WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer imaging program

  1. ICMIC Institutions - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICMIC grants facilitate interaction among scientists from a variety of fields to conduct multidisciplinary research on cellular and molecular imaging related to cancer. Pre-ICMIC planning grants have provided time and funds for investigators and institutions to prepare themselves, organizationally and scientifically, to establish ICMICs.

  2. Single Institution Feasibility Trials - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the CIP program, the current R21 mechanism provides potential funding for small, single institution feasibility trials. The current announcement is titled In Vivo Cancer Imaging Exploratory/Developmental Grants.

  3. Information Systems - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) represents an effort by CIP grantees in a consortium to create a database of spiral CT images of the lung for use in CAD (computer-aided detection) algorithm research. The Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) is extending the efforts of the LIDC, to create a larger database of spiral CT imaging of the lung for use in CAD algorithm research. Image Archive Resources contains links to Web sites related to the interests of the NCI CIP Image Archive Committee. The Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) is a database of research data on in vivo molecular imaging and contrast agents.

  4. IND Regulatory & Manufacturing Resources - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Imaging Program has been creating Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) for imaging agents in order to engage in multi-center clinical trials of these materials. A subset of the documents filed is being made available to the research community to implement routine synthesis of tracers at their own facilities and to assist investigators with the filing of their own INDs. The first of these document sets is for F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT).

  5. Radiology Network (ACRIN) - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACRIN is funded to improve the quality and utility of imaging in cancer research and cancer care through expert, multi-institutional clinical evaluation of discoveries and technological innovations relevant to imaging science as applied in clinical oncology.

  6. Phase 2 N01 Program - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Phase 2 N01 Program is a CTEP-CIP collaboration includes 7 contractors, most of whom consist of multi-institutional consortia, and includes a total of 22 NCI-designated Cancer Centers. These sites carry out early clinical trials with CTEP and CIP-held IND agents, with an emphasis on phase 2 trials, but including phase 1 trials as well. These trials include the evaluation of novel imaging agents and methods to enhance the evaluation of novel therapeutics.

  7. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  8. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techn...

  9. Analysis of PET hypoxia imaging in the quantitative imaging for personalized cancer medicine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative imaging is an important tool in clinical trials of testing novel agents and strategies for cancer treatment. The Quantitative Imaging Personalized Cancer Medicine Program (QIPCM) provides clinicians and researchers participating in multi-center clinical trials with a central repository for their imaging data. In addition, a set of tools provide standards of practice (SOP) in end-to-end quality assurance of scanners and image analysis. The four components for data archiving and analysis are the Clinical Trials Patient Database, the Clinical Trials PACS, the data analysis engine(s) and the high-speed networks that connect them. The program provides a suite of software which is able to perform RECIST, dynamic MRI, CT and PET analysis. The imaging data can be assessed securely from remote and analyzed by researchers with these software tools, or with tools provided by the users and installed at the server. Alternatively, QIPCM provides a service for data analysis on the imaging data according developed SOP. An example of a clinical study in which patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were studied with dynamic PET-FAZA for hypoxia measurement will be discussed. We successfully quantified the degree of hypoxia as well as tumor perfusion in a group of 20 patients in terms of SUV and hypoxic fraction. It was found that there is no correlation between bulk tumor perfusion and hypoxia status in this cohort. QIPCM also provides end-to-end QA testing of scanners used in multi-center clinical trials. Based on quality assurance data from multiple CT-PET scanners, we concluded that quality control of imaging was vital in the success in multi-center trials as different imaging and reconstruction parameters in PET imaging could lead to very different results in hypoxia imaging. (author)

  10. Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Criteria Screening and Interventional Trials Radiology Network (ACRIN) Phase I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive Imaging Informatics Challenges TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & ...

  11. Admission criteria to the Danish Brain Cancer Program are moderately associated with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Mie Kiszka; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Danish Brain Cancer Program by examining the criteria for admission to the program and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in 359 patients referred to the program at the Odense University Hospital during one year. The...

  12. NIH Roadmap & the Common Fund - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research is a series of high impact, trans-NIH programs supported by the NIH Common Fund. These programs address challenges that are priorities for the NIH and medical research but are issues that require the cooperation of more than one NIH institute to address.

  13. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  14. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  15. Cancer diagnosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peralta Cancer Research Institute has organized the Breast Diagnostic Center (BDC) to make available to women information about the breast, and to conduct clinical research to improve methods for early diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Women entering the center are educated about the anatomy and physiology of the breast, signs of both benign and malignant disease, and factors that influence the risk of developing cancer. The BDC program proposes to demonstrate that the combined use of various diagnostic modalities, when each modality is used at maximum potential, can detect cancers at an earlier stage. Emphasis is placed on the physical examination, using nipple aspiration cytology, contