaccination on the incidence of anal cancer can also be expected. Our aim was to assess the potential benefits of HPV vaccination on the occurrence of female anal cancer in France. We developed a dynamic model for the heterosexual transmission...

  2. Association of the California tobacco control program with declines in lung cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The California tobacco control program enacted in 1988 has been associated with declines in smoking and heart disease mortality. Since smoking also causes lung cancer, we investigated whether the program was associated with a decline in lung and other cancer incidence. Methods: Age-adjusted incidence rates of lung and bladder cancer (which are caused by smoking) and prostate and brain cancer (which are not) in the San Francisco-Oakland (SFO) Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (S...

  3. Study of cancer incidence among 6363 male workers in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbesland, A.; Kjuus, H; Thelle, D S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little has been known about the risk of cancer associated with occupational exposure to manganese. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the associations between duration of specific work and cancer incidence among employees in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants. METHODS: Among men first employed in 1933-91 and with at least 6 months in these plants, the incident cases of cancer during 1953-91 were obtained from The Cancer Regis...

  4. An estimate of syphilis incidence in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Herbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe experienced epidemic levels of syphilis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Presently data are less comprehensive outside the European Union (EU and European Free Trade Association (EFTA. This review aims to identify published papers with suitable data to estimate a regional burden of disease for syphilis in the 19 member countries of Eastern Europe.

  5. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays (≤ 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study

  6. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S. [Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays ({<=} 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study.

  7. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  8. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  9. Nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in the inhabitants of Bielsko-Biała subregion in Silesia Voivodeship in the years 1999–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Juszko-Piekut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our earlier studies, on incidence rates of non-melanoma skin cancers in the inhabitants of Silesia Voivodeship between 1999 and 2003, confirmed a steady increase of incidence rates in both genders. An average annual increase in non-melanoma skin cancers incidence rates between 1999 and 2003 was 4.2% and 4.8% for men and women, respectively. Higher incidence rates of non-melanoma skin cancer in inhabitants of regions with intensive solar irradiation suggest that a total dose of UV radiation may have an important impact on the development of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence rates of non-melanoma skin cancers in the inhabitants of a mountain area of Silesia Voivodeship in the years 1999–2005. Material and methods. The incidence data was provided by the Silesia Cancer Registry. The incidence rates were estimated by calculating age-specific and standardized rates using direct method and the “the world population” as a standard, and a cumulative risk. Results. The non-melanoma skin cancers incidence rate in Bielsko Biała subregion is higher than in other parts of Silesia Voivodeship. There are also significant differences between the incidence rates of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, which are unfavorable for the inhabitants in this subregion. A cumulative risk shows that the risk of cancer development is higher for the inhabitants in Bielsko Biała subregion. The number of cancer cases is significantly increasing after the age of 50, and the largest number of patients is recorded in the oldest age groups. Conclusions High incidence rate in inhabitants of the mountain area of Upper Silesia proves that intensive UV irradiation can induce the development of non-melanoma skin cancers as well as both leading histological types of cancer under study.

  10. Venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer: incidence, risk factors and impact on survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu Saadeh, Feras

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other cancers. Clear cell cancers carry the highest risk at 11-27%. The aim of this study was to identify the predisposing factors for VTE in a population of ovarian cancer patients and to determine the influence of VTE on overall survival.

  11. Breast cancer incidence and survival: registry-based studies of long-term trends and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in the Netherlands, and it is the most important cause of cancer death. Between age 35 and 55 about 20% of all deaths among women is due to breast cancer.1 The age-standardised incidence rate is among the highest in

  12. Frequent chest X-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of breast cancer was determined in 4940 women treated for tuberculosis between 1925 and 1954 in Massachusetts. Among 2573 women examined by X-ray fluoroscopy an average of 88 times during lung collapse therapy and followed for an average of 30 years, 147 breast cancers occurred in contrast to 113.6 expected [observed/expected (O/E) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.5]. No excess of breast cancer was seen among 2367 women treated by other means: 87 observed versus 100.9 expected. Increased rates for breast cancer were not apparent until about 10 to 15 years after the initial fluoroscopy examination. Excess risk then remained high throughout all intervals of follow-up, up to 50 years after first exposure. Age at exposure strongly influenced the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer with young women being at highest risk and those over age 40 being at lowest risk [relative risk (RR) = 1.06]. Mean radiation dose to the breast was estimated to be 79 cGy, and there was strong evidence for a linear relationship between dose and breast cancer risk. Allowing for a 10-year minimum latent period, the relative risk at 1 Gy was estimated as 1.61 and the absolute excess as 10.7 per 10(4) woman-years per gray. When compared to other studies, our data suggest that the breast is one of the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic force of radiation, that fractionated exposures are similar to single exposures of the same total dose in their ability to induce breast cancer, that risk remains high for many years after exposure, and that young women are especially vulnerable to radiation injury

  13. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents, for the first time, comprehensive data on the incidence of solid cancer and risk estimates for A-bomb survivors in the extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) cohort. Among 79,972 individuals, 8613 first primary solid cancers were diagnosed between 1958 and 1987. As part of the standard registration process of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, cancer cases occurring among members of the LSS-E85 cohort were identified using a computer linkage system supplemented by manual searches. Special efforts were made to ensure complete case ascertainment, data quality and data consistency in the two cities. For all sites combined, 75% of the cancers were verified histologically, 6% were diagnosed by direct observation, 8% were based on a clinical diagnosis, and 12.6% were ascertained by death certificate only. A standard set of analyses was carried out for each of the organs and organ systems considered. Depending on the cancer site, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) organ or kerma doses were used for computing risk estimates. Analyses were based on a general excess relative risk model (the background rate times one plus the excess relative risk). Analyses carried out for each site involved fitting the background model with no dose effect, a linear dose-response model with no effect modifiers, a linear-quadratic dose-response model with no effect modifiers, and a series of linear dose-response models that included each of the covariates (sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and city) individually as effect modifiers. Because the tumor registries ascertain cancers in the registry catchment areas only, an adjustment was made for the effects of migration. In agreement with prior LSS findings, a statistically significant excess risk for all solid cancers was demonstrated. 116 refs., 8 figs., 78 tabs

  14. Thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil estimated from different data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pinto Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative analysis of the thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil obtained from thunderstorm days observed at two different epochs (from 1910 to 1951 and from 1971 to 1984 and from lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning location system RINDAT (from 1999 to 2006 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite (from 1998 to 2010. The results are interpreted in terms of the main synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorm activity in this region, indicating that the prevailing synoptic pattern associated with thunderstorm activity is the occurrence of frontal systems and their modulation by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and topography. Evidence of urban effects is also found. The results are also discussed in the context of practical applications involving their use in the Brazilian lightning protection standards, suggesting that the present version of the Brazilian standards should be revised incorporating RINDAT and LIS data. Finally, the results are important to improve our knowledge about the limitations of the different techniques used to record the thunderstorm activity and support future climatic studies.

  15. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  16. Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leeuwen Flora E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02. We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19, mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83. The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99, due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89. In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10. This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area

  17. Estimating and mapping the incidence of giardiasis in Colombia, 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: As giardiasis is neglected in many countries, surveillance is not regularly undertaken. Despite its limitations, this study is the first attempt to provide estimates of national giardiasis incidence with consistent findings regarding affected age groups and geographical distribution.

  18. Cancer incidence among Asian American populations in the United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei

    2016-05-01

    Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. PMID:26661680

  19. Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Aragaki, Aaron K; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Manson, JoAnn E; Rohan, Thomas E; Chen, Chu; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tinker, Lesley F; LeBlanc, Erin S; Kuller, Lewis H; Hou, Lifang; LaMonte, Michael J; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-04-15

    Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women's Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1.13; p cancers (HR, 1.2-1.4, and up to over twofold). Diabetes was also associated with higher risk of death from cancer (HR, 1.46; p cancer incidence by diabetes therapy (p = 0.66). However, there was a lower risk of death from cancer for metformin users, compared to users of other medications, relative to women without diabetes, overall (HRs, 1.08 vs. 1.45; p = 0.007) and for breast cancer (HRs, 0.50 vs. 1.29; p = 0.05). Results also suggested that lower cancer risk associated with metformin may be evident only for a longer duration of use in certain cancer sites or subgroup populations. We provide further evidence that postmenopausal women with diabetes are at higher risk of invasive cancer and cancer death. Metformin users, particularly long-term users, may be at lower risk of developing certain cancers and dying from cancer, compared to users of other anti-diabetes medications. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effect of metformin in cancer risk and survival from cancer. PMID:26616262

  20. A multi-state model to estimate incidence of heroin use

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Niubò Albert; Aalen Odd O; Domingo-Salvany Antònia; Amundsen Ellen J; Fortiana Josep; Røysland Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing incidence estimates of heroin use are usually based on one information source. This study aims to incorporate more sources to estimate heroin use incidence trends in Spain between 1971 and 2005. Methods A multi-state model was constructed, whereby the initial state “heroin consumer” is followed by transition to either “admitted to first treatment” or to “left heroin use” (i.e. perm...

  1. Breast cancer incidence and use of hormone therapy in Denmark 1978-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there have recently been reports of declining incidence rates for breast cancer. Decreased use of hormone therapy and decreased use of mammography has been put forward as possible reasons for this decline. The aim of this study was to analyse breast cancer incidence trends in...

  2. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence Trends by Detailed Race/Ethnicity and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lihua; ZHANG, Juanjuan; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C.; Deapen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence may contain important evidence for understanding and control of the disease. Monitoring the incidence trends of breast cancer by race/ethnicity allows identification of high risk groups and development of targeted prevention programs.

  3. Cancer incidence among mild steel and stainless steel welders and other metal workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K S; Lauritsen, J M; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    The cancer incidence in a historical cohort of 10,059 metal workers employed during the period 1964-1984 was investigated. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated based on registry extracts from the Danish Cancer registry. Lifetime exposure data (occupational and other) were obtained ...

  4. Breast cancer incidence and menopausal hormone therapy in Norway from 2004 to 2009: a register-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, the breast cancer incidence increased by 50% in the 1990s, during a period with initiation of mammography screening as well as a fourfold increase in use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT). After 2002, the HT use has dropped substantially; however, the breast cancer incidence has declined only marginally. How much mammography screening contributed to the breast cancer incidence increase in the 1990s compared with HT use and specifically different types of HT use, has thus been discussed. Whether HT affects the incidence of subtypes of breast cancer differently has also been questioned. We have linked individual data from several national registries from 2004 to 2009 on 449,717 women aged 50–65 years. 4597 cases of invasive cancer and 681 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were included in the analysis. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratio (HR) as a measure of the relative risk of breast cancer associated with use of HT. The HRs associated with prescriptions of HT for more than 1 year were 2.06 (1.90–2.24) for estrogen and progesterone combinations, 1.03 (0.85–1.25) for systemic estrogens, and 1.23 (1.01–1.51) for tibolone. Invasive lobular carcinoma was more strongly associated with use of estrogen and progesterone combinations, HR = 3.10 (2.51–3.81), than nonlobular carcinoma, HR = 1.94 (1.78–2.12). The corresponding value for DCIS was 1.61 (1.28–2.02). We estimated the population attributable fraction to 8.2%, corresponding to 90 breast cancer cases in 2006 indicating that HT use still caused a major number of breast cancer cases

  5. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  6. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  7. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...... or the incidence of adenocarcinoma, which is increasing. Decreases in the incidences of CIN3 and AIS in age groups with high HPV vaccine coverage may herald a future decrease in cervical cancer incidence in young Danish women....

  8. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E

    1994-03-01

    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast. PMID:8167262

  9. Gastric Cancer: How Can We Reduce the Incidence of this Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, Caroline M; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer remains a prevalent disease worldwide with a poor prognosis. Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization leads to chronic gastritis, which predisposes to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and eventually gastric cancer. Screening, treatment, and prevention of H. pylori colonization can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. Other interventions that may yield a similar effect, although of smaller magnitude, include promotion of a healthy lifestyle including dietary measures, non-smoking, low alcohol intake, and sufficient physical activity. This chapter reviews interventions that can lead to a decline in gastric cancer incidence in high and low incidence countries. PMID:27184043

  10. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  11. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Background Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. Methods The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. Results The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12–1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22–3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23–1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22–1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03–2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21–1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38–3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35–1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. Conclusions The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate

  12. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir

    Full Text Available Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence intervals (CI non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30 as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06, breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80, prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77, kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05, lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97, non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15 and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94. Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal

  13. Development of methods for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation in a large, community randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate methods of HIV incidence determination are critically needed to monitor the epidemic and determine the population level impact of prevention trials. One such trial, Project Accept, a Phase III, community-randomized trial, evaluated the impact of enhanced, community-based voluntary counseling and testing on population-level HIV incidence. The primary endpoint of the trial was based on a single, cross-sectional, post-intervention HIV incidence assessment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Test performance of HIV incidence determination was evaluated for 403 multi-assay algorithms [MAAs] that included the BED capture immunoassay [BED-CEIA] alone, an avidity assay alone, and combinations of these assays at different cutoff values with and without CD4 and viral load testing on samples from seven African cohorts (5,325 samples from 3,436 individuals with known duration of HIV infection [1 month to >10 years]. The mean window period (average time individuals appear positive for a given algorithm and performance in estimating an incidence estimate (in terms of bias and variance of these MAAs were evaluated in three simulated epidemic scenarios (stable, emerging and waning. The power of different test methods to detect a 35% reduction in incidence in the matched communities of Project Accept was also assessed. A MAA was identified that included BED-CEIA, the avidity assay, CD4 cell count, and viral load that had a window period of 259 days, accurately estimated HIV incidence in all three epidemic settings and provided sufficient power to detect an intervention effect in Project Accept. CONCLUSIONS: In a Southern African setting, HIV incidence estimates and intervention effects can be accurately estimated from cross-sectional surveys using a MAA. The improved accuracy in cross-sectional incidence testing that a MAA provides is a powerful tool for HIV surveillance and program evaluation.

  14. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  15. Choropleth Map Design for Cancer Incidence, Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas B. Richards, MD; Zahava Berkowitz, MSPH; Cheryll C. Thomas, MSPH; Stephanie Lee Foster, MPH; Annette Gardner; Jessica Blythe King, MPH; Karen Ledford, CTR; Janet Royalty, MS

    2009-01-01

    Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information systems mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registrie...

  16. Incidence and time trends of brain metastases admissions among breast cancer patients in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, G; Svensson, T.; Bäcklund, L M; Lidbrink, E.; Blomqvist, P; Smedby, K E

    2012-01-01

    Background: While treatment for breast cancer has been refined and overall survival has improved, there is concern that the incidence of brain metastases has increased. Methods: We identified patients in Sweden with incident breast cancer 1998–2006 in the National Cancer Register, and matched these to the National Patient Register to obtain information on hospital admissions for distant metastases. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed with Cox regression as est...

  17. Geographic disparities in late stage breast cancer incidence: results from eight states in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tatalovich, Zaria; Zhu, Li; Rolin, Alicia; Lewis, Denise R.; Harlan, Linda C.; Winn, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Late stage of cancer at diagnosis is an important predictor of cancer mortality. In many areas worldwide, cancer registry systems, available data and mapping technologies can provide information about late stage cancer by geographical regions, offering valuable opportunities to identify areas where further investigation and interventions are needed. The current study examined geographical variation in late stage breast cancer incidence across eight states in the United States with ...

  18. Changing trends in incidence of lung cancer by histological type in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Medenica Milić; Medenica Miraš; Bojović Olivera; Soldatović Ivan; Durutović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms, as well as the most common cause of death cancer. Most lung cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Objective. Examining changes in trends of lung cancer incidence in Montenegro by histological type during a 15-year period, from 1997 to 2011. Methods. During the study period, histopathological confirmation was obtained for all primary lung cancer...

  19. Cadmium exposure and incidence of diabetes mellitus--results from the Malmo Diet and Cancer study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Borné

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a pollutant with multiple adverse health effects: renal dysfunction, osteoporosis and fractures, cancer, and probably cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported associations between cadmium and impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. However, this relationship is controversial and there is a lack of longitudinal studies.To examine prospectively whether cadmium in blood is associated with incidence of diabetes mellitus.The study population consists of 4585 subjects without history of diabetes (aged 46 to 67 years, 60% women, who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study during 1991-1994. Blood cadmium levels were estimated from hematocrit and cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes. Incident cases of diabetes were identified from national and local diabetes registers.Cadmium concentrations in blood were not associated with blood glucose and insulin levels at the baseline examination. However, cadmium was positively associated with HbA1c in former smokers and current smokers. During a mean follow-up of 15.2 ± 4.2 years, 622 (299 men and 323 women were diagnosed with new-onset of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes was not significantly associated with blood cadmium level at baseline, neither in men or women. The hazard ratio (4th vs 1st quartile was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.82-1.49, when adjusted for potential confounders.Elevated blood cadmium levels are not associated with increased incidence of diabetes. The positive association between HbA1c and blood cadmium levels has a likely explanation in mechanisms related to erythrocyte turnover and smoking.

  20. The incidence and relevance of prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alsinnawi, M

    2012-12-01

    To review the incidence, histopathological features and clinical outcomes of patients with incidental prostate cancer (CaP) found in cystoprostatectomy specimens (CP) excised for bladder cancer and to determine whether these prostate cancers could affect the follow-up strategy.

  1. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 105 persons x a-1) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 105 persons x a-1) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  2. Trends in the incidence of cancer in the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokunonga, E; Borok, M Z; Chirenje, Z M; Nyakabau, A M; Parkin, D M

    2013-08-01

    Incidence rates of different cancers have been calculated for the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe for a 20-year period (1991-2010) coinciding with continuing social and lifestyle changes, and the peak, and subsequent wane, of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. The overall risk of cancer increased during the period in both sexes, with rates of cervix and prostate cancers showing particularly dramatic increases (3.3% and 6.4% annually, respectively). By 2004, prostate cancer had become the most common cancer of men. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus, formerly the most common cancer of men, has remained relatively constant, whereas rates of breast and cervix cancers, the most common malignancies of women, have shown significant increases (4.9% and 3.3% annually, respectively). The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma increased to a maximum around 1998-2000 and then declined in all age groups, and in both sexes The incidence of squamous cell cancers of the conjunctiva is relatively high, with temporal trends similar to those of Kaposi sarcoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the fifth most common cancer of men and fourth of women, showed a steady increase in incidence throughout the period (6.7-6.9% annually), although rates in young adults (15-39) have decreased since 2001. Cancer control in Zimbabwe, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, involves meeting the challenge of emerging cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (large bowel, breast and prostate), while the incidence of cancers associated with poverty and infection (liver, cervix and esophagus) shows little decline, and the residual burden of the AIDS-associated cancers remains significant. PMID:23364833

  3. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer. PMID:22191038

  4. Incidence and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients and Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Raheleh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Azargashb, Eznollah; Khayamzadeh, E

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing incidence of breast cancer, recognition of risk factors has become increasingly important. Over the past few decades, among risk factors of this disease, stressful life events have attracted particular attention, but their relationship with breast cancer incidence and survival remains a mystery. This study aimed to examine the relationship between severe stressful life events and incidence and survival of women with breast cancer. In this case-control study, using a structured telephone interview with 355 women with breast cancer and also with 516 women with benign breast diseases who were matched in demographic characteristics, necessary information about the experience of major stressful events in the years before the diagnosis were collected. Data were analyzed using statistical methods of χ2, t, and Kaplan-Meier with a significance level of effects of psycho-social factors in the incidence and survival of breast cancer with stressful life events is recommended. PMID:27165233

  5. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  6. Estimation of Cancer Burden Attributable to Infection in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some infectious agents have been shown to be human carcinogens. The current study focused on estimation of cancer burden attributable to infection in different regions of Asia. Methods: By systematically reviewing previous studies of the infection prevalence data of 13 countries in Asia and relative risks of specific cancers, we calculated the population attributable fraction of carcinogenic infections. Using data from GLOBOCAN 2012, the overall country-specific and gender-specific number of new cancer cases and deaths resulting from infection were estimated. Results: Across 13 principal Asian countries, the average prevalence and range was 6.6% (0.5% in Japanese women to 15.0% in Vietnamese men for hepatitis B virus (HBV, 2.6% (0.3% in Iran to 5.1% in Saudi Arabia for hepatitis C virus (HCV, 7.9% (2.8% in Pakistan to 17.7% in China for human papillomavirus (HPV, and 61.8% (12.8% in Indonesia to 91.7% in Bangladesh for Helicobacter pylori (HP. The estimated total number of cancer cases and deaths caused by infection in these 13 countries were 1 212 026 (19.6% of all new cancer cases and 908 549 (22.0% of all deaths from cancer. The fractions of cancer incidence attributable to infection were 19.7% and 19.5% in men and women, respectively. The percentages of cancer deaths attributable to infection were 21.9% and 22.1% in men and women, respectively. Among the main infectious agents, HP was responsible for 31.5% of infection-related cancer cases and 32.8% of infection-related cancer deaths, followed by HBV (28.6% of new cases and 23.8% of deaths, HPV (22.0% of new cases and 27.3% of deaths, and HCV (12.2% of new cases and 10.6% of deaths. Conclusions: Approximately one quarter of all cancer cases and deaths were infection-associated in Asia, which could be effectively prevented if appropriate long-term controls of infectious agents were applied.

  7. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968–2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993–2012, APC = 1.9%, pHPV-associated cancer (ASR = 19.9 per 100,000 person-years) but declined significantly between 1968–2012 (APC = -2.4%). Incidence of each cancer varied across ethnicities. Similar to trends in Western countries, OPSCC incidence increased in recent years, while non-OP HNC decreased. ICC remains the most common HPV-related cancer in Singapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  8. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénard Stève

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. Methods This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated. Results For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000 for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000 for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9; for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5, and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3. The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total

  9. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  10. Deep cognitive imaging systems enable estimation of continental-scale fire incidence from climate data

    OpenAIRE

    Ritaban Dutta; Jagannath Aryal; Aruneema Das; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B.

    2013-01-01

    Unplanned fire is a major control on the nature of terrestrial ecosystems and causes substantial losses of life and property. Given the substantial influence of climatic conditions on fire incidence, climate change is expected to substantially change fire regimes in many parts of the world. We wished to determine whether it was possible to develop a deep neural network process for accurately estimating continental fire incidence from publicly available climate data. We show that deep recurren...

  11. Lung cancer incidence decreases with elevation: evidence for oxygen as an inhaled carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen P. Simeonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of atmospheric oxygen, a driver of free radical damage and tumorigenesis, decreases sharply with rising elevation. To understand whether ambient oxygen plays a role in human carcinogenesis, we characterized age-adjusted cancer incidence (compiled by the National Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2009 across counties of the elevation-varying Western United States and compared trends displayed by respiratory cancer (lung and non-respiratory cancers (breast, colorectal, and prostate. To adjust for important demographic and cancer-risk factors, 8–12 covariates were considered for each cancer. We produced regression models that captured known risks. Models demonstrated that elevation is strongly, negatively associated with lung cancer incidence (p < 10−16, but not with the incidence of non-respiratory cancers. For every 1,000 m rise in elevation, lung cancer incidence decreased by 7.23 99% CI [5.18–9.29] cases per 100,000 individuals, equivalent to 12.7% of the mean incidence, 56.8. As a predictor of lung cancer incidence, elevation was second only to smoking prevalence in terms of significance and effect size. Furthermore, no evidence of ecological fallacy or of confounding arising from evaluated factors was detected: the lung cancer association was robust to varying regression models, county stratification, and population subgrouping; additionally seven environmental correlates of elevation, such as exposure to sunlight and fine particulate matter, could not capture the association. Overall, our findings suggest the presence of an inhaled carcinogen inherently and inversely tied to elevation, offering epidemiological support for oxygen-driven tumorigenesis. Finally, highlighting the need to consider elevation in studies of lung cancer, we demonstrated that previously reported inverse lung cancer associations with radon and UVB became insignificant after accounting for elevation.

  12. A multi-state model to estimate incidence of heroin use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Niubò Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing incidence estimates of heroin use are usually based on one information source. This study aims to incorporate more sources to estimate heroin use incidence trends in Spain between 1971 and 2005. Methods A multi-state model was constructed, whereby the initial state “heroin consumer” is followed by transition to either “admitted to first treatment” or to “left heroin use” (i.e. permanent cessation or death. Heroin use incidence and probabilities of entering first treatment ever were estimated following a back-calculation approach. Results The highest heroin use incidence rates in Spain, around 1.5 per 1,000 inhabitants aged 10–44, occurred between 1985 and 1990; subdividing by route of administration reveals higher incidences of injection between 1980 and 1985 (a mean of 0.62 per 1.000 and a peak for non-injectors in 1990 (0.867 per 1,000. Conclusions A simple conceptual model for heroin users’ trajectories related to treatment admission, provided a broader view of the historical trend of heroin use incidence in Spain.

  13. Estimating incidence from prevalence in generalised HIV epidemics: methods and validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Hallett

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV surveillance of generalised epidemics in Africa primarily relies on prevalence at antenatal clinics, but estimates of incidence in the general population would be more useful. Repeated cross-sectional measures of HIV prevalence are now becoming available for general populations in many countries, and we aim to develop and validate methods that use these data to estimate HIV incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two methods were developed that decompose observed changes in prevalence between two serosurveys into the contributions of new infections and mortality. Method 1 uses cohort mortality rates, and method 2 uses information on survival after infection. The performance of these two methods was assessed using simulated data from a mathematical model and actual data from three community-based cohort studies in Africa. Comparison with simulated data indicated that these methods can accurately estimates incidence rates and changes in incidence in a variety of epidemic conditions. Method 1 is simple to implement but relies on locally appropriate mortality data, whilst method 2 can make use of the same survival distribution in a wide range of scenarios. The estimates from both methods are within the 95% confidence intervals of almost all actual measurements of HIV incidence in adults and young people, and the patterns of incidence over age are correctly captured. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to estimate incidence from cross-sectional prevalence data with sufficient accuracy to monitor the HIV epidemic. Although these methods will theoretically work in any context, we have able to test them only in southern and eastern Africa, where HIV epidemics are mature and generalised. The choice of method will depend on the local availability of HIV mortality data.

  14. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...... sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries......, the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman...

  15. Applications of Machine learning in Prediction of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths for the female population in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have used the baseline descriptive data about the incidence (new cancer cases) of in situ breast cancer among Wisconsin females. The documented data were from the most recent 12-years period for which data are available. Wiscons in cancer incidence and mortality (deaths due to cancer) that occurred were also considered in this work. Artificial Neural network (ANN) have been successfully applied to problems in the prediction of the number of new cancer cases and mortality. Using artificial intelligence (AI) in this study, the numbers of new cancer cases and mortality that may occur are predicted.

  16. Incidence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Fianchi, Luana; Voso, Maria Teresa; Caira, Morena; Leone, Giuseppe; Pagano, Livio

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leuke...

  17. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AFTER BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Morena Caira; Giuseppe Leone; Maria Teresa Voso; Luana Fianchi; Caterina Giovanna Valentini; Livio Pagano

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leuke...

  18. Study of cancer incidence among 8530 male workers in eight Norwegian plants producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbesland, A.; Kjuus, H; Thelle, D S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between cancer incidence, in particular incidence of lung cancer, and duration of work among employees in eight Norwegian plants producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal. METHODS: Among men first employed during 1933-91 and with at least 6 months in these plants, the incident cases of cancer during 1953-91 were obtained from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The numbers of various cancers were compared with expected figures calculated from age and cal...

  19. An examination of disparities in cancer incidence in Texas using Bayesian random coefficient models

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in cancer risk exist between ethnic groups in the United States. These disparities often result from differential access to healthcare, differences in socioeconomic status and differential exposure to carcinogens. This study uses cancer incidence data from the population based Texas Cancer Registry to investigate the disparities in digestive and respiratory cancers from 2000 to 2008. A Bayesian hierarchical regression approach is used. All models are fit using the INLA method of B...

  20. Temporal trends in area socioeconomic disparities in breast-cancer incidence and mortality, 1988–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Schootman, Mario; Lian, Min; Deshpande, Anjali D.; Baker, Elizabeth A; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Aft, Rebecca; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2010-01-01

    Since an overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 was to eliminate health disparities, we determined temporal trends in socioeconomic disparities in five breast-cancer indicators (in situ, stage I, lymph-node positive, and locally advanced breast-cancer incidence, and breast-cancer mortality) by county socioeconomic deprivation using 1988–2005 population-based breast-cancer data. Using 1988–2005 data from women aged 40 and older from 200 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Resu...

  1. Lung cancer incidence decreases with elevation: evidence for oxygen as an inhaled carcinogen

    OpenAIRE

    Kamen P. Simeonov; HIMMELSTEIN, DANIEL S.

    2015-01-01

    The level of atmospheric oxygen, a driver of free radical damage and tumorigenesis, decreases sharply with rising elevation. To understand whether ambient oxygen plays a role in human carcinogenesis, we characterized age-adjusted cancer incidence (compiled by the National Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2009) across counties of the elevation-varying Western United States and compared trends displayed by respiratory cancer (lung) and non-respiratory cancers (breast, colorectal, and prostate). To...

  2. Cancer incidence and novel therapies developed in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru Iwasaki

    2012-01-01

    According to the ministry of Health, Labour and welfare of Japan, Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. [1] As per the data in 2010, in Japan, one in every three deaths was due to cancer. [2] The Japanese Government has introduced so far, three terms of 10 years strategies for Cancer control since 1984 till date. The budget allocated for cancer control in 2009 was 52.5 billion yen in Japan. [3] Lung is the leading site for cancer in both males and females in Japan. ...

  3. Incidence of different cancer types in Lithuania (Patterns in space and time)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real cancer risk continues to increase in Lithuania and cancer prevention based on epidemiological studies is of vital importance for its control. The most frequent types of cancer in Lithuania are lung, stomach, skin, breast, ovary, thyroid and cervical cancer. There is an important geographical variation of cancer incidence in 44 administrative regions in Lithuania. The difference for lung cancer between high and low incidence areas in men being 3-fold, for stomach 4-fold, skin 5-fold, prostate 6-fold. In women this amplitude for breast cancer is 3-fold, for lung cancer 10-fold. Monitoring of human health shows some negative trends in the latest decade: in more polluted incidence of lung, skin, larynx cancers 3-4 times exceed the average level in the Republic. However, effects of environmental exposures cannot be isolated from effects of such factors and habits as smoking. In this framework, epidemiologic investigations on the probable cause-effect relationship between cancer incidence and environmental factors in Lithuania are extraordinarily perspective. 5 figs

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INCIDENCE RATES OF TESTICULAR AND PROSTATIC CANCERS AND FOOD CONSUMPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘鸣; 刘秀梵; 佐藤·章夫

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships between the incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers and food consumptions in order to study the etiologic cause and the mechanism of the development of male genital organ cancer. Methods: The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers in 42 countries (region) were correlated with the dietary practices in these countries. These data came from the cancer rate database (1988-1992) and the food supply database (1961-1990) provided by the Department of Environmental Health, Medical University of Yamanashi, Japan. Results: The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers varied greatly from country to country but in China the rates of the both malignancies were lower than that of USA and Japan. This may be due to the difference in lifestyle, especially in dietary practices. Among the food items weexamined, cheese was most closely correlated with the incidence of testicular cancer at ages 20-39, followed by animal fats and milk. The correlation coefficient (r) was the highest (r= 0.804) when calculated for cheese consumed during the period of 1961-1965 (maternal or prepubertal consumption). Stepwise- multiple-regression analysis revealed that cheese (1961-1965) made a significant contribution to the incidence of testicular cancer. Multiple coefficient ( r) is 0.920. As far as prostatic cancer was concerned, milk was most closely correlated (r=0.711) with its incidence, followed by meat and coffee. Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis identified milk, meat, butter and coffee as significant factors contributing to the incidence of prostatic cancer (R=0.993).The results of our study suggest a role of milk and dairy practices in the development of testicular and prostatic cancers.

  5. COMARE statement: investigation of the incidence of cancer around Wylfa and Trawsfyndd nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redwood, J.A.

    1994-06-16

    In answer to a House of Commons question, this piece from Hansard for 16th June 1994 looks at the incidence of cancer around the Trawsfynydd and Wylfa nuclear installations in Wales. A study undertaken between 1974 and 1986 followed groupings of many cancers, especially leukaemias, lymphoid leukaemia, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, brain and thyroid cancers. These were chosen because of their suggested links with radiation in the medical literature. No statistically significant links were found between the incidence of cancers studied and residence near the nuclear stations. (UK).

  6. Incidence and mortality of gastric cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yang

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. In China,based on two national mortality surveys conducted in 1970s and 1990s, there is an obvious clustering of geographical distribution of gastric cancer in the country, with the high mortality being mostly located in rural areas, especially in Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces in the middle-western part of China. Despite a slight increase from the 1970s to early 1990s, remarkable declines in gastric cancer mortality were noticed in almost the entire population during the last decade in China. These declines were largely due to the dramatic improvements in the social-economic environment, lifestyle, nutrition, education and health care system after economic reforms started two decades ago. Nevertheless, gastric cancer will remain a significant cancer burden currently and be one of the key issues in cancer prevention and control strategy in China. It was predicted that, in 2005, 0.3 million deaths and 0.4 million new cases from gastric cancer would rank the third most common cancer. The essential package of the prevention and control strategy for gastric cancer in China would focus on controlling Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, improving educational levels, advocating healthy diet and anti-tobacco campaign, searching for cost-effective early detection, diagnosis and treatment programs including approaches for curable management and palliative care.

  7. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A.; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area.

  8. Cancer Incidence - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registries Limited-Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SEER Limited-Use cancer incidence data with associated population data. Geographic areas available are county and SEER registry. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and...

  9. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yueh-Ying, E-mail: hany2@upmc.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Youk, Ada O., E-mail: ayouk@pitt.edu [Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sasser, Howell, E-mail: howell_sasser@nymc.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Health Sciences and Practice, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Talbott, Evelyn O., E-mail: eot1@pitt.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Background: The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Methods: Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 m Sv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Results: Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 {mu}R/h compared to 5.2-7.2 {mu}R/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Conclusion: Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional

  10. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  11. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D E; Mabuchi, K; Ron, E; Soda, M; Tokunaga, M; Ochikubo, S; Sugimoto, S; Ikeda, T; Terasaki, M; Izumi, S

    1994-02-01

    This report presents, for the first time, comprehensive data on the incidence of solid cancer and risk estimates for A-bomb survivors in the extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) cohort. Among 79,972 individuals, 8613 first primary solid cancers were diagnosed between 1958 and 1987. As part of the standard registration process of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, cancer cases occurring among members of the LSS-E85 cohort were identified using a computer linkage system supplemented by manual searches. Special efforts were made to ensure complete case ascertainment, data quality and data consistency in the two cities. For all sites combined, 75% of the cancers were verified histologically, 6% were diagnosed by direct observation, 8% were based on a clinical diagnosis, and 12.6% were ascertained by death certificate only. A standard set of analyses was carried out for each of the organs and organ systems considered. Depending on the cancer site, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) organ or kerma doses were used for computing risk estimates. Analyses were based on a general excess relative risk model (the background rate times one plus the excess relative risk). Analyses carried out for each site involved fitting the background model with no dose effect, a linear dose-response model with no effect modifiers, a linear-quadratic dose-response model with no effect modifiers, and a series of linear dose-response models that included each of the covariates (sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and city) individually as effect modifiers. Because the tumor registries ascertain cancers in the registry catchment areas only, an adjustment was made for the effects of migration. In agreement with prior LSS findings, a statistically significant excess risk for all solid cancers was demonstrated [excess relative risk at 1 Sv (ERR1Sv) = 0.63; excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10(4) person-year sievert (PY Sv) = 29.7]. For cancers of the stomach (ERR1SV = 0.32), colon

  12. Spatial Assessment of Cancer Incidences and the Risks of Industrial Wastewater Emission in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yingru Li; Huixuan Li; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2016-01-01

    China’s rapid economic growth and social transitions have deteriorated environmental conditions and caused further public health issues in last three decades. This study examines the complex mechanisms of how socioeconomic transitions and physical environmental conditions impact public health, especially with respect to increasing cancer incidences in mainland China from a spatial-temporal perspective. Specifically, (1) spatial variations of seven types of cancer incidences were analyzed in r...

  13. Incidence of cancer and mortality among workers exposed to mercury vapour in the Norwegian chloralkali industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsen, D G; Andersen, A; Nordhagen, H P; Efskind, J; Kjuus, H

    1993-01-01

    Incidence of cancer and mortality were studied among 674 men exposed to mercury vapour for more than one year at two chloralkali plants. Mercury excretion in urine had been monitored among the workers at the two plants since 1948 and 1949. An individual cumulative urinary mercury dose was calculated, based on about 20,000 urinary mercury measurements. The incidence of cancer and the mortality were followed up from 1953 to 1989 and 1953 to 1988 respectively. The general Norwegian male populati...

  14. Lobular breast cancer: incidence and genetic and non-genetic risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dossus, Laure; Benusiglio, Patrick ,

    2014-01-01

    While most invasive breast cancers consist of carcinomas of the ductal type, about 10% are invasive lobular carcinomas. Invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas differ with respect to risk factors. Invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with exposure to female hormones, and therefore its incidence is more subject to variation. This is illustrated by US figures during the 1987 to 2004 period: after 12 years of increases, breast cancer incidence declined steadily from 1999 to 2004...

  15. Association of Arsenic Exposure with Lung Cancer Incidence Rates in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Putila, Joseph J.; Guo, Nancy Lan

    2011-01-01

    Background Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior. Methodology Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National G...

  16. Incidence of pneumonia and risk factors among patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the incidence and patient- and treatment-related risk factors related to pneumonia acquired during radiotherapy (PNRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Using the universal insurance claims data, 15,894 total HNC patients between 1998 and 2007 were included in this analysis. PNRT was defined as the occurrence of pneumonia within 90 days of the commencement of radiotherapy. Information also included some demographic characteristics, treatment-related factors, and comorbidities. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to assess the difference between patients with and those without PNRT. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of PNRT among the variables examined. In total, 772 patients (4.86%) were identified with PNRT as the case group, whereas 15,122 subjects of the same cancer without PNRT formed the control group. Of patients with PNRT, 632 (81.9%) were hospitalized with a mean length of stay of 25.9 days. Results from the multiple logistic regression showed that an older age and certain comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of PNRT. Patients with cancer of the tongue, buccal mucosa, oropharynx, and hypopharynx/larynx were at particularly higher risk (OR = 1.28, 1.28, 1.67, and 1.74, respectively). Compared to radiotherapy alone, concurrent chemoradiotherapy had no effect on the PNRT. Patients in the PNRT group had higher overall medical costs and length of stay. The incidence of PNRT in HNC patients receiving radiotherapy was approximately 5%. Notably, an older age, certain comorbidities, and certain specific tumor sites were associated with an increased risk

  17. Lung cancer incidence among Japanese A-bomb survivors, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese A-bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on histopathological examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histologic types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001): based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± s.e.) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (ATB; p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  18. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  19. Assessing lung cancer incidence disparities between Puerto Ricans and other racial/ethnic groups in the United States, 1992–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Calo, William A.; Suárez, Erick; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Quintana, Rafael A.; Ana P. Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the incidence of lung cancer among Puerto Ricans (PRs) with that of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the United States. We computed age-standardized rates of lung cancer during 1992–2010 and percentages of change over time. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were estimated to assess racial/ethnic and gender differences. All men groups showed a significant decline in lung cancer over time but PRs observed the smallest change (−1.2%). For both men and women, PRs had lower incide...

  20. Effect of organized screening on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Madsen, Mette; Engholm, G

    1989-01-01

    multiplicative Poisson models on county-based incidence and mortality data for women aged 30-59 years in 1963-1982 showed a statistically significant effect of organized screening in reducing both the incidence (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73), and the mortality (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.78) of cervical cancer...

  1. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 30 years ago, population-based tumor registries were established in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report, the first of a series of papers on cancer incidence, describes methodological aspects of the tumor registries and discusses issues of data quality in the context of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, the major atomic bomb survivor population. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are characterized by active case ascertainment based on abstraction of medical records at area hospitals, augmented by tissue registries operational in the area and a number of clinical and pathological programs undertaken over the years among the atomic bomb survivors. Using conventional measures of quality, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries have a death certificate-only (DCO) rate of less than 9%, a mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio of about 50%, and a histological verification (HV) rate in excess of 70%, which place these registries among the best in Japan and comparable to many established registries worldwide. All tumor registry data pertaining to the LSS population were assembled, reviewed and handled with special attention given to the quality and uniformity of data based on standardized procedures. Special studies and monitoring programs were also introduced to evaluate the quality of the tumor incidence data in the LSS. Analyses were performed to examine the quality of incidence data overall and across various substrata used for risk assessment such as age, time and radiation dose groups. No significant associations were found between radiation dose and data quality as measured by various indices. These findings warrant the use of the present tumor registry-based data for studies of cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  3. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  4. History of periodontal disease diagnosis and lung cancer incidence in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Nwizu, Ngozi; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Tezal, Mine; Scannapieco, Frank; Hyland, Andrew; Andrews, Christopher A.; Genco, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While some evidence suggests that periodontal disease (PD) might be positively associated with lung cancer, prospective studies in women are limited. Previous findings may reflect residual confounding by smoking. The study aims to determine whether history of PD diagnosis is associated with incident lung cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods Prospective analyses were conducted in a cohort of 77,485 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. History of PD (prevalence of 26.1%) was self-reported and 754 incident lung cancer cases occurred during an average 6.8 (SD ±2.6) years of follow-up. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Overall, PD was positively associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for detailed smoking history including smoking status and pack-years of smoking (HR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.07–1.45). There was a positive additive interaction between PD with pack-years of smoking (P=0.02), suggesting a potential synergistic effect between PD and smoking intensity on lung cancer. The association between PD and lung cancer was stronger in former smokers. When restricted to never-smokers, PD was not associated with lung cancer (HR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.68–1.53). Conclusions PD was not independently associated with lung cancer in non-smoking postmenopausal women. However, smoking and PD jointly increased lung cancer risk beyond that expected from the sum of the each effect separately. The potential synergism between PD and smoking on lung cancer warrants further examination. PMID:24913780

  5. Country-specific estimates of the incidence of intellectual disability associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; O'Leary, Keri; Rainis, Holly; Gibb, Herman J

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes country-specific estimates of the incidence of intellectual disability in children associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. A systematic review was undertaken to identify country-specific data on hair mercury concentrations in women of reproductive age. A variety of approaches were used to estimate biomarker concentrations for countries lacking such data. A dose-effect relationship derived on the basis of the data from three large prospective studies relating prenatal methylmercury exposure to IQ in children was used to estimate the country-specific incidences of mild, moderate, severe, and profound intellectual disability in children as a result of prenatal methylmercury exposure. The incidence of methylmercury-associated mild intellectual disability (IQ scores 50-70) varied nearly 40-fold across countries, with the greatest incidences generally in countries that are islands or that are coastal. Countries with high birth rates and greater consumption of foods that contribute most to methylmercury intake in humans (seafood, rice) can be expected to make the largest contributions to the worldwide burden of disease associated with methylmercury. The assumptions and limitations of the estimates are discussed. PMID:26874048

  6. Nonparametric Estimation of Cumulative Incidence Functions for Competing Risks Data with Missing Cause of Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Effraimidis, Georgios; Dahl, Christian Møller

    In this paper, we develop a fully nonparametric approach for the estimation of the cumulative incidence function with Missing At Random right-censored competing risks data. We obtain results on the pointwise asymptotic normality as well as the uniform convergence rate of the proposed nonparametric...

  7. Oral Cancer situation in the state of Bahia: estimates and action perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suélem Maria Santana Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is actually a challenge to Brazilian Public Health, once the number of new cases is growing in last decades. Some studies show that cancer was responsible for 12% of causa mortis in the World, achieving six millions of deaths per year. The aim of this study was to compare oral cancer estimates for Brasil and Bahia state in the years 2006/2007 and 2008/2009, to see the possible evolution of this pathology in the periods and, at same time, find perspectives of action for disease control. For this objective, it was searched the Instituto Nacional do Cancer database for oral cancer incidence estimates for the cited years, observing segregation for sex variable. This way, it was possible to compare both estimates. It was observed in Brasil an increase in the estimated crude incidence rates per 100.000 individuals, with a value of 3,58 in 2006/2007 going to 3,8 in 2008/2009 for females and 10,91 to 11,00 in males. In the state of Bahia, the estimated crude incidence rates increased 2,86 to 3,25 among females and 7,15 to 7,28 among males. However, specifically for the city of Salvador it was noted a decrease in incidence estimates, once the estimated crude incidence rate was 16,00 in 2006/2007 and 14,20 in 2008/2009 for males and 5,72 to 5,21 in females. Educative actions involving health professionals such as physicians, dentists, nurses, health agents and media campaigns that make possible early diagnosis and adoption of preventive measures, consequently improving survival rates and life quality in affected population

  8. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development. De

  9. Effect of Population Trends in Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Gulati, Roman; Zeliadt, Steve; Weiss, Noel; Kristal, Alan R.; Etzioni, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with increasing prostate cancer incidence and declining prostate cancer mortality in the United States, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing steadily. Several studies have reported that obesity is associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality, and it is thus likely that the increase in obesity has increased the burden of prostate cancer. In this study, we assess the potential effect of increasing obesity on prostate cancer incid...

  10. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AFTER BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Giovanna Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leukemia, further enhanced by the use of radiotherapy. In the last few years also the use of growth factors seems to increase the risk of secondary leukemia. The purpose of this review is to update epidemiology of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms occurring in breast cancer patients

  11. Estimating the temporal distribution of exposure-related cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporal distribution of exposure-related cancers is relevant to the study of carcinogenic mechanisms. Statistical methods for extracting pertinent information from time-to-tumor data, however, are not well developed. Separation of incidence from 'latency' and the contamination of background cases are two problems. In this paper, we present methods for estimating both the conditional distribution given exposure-related cancers observed during the study period and the unconditional distribution. The methods adjust for confounding influences of background cases and the relationship between time to tumor and incidence. Two alternative methods are proposed. The first is based on a structured, theoretically derived model and produces direct inferences concerning the distribution of interest but often requires more-specialized software. The second relies on conventional modeling of incidence and is implemented through readily available, easily used computer software. Inferences concerning the effects of radiation dose and other covariates, however, are not always obtainable directly. We present three examples to illustrate the use of these two methods and suggest criteria for choosing between them. The first approach was used, with a log-logistic specification of the distribution of interest, to analyze times to bone sarcoma among a group of German patients injected with 224Ra. Similarly, a log-logistic specification was used in the analysis of time to chronic myelogenous leukemias among male atomic-bomb survivors. We used the alternative approach, involving conventional modeling, to estimate the conditional distribution of exposure-related acute myelogenous leukemias among male atomic-bomb survivors, given occurrence between 1 October 1950 and 31 December 1985. All analyses were performed using Poisson regression methods for analyzing grouped survival data. (J.P.N.)

  12. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  13. The 5-year incidence of male breast cancer in Southwest of China from 2007 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbin Jin; Hua Tang; Deqiang Mao; Linjie Lu; Lingquan Kong; Yang Bai; Zixiang Yao; Guangyan Ji; Shengchun Liu; Guosheng Ren; Kainan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Male breast cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of about 1%of breast cancers in USA, but relatively lack of the information of male breast cancer in China, especial y in Southwest of China, led us to study its incidence trends. Methods:Chongqing is one of the biggest and the most important areas that is located in Southwest of China. There are around 31.4 mil ion people who live in approximate 82 402.95 km2 area of Chongqing. Data about breast cancer patients registered in the Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Chongqing (China) were statistical y col ected from 187 hospi-tals, about 58 hospitals in city and 129 hospitals in country, and over 6.2 mil ion people were studied every year. It was tried to represent al the people in vil ages and cities in Chongqing, China. Results:The incidence of male breast cancer in Southwest of China ranged from 0.34/100 000 to 1.45/100 000 between 2007 and 2011, while the incidence of female breast cancer ranged from 15.40/100000 to 21.66/100000 at the same time. The rate of male breast cancer to female breast cancer ranged from 0.02:1 to 0.07:1, male breast cancer accounted for 1.96%to 6.5%(with the mean value of 2.9%) of breast cancers in Southwest of China from 2007 to 2010. Conclusion:In Southwest of China male breast cancer accounts for about 2.9%of breast cancers which is higher than that in United States. It is important for policy makers and health manager to seriously consider breast cancer in future plan in Southwest of China.

  14. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  15. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    : Evaluation of the first six years of lung cancer treatment in Greenland revealed a disease incidence and survival comparable to those found in the Nordic countries. To further decrease mortality from lung cancer, health-care resources should continue to be allocated to the prevention and treatment of lung...

  16. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne M L; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its anti-oestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in...

  17. Testicular germ cell cancer incidence in an immigration perspective, Denmark, 1978 to 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Sven; Schüz, Joachim; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Johansen, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer....

  18. Breast cancer incidence after the introduction of mammography screening: what should be expected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Olsen, Anne Helene; von Euler-Chelpin, My;

    2006-01-01

    , the influx of newcomers, and variations in the data. Women who had undergone previous screening were found to have the same incidence of breast cancer as women who were never screened. CONCLUSIONS: The data from the current study do not provide evidence of overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer in the 2...

  19. Adolescent dietary patterns and premenopausal breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2016-04-01

    Mammary tissue experiences the highest rate of proliferation during adolescence representing a period of heightened susceptibility. Few prospective studies have examined adolescent diet and breast cancer, and none have examined dietary patterns. Thus, we examined the association between adolescent dietary patterns and a diet quality index, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II among those who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire about their high-school diet (HS-FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Among 45204 women who completed the HS-FFQ, 863 cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 614 cases of postmenopausal cancer were diagnosed. A marginal inverse association was observed between the 'prudent' dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish and poultry, and premenopausal breast cancer. Women in fifth quintile had a multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.67-1.04) for premenopausal breast cancer (Ptrend= 0.07) compared with the first quintile. Scoring higher on the AHEI was borderline significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer with a HR of 0.81 (0.64-1.01) for the fifth quintile (Ptrend= 0.08), and this association appeared to be stronger for estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative tumors. No association was observed between the 'Western' pattern or the 'fast-food' pattern. Results were similar for each of these patterns when both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer were considered together. An overall healthy diet during adolescence, similar to the prudent dietary pattern or adherence to the AHEI, may contribute to reducing the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26905584

  20. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chelle L.; Clark-Snustad, Kindra; Devine, Beth; Grembowski, David; Thornton, Timothy A.; Ko, Cynthia W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py]) were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000). The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000) in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000) in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000) in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000). Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low. PMID:27293427

  1. Trends in Incidence Rates of Tobacco-Related Cancer, Selected Areas, SEER Program, United States, 1992-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Polednak, Anthony P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Recent trends in incidence rates for tobacco-related cancers may vary geographically because of variation in socioeconomic status and in history of comprehensive state tobacco control programs (starting with California in 1989). Recent trends in risk factors are likely to affect cancer incidence rates at the youngest ages. Methods Trends in age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers most strongly associated with tobacco (ie, lung, oral cavity-pharynx, and bladder cancers) were anal...

  2. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H;

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into acco...... been exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects.......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have...

  3. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  4. Cancer incidence among employees of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1969-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cancer incidence from 1969 through 1980 among active members of an occupational cohort (the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL]) was compared with that of the same-age sector of the total population of the San Francisco-Oakland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. Excesses were found for malignant melanoma of the skin and salivary gland tumors and a deficit for lung cancer in men. No excesses were noted for radiosensitive tissue groups. The overall incidence of cancer among LLNL employees for this time period is approximately that for the general population. 15 references, 4 tables

  5. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Folsom Jeffrey A; Merrill Ray M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affi...

  6. Mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand meat workers

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, D.; Cheng, S.; 't, M; Woodward, A.; Pearce, N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To ascertain whether there is an increased risk of cancers of the lung and lymphohaematopoietic tissue in workers employed in the New Zealand meat processing industry, and to identify exposures associated with any increased risks.

  7. Second primary cancers -  causes, incidence and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubková, L; Hrstka, R; Dobes, P; Vojtesek, B; Vyzula, R

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to continually improving screening programs, diagnostic, and treatment methods, the survival rate in newly diagnosed cancer patients is increasing. With this improvement in survival, attention is now being focused on potential longterm complications such as multiple primary tumors, which represent a leading cause of late nonrelapse mortality. The number of patients who survive cancer dia-gnosis is growing by 2% each year. Multiple primary neoplasms have become the third most common finding in oncology since 1890s, when they were first described. This review aims to summarize recent information regarding the multiple primary neoplasms, elucidate the definition, etiology, association with the primary cancer treatment, genetic and environmental dispositions and finally, it recapitulates new approaches to identification of the risk factors for multiple cancers. PMID:24635432

  8. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office wo...

  9. Incidence of lung cancer by histological type among asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Korsgaard, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--A significant twofold increased risk of lung cancer was found among 8000 men employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984. The histological pattern of 104 lung cancer cases was studied with the aim of evaluating a relation between specific morphological types, duration of employment, and time since first employment. METHODS--Age, sex, and calendar time specific incidence of morphological subtypes of lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, anap...

  10. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (

  11. A prospective study of the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The association between aging and falls risk, and the morbidity and mortality resulting from falls in older persons, is well documented. Results from a small number of studies of patients with cancer in inpatient settings suggest that patients with advanced cancer may be at high risk of falling. We present preliminary results pertaining to the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer from an ongoing study of risk factors for falls.

  12. Incidence and risk factor analysis for sarcopenia in patients with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, GUOXING; LI, XIUJIANG; SUI, CHANGPING; Hui ZHAO; ZHAO, JIHONG; Hou, Yue; DU, YUJUN

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and possible risk factors associated with sarcopenia among cancer patients. Patients with cancer were examined through the use of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical data was collected between September and December, 2012, at Jilin Province Tumor Hospital (Changchun, China). The data was subsequently compared between patients with and without sarcopenia. Of the 113 treated cancer patients, 96 patients [39 males...

  13. Childhood leukaemia incidence around French nuclear installations using geographic zoning based on gaseous discharge dose estimates.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Hémon, Denis; Morin, Aline; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Backe, Jean-Claude; Chartier, Michel; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated for the first time the incidence of childhood leukaemia (1990–2001) around French nuclear installations using a geographic zoning based on estimated doses to the red bone marrow due to gaseous radioactive discharges. The observed number of cases of acute leukaemia (O=750) in 40 km2 centred on 23 French nuclear installations between 1990 and 2001 was lower than expected (E=795.01), although not significantly so (standardised incidence ratio SIR=0.94, 95% confiden...

  14. Linked versus unlinked hospital discharge data on hip fractures for estimating incidence and comorbidity profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing internally linked (person–identifying and unlinked (episodes of care hospital discharge data (HDD on hip fractures have mainly focused on incidence overestimation by unlinked HDD, but little is known about the impact of overestimation on patient profiles such as comorbidity estimates. In view of the continuing use of unlinked HDD in hip fracture research and the desire to apply research results to hip fracture prevention, we concurrently assessed the accuracy of both incidence and comorbidity estimates derived from unlinked HDD compared to those estimated from internally linked HDD. Methods We analysed unlinked and internally linked HDD between 01 July 2005 and 30 June 2008, inclusive, from Victoria, Australia to estimate the incidence of hospital admission for fall-related hip fracture in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years and determine the prevalence of comorbidity in patients. Community-dwelling status was defined as living in private residence, supported residential facilities or special accommodation but not in nursing homes. We defined internally linked HDD as the reference standard and calculated measures of accuracy of fall-related hip fracture incidence by unlinked HDD using standard definitions. The extent to which comorbidity prevalence estimates by unlinked HDD differed from those by the reference standard was assessed in absolute terms. Results The sensitivity and specificity of a standard approach for estimating fall-related hip fracture incidence using unlinked HDD (i.e. omitting records of in-hospital deaths, inter-hospital transfers and readmissions within 30 days of discharge were 94.4% and 97.5%, respectively. The standard approach and its variants underestimated the prevalence of some comorbidities and altered their ranking. The use of more stringent selection criteria led to major improvements in all measures of accuracy as well as overall and specific comorbidity

  15. Secular trend analysis oflung cancer incidence inSihui city, China between1987 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinLinDu; MingHuangHong; QiHongHuang; ZhengErLiao; SuMeiCao; XiaoLin; LiFangZhang; YanHuaLi; ShangHangXie; MengJieYang; JieGuo; ErHongLin; QingLiu

    2015-01-01

    Background:With industrial and economic development in recent decades in South China, cancer incidence may have changed due to the changing lifestyle and environment. However, the trends of lung cancer and the roles of smoking and other environmental risk factors in the development of lung cancer in rural areas of South China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the lung cancer incidence trends and the possible causes of these trends. Methods:Joinpoint regression analysis and the age–period–cohort (APC) model were used to analyze the lung can‑cer incidence trends in Sihui, Guangdong province, China between 1987 and 2011, and explore the possible causes of these trends. Results:A total of 2,397 lung cancer patients were involved in this study. A 3‑fold increase in the incidence of lung cancer in both sexes was observed over the 25‑year period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that while the inci‑dence continued to increase steadily in females during the entire period, a sharp acceleration was observed in males starting in 2005. The full APC model was selected to describe age, period, and birth cohort effects on lung cancer inci‑dence trends in Sihui. The age cohorts in both sexes showed a continuously signiifcant increase in the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer, with a peak in the eldest age group (80–84years). The RR of lung cancer showed a lfuctuating curve in both sexes. The birth cohorts identiifed an increased trend in both males and females; however, males had a plateau in the youngest cohorts who were born during 1955–1969. Conclusions:Increasing trends of the incidence of lung cancer in Sihui were dominated by the effects of age and birth cohorts. Social aging, smoking, and environmental changes may play important roles in such trends.

  16. Inequalities in cancer distribution in Tehran; A disaggregated estimation of 2007 incidencea by 22 districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Rohani Rasaf

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This report provides an appropriate guide to estimate the cancer distribution within the districts of Tehran. Higher ASR in districts 6, 1, 2, and 3, warrant further research, to obtain robust population-based incidence data and also to investigate the background predisposing factors in the specified districts.

  17. Evaluation of cancer incidence among employees at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the National Plutonium Workers Study, cancer incidence for 1969 to 1978 among employees of the Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigated. Incident cancers were identified by a computer match of the Los Alamos employed roster against New Mexico Tumor Registry files. The resulting numbers of total and site-specific cancers were compared to the numbers expected based on incidence rates for the State of New Mexico, specific for age, sex, ethnicity, and calendar period. For Anglo males, significantly fewer cancers than expected (SIR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.79) were found. This resulted from marked deficits of smoking-related cancers, particularly lung (2 observed, 19.4 expected) and oral (1 observed, 6.5 expected) cancer. Similarly, no smoking-related cancers were detected among Anglo females, though they had a slight nonsignificant excess of breast cancer (14 observed, 9.1 expected) and a suggestive excess of cancer of the uterine corpus (2 observed, 0.25 expected). The pattern of cancerincidence among Anglo employees is typical of high social class populations and not likely related to the Los Alamos working environment

  18. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  19. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external γ-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr-2 (F=44,5; P=0,007). For 239Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external γ-irradiation or 239Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with γ-irradiation or 239Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  20. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Branch No 1 of State Research Center of Public Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Biophysics Inst.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-05-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external {gamma}-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr{sup -2} (F=44,5; P=0,007). For {sup 239}Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  1. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    diagnosis, control of duplicated cases, as well as code and typing quality. It was notpossible to include the cases obtained on the death certificate. Results: from 2000 to 2004, the Cancer Registry collecteddata on 5,939 new cases (without basal cell carcinoma, equivalent to diagnose 3.3 new cases per day. Every year, 858residents of the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga died by cancer (average of 2,3 cases per day; 57.0% of the casesaffected females (3,365 cases and 43.0% males (2,574 cases, the relation female:male is 1.3:1. The annual crudeincidence rate in male is 107.7/100,000 inhabitants, and in female is 128.2/ 100,000 inhabitants; the age-adjusted incidencerate (TEE it is 162.6 and 146.5 for 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Excluding basal cell carcinoma, the most frequentcancer in males is prostate cancer (TEE 45.9/100,000 inh, followed by stomach cancer (TEE 18.3/100,000 inh and the skinsquamous cell carcinoma (14.7/100,000 hab; among women, the most frequent cancer is breast cancer (TEE 37.3/100,000hab, followed by cervical cancer (TEE 19.9/100,000 hab and colon and rectal cancer (TEE 9.8/100,000 hab. Conclusions:Compared with the GLOBOCAN 2002 data (A project that estimates the incidence, prevalence and mortality of 27 cancertypes for all the countries of the world in the year 2002, the breast cancer in this region is superior to that estimated for thecountry, while the rates on uterine cervix are very inferior to that estimated. The results of the other localizations in general aresimilar to expected.

  2. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  3. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Lemieux, Paul [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hayes, Colin [Eastern Research Group, Inc, Morrisville, NC 26560 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  4. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UwePelzer

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of PC in the German cohort is highly associated with the AB0-system as well. More patients with blood group A suffer from PC (p<0.001 whereas blood group 0 was less frequent in patients with PC (p<0.001. Thus, our findings support the results from other non-German surveys. The causal trigger points of this carcinogenesis correlation are still not known.

  5. Cancer Incidence in Heart Transplant Recipients With Previous Neoplasia History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J F; Alonso-Pulpón, L; Mirabet, S; Almenar, L; Villa, F P; González-Vílchez, F; Palomo, J; Blasco, T; Dolores García-Cosio, M; González-Costello, J; de la Fuente, L; Rábago, G; Lage, E; Pascual, D; Molina, B D; Arizón, J M; Muñiz, J; Crespo-Leiro, M G

    2016-05-01

    Neoplasm history increases morbidity and mortality after solid organ transplantation and has disqualified patients from transplantation. Studies are needed to identify factors to be considered when deciding on the suitability of a patient with previous tumor for heart transplantation. A retrospective epidemiological study was conducted in heart transplant (HT) recipients (Spanish Post-Heart Transplant Tumor Registry) comparing the epidemiological data, immu-nosuppressive treatments and incidence of post-HT tumors between patients with previous malignant noncardiac tumor and with no previous tumor (NPT). The impact of previous tumor (PT) on overall survival (OS) was also assessed. A total of 4561 patients, 77 PT and 4484 NPT, were evaluated. The NPT group had a higher proportion of men than the PT group (p < 0.001). The incidence of post-HT tumors was 1.8 times greater in the PT group (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.6; p < 0.001), mainly due to the increased risk in patients with a previous hematologic tumor (rate ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.0, p < 0.004). OS during the 10-year posttransplant period was significantly lower in the PT than the NPT group (p = 0.048) but similar when the analysis was conducted after a first post-HT tumor was diagnosed. In conclusion, a history of PT increases the incidence of post-HT tumors and should be taken into account when considering a patient for HT. PMID:26613555

  6. Cancer Incidence Among Adolescents and Young Adults (15 to 29 Years) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Nathalie V; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Pinto Oliveira, Julio F; Ferman, Sima; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of cancers commonly found in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) differs from those in children and adults; therefore, the childhood classification is not appropriate for this population. Here we used a newly proposed classification system to reclassify cases of AYAs from Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in 5 geographic regions of Brazil. We aimed to describe the cancer incidence rates within this age group according to PBCR. Using the world population, incidence rates per million were analyzed in each diagnostic subgroup according to sex and age at diagnosis (15 to 19 y, 20 to 24 y, and 25 to 29 y). The median incidence rate was 232.31 per million for females and 218.07 per million for males. Incidence increased with age, with the highest rate observed for 25- to 29-year-olds in both sexes. Carcinomas, lymphomas, and skin tumors were most frequent among AYAs. High incidence rates of cervix-uterus carcinoma were observed in most PBCRs. AYAs present epidemiological characteristics that differ from those of children, reinforcing the need for a new classification. This study describes, for the first time, the cancer incidence rate in AYAs in Brazil, and we believe that our findings represent the Brazilian profile. PMID:26950086

  7. Cancer incidence in Gipuzkoa, Spain (1998-2002), and time trends from 1986 Incidencia del cáncer en Guipúzcoa (1998-2002) y tendencias desde 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Nerea Larrañaga; Cristina Sarasqueta; M. Jesús Michelena

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the cancer incidence in Gipuzkoa (Spain) from 1998 to 2002 and describe time trends since 1986. Methods: The annual incidence of cancer in Gipuzkoa from 1998 to 2002 was estimated as a rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Incidence trends for the period 1986-2002 were studied for all cancers and for the main cancer sites using Poisson regression and Joinpoint regression for prostate tumours. Results: On average, one in 3 men and one in 5 women would probably be diagnosed wit...

  8. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in France: incidence over 1980-2005 and projection to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Karine; Belot, Aurélien; Launoy, Guy; Velten, Michel; Bossard, Nadine; Iwaz, Jean; Righini, Christian Adrien; Delafosse, Patricia; Guizard, Anne-Valérie

    2011-04-01

    Over the 1998-2002 period, some French Départements have been shown to have the world's highest incidence of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in men. The objectives were to describe the changes in UADT cancer incidence in France over the 1980-2005 period, present projections for 2010, and describe the anatomical and histological characteristics of these tumours. The trend of cancer-incidence over 1980-2005 and projection up to 2010 were obtained using age-period-cohort models (data from eleven cancer registries) and incidence/mortality ratios in the area covered by these registries. The description of UADT cancers by anatomical and histological characteristics concerned data collected between 1980 and 2004 in eleven cancer registries. In men, cancer incidence decreased in all cancer sites and the world-standardized incidence rates decreased by 42.9% for lip-oral cavity-pharynx (LOCP) cancers and 50.4% for larynx cancer. In women, the world-standardized incidence rates increased by 48.6% for LOCP cancers and 66.7% for larynx cancer. Incidence increased the most for oropharynx, palate, and hypopharynx cancers. Incidence analysis by one-year cohorts revealed a progressive shift of the incidence peak towards younger and younger generations, with no change as yet in the mean age at diagnosis. In France, the incidence of these cancers is still higher than in other European and North American countries. This urges actions towards reducing the major risk factors for those cancers, namely alcohol and tobacco consumption, especially among young people, and reducing exposure to risk factors due to social inequalities. PMID:21397551

  10. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G

    2004-01-01

    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy. PMID:15697007

  11. [Using Google Trends to estimate the incidence of influenza-like illness in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Pablo Wenceslao; Reynoso, Julieta Itatí; Antman, Julián; Argibay, Osvaldo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find a model to estimate the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) from the Google Trends (GT) related to influenza. ILI surveillance data from 2012 through 2013 were obtained from the National Health Surveillance System, Argentina. Internet search data were downloaded from the GT search engine database using 6 influenza-related queries: flu, fever, cough, sore throat, paracetamol, and ibuprofen. A Poisson regression model was developed to compare surveillance data and internet search trends for the year 2012. The model's results were validated using surveillance data for the year 2013 and results of the Google Flu Trends (GFT) tool. ILI incidence from the surveillance system showed strong correlations with ILI estimates from the GT model (r = 0.927) and from the GFT tool (r = 0.943). However, the GFT tool overestimates (by nearly twofold) the highest ILI incidence, while the GT model underestimates the highest incidence by a factor of 0.7. These results demonstrate the utility of GT to complement influenza surveillance. PMID:25945979

  12. The relationship between cancer incidence, stage and poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscoe, Francis P; Henry, Kevin A; Sherman, Recinda L; Johnson, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    We extend a prior analysis on the relation between poverty and cancer incidence in a sample of 2.90 million cancers diagnosed in 16 US states plus Los Angeles over the 2005-2009 period by additionally considering stage at diagnosis. Recognizing that higher relative disparities are often found among less-common cancer sites, our analysis incorporated both relative and absolute measures of disparities. Fourteen of the 21 cancer sites analyzed were found to have significant variation by stage; in each instance, diagnosis at distant stage was more likely among residents of high-poverty areas. If the incidence rates found in the lowest-poverty areas for these 21 cancer sites were applied to the entire country, 18,000 fewer distant-stage diagnoses per year would be expected, a reduction of 8%. Conversely, 49,000 additional local-stage diagnoses per year would be expected, an increase of 4%. These figures, strongly influenced by the most common sites of prostate and female breast, speak to the trade-offs inherent in cancer screening. Integrating the type of analysis presented here into routine cancer surveillance activities would permit a more complete understanding of the dynamic nature of the relationship between socioeconomic status and cancer incidence. PMID:26991033

  13. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects. PMID:26838238

  14. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M; Juel, K

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  15. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  16. Effects of different phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Johanna; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti; Virkkunen, Hanna; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of separate phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence at different ages. Our database included detailed municipality-specific information about invitations for mass-screening for breast cancer in 267 Finnish municipalities from time period 1987-2001. The age range was 50-74. For this study, the program was divided into 7 separate phases, and those that had not been invited served as a baseline. The incidence rate was modeled using Poisson regression. To study the differences between age groups within each program phase, an interaction term between age group and phase of screening was included in the model. The modeling was done separately for localized breast cancers, nonlocalized breast cancers and all stages combined. For localized cancers, the risk compared to the noninvited increased during the first years of the 2-year screening rounds in all age groups, and declined below the baseline during the second years. This effect was larger during the first round compared to the subsequent ones. In nonlocalized cancers, a clear incidence peak was detected only during the first year of the first round. A decreasing post screening effect was detected in nonlocalized cancers in women aged 60-69, but not in localized cancers. Cumulating over ages 50-74, extra incidence caused by regular screening in localized cancers was 5.2% if the program was continued up to age 59, and 28.0% if it continued up to age 69. Corresponding figures for nonlocalized cancers were decreases of 19.8% and 20.9%, respectively. PMID:16550598

  17. Reproductive patterns and cancer incidence in women: a population-based correlation study in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remennick, L I

    1989-09-01

    Many of the known or suspected risk factors of sex hormone-dependent cancers in women (low parity, delay in childbearing, etc) are typical features of modern reproductive behaviour. Within the USSR regional variations in principal reproductive characteristics and the incidence of breast and cervical cancers have been studied using standard correlation and regression analysis. The associations identified in previous analytical studies are generally present in the overall USSR population. However, the demographic peculiarities of this country (low mean ages at marriage and first birth, high rate of induced abortions, etc) introduce specificity into these relationships. The principal findings are: prevailing influence of parity versus age at first birth on regional variation of breast cancer incidence; consistent association between abortion rates (total, out-of-hospital and in primigravidas) and incidence of both breast and cervical cancers; suggested positive associations of early marriage and first birth with cervical cancer risk. Most of the reproductive variables studied affect the incidence of breast and cervical cancers in opposite ways. PMID:2807650

  18. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. (paper)

  19. Linked versus unlinked hospital discharge data on hip fractures for estimating incidence and comorbidity profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Trang; Day Lesley; Finch Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies comparing internally linked (person–identifying) and unlinked (episodes of care) hospital discharge data (HDD) on hip fractures have mainly focused on incidence overestimation by unlinked HDD, but little is known about the impact of overestimation on patient profiles such as comorbidity estimates. In view of the continuing use of unlinked HDD in hip fracture research and the desire to apply research results to hip fracture prevention, we concurrently assessed the a...

  20. Incidence of Cancer in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weifeng; Ning, Yong; Xu, Xiu; Li, Menglan; Guo, Shuiming; Han, Min; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to examine cancer incidence in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AASV) derived from population-based cohort studies by means of meta-analysis. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched for studies characterizing the associated risk of overall malignancy in patients with AASV. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of association. We tested for publication bias and heterogeneity and stratified for site-specific cancers. Results Six studies (n = 2,578) were eventually identified, of which six provided the SIR for overall malignancy, five reported the SIR for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), four for leukemia, five for bladder cancer, three for lymphoma, three for liver cancer, four for lung cancer, three for kidney cancer, four for prostate cancer, four for colon cancer and four for breast cancer. Overall, the pooled SIR of cancer in AASV patients was 1.74 (95%CI = 1.37–2.21), with moderate heterogeneity among these studies (I2 = 65.8%, P = 0.012). In sub-analyses for site-specific cancers, NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer were more frequently observed in patients with AASV with SIR of 5.18 (95%CI = 3.47–7.73), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.93–8.16) and 3.84 (95%CI = 2.72–5.42) respectively. There was no significant increase in the risk of kidney cancer (SIR = 2.12, 95%CI = 0.66–6.85), prostate cancer (SIR = 1.45, 95%CI = 0.87–2.42), colon cancer (SIR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.70–2.27), and breast cancer (SIR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.50–1.79). Among these site-specific cancers, only NMSC showed moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 55.8%, P = 0.06). No publication bias was found by using the Begg’s test and Egger's test. Conclusions This meta-analysis shows that AASV patients treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYC) are at increased risk of late-occurring malignancies, particularly of the NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer. However, there is no significant

  1. Cancer incidence and survival in Lynch syndrome patients receiving colonoscopic and gynaecological surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentr...

  2. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette;

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence and the......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  3. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  4. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  5. Incidence of Cancer in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Weifeng; Ning, Yong; Xu, Xiu; Li, Menglan; Guo, Shuiming; Han, Min; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to examine cancer incidence in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AASV) derived from population-based cohort studies by means of meta-analysis. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched for studies characterizing the associated risk of overall malignancy in patients with AASV. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of association. We tested for publication bias and heter...

  6. The geographic distribution of breast cancer incidence in Massachusetts 1988 to 1997, adjusted for covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Gershman Susan; Gregorio David I; Kulldorff Martin; DeChello Laurie M; Joseph Sheehan T; Mroszczyk Mary

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine whether observed geographic variations in breast cancer incidence are random or statistically significant, whether statistically significant excesses are temporary or time-persistent, and whether they can be explained by covariates such as socioeconomic status (SES) or urban/rural status? Results A purely spatial analysis found fourteen geographic areas that deviated significantly from randomness: ten with higher incidence rates tha...

  7. Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sohee; Jee, Sun Ha; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Eun Hye; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Cha, Eun Shil; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population. Methods Sex- and cancer-specifi...

  8. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturludóttir, Margrét, E-mail: margret.sturludottir@karolinska.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Martling, Anna, E-mail: anna.martling@ki.se [Center of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Carlsson, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.carlsson@ki.se [Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer.

  9. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer

  10. Cancer incidence and risks in selected agricultural settlements in the Negev of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnon, L; Oryan, I; Kordysh, E; Goldsmith, J; Sobel, R; Friger, M

    1998-01-01

    Medical staff of two Negev kibbutzim invited epidemiologists to help them investigate cancer rates among their members. Our objectives were (a) to determine whether the cancer rate in the kibbutzim was elevated or abnormal and (b) to determine the role of agricultural and other relevant exposures if cancer incidence was elevated. We validated cases of cancer by kibbutz records and by surveying other information; we computed expected values on the basis of the age-sex-calendar period and site-specific cancer incidence rates reported by the Israel Cancer Registry for the entire population; and we compared the data for the 2 kibbutzim with data derived for similar age and sex groups in 2 other kibbutzim, which were assumed not to have increased cancer rates. In addition, we planned and conducted a case-referent study, including the design, pretest, and use of questionnaires, including data about lifetime exposures (i.e., type of work and its duration, agricultural and industrial chemicals, smoking and alcohol use, demographic variables, health experiences, and family history). In only one of the kibbutzim, for which high cancer rates were suspected, was there significant excess for all sites in persons who were less than 40 y of age. In one of the "comparison" kibbutzim, we found increased cancer rates overall. Much of the excess in the high cancer kibbutzim was in hematological cancer (i.e., leukemia and lymphoma). Multiple years of work in fields, orchards, and landscape, as well as orchard work that commenced before 1960, were associated with increased risk of cancer (p orchard work was started and multiple exposures to industrial chemicals was stronger than associations noted in the univariate analyses. Although duration of agricultural work or multiple industrial exposures were clearly associated with increase in cancer risk, we were unable to identify the causal role of specific agent(s). Nonetheless, educational programs for cancer prevention can be based, in

  11. Initial LDCT appearance of incident lung cancers in the ITALUNG trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 85% of screen-detected incident lung cancers show focal abnormalities in prior LDCTs. • These tumors can initially show a non-nodular shape. • Persistent focal pulmonary abnormalities need to be monitored in screening LDCTs. - Abstract: Objectives: To characterize early features of lung cancers detected with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Materials and methods: Two radiologists reviewed prior LDCTs in 20 incident cancers diagnosed at annual repeat screening rounds and 83 benign nodules observed in the ITALUNG trial. Results: No abnormality was observed in 3 cancers. Focal abnormalities in prior LDCT were identified in 17(85%) cancers (14 adenocarcinomas; 14 stage I). Initial abnormalities were intra-pulmonary in 10, subpleural in 4 and perifissural in 3. Average mean diameter was 9 mm (range 4.5–18 mm). Nine exhibited solid, 4 part-solid and 4 non-solid density. The margins were smooth and regular in 5 cases, lobulated in 6, irregular with spiculations in 3 and blurred in 3. Ten (59%) initial focal abnormalities had a round or oval nodular shape, but 7(41%) had a non-nodular complex (n = 5) or “stripe-like” (n = 2) shape. Bronchus sign was observed in 3 cases and association with cystic airspace in 2 cases. Non-solid density, complex or “stripe-like” shape, bronchus sign and association with cystic airspace had a specificity higher than 90%, but positive predictive value of every feature of incident lung cancers was low (range 10.4–50%). Conclusions: The vast majority of cancers diagnosed at annual repeat show corresponding focal lung abnormalities in prior LDCTs. Perifissural location and non-nodular shape do not exclude the possibility of early lung cancer. Since specificity of the early features of incident lung cancer is incomplete and their positive predictive value is low, all focal pulmonary abnormalities detected in screened subjects should be re-evaluated in subsequent LDCTs

  12. Initial LDCT appearance of incident lung cancers in the ITALUNG trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascalchi, Mario, E-mail: m.mascalchi@dfc.unifi.it [Quantitative and Functional Radiology Research Programs at Meyer Children Hospital and Careggi Hospital of Florence, Florence (Italy); “Mario Serio” Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Picozzi, Giulia [Institute for Oncological Study and Prevention, Florence (Italy); Falchini, Massimo [“Mario Serio” Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Vella, Alessandra [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Le Scotte University Hospital, Siena (Italy); Diciotti, Stefano [Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi”, University of Bologna, Cesena (Italy); Carrozzi, Laura [Cardiopulmonary Department University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Pegna, Andrea Lopes [Pneumonology Department, Careggi Hospital, Florence (Italy); Falaschi, Fabio [2nd RadiologyUnit Cisanello University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • 85% of screen-detected incident lung cancers show focal abnormalities in prior LDCTs. • These tumors can initially show a non-nodular shape. • Persistent focal pulmonary abnormalities need to be monitored in screening LDCTs. - Abstract: Objectives: To characterize early features of lung cancers detected with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Materials and methods: Two radiologists reviewed prior LDCTs in 20 incident cancers diagnosed at annual repeat screening rounds and 83 benign nodules observed in the ITALUNG trial. Results: No abnormality was observed in 3 cancers. Focal abnormalities in prior LDCT were identified in 17(85%) cancers (14 adenocarcinomas; 14 stage I). Initial abnormalities were intra-pulmonary in 10, subpleural in 4 and perifissural in 3. Average mean diameter was 9 mm (range 4.5–18 mm). Nine exhibited solid, 4 part-solid and 4 non-solid density. The margins were smooth and regular in 5 cases, lobulated in 6, irregular with spiculations in 3 and blurred in 3. Ten (59%) initial focal abnormalities had a round or oval nodular shape, but 7(41%) had a non-nodular complex (n = 5) or “stripe-like” (n = 2) shape. Bronchus sign was observed in 3 cases and association with cystic airspace in 2 cases. Non-solid density, complex or “stripe-like” shape, bronchus sign and association with cystic airspace had a specificity higher than 90%, but positive predictive value of every feature of incident lung cancers was low (range 10.4–50%). Conclusions: The vast majority of cancers diagnosed at annual repeat show corresponding focal lung abnormalities in prior LDCTs. Perifissural location and non-nodular shape do not exclude the possibility of early lung cancer. Since specificity of the early features of incident lung cancer is incomplete and their positive predictive value is low, all focal pulmonary abnormalities detected in screened subjects should be re-evaluated in subsequent LDCTs.

  13. Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of California, 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Ratnali V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although South Asians (SA form a large majority of the Asian population of U.S., very little is known about cancer in this immigrant population. SAs comprise people having origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We calculated age-adjusted incidence and time trends of cancer in the SA population of California (state with the largest concentration of SAs between 1988–2000 and compared these rates to rates in native Asian Indians as well as to those experienced by the Asian/Pacific Islander (API and White, non-Hispanic population (NHW population of California. Methods Age adjusted incidence rates observed among the SA population of California during the time period 1988–2000 were calculated. To correctly identify the ethnicity of cancer cases, 'Nam Pehchan' (British developed software was used to identify numerator cases of SA origin from the population-based cancer registry in California (CCR. Denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incidence rates in SAs were calculated and a time trend analysis was also performed. Comparison data on the API and the NHW population of California were also obtained from CCR and rates from Globocan 2002 were used to determine rates in India. Results Between 1988–2000, 5192 cancers were diagnosed in SAs of California. Compared to rates in native Asian Indians, rates of cancer in SAs in California were higher for all sites except oropharyngeal, oesophageal and cervical cancers. Compared to APIs of California, SA population experienced more cancers of oesophagus, gall bladder, prostate, breast, ovary and uterus, as well as lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myelomas. Compared to NHW population of California, SAs experienced more cancers of the stomach, liver and bile duct, gall bladder, cervix and multiple myelomas. Significantly increasing time trends were observed in colon and breast cancer incidence. Conclusion SA population of California experiences

  14. Breast cancer in kurdish women of northern Iraq: incidence, clinical stage, and case control analysis of parity and family risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Banaz M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in the Middle-East occurs in relatively young women and frequently presents as advanced disease. A protective effect of multiparity is not apparent, and high familial risk is reported in some countries. This study investigates breast cancer rates and clinical stage related to age in the Kurdish region of Iraq and evaluates risk associated with parity and family history. Findings are compared with nearby countries and the West. Methods Sulaimaniyah Directorate of Health records identified 539 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2006-2008. Clinical survey forms were completed on 296 patients and on 254 age-matched controls. Age specific incidence rates were calculated from Directorate of Health population estimates. Results Average patient age was 47.4 ± 11 years and 59.5% were pre-menopausal. Diagnosis was at clinical stage 1 for 4.1%, stage 2 for 43.5%, stage 3 for 26.0%, and stage 4 for 8.1% of patients. For 18.2%, stage was unknown. Annual breast cancer incidence rates per 100,000 women peaked at 168.9 at age 55 to 59 and declined to 57.3 at 60 and above. Patients had an average of 5.0 ± 3.3 children compared to 5.4 ± 3.5 for controls, P = 0.16. A first degree family member had breast cancer among 11.1% of patients and 2.1% of controls (P 50% of these patients and controls being ≥50 years old. No statistically significant relationship was found between tumor stage and age, P = 0.59. Conclusions In Kurdish Iraq, breast cancer is predominantly a disease of pre-menopausal women having multiple pregnancies. For younger patients, breast cancer incidence was similar to the West and possibly higher than many Middle-Eastern countries, but unlike the West, the estimated rates declined markedly in the elderly. The familial breast cancer risk for both older and younger women was within the general population risk of Western countries. Clinical stages were advanced and indicated delays in diagnosis that were

  15. Incidence of invasive cancers following carcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, F; Randimbison, L.; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix uteri, notified to the population-based Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud between 1974 and 1993, were actively followed up to 31 December 1993 for the occurrence of subsequent invasive neoplasms. Among 2190 incident cases of CIS, followed for a total of 22,225 person-years, 95 metachronous cancers were observed vs 77.9 expected, corresponding to a significant standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.2. Ten cases of invasive cervical ca...

  16. Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers: extended follow up

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, L; Mikoczy, Z; Hagmar, L; Edling, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers. An increased incidence of cancer of the stomach, the kidney and the nervous system in this cohort was previously reported. This new analysis reports on 9 more years of follow up. METHODS: The study is an analysis of a cohort of all 711 employees at 17 Swedish sewage plants employed for at least for 1 year during the years 1965-86. Assessment of exposures was performed by classification of work tasks. Standa...

  17. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis co-detection in young asymptomatic women from high incidence area for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaminutti, Serena; Seraceni, Silva; De Seta, Francesco; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Comar, Manola

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causing chronic inflammatory diseases has investigated as possible human papillomavirus (HPV) cofactor in cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in different cohorts of asymptomatic women from a Northern Italy area at high incidence for cervical cancer. Cervical samples from 441 females were collected from Cervical Cancer Screening Program, Sexually Transmitted Infectious and Assisted Reproductive Technology centres. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected simultaneously and genotyped using a highly sensitive bead based assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was estimated 9.7%, in contrast with the reported national data of 2.3%, and co-infection with HPV was diagnosed in the 17% of the samples. In females ≤ 25 years of age, the infection reached a peak of 22% and co-infection with HPV of 45.8% (P technique exhibited higher analytical sensitivity than the referred assays for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in asymptomatic females, leading to reduction of the potential to identify incorrectly the infection status. An active screening for timely treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is suggested in young females to evaluate a possible decrease in incidence of pre-cancer intraepithelial lesions. PMID:25132162

  18. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected; cancer of the brain was found to be significantly higher than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with human insulin: a cohort study in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR. The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639 and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135. The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR of cancer and mortality. RESULTS: We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89-1.62, P = 0.228. Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12-7.17, P = 0.028. The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47-2.43, P<0.0001 and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39-3.35, P = 0.001 were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users. CONCLUSION: There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results.

  20. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Human Insulin: A Cohort Study in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Hou, Xuhong; Mo, Yifei; Yu, Weihui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Cheng; Nan, Hairong; Chen, Lei; Li, Jie; Liu, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhezhou; Han, Ming; Bao, Yuqian; Zhong, Weijian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR). The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639) and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135). The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of cancer and mortality. Results We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89–1.62, P = 0.228). Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12–7.17, P = 0.028). The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47–2.43, P<0.0001) and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39–3.35, P = 0.001) were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users. Conclusion There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results. PMID:23308218

  1. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R;

    2011-01-01

    -2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further......Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we......-60) for birth cohorts 1979-81, 1982-83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189-272) million, 202 (170-240) and 165 (132-207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14-23) million, 15 (12-19) and 11 (8-15). Men aged 10-59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954...

  2. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassutto, Caterina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011-2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered "new" after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15-50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  3. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011–2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered “new” after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15–50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  4. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Hans-Georg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects concerning the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes are incompletely understood including the magnitude of the risk estimate, potential gender differences in the associations between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, the associations between the components of the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, and whether the metabolic syndrome provides additional prediction beyond its components. To shed light on these issues, we examined the prospective association between the metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP and International Diabetes Federation (IDF and diabetes. Methods We used data for 2796 men and women aged 35–65 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study followed for an average of 6.9 years. This analysis employed a case-cohort design that included 697 participants who developed diabetes and 2099 participants who did not. Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of self-reports and verified by contacting the patient's attending physician. Results The adjusted hazard ratio for the NCEP definition was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.90–5.48 and that for the IDF definition was 4.59 (95% CI: 3.84–5.50. The adjusted hazard ratios for the NCEP but not IDF definition were higher for women than men. When participants who had no cardiometabolic abnormalities were used as the reference group for the NCEP definition, the adjusted hazard ratio for having 3 or more abnormalities increased to 22.50 (95% CI: 11.21–45.19. Of the five components, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia were most strongly associated with incident diabetes. Conclusion In this study population, both definitions of the metabolic syndrome provided similar estimates of relative risk for incident diabetes. The increase in risk for participants with the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP

  5. CALIBRATION OF FULL-WAVEFORM ALS DATA BASED ON ROBUST INCIDENCE ANGLE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Abed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform airborne laser scanning data has shown its potential to enhance available segmentation and classification approaches through the additional information it can provide. However, this additional information is unable to directly provide a valid physical representation of surface features due to many variables affecting the backscattered energy during travel between the sensor and the target. Effectively, this delivers a mis-match between signals from overlapping flightlines. Therefore direct use of this information is not recommended without the adoption of a comprehensive radiometric calibration strategy that accounts for all these effects. This paper presents a practical and reliable radiometric calibration routine by accounting for all the variables affecting the backscattered energy, including the essential factor of angle of incidence. A new robust incidence angle estimation approach has been developed which has proven capable of delivering a reliable estimation for the scattering direction of the individual echoes. The routine was tested and validated both visually and statistically over various land cover types with simple and challenging surface trends. This proved the validity of this approach to deliver the optimal match between overlapping flightlines after calibration, particularly by adopting a parameter which accounts for the angle of incidence effect.

  6. A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kanis, J A; McCloskey, E V; Powles, T; Paterson, A.H.G.; Ashley, S; Spector, T.

    1999-01-01

    Because treatment for breast cancer may adversely affect skeletal metabolism, we investigated vertebral fracture risk in women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The prevalence of vertebral fracture was similar in women at the time of first diagnosis to that in an age-matched sample of the general population. The incidence of vertebral fracture, however, was nearly five times greater than normal in women from the time of first diagnosis [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI),...

  7. Public domain small-area cancer incidence data for New York State, 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Boscoe, Francis P.; Talbot, Thomas O.; Martin Kulldorff

    2016-01-01

    There has long been a demand for cancer incidence data at a fine geographic resolution for use in etiologic hypothesis generation and testing, methodological evaluation and teaching. In this paper we describe a public domain dataset containing data for 23 anatomic sites of cancer diagnosed in New York State, USA between 2005 and 2009 at the census block group level. The dataset includes 524,503 tumours distributed across 13,823 block groups with an average population of about 1400. In additio...

  8. Cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcome in registered nurses potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Le Nhu D; Teschke Kay; Chow Yat; Lorenzi Maria; Beking Kris; Spinelli John J; Ratner Pamela A; Gallagher Richard P; Dimich-Ward Helen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the relationships of potential occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs with cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a historical prospective cohort study of female registered nurses (RNs) from British Columbia, Canada (BC). Methods Female RNs registered with a professional regulatory body for at least one year between 1974 and 2000 formed the cohort (n = 56,213). The identifier file was linked to Canadian cancer registries. An RN offspring coh...

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in Relation to Female Reproductive Factors: Iowa Women's Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Prizment

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Motivated by inconsistent literature, we evaluated the association between incident pancreatic cancer and reproductive characteristics. Design The Iowa Women’s Health Study is a large prospective population-based cohort followed from 1986 to 2003. Reproductive information was self-reported. Participants The study population comprised 37,459 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Over 18 years, 228 incident pancreatic cancers were identified. Results In a multivariate-adjusted model there were no associations between incident pancreatic cancer and age at first birth, number of births, age at menarche, or use of hormones. There was a statistically significant inverse association between age at menopause and pancreatic cancer incidence. Compared to menopause less than 45 years, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.40-0.94 for menopause at 45-49 years, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.51-1.09 for 50-54 years, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.18-0.68 for menopause at 55 years or more (P trend=0.005. This association held after restricting the cohort to never smokers. The associations between pancreatic cancer and ages at natural and surgical menopause followed similar patterns. In a parallel fashion, risk of pancreatic cancer was decreased for women with intact ovaries compared to those who had oophorectomy: hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.50-0.99. Conclusions Our results indicate that older age at menopause is associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk, but further research is warranted.

  10. Study of Incidence of Lymphedema in Indian Patients Undergoing Axillary Dissection for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Pramod R.; Sharma, Shekhar; Ahmed, Sheikh Zahoor; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema of the upper extremity, in addition to being unsightly, can be painful, can limit the arm movements, increases the risk of infection and is psychologically distressing, serving as a constant reminder of cancer. 1. To ascertain the incidence of lymphedema in a hospital based population (in patients undergoing axillary dissection for breast cancer. 2. To determine the clinico-epidemilogical factors associated with the occurrence of lymphedema in these patients. For all patients under...

  11. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins Charles L; Hilton Sterling C; Merrill Ray M; Sturgeon Jared D

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Methods Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through...

  12. A prospective study of gynecological cancer risk in relation to adiposity factors: cumulative incidence and association with plasma adipokine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Maan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors with uterine corpus cancer (UCC and ovarian cancer (OVC risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. METHODS: Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30-65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP study during 1991-1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs. Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government's National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. FINDINGS: There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95%  = 4.83-53.00, high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28-5.17, and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95%  = 1.08-3.38 were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2, HR = 2.90, 95%  = 1.30-6.46 was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. CONCLUSION: We provided evidence

  13. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  14. A Spanish multicenter study to estimate the prevalence and incidence of chronic pancreatitis and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: No nation-wide epidemiological study on the incidence and prevalence of chronic pancreatitis (CP had been thus far carried out in Spain. Our goal is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CP, as well as to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic criteria used in Spanish pancreas units. Methods: An observarional, descriptive study of hospital pancreas units in Spain. CP-related epidemiology, etiology, manifestations, diagnostic tests, functional complications, and treatments were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Overall results were estimated by weighting cases in each site. Results: Information was collected from six pancreas units with a sample frame of 1,900,751 inhabitants. Overall prevalence was 49.3 cases per 10(5 population (95 % CI, 46 to 52 and incidence was 5.5 cases per 10(5 inhabitant-years (95 % CI, 5.4 to 5.6. Most common etiologies included tobacco and alcoholism, which were associated with three in every four cases. The most prevalent symptoms were recurring pain (48.8 % and chronic abdominal pain (30.6 %. The most widely used diagnostic method was echoendoscopy (79.8 %, CT (computerized tomography (58.7 %, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging/MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (55.9 %. Most prevalent morphologic findings included calcifications (35 % and pseudocysts (27 %. Exocrine (38.8 % and endocrine (35.2 % pancreatic insufficiency had both a similar frequency. Treatments used were rather heterogeneous among sites, with enzyme replacement therapy (40.7 % and insulin (30.9 % being most commonly used. Conclusions: Pancreas units amass a significant number of both prevalent and incident CP cases. Patients seen in these units share a similar typology, and differences between units are greater regarding diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  15. An open cohort study of bone metastasis incidence following surgery in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help design clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy for breast cancer, the temporal incidence of bone metastasis was investigated in a cohort of patients. We have tried to draw the criteria to use adjuvant bisphosphonate. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 (5459 patients were followed up regarding bone metastasis until December 2006. Patients' characteristics at the time of surgery were analyzed by Cox's method, with bone metastasis as events. Patient groups were assigned according to Cox's analysis, and were judged either to require the adjuvant bisphosphonate or not, using the tentative criteria: high risk (>3% person-year, medium risk (1-3%, and low risk ( Results Bone metastasis incidence was constant between 1.0 and 2.8% per person-year more than 10 years. Non-invasive cancer was associated with a very low incidence of bone metastasis (1/436. Multivariate Cox's analysis indicated important factors for bone metastasis were tumor grade (T, nodal grade (pN, and histology. Because T and pN were important factors for bone metastasis prediction, subgroups were made by pTNM stage. Patients at stages IIIA, IIIB and IV had an incidence of >3% per person-year, patients with stage I Conclusions Bone metastasis incidence remained constant for many years. Using pN, T, and histopathology, patients could be classified into high, medium, and low risk groups.

  16. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing

  17. A Novel Approach for Analysis of the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.

  18. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Brands, Marieke T; Geurts, Sandra M E; Merkx, Matthias A W; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2016-08-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage and treatment. Patient (age, sex), tumour (subsite, stage) and treatment characteristics of patients diagnosed with OCC (ICD-O-3: C02-C06) in 1991-2010 were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival rates over time are presented, as well as trends in type of treatment. The incidence of OCC increased with +1.2% (95%CI: +0.9%;+1.6%) per year: more strongly in women, stage I and IV disease, and in cancers of the tongue and gum. The mortality rate slightly rose (+0.8%, 95%CI: +0.3%;+1.3% per year), but differed by subsite. The 5-year relative survival improved from 57% in 1991-1995 to 62% in 2006-2010. The 5-year relative survival was better for women compared with men (64% and 55%, respectively), decreased with increasing stage, was the best for tongue cancer (63%) and the worst for cancer of the gum (56%) and floor of mouth cancer (55%). The relative excess risk of dying was higher for non-surgery-based treatments. Surgery was the main treatment option and the proportion of "surgery only" rose in stage I and III disease. The incidence and, to a lesser extent, mortality of OCC are increasing and therefore, even with slightly improving survival rates, OCC is an increasingly important health problem. PMID:27038013

  19. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggins Charles L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons, who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Methods Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. Results LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26% – 36% higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985–88, 20% in 1989–92, 15% in 1993–1996, and 13% in 1997–99; age (13% in ages 50–59, 48% in ages 60–69, 28% in ages 70–79, and 16% in ages 80 and older; and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged. An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Conclusions Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  20. The breast cancer incidence risk among females and a hazards in the microenvironments of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the earlier examinations on the Silesia voivodeship territory was found ultimately that in the districts with greatest development of industry the incidence of breast cancer was significantly greater in native females (stationary population than in immigrants (no stationary population, which suggests that there is a harmful influence of industrial pollutants in the female population (a longer time living in such conditions. It is possible that various chemical compounds especially from industrial-communal emissions and in the place of work – in the atmosphere contribute to a rise in the incidence of breast cancer in females as well. Material and methods. In analyse case-control type two women populations, i.e. natives – 540 cases with a breast cancer and 687 cases of control (women born within Silesia voivodeship, and immigrants – 319 cases of ills for breast cancer and 446 not-ills (all ones born outside Silesia voivodeship – were examinated. Anywhere in this case checking thesis whether character and long-time of hazards in microenvironment of work is significant in a risk of breast cancer. Results. The females that manually working without hazards in the place of work were characterized a bigger breast cancer risk – independently from place of birth (natives, immigrants, age group (30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 60 and total age and the endemic areas about statistically significantly high or low incidence and mortality (tab. II, III. It can not distinguished in this study no bigger females group with any characteristic impurities in the place of work comparatively suffering groups to controls ones. Conclusions. In this study the occupational risk factors are small significant mark in the incidence for female breast cancer.

  1. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

  2. Combined effect of ionizing radiation and other risk factors on the incidence of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on combined effect of ionizing radiation (the number of roentgenoscopies and integral absorbed dose) and other risk factors (age, observation period etc) on the incidence of breast cancer (BC). It is shown that the relative BC risk, related with radiation, is affected by woman age during exposure

  3. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 106 J.m-3 (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author)

  4. Incidence and types of complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary microvascular free flap reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N. Lodders; S. Parmar; N.L.M. Stienen; T.J. Martin; K.H. Karagozoglu; M.W. Heymans; B. Nandra; T. Forouzanfar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Desired data was retrieved

  5. Skin cancer incidence is highly associated with ultraviolet-B radiation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Feng, Rui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the increased amount of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure due to ozone depletion has been found to be associated with increased incidence of skin cancer across the world. The quantification of individual, regional, and historical UV exposure directly affects establishment of the association between skin cancer and UV exposure, but accurate assessment and measurement have been challenging for decades. As a sequence, cumulative studies using different metrics reported conflicting results on whether UV radiation, including sunburns, early childhood sun exposure, and chronic exposure, increases melanoma risk. This paper aims to establish the relationship between UV-B and melanoma incidence across the continental U.S. using an ecological approach that incorporate more accurate UV-B exposure measured by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration Nimbus-7 total ozone mapping spectrometer, and the United State Department of Agriculture ground-based network. Using statistical linear mixed models, we found strong positive associations between the skin cancer and the past UV exposure or the past cumulative 3-year UV exposure 3 or 4 years ago. UV has regional distributions and its regional effects on the skin cancer incidence are still significant after adjusting the effect of UV exposure. Research findings yield deepened understanding of spatiotemporal distribution of melanoma incidence rates and a greater appreciation for the complexity and heterogeneity of melanoma risk factors especially the UV-B exposure at different temporal and spatial scales. PMID:20619731

  6. Incidence of cardiac deaths after irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors ascertained the cause of death of 1489 women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer from 1959 through 1972. Postmastectomy irradiation, using parasternal portals which treated some heart, was given to 916 of these patients. The usual dose of raction was 45 Gray (4500 rad) in three weeks, a dose previously considered safe. Analysis by lifetable and Cox proportional hazard methods showed an excess of cardiac deaths in the irradiated women (logrank P = .02) even after controlling for age, hospital, calendar year, number of axillary lymph nodes involved, abnormal electrocardiogram, and prior history of heart disease. The excess deaths only occurred more than ten years after irradiation and only in women under age 70 at the time of mastectomy. Limiting analysis to patients age 40 and 69 years at the time of mastectomy, the authors observed that the hazard ratio for cardiac death was 2.24 (90% confidence interval 1.40 to 3.61) for right sided irradiation and 1.95 (90% confidence interval 1.87 to 4.66) for left sided irradiation. They conclude that irradiation of the heart, in doses previously considered safe, predisposes to cardiac death more than ten years later

  7. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization in patients with breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-jing HE; Li, Mi; CHEN Jing; Jin-chong DUAN; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in patients with breast cancer after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with vecuronium. Methods  Two hundred and fifty-seven female patients with breast cancer undergoing breast-cancer surgery were enrolled into the present study. Anesthesia was induced with target-controlled infusion of propofol (Cp 3-4μg/ml) and remifentanil (2-3 ng/ml). A bolus of vecuronium 0.1mg/ kg was administered int...

  8. Is nelfinavir exposure associated with cancer incidence in HIV-positive individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boettiger, David C; Sabin, Caroline A; Grulich, Andrew; Ryom, Lene; Bonnet, Fabrice; Reiss, Peter; Monforte, Antonella d'arminio; Kirk, Ole; Phillips, Andrew; Bower, Mark; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lundgren, Jens D; Law, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nelfinavir exhibits potent anti-cancer properties against a range of tumours. However, in 2006/07, nelfinavir supplies were accidently contaminated with a carcinogen. This analysis investigated the association between nelfinavir use and cancer risk in HIV-positive persons. DESIGN...... 1/Jul/2006-30/Jun/2007 compared to those receiving other treatment over this period was 1.07 (95%CI 0.78-1.46, p = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir use was not associated with a lower cancer incidence than other protease inhibitor regimens. As of Feb/2014, exposure to the 2006/07 contamination of...

  9. Cancer trends in Kashmir; common types, site incidence and demographic profiles: National Cancer Registry 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An assessment of cancer incidence in population is required for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and resource allocation. This will also guide in the formation of facilities for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up for these patients. The demographic trend of cancer will help to identify common types and etiological factors. Efforts at clinical, research and administrative levels are needed to overcome this problem. Settings and Design: Present retro prospective study was conducted in regional cancer center of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: After permission from ethics committee, a retro prospective study of 1 year duration was undertaken to study the profile of cancer patients and to compare it with other cancer registries in India. Statistical Analysis: Pearson′s Chi-square test and simple linear regression were used. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version-16 (University of Bristol information services (www.bristol.ac.uk/is/learning/resources was used. RESULTS: The overall incidence of cancer in Kashmir is on the increase and common sites of cancer are esophagus and gastroesophageal (GE junction, lung, stomach, colorectal, lymphomas, skin, laryngopharynx, acute leukemias, prostate and brain in males.In females common sites are breast, esophagus and GE junction, ovary, colorectal, stomach, lung, gallbladder, lymphomas, acute leukemias and brain. Conclusion: Cancers of esophagus, stomach and lungs have a high incidence both in men and women in Kashmir. Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to these cancers may improve our understanding of risk factors held responsible for causation of these malignancies in this region. This will help in the allocation of available resources for prevention and treatment strategies.

  10. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  11. Cancer Incidence in Golestan Province : Report of an Ongoing Population-based Cancer Registry in Iran between 2004 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Sadjadi, Alireza; Aarabi, Mohsen; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Sedaghat, Seyed Mehdi; Nouraie, Seyed Mehdi; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Golestan Province, at the western end of the Asian esophageal cancer (EC) belt in northeastern Iran, was reported to have one of the highest worldwide rates of EC in the 1970s. We have previously shown a declining incidence of EC in Golestan during the last decades. This study reports ad

  12. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuen-Seng

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269 in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in

  13. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Spatial Assessment of Cancer Incidences and the Risks of Industrial Wastewater Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingru Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth and social transitions have deteriorated environmental conditions and caused further public health issues in last three decades. This study examines the complex mechanisms of how socioeconomic transitions and physical environmental conditions impact public health, especially with respect to increasing cancer incidences in mainland China from a spatial-temporal perspective. Specifically, (1 spatial variations of seven types of cancer incidences were analyzed in relation to heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater at the prefecture-level city scale from 2004 to 2009. Additionally; (2 spatial statistical methods were employed to explore the associations between health outcome, heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, as well as socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and physical environmental factors (hydrology and vegetation coverage. Results showed a significant increase of cancer incidences between 2004 and 2009. Consistent with the spatial pattern of heavy metal emissions, cancer patient clusters were identified in both traditional industrial bases and newly industrialized economic zones, especially in major cities located at downstream watersheds, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan. The results also revealed the double-edged effects of industrialization, economic growth, and urbanization on natural environment and human health. The findings provide informative knowledge of heavy metal pollution and cancer outbreaks in China and therefore offer valuable reference for authorities formulating regulations.

  15. Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the women’s health initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Chen, Chu; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Tinker, Lesley F.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Hou, Lifang; LaMonte, Michael J.; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women’s Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1.13; p < 0.001) and of several site-specific cancers (HR, 1.2–1.4, and up to over twofold). Diabetes was also associated with higher risk of death from cancer (HR, 1.46; p < 0.001). There was no overall difference in cancer incidence by diabetes therapy (p = 0.66). However, there was a lower risk of death from cancer for metformin users, compared to users of other medications, relative to women without diabetes, overall (HRs, 1.08 vs. 1.45; p = 0.007) and for breast cancer (HRs, 0.50 vs. 1.29; p = 0.05). Results also suggested that lower cancer risk associated with metformin may be evident only for a longer duration of use in certain cancer sites or subgroup populations. We provide further evidence that postmenopausal women with diabetes are at higher risk of invasive cancer and cancer death. Metformin users, particularly long-term users, may be at lower risk of developing certain cancers and dying from cancer, compared to users of other anti-diabetes medications. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effect of metformin in cancer risk and survival from cancer. PMID:26616262

  16. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  17. Modeling of influential predictors of gastric cancer incidence rates in Golestan province, North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnampour, Nasser; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Zayeri, Farid; Semnani, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Golestan province has a reputation for relatively high incidence rates of gastric cancer in Iran. Along with dietary, lifestyle and environmental influential factors, soil selenium and high levels of pesticide used may exert influence in this region. The present study was designed for modeling the influential predictors on incidence of gastric cancer in Golestan. All registered cases of gastric cancer from March 2009 to March 2010 (49 females and 107 males) were investigated. Data were gathered by both check list and researcher made questionnaire (demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics) and analysed using logistic regression. Mean (±SD) age at diagnosis was 62.9±13.8 years. CIR and ASR of gastric cancer showed 9.16 and 13.9 per 100,000 people, respectively. Based on univariate logistic regression, a history of smoking (OR= 2.076), unwashed hands after defecation (OR= 2.612), history of cancer in relatives (OR= 2.473), history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives (OR= 2.278), numbers of gastric cancers in first-degree relatives (OR= 2.078), history of X-ray and dye exposure (OR= 2.395), history of CT scan encounter (OR= 2.915), improper food habits (OR= 3.320), specific eating behavior (OR= 0.740), consumption of probable high risk foods (OR= 2.942), charred flesh (OR= 1.945), and animal fat (OR= 2.716) were confirmed as a risk factors. Changes in lifestyle may be expected to increase gastric cancer incidence dramatically in the near future. Therefore, appropriate educational interventions should be designed and implemented by competent authorities. PMID:24606427

  18. Fruit and vegetable intakes and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenomas in the PLCO cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Cantwell, Marie M; Kitahara, Cari M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2016-04-15

    The roles of fruits and vegetables in colorectal cancer development are unclear. Few prospective studies have assessed the association with adenoma, a known precursor to colorectal cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer development by evaluating the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer. Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Fruit and vegetable intake was measured using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. Total fruit and vegetable intake was not associated with reduced incident or recurrent adenoma risk overall, but a protective association was observed for multiple adenomas (Odds ratio 3rd tertile vs. 1st tertile  = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38, 1.00). Higher fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with a borderline reduced risk of colorectal cancer (Hazard ratio (HR) 3rd tertile vs. 1st tertile  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.01), which reached significance amongst individuals with high processed meat intakes (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.99). Our results suggest that increased fruit and vegetable intake may protect against multiple adenoma development and may reduce the detrimental effects of high processed meat intakes on colorectal cancer risk. PMID:26559156

  19. Increased incidence of penile cancer and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark 1978-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Munk, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the trends in incidence of penile cancer during 1978-2008 and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN2/3) during 1998-2008 in Denmark.......To assess the trends in incidence of penile cancer during 1978-2008 and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN2/3) during 1998-2008 in Denmark....

  20. Cancer incidence in the Republic of Mauritius- 5 Years Review 1997 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. P Burhoo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available 6484 new cases of cancer have been registered in Mauritius during 1997-2001 corresponding to Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASR world of 99.9 per 100,000 in men and 121.1 per 100,000 in women. The commonest sites of cancer in men were colo-rectal cancer (9.5% followed closely by oral cavity & pharynx (9.4% and prostate (8.8%. In women breast cancer was, by far, the main site (28%, ASR 31.7 ahead of cervical cancer (11.7% and colorectal (5.7% and leukaemias (4.7%. Comparisons with figures from neighboring countries show much lower rates in Mauritius for both sexes.

  1. Prospective Study of Breast Cancer Incidence in Women With a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation Under Surveillance With and Without Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ellen; Hill, Kimberley; Causer, Petrina; Plewes, Donald; Jong, Roberta; Yaffe, Martin; Foulkes, William D.; Ghadirian, Parviz; Lynch, Henry; Couch, Fergus; Wong, John; Wright, Frances; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer screening exceeds that of mammography. If MRI screening reduces mortality in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, it is expected that the incidence of advanced-stage breast cancers should be reduced in women undergoing MRI screening compared with those undergoing conventional screening. Patients and Methods We followed 1,275 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation for a mean of 3.2 years. In total, 445 women were enrolled in an MRI screening trial in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and 830 were in the comparison group. The cumulative incidences of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), early-stage, and late-stage breast cancers were estimated at 6 years in the cohorts. Results There were 41 cases of breast cancer in the MRI-screened cohort (9.2%) and 76 cases in the comparison group (9.2%). The cumulative incidence of DCIS or stage I breast cancer at 6 years was 13.8% (95% CI, 9.1% to 18.5%) in the MRI-screened cohort and 7.2% (95% CI, 4.5% to 9.9%) in the comparison group (P = .01). The cumulative incidence of stages II to IV breast cancers was 1.9% (95% CI, 0.2% to 3.7%) in the MRI-screened cohort and 6.6% (95% CI, 3.8% to 9.3%) in the comparison group (P = .02). The adjusted hazard ratio for the development of stages II to IV breast cancer associated with MRI screening was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.72; P = .008). Conclusion Annual surveillance with MRI is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. PMID:21444874

  2. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L. E.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/micrometer), 1 MeV alpha-particles (LET=100 keV/micrometer), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/micrometer) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 micrometer(2). Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10(-2)% (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10(-3)%-0. 514x10(-2)%). For alpha-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence

  3. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Hirko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads for 2009–2015. Results. From 1999 to 2008, the AAPC in breast cancer incidence rates in Gharbiah significantly increased among women 50 years and older and among localized tumors (AAPC %, 95% CI, 3.1% to 8.0%. Our results predict a significant increase in breast cancer caseloads from 2009 to 2015 among women aged 30–39 (AAPC %, 95% CI, 0.9% to 1.1% and among women aged 40–49 years (AAPC %, 95% CI, 1.0% to 2.6%. Conclusion. These results have important implications for allocating limited resources, managing treatment needs, and exploring the consequences of prior interventions and/or changing risk factors in Egypt and other developing countries at the same stages of demographic and health transitions.

  4. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Ardabil: Report of an Ongoing Population-Based Cancer Registry in Iran, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Ardabil cancer registry is the first population-based cancer registry in Iran that was established in 2000. The first report from this registry revealed that Ardabil has one of the highest rate of gastric cardia cancer and the lowest rate of cer­vical cancer in the world. We aim to update the cancer incidence in this area by the second follow up report from this registry."nMethod: Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases between 2004 and 2006 were actively collected. CanReg4 software was used for data entry and the data of cancer-related death were obtained from the comprehensive death registry system."nResults: More than 4300 new cases were registered during 3 years. Diagnosis of cancer was based on histopathology in 69%, clinical investigation 8%, clinical only 5%, and Death Certificate Only (DCO in 18% of cases. In terms of age-stan­dardized rate (/100,000, the five leading cancers in men (excluding skin cancer were stomach (51.8, esophagus (19.5, blad­der (13.1, lung and bronchus (10.8, and colorectal (9.6; in women, they were stomach (24.9, esophagus (19.7, breast (11.9, colon and rectum (7.4, and brain tumors (6.9. According to death registration data, upper gastrointestinal can­cers constituted more than 43% of cancer-related death in Ardabil."nConclusions: The ASR for gastric cancer is among the highest rate for this cancer in male and female in the world. Most of the cancers, especially in female, have a significant increase compared to previous report from Ardabil. This is most likely due to the change in the registration practice.  

  5. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort...

  6. Estimating and comparing incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases by combining GP registry data: the role of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen Catharina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of disease incidence and prevalence are core indicators of public health. The manner in which these indicators stand out against each other provide guidance as to which diseases are most common and what health problems deserve priority. Our aim was to investigate how routinely collected data from different general practitioner registration networks (GPRNs can be combined to estimate incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases and to explore the role of uncertainty when comparing diseases. Methods Incidence and prevalence counts, specified by gender and age, of 18 chronic diseases from 5 GPRNs in the Netherlands from the year 2007 were used as input. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted with the GPRN identifier acting as random intercept, and age and gender as explanatory variables. Using predictions of the regression models we estimated the incidence and prevalence for 18 chronic diseases and calculated a stochastic ranking of diseases in terms of incidence and prevalence per 1,000. Results Incidence was highest for coronary heart disease and prevalence was highest for diabetes if we looked at the point estimates. The between GPRN variance in general was higher for incidence than for prevalence. Since uncertainty intervals were wide for some diseases and overlapped, the ranking of diseases was subject to uncertainty. For incidence shifts in rank of up to twelve positions were observed. For prevalence, most diseases shifted maximally three or four places in rank. Conclusion Estimates of incidence and prevalence can be obtained by combining data from GPRNs. Uncertainty in the estimates of absolute figures may lead to different rankings of diseases and, hence, should be taken into consideration when comparing disease incidences and prevalences.

  7. Estimation of cancer deaths in Korea for the upcoming years.

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo

    2002-01-01

    Since the cancer has been the leading cause of deaths in Korea, estimation of the cancer deaths for the upcoming years in the population using the vital statistics is considered to be necessary. The aim of this study was to estimate the number and trends of cancer deaths in Korea. The expected numbers of cancer deaths were calculated by a time series model fitting the actual numbers of cancer deaths for each of the years 1983 through 2000 reported by Korea National Statistical Office. The opt...

  8. A retrospective cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence among chemist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoar, S K; Pell, S

    1981-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study examines mortality and cancer incidence among 3,686 men and 75 women who were employed as chemists in 1959. During the period 1964 to 1977, the male chemists experienced lower overall mortality than other salaried employees of the chemical company (198 deaths observed, 241.0 expected, SMR = 82). Large deficits are seen in lung cancer and arteriosclerotic heart disease death. The chemist appear to be at slightly higher risk for death from malignancies of the colon (12 observed, 6.7 expected, SMR = 178) and from cerebrovascular disease (15 observed, 10.8 expected, SMR = 138). The low overall mortality resulted in a larger than expected proportion of deaths due to cancer. Fewer than expected cases were diagnosed of cancer of all sited combined (61 observed, 86.5 expected, SIR = 71) and of the lung (8 observed, 20.0 expected, SIR = 40). The incidence rates of melanoma and of cancer of the prostate are slightly higher than expected, relative to the Third National Cancer Survey and the experience of nonchemists, respectively. Among female chemists, deaths due to all causes and suicide occurred more frequently than expected. Possible explanations for the lack of anticipated excess risks and for the observed deficits are presented. PMID:7252610

  9. Gastric cancer in Africa: what do we know about incidence and risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kelly, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Gastric cancer is a major contributor to mortality worldwide, yet its incidence varies widely around the world in a way which our current understanding of aetiology cannot fully explain. Incidence data from Africa are weak, reflecting poor diagnostic resources, but there are firm data on intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy which are important steps in the carcinogenesis pathway. The available registry data suggest that incidence is unlikely to be dramatically different from Europe or North America. Helicobacter pylori infection is an important permissive factor in the development of cancer, but H. pylori seroprevalence is high all over Africa and cannot clearly be correlated with cancer. However, there is evidence that specific bacterial virulence genes, particularly vacA and iceA allele1, do contribute to cancer risk. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy have been the focus of twelve studies and are common in Africa. Epstein-Barr virus, which causes 10% of cancer worldwide, is the focus of only one African study. Work in other continents demonstrates that other risk factors apply only to one or other of the two major histological types, intestinal and diffuse. Diet, smoking, alcohol and salt intake predispose to the intestinal type of cancer, but genetic factors predispose to the diffuse type. There is a pressing need for information on the histological types occurring in Africa, and their associated risk factors. Most urgently, information on dietary predisposition to cancer is required to inform public health policy with respect to the demographic transition (urbanisation and lifestyle changes) which is occurring all over the continent. PMID:22136952

  10. Estimating the Burden of Cancers Attributable to Smoking Using Disability Adjusted Life Years in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Endarti, Dwi; Sendjaya, Natalia; Pramestuty, Octy

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Recent data on selected cancer incidence and mortality related to smoking in the Indonesian population are provided in this study. Morbidity and mortality data were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012 and the population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated using the standard methodology developed by the World Health Organization. Using these data, we calculated disability adjusted life year (DALY) values for smoking-related cancer. The DALY was estimated by summation of the years lived with disability (YLD) and years life lost due to premature death (YLL). The cancer cases related to smoking in Indonesia numbered 45,132, accounting for 35,580 cancer deaths. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer can be considered as the highest priority in both men and women. Furthermore the greatest YLD due to smoking in Indonesian men and women were from pancreas and lung cancers. For YLL among men, the highest years lost were from lung and liver cancers. On the other hand, among women lung oral cavity and lip were most important. Based on the DALY indicator, burden priorities for Indonesian men were lung cancer (298,980), liver cancer (60,367), and nasopharynx (46,185), while among Indonesian women they were lung cancer (34,119), cervix uteri (9,213) and pancreas cancer (5,433). In total, Indonesian burden of cancers attributed to smoking was 638,682 DALY. This study provides evidence about the burden of cancers caused by smoking as a rational basis for initiating national tobacco control policies in Indonesia. PMID:27039808

  11. The geography of prostate cancer incidence in Norway: Are the patterns real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Aase

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe etiology of prostate cancer is to a large extent unknown. There are striking international variations inincidence, which may indicate that factors that show geographical variations can provide further cluesabout etiology. A problem with using incidence data for comparisons in time and space is that the numberof cases reported may be affected by the intensity of diagnosing, since many of the cases are latent andasymptomatic. The purpose of this study is to adjust the observed pattern of prostate cancer in communesand counties of Norway for variations which may be due to diagnostic artefacts. It is assumed that a largeproportion of local cancers may be an indication of more intensive diagnosing. Data of prostate cancerincidence for 1982-91 with tumours specified by degree of spread were provided by the Cancer Registry. Aregression function relating total incidence to % local tumours was used to predict the SIRs adjusted forvariations in % local tumours. The maps comparing incidence patterns before and after adjustement showthat a large part of the significant deviations from the national mean persists, and that the pattern of negativedeviations in the far north is even strengthened. A significant positive correlation between the ratio ofincidence to mortality against % local tumours is found, which supports the main hypothesis of the study.

  12. Mortality and cancer incidence in the perfumery and flavour industry of Geneva.

    OpenAIRE

    Guberan, E; Raymond, L

    1985-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the mortality and cancer incidence of 1168 workers who entered the three factories of the perfumery industry of the Canton of Geneva from their establishment at the turn of the century to the end of 1964. The workers were followed up from their entry until 31 December 1980, at which date 344 were dead and 28 lost to follow up. Among the whole study population only mortality from tuberculosis was significantly raised; there was no significant increase in the incide...

  13. Influence of Diet and Tobacco Smoking on Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in Poland in 1960–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jarosz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between pancreatic cancer incidence and selected dietary factors, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking in Poland in 1960–2008. Data on pancreatic cancer morbidity were derived from the National Cancer Registry and on food consumption from the national food balance sheets. In 1960–1989 correlations were found between pancreatic cancer incidence rates and energy (0.60 for males and 0.57 for females, cholesterol (0.87 and 0.80, fibre (−0.84 and −0.89 and folate (−0.45 and −0.49 intake, the consumption of total fats (0.94 and 0.91, animal fats (0,90 and 0,82, sugar (0.88 and 0.87, cereals (−0.93 and −0.91, and alcohol (0.86 and 0.82. In 1990–2008 morbidity correlated with the consumption of red meat (0.67 and 0.48, poultry (−0.88 and −0.57, and fruit (−0.62 and −0.50. Correlation with tobacco smoking was observed in the whole studied period (0.55 and 0.44. Increased incidence of pancreatic cancer in 1960–1995 was probably related to adverse dietary patterns up to 1989, especially high consumption of fats, sugar, and alcohol. Further positive changes in the diet such as lowering red meat consumption and increasing fruit consumption could influence incidence reduction in recent years. Also changes in tobacco smoking could affect the morbidity.

  14. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung CancerIncidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Linlin ZHANG; Li, Jihua; Yajie WANG; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improvin...

  15. Comparisons of the incidence and pathological characteristics of prostate cancer between Chinese and Portuguese in Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Aging of population in Macau has become a serious problem and we are diagnosing more and more Patients with prostate cancer.To investigate the effect of ethnicity and environment on incidence of prostate carcinoma,We compared the difference of biopsy and postoperative pathology of prostate between indigenous Chinese(Chinese)and Chinese of Portuguese descent(Portuguese)with elevated serologic prostate specific antigen(PSA)and incidence of prostate carcinoma in Macau.Methods Between 1999 and 2006,prostate biopsy was performed in a random sample of 462 patients with elevated serologic PSA who,on followup,were diagnosed in this hospital with benign prostate hyperplasia.Of these,416 were indigenous Chinese,46 Portuguese.Based on demographic statistics by Macau government for 2005,we compared differences in incidences of prostate carcinoma,positive rate of random prostate biopsy in patients with elevated serologic PSA,factors related to serological PSA and pathological grade and stage between both ethnic groups.Results Prostate carcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy in 178 cases.Positive biopsies of prostate carcinoma were Present in 160 Chinese with positive rate of 38.5% and in 18 Portuguese with 39.1%.For patients diagnosed with prostate carcinoma,there was no significant difference in age,incidence,grade of cancerous cells,stage of the disease,incidence of inflammation of prostatic tissues or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia(PIN)related to elevated PSA between the groups(All P>0.05).Conclusions There was no significant difference in incidence or characteristics of prostate carcinoma between people of Portuguese and Chinese descent in Macau based on our limited data.Long term residence in the same environment may be associated with the incidence and progression of prostate carcinoma in Portuguese living in Macau,but further rigorous epidemiological investigation and analysis of risk factors about prostate carcinoma are needed to corroborate this conclusion.

  16. Cadmium Exposure and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus - Results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borné, Yan; Fagerberg, Björn; Persson, Margaretha; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Barregard, Lars; Engström, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a pollutant with multiple adverse health effects: renal dysfunction, osteoporosis and fractures, cancer, and probably cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported associations between cadmium and impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. However, this relationship is controversial and there is a lack of longitudinal studies. Objectives To examine prospectively whether cadmium in blood is associated with incidence of diabetes mellitus. Methods The study population consists of 4585 subjects without history of diabetes (aged 46 to 67 years, 60% women), who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study during 1991–1994. Blood cadmium levels were estimated from hematocrit and cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes. Incident cases of diabetes were identified from national and local diabetes registers. Results Cadmium concentrations in blood were not associated with blood glucose and insulin levels at the baseline examination. However, cadmium was positively associated with HbA1c in former smokers and current smokers. During a mean follow-up of 15.2±4.2 years, 622 (299 men and 323 women) were diagnosed with new-onset of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes was not significantly associated with blood cadmium level at baseline, neither in men or women. The hazard ratio (4th vs 1st quartile) was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.82–1.49), when adjusted for potential confounders. Conclusions Elevated blood cadmium levels are not associated with increased incidence of diabetes. The positive association between HbA1c and blood cadmium levels has a likely explanation in mechanisms related to erythrocyte turnover and smoking. PMID:25393737

  17. Cancer incidence in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after...... significantly increased relative risk of breast carcinoma, alcohol-related malignancies, virus/immune-related malignancies, or hormone-related malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: The current data suggest that the death of a child was associated with a slightly increased overall cancer risk in mothers and that the...

  18. The incidence of bone metastasis after early-stage breast cancer in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede, Alexander; Jerzak, Katarzyna J; Hernandez, Rohini K; Wade, Sally W; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Current information on the incidence and prevalence of bone metastases in women with breast cancer is scarce. This study examined the occurrence and predictors of bone metastases, as well as post-metastasis survival in a prospective cohort of Canadian women with breast cancer. We included women treated for early-stage (stage I, II, or III) breast cancer at the Henrietta Banting Breast Centre (HBBC) in Toronto, Canada between 1987 and 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records and pathology reports in the HBBC database; follow-up extended to end of data availability or August 31, 2015. Actuarial survival analyses provided cumulative incidence of bone metastases at 5, 10, and 15 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves describe breast cancer mortality. Regression models assessed patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics as predictors of bone metastases with all-cause mortality as a competing risk. Among 2097 women studied, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year probability of bone metastasis was 6.5, 10.3, and 11.3 % for the first recurrence, and 8.4, 12.5, and 13.6 % for any bone recurrence. At median follow-up (12.5 years), 13.2 % of patients had bone metastases. Median survival was 1.6 years following bone metastasis, and shorter if both bone and visceral metastases occurred. Advanced age and adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen were protective against bone metastasis. In this representative cohort of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, with long follow-up, the incidence of bone metastases was consistent with longitudinal studies from the United Kingdom, Denmark, and the US. PMID:27083181

  19. Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Wennberg, Maria; Overvad, Kim; Åsli, Lene Angell; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv

    2016-04-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer. PMID:26092139

  20. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  1. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  2. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  3. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  4. A prospective investigation of fish, meat and cooking-related carcinogens with endometrial cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Arem, H; Gunter, M J; Cross, A J; Hollenbeck, A R; R Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are limited prospective studies of fish and meat intakes with risk of endometrial cancer and findings are inconsistent. Methods: We studied associations between fish and meat intakes and endometrial cancer incidence in the large, prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Intakes of meat mutagens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinox...

  5. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Mellemkjaer; Papadopoulos, Fotios C.; Eero Pukkala; Anders Ekbom; Mika Gissler; Jane Christensen; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark a...

  6. Mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is given of a study by the NRPB on the mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. The results of 22,347 participants were compared with a population of 22,326 controls. It was concluded that participation in the nuclear weapons tests had no detectable effect on the participants' expectation of life or on their total risk of developing cancer, apart possibly from an effect on the risks from developing multiple myeloma and leukaemia. (U.K.)

  7. Reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Richard J.; Roddam, Andrew W; Green, Jane; Pirie, Kirstin; Bull, Diana; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence about the effect of reproductive history on women’s risk of pancreatic cancer. In the Million Women Study, a prospective cohort of middle-aged women in the UK, we examined associations between reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality, controlling for age, socioeconomic status, geographic region, body mass index, smoking and history of diabetes. During 7.1 million person-years of follow-up in 995,192 post-menopausal women there were 1,18...

  8. Incidence of gynaecological cancers and overall and cause specific mortality of grand multiparous women in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkula, M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this population-based cohort study was to evaluate the incidence and relative risk ratios of gynaecological cancers and the mortality of women with at least five children (GM women) compared to the average of Finnish women. We linked together the data of the Population Register (1974–1997), the Finnish Cancer Registry and the national cause-of death files of Statistics Finland (1974–2001) by using a personal identification code. The study population consisted of 86 978 ...

  9. Incidence of symptomatic salivary disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer can produce severe and frequent salivary symptoms, during the treatment or later. Aim: To analyze the incidence, severity and characteristics of the salivary signs and symptoms in these patients. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive anal isis of 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, treated with surgery and radioactive iodine, that completed a telephonic survey for the evaluation of salivary symptoms. Results: 26 (24.52%) patients presented with salivary symptoms or signs after the radioactive iodine therapy (mean 5 months). The average doses of I 131 was 128,5 mCi. Xerostomy, pain, xeroftalmy, inflammation, sialoadenitis and dysgeusia, were the most frequent clinical symptoms. Conclusions: After radioactive iodine therapy the salivary symptoms and signs incidence is high. We conclude that the indication for this treatment must be selective, but in accordance with the oncological risk of each patient

  10. Maternal pregnancy hormone levels in an area with a high incidence (Boston, USA) and in an area with a low incidence (Shanghai, China) of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lipworth1, L; Hsieh, C-Ce; Wide, L; Ekbom, A; Yu, S-Z; Yu, G-P; Xu, B; Hellerstein, S; Carlstrom, K; Trichopoulos, D; Adami, H-O

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics probably associated with the fetal hormonal milieu have recently been shown to increase (birth size indicators, prematurity, neonatal jaundice) or decrease (pregnancy toxaemia) breast cancer risk in the female offspring. However, it is unknown whether differences in pregnancy hormone levels may contribute to the marked geographical variation in breast cancer incidence. We have compared, in a highly standardized manner, pregnancy hormone levels in a population with high inciden...

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  12. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K.; Korsgaard, B

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos wa...

  13. The impact of preoperative breast MRI on surgical planning in women with incident breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aðalheiður Jónsdóttir 1973

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Routine breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has recently been introduced in Iceland as a preoperative examination of patients with incident breast cancer. Previous studies report that additional lesions not detected on mammography can be identified with MRI, which may result in revised surgical planning. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine if additional findings on preoperative breast MRI changed the planned surgical treatment. Methods: This is a descript...

  14. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposures and Incident Cancers among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Vaughn; Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic chemical ubiquitous in the serum of U.S. residents. It causes liver, testicular, and pancreatic tumors in rats. Human studies are sparse. Objective: We examined cancer incidence in Mid-Ohio Valley residents exposed to PFOA in drinking water due to chemical plant emissions. Methods: The cohort consisted of adult community residents who resided in contaminated water districts or worked at a local chemical plant. Most participated in a 200...

  15. The effects of changes in cadmium and lead air pollution on cancer incidence in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the results of research on the effects of air pollution on cancer incidence in children in the region of Silesia (Poland), which has undergone one of the most profound anthropogenic transformations in Europe. The main objective of the research was to specify the impact of changes in cadmium and lead pollution in the years 1990-2005 on the incidence of cancers reported in children. Lead concentration ranged from 0 to 1490 . 10-9 G m-2/year, and cadmium concentration ranged from 0 to 33.7 . 10-9 G m-2/year. There was no strong significant correlation (max 0.3) between air pollution and incidence rate (IR) in the general population of children in any particular year. Alongside the cartographic presentation of dependences, correlation coefficients between the variables in question were calculated. This made it possible to determine the relationship between the pollution levels and incidence rates in the area. There was a significant reduction in the level of pollution during the investigated period. The study of the relationship between the number of cancers reported and the condition of the natural environment revealed increased sensitivity to toxins in boys (correlation coefficient 0.3). In addition, the spatial distribution of the number of cases reported in boys suggests a correlation with the spatial distribution of the coefficients for the entire group of children included in the study. The yearly average IR of childhood cancer in specific districts ranged from 0 to 61.48/100,000 children under 18 years of age during the 1995-2004 period.

  16. Black-White Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence, Screening, and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    May, Folasade P.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately impacted by colorectal cancer (CRC) with higher incidence of disease, higher mortality from disease, and poorer disease survival. These disparities are likely the result of multiple factors, including a high prevalence of CRC risk factors, unfavorable tumor biology, and poor access to medical services among blacks. In addition, while national guidelines promote universal screening for CRC in all Americans, African Americans are less likely than white A...

  17. Incidence and types of complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary microvascular free flap reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Lodders, Johannes N.; Parmar, Satyesh; Stienen, Niki L.M.; Martin, Timothy J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, Martijn W; Nandra, Baljeet; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. Material and Methods Desired data was retrieved from a computer database at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Queen Elisabeth hospital Birmingham, United Kingdom, between June 2007 and October 2012. Logistic regression was used...

  18. A prospective study in the Australian petroleum industry. II. Incidence of cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, D; Robinson, K.; Gordon, I.; Bisby, J

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports incidence of cancer in employees of the Australian petroleum industry from 1981 to 1989. Two surveys by personal interview incorporated more than 15,000 employees, representing 92% of the eligible population. Subjects were included in the analysis after completing five years of service in the industry. At the time of this report the cohort did not include sufficiently large numbers of women for useful analysis; results presented are restricted to the men. On 31 December 198...

  19. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did not differ between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women under 10 years of age at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any time during the first four decades of life, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. An unresolved question is whether breast cancer risk is increased by radiation exposure at ages older than 40

  20. Les cancers de la cavité buccale et de l'oropharynx dans le monde : incidence internationale et classification TNM dans les registres du cancer

    OpenAIRE

    de Camargo Cancela, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharynx cancers : International incidence and TNM classification in population-based cancer registries The aim of this work was to know and to evaluate the epidemiological patterns of oral cavity and ororpharynx cancers. These topographies share some common risk factors and they are often grouped in epidemiological studies. However, the implication of the human papilloma virus in oropharyngeal tumors lead us to provide incidence rates according to the anatomical classificat...

  1. [Incidence of epidermoid cancer of the esophagus in Asturias (1975-85)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, C; Rodrigo Sáez, L; Fernández García, J; Fernández León, A; De Llano Rodríguez, I

    1990-06-01

    We present the incidence the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Asturias, based on the review of the clinical histories of eleven years (1975-85). Of 356 total cases, 92.4% were male patients and the remaining 7.6% females; the relation M:F was 12.2:1. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 59.4 +/- 9.6 for males and 70 +/- for females. Total annual incidence was 2.8 +/- 0.8 cases/10(5) + population/year. Maximal annual incidence was registered in 1981: 1.1 cases/10(5) population/year. Asturias has eight health districts; those with highest incidence were mining areas: Mieres, Cangas de Narcea and Riaño. Compared to that of some developing countries, the incidence of esophageal cancer in Asturias is low, similar to that in European countries (except France) and white population of the USA; there is an aggregation of cases in males living in mining areas. PMID:2223247

  2. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening in high incidence populations: A synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efficacy and availability of screening and treatment for cervical cancer, it remains the leading cause of death for women in many low resource countries. The inability or reluctance of women to use screening and treatment is the largest contributor to cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The aim of the author in this article is to determine knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that facilitate or hinder women's use of screening in high incidence countries through a synthesis of qualitative research. CINAHL, Medline, AnthroSource, Sociological Abstracts, Social Service Abstracts, GenderWatch, Ethnic News Watch, and ASSIA databases were queried for qualitative research published from 2008 to 2013. Ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included fatalism, mistrust of non-traditional healthcare providers, masculine/feminine beliefs, limited knowledge, and misunderstandings of causes of cervical cancer. Facilitators included knowledge of sexual risk factors, recognition of signs and symptoms, and community/social support. Pragmatic solutions suggested by this synthesis, that may decrease barriers and enhance facilitators, involved cultural humility (a continual commitment to cultural competence), promotion of gender equality, collaboration among stakeholders, and the translation of evidence-based practices from low to high incidence populations. PMID:26496628

  3. Proportionate increase in incidence of colorectal cancer at an age below 40 years: An observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Madhumay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Colorectal cancer is particularly a disease affecting individuals above 40 years of age and 90% of cases occur in persons over the age of 50. Genetic and familial factors, viz, HNPCC and FAP, contribute to less than 20% and environmental or acquired factors are the cause of the rest. The aim of this study is to find out the relative proportion of patients Materials and Methods: Colorectal cancers registered in the calendar years of 2003 and 2004 in our institute were analyzed in this study. Data from Population Based Cancer Registry (P.B.C.R. for Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai for the year 1988 were taken for comparison. Results: The results show that our institute′s figures exceed the generally accepted figure for ′incidence of the disease below the age of 40 years′ by less than 10% of both the total incidence of the disease and those of P.B.C.R. for Bangalore, Mumbai and Chennai. The corresponding figure for females in Delhi P.B.C.R. shows a little similarity to our institute′s figure. Conclusion: This observation indicates a changing pattern of colorectal cancer occurrence. This change may be a regional one or may be a result of genetic or environmental changes.

  4. Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50–79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard rati...

  5. The financial burden of cancer: Estimates from patients undergoing cancer care in a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi Adnan A; Ansari Tayyaba Z; Khan Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is limited state support for cancer treatment. We conducted this study to estimate the cost of cancer care for two major types of cancer and to assess the perception of patients and families regarding the burden of the cost for undergoing cancer treatment at a private ...

  6. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  7. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi's sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author)

  8. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  9. Dietary cholesterol deprivation improves survival and reduces incidence of metastatic colon cancer in dimethylhydrazine-pretreated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruse, J P; Lewin, M. R.; Clark, C G

    1982-01-01

    Cholesterol feeding of rats with colon cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine results in reduced survival and an increased incidence of metastatic colon cancer. As cholesterol may be implicated in the induction or maintenance of the metastatic process, an experiment was designed to determine whether rats with colon cancer would benefit from the removal of cholesterol from the diet. Female Wistar rats were treated with a colon cancer-inducing regimen of dimethylhydrazine (40 mg/kg/week for 10 wee...

  10. Estimating the incidence of the acute coronary syndrome: data from a Danish cohort of 138 290 persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Foldspang, Anders; Larsen, Mogens Lytken;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of incidence are crucial to the planning of public health measures, but most studies of incidence of, for example, acute myocardial infarction (MI) are troubled by methodological problems such as; (i) selection biases of the patients being included for study, (ii) lack of...... consecutive ACS patients from 1 April 2000 to 31 March 2002. The population was identified from Danish Population Registers. RESULTS: A total of 189 victims of SCD and 457 ACS patients who survived until admission to hospital were present. Consequently, crude incidence rate of ACS was 234 per 100 000 person......-years. Unstable angina pectoris constituted for 16.9%, MI for 53.8% and SCD for 29.3% of ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Crude incidence rates of ACS were 137 and 331 per 100 000 person years for women and men, respectively. The incidence rate of ACS, as measured directly, was insignificantly 6% higher than expected...

  11. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  12. Incidence of Eating Problems, Taste Changes and Food Preference of Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy can be an important component of cancer treatment for cure, prolongation of life or pain control; however, it has clinical limitations due to its adverse effects, mainly damage to normal tissues. The side-effects of cancer treatment further compromise nutritional status. There are few reports about the incidence of eating problem during radiotherapy. Considering the importance of symptoms on quality of life and nutritional status, the present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of eating problems, food preferences on body weight and dietary intake for patients with cancer treated with radiotherapy during treatment. During the period of October to March 2005, 61 (38 males and 23 females volunteers cancer patients with mean age of 53±16 years who referred to the radiotherapy center of Imam Khomeini hospital were recruited. Changes of mouth dryness, appetite loss, nausea, hypoguesia, dysphagia,..., taste changes and food preferences were determined by questionnaire before and during radiotherapy. Changes in dietary intake (using 24 h recall method and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. Incidence of anorexia, dry mouth, mouth sores, hyposmia, hypoguesia, dysphagia increased significantly during radiotherapy (p< 0.05. Patients didn�t tend to eat hard food and high animal protein food (meat and liver more frequently as RT progressed especially during the first 3 weeks of treatment. Incidence of bitter taste in the mouth of patients increased during radiotherapy. In our study eating problem affected weight loss and dietary intake significantly (p = 0.007, ß = 0.452 and p = 0.001, ß = 0.563. Because of the negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, daily assessment of side -effects, symptom support and nutritional advice adjusted to the individual patient are parts of adequate nutritional care.

  13. Theoretical epidemiology applied to health physics: estimation of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect estimation of low-dose radiation hazards is possible using the multihit model of carcinogenesis. This model is based on cancer incidence data collected over many decades on tens of millions of people. Available data on human radiation effects can be introduced into the modeling process without the requirement that these data precisely define the model to be used. This reduction in the information demanded from the limited data on human radiation effects allows a more rational approach to estimation of low-dose radiation hazards and helps to focus attention on research directed towards understanding the process of carcinogenesis, rather than on repeating human or animal experiments that cannot provide sufficient data to resolve the low-dose estimation problem. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer provides an excellent example of the utility of multihit modeling procedures

  14. Evidence-based estimate of appropriate radiotherapy utilization rate for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Current estimates of the proportion of cancer patients who will require radiotherapy (RT) are based almost entirely on expert opinion. The objective of this study was to use an evidence-based approach to estimate the proportion of incident cases of prostate cancer that should receive RT at any point in the evolution of the illness. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify indications for RT for prostate cancer and to ascertain the level of evidence that supported each indication. An epidemiologic approach was then used to estimate the incidence of each indication for RT in a typical North American population of prostate cancer patients. The effect of sampling error on the estimated appropriate rate of RT was calculated mathematically, and the effect of systematic error using alternative sources of information was estimated by sensitivity analysis. Results: It was estimated that 61.2% ±5.6% of prostate cancer cases develop one or more indications for RT at some point in the course of the illness. The plausible range for this rate was 57.3%-69.8% on sensitivity analysis. Of all prostate cancer patients, 32.2%±3.8% should receive RT in their initial treatment and 29.0% ± 4.1% later for recurrence or progression. The proportion of cases that ever require RT is risk grouping dependent; 43.9%±2.2% in low-risk disease, 68.7%± .5% in intermediate-risk disease; and 79.0% ± 3.8% in high-risk locoregional disease. For metastatic disease, the predicted rate was 66.4%±0.3%. Conclusion: This method provides a rational starting point for the long-term planning of radiation services and for the audit of access to RT at the population level. By completing such evaluations in major cancer sites, it will be possible to estimate the appropriate RT rate for the cancer population as a whole

  15. An evidence-based estimate of appropriate radiotherapy utilization rate for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Current estimates of the proportion of cancer patients who will require radiotherapy (RT) are based almost entirely on expert opinion. We sought to use an evidence-based approach to estimate the proportion of incident cases of breast cancer that will require RT at any point in the evolution of the illness. Methods and Materials: We undertook a systematic review of the literature to identify indications for RT for breast cancer and to ascertain the level of evidence that supported each indication. An epidemiologic approach was then used to estimate the incidence of each indication for RT in a typical North American population of breast cancer patients. The effect of sampling error on the estimated appropriate rate of RT was calculated mathematically, and the effect of systematic error was estimated by sensitivity analysis. Results: It was estimated that 66.4% ± 4.8% of breast cancer patients develop one or more indications for RT at some point in the course of the illness. The plausible range for this rate was 56.3%-72.4% on sensitivity analysis. Of all breast cancer patients, 57.3% ± 4.7% require RT in their initial treatment and 9.1% ± 1.0% do so later for recurrence or progression. The proportion of patients who ever require RT is stage dependent: 39.8% ± 1.1% in ductal carcinoma in situ; 68.6% ± 4.1% in Stage I invasive carcinoma; 81.5% ± 2.3% in Stage II; 95.3% ± 0.3% in Stage III; and 63.7% ± 0.3% in Stage IV. Conclusion: This method provides a rational starting point for the long-term planning of RT services and for the audit of access to RT at the population level. By completing such evaluations in the major cancer sites, it will be possible to estimate the appropriate RT treatment rate for the cancer population as a whole

  16. Estimation of Cachexia among Cancer Patients Based on Four Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Kathleen M; Brooks, John M.; Gandra, Shravanthi. R.; Richard Markus; Chiun-Fang Chiou

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Estimate and compare the proportion of cancer patients with cachexia using different definitions from available clinical data. Methods. Electronic medical records were examined to estimate the proportion of cancer patients with cachexia using 4 definitions: (1) ICD-9 diagnostic code of 799.4 (cachexia), (2) ICD-9 diagnosis of cachexia, anorexia, abnormal weight loss, or feeding difficulties, (3) prescription for megestrol acetate, oxandrolone, somatropin, or dronabinol, and (4) ≥ ...

  17. Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors Incidência de câncer de estômago no Brasil: estudo ecológico com fatores de risco selecionados

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman

    1997-01-01

    Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-bas...

  18. Neighbourhoods matter too: the association between neigbourhood socioeconomic position, population density and breast, protaste and lung cancer incidence in Denmark between 2004 and 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Bloomfield, Kim; Engholm, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence is related to a number of individual factors, including socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to refine the current knowledge about indicators associated with cancer incidence by evaluating the influence of neighbourhood characteristics ...... breast, prostate and lung cancer incidence in Denmark.......Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence is related to a number of individual factors, including socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to refine the current knowledge about indicators associated with cancer incidence by evaluating the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on...

  19. Trends in incidence and prognosis of the histological subtypes of lung cancer in North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since the incidence of the histological subtypes of lung cancer in industrialised countries has changed dramatically over the last two decades, we reviewed trends in the incidence and prognosis in North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe, according to period of diagnosis and birth cohort and summarized explanations for changes in mortality. Methods: Review of the literature based on a computerised search (Medline database 1966-2000). Results: Although the incid...

  20. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  1. Cluster of liver cancer and immigration: A geographic analysis of incidence data for Ontario 1998–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is not common in Canada in general; however, clustering of the disease causes a concern. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine the geographic variation of liver cancer and its association with the proportion of immigration in Ontario. Liver cancer incidence data between 1998 and 2002 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS in 2001 provided information on potential risk factors. Results Age standardized incidence ratios (SIR for liver cancer and prevalence of potential risk factors were calculated for each of 35 health regions. The SIRs for liver cancer varied across the 35 health regions (p Conclusion Immigration is an important reason for the clustering of liver cancer in Ontario. More attention should be paid to areas with a high proportion of immigrants.

  2. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  3. Data study of death rate and cancer incidence among Thule workers, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    January 21st, 1968, an American B52 bomber with nuclear weapons aboard crashed close to the Thule air-base in Greenland. In 1986 suspicions arose that there might be increased disease incidences and death rate among the employees at the base that were involved in the clearing operations. During 1986 - 1995, several health studies were made of the Thule workers. These studies of death rate, cancer, hospitalization, and fertility did not show any differences between the Thule workers from the clearing operations and those not involved in the clearing. The present study shows no difference in total death rate among the clearing workers compared to other workers. The same results were found for cancer mortality, circulatory diseases, pulmonary diseases, natural causes, and accidents. As the previous studies showed, the present study shows that there were a slightly less number of suicides among the clearing workers. The data analyses show with great certainty that the Thule workers as a group do not have a great excessive mortality or an increased cancer incidence caused by the aircraft crash. Thus, the present results fall in line with the previous investigations. (ln)

  4. The incidence of anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the incidence of anxiety in radiotherapy cancer patients in relation to their age, gender, education, marital status, performance status and type of disease. Design: Data regarding socio-demographic variables and disease type was recorded on a data capture form. The presence of anxiety was measured by administering taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Whereas patients, performance status was measured by administering Kernosky Performance Status Scale. Setting: Patients coming to the Department of Radiation Oncology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and research center for their treatment were included in this study. Subjects and methods: A consecutive sample of 113 patients was taken and followed up to study the incidence of anxiety. Data over various parameters like age, gender, education, marital status, disease type and performance status was recorded. Results: Fifty percent of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy were found to be suffering from anxiety. Among 89% of patients, anxiety lowered after the therapy, in 3% it increased and remained static in 8% Patients with low education and low performance status presented with high anxiety. Among all the patients, no significant relationship between anxiety and gender, age, marital status and site of the disease was observed. Conclusion: Correlates other than radiotherapy procedure can also cause anxiety in patients by further research is required to establish those correlates of anxiety. It is recommended that all radiotherapy patients should be provided education and procedural information designed to familiarize them with the forthcoming experience in order to reduce their anxiety. (author)

  5. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klil-Drori, Adi J; Tascilar, Koray; Yin, Hui; Aprikian, Armen; Bitton, Alain; Azoulay, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. By lowering androgen levels, ADT inhibits the progression of prostate cancer, but it may also affect gut autoimmunity. We investigated the association between ADT and the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease using a cohort of 31,842 men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1988 and 2014, identified in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Exposure to ADT was treated as a time-varying variable and lagged by 1 year to account for diagnostic delays, with nonuse as the reference category. During 133,018 person-years of follow-up, 48 men were newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (incidence rate (IR) = 36/100,000 person-years (PY)) and 12 were diagnosed with Crohn's disease (IR = 9/100,000 PY). In Cox proportional hazards models, ADT was associated with a decreased risk of ulcerative colitis (IR = 24/100,000 PY vs. IR = 50/100,000 PY; hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.99) and a nonsignificant decreased risk of Crohn's disease (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.11, 1.37). These findings indicate that the use of ADT may be associated with intestinal autoimmunity. Further research is warranted to replicate these findings and assess their clinical significance. PMID:27268031

  6. Estimating and validating disability-adjusted life years at the global level: a methodological framework for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soerjomataram Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs link data on disease occurrence to health outcomes, and they are a useful aid in establishing country-specific agendas regarding cancer control. The variables required to compute DALYs are however multiple and not readily available in many countries. We propose a methodology that derives global DALYs and validate variables and DALYs based on data from various cancer registries. Methods We estimated DALYs for four countries (Norway, Bulgaria, India and Uganda within each category of the human development index (HDI. The following sources (indicators were used: Globocan2008 (incidence and mortality, various cancer registries (proportion cured, proportion treated and duration of disease, treatment guidelines (duration of treatment, specific burden of disease studies (sequelae and disability weights, alongside expert opinion. We obtained country-specific population estimates and identified resource levels using the HDI, DALYs are computed as the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disabilities. Results Using mortality:incidence ratios to estimate country-specific survival, and by applying the human development index we derived country-specific estimates of the proportion cured and the proportion treated. The fit between the estimates and observed data from the cancer registries was relatively good. The final DALY estimates were similar to those computed using observed values in Norway, and in WHO’s earlier global burden of disease study. Marked cross-country differences in the patterns of DALYs by cancer sites were observed. In Norway and Bulgaria, breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer were the main contributors to DALYs, representing 54% and 45%, respectively, of the totals. These cancers contributed only 27% and 18%, respectively, of total DALYs in India and Uganda. Conclusions Our approach resulted in a series of variables that can be used to estimate country

  7. Low Incidence of Synchronous or Metachronous Tumors after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Cancer with Undifferentiated Histology.

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    Chan Hyuk Park

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer with undifferentiated histology has different clinicopathologic characteristics compared to differentiated type gastric cancer. We aimed to compare the risk of synchronous or metachronous tumors after curative resection of early gastric cancer (EGC via endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD, according to the histologic differentiation of the primary lesion.Clinicopathological data of patients with initial-onset EGC curatively resected via ESD between January 2007 and November 2014 in a single institution were reviewed. We analyzed the incidence of synchronous or metachronous tumors after ESD with special reference to the differentiation status of the primary lesion.Of 1,560 patients with EGC who underwent curative resection via ESD, 1,447 had differentiated type cancers, and 113 had undifferentiated type cancers. The cumulative incidence of metachronous or synchronous tumor after ESD was higher in the differentiated cancer group than in the undifferentiated cancer group (P = 0.008. Incidence of metachronous or synchronous tumor was 4.8% and 1.2% per person-year in the differentiated and undifferentiated cancer groups, respectively. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that undifferentiated cancers were associated with a low risk of synchronous or metachronous tumors after adjusting for confounding variables (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.287 [0.090-0.918].The rate of synchronous or metachronous tumors after curative ESD was significantly lower for undifferentiated cancers compare to differentiated cancers. These findings suggest that ESD should be actively considered as a possible treatment for undifferentiated type EGCs.

  8. Propensity score methods for estimating relative risks in cluster randomized trials with low-incidence binary outcomes and selection bias.

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    Leyrat, Clémence; Caille, Agnès; Donner, Allan; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2014-09-10

    Despite randomization, selection bias may occur in cluster randomized trials. Classical multivariable regression usually allows for adjusting treatment effect estimates with unbalanced covariates. However, for binary outcomes with low incidence, such a method may fail because of separation problems. This simulation study focused on the performance of propensity score (PS)-based methods to estimate relative risks from cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes with low incidence. The results suggested that among the different approaches used (multivariable regression, direct adjustment on PS, inverse weighting on PS, and stratification on PS), only direct adjustment on the PS fully corrected the bias and moreover had the best statistical properties. PMID:24771662

  9. Relationship between Chemotherapy and Tamoxifen with Incidence of Fatty Liver in Women with Breast Cancer

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    Sh Keyhanian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fatty liver disease is characterized by deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients. According to some epidemiological studies; BMI, amount of fat intake from foods and high central fat are risk factors of breast cancer. This issue is one of the factors that cause high incidence of fatty liver in patients with breast cancer. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, all patients with breast cancer were evaluated who referred to Imam Sajjad hospital of Ramsar during 2008 - 2011. After initial review, 100 patients were enrolled. Those who were treated by chemotherapy underwent abdominal Sonography for evaluation of fatty liver. Also, those patients who also received tamoxifen in addition to chemotherapy, underwent abdominal ultrasonography 6 months after taking tamoxifen. After that, relationship between treatment of breast cancer and fatty liver in studied patients was evaluated based on obtained information. Results: The study results revealed that after chemotherapy, 30 (30% patients were reported to have fatty liver. Out of 70 people that after chemotherapy did not have fatty liver, 62 patients received tamoxifen; and after taking tamoxifen, 45.2% developed fatty liver. Using Chi Square test, there was a significant relationship between fatty liver after receiving tamoxifen, hyperlipidemia (p=0.011 and getting overweight (P =0.017. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, treatment of breast cancer especially with tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of fatty liver, especially in women who have hyperlipidemia and are overweight.

  10. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in cervical cancer: a nationwide population-based study

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    Tsai Shiang-Jiun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a life-threatening condition that occurs as a complication of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of VTE in cervical cancer patients during a 5-year follow-up. Methods The study analyzed data deposited between 2003 and 2008 in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 1013 cervical cancer patients after treatment and 2026 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the VTE risk. Results The 5-year cumulative risk for VTE was significantly higher in the cervical cancer group than in the control group (3.3% vs 0.3%, p vs 30.3%, p  Conclusions The cumulative risk of VTE was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients, and these patients also had lower survival rates. Strategies to reduce these risks need to be examined.

  11. Incidence of Child cancers in the Finistere and around the Brest harbour between 199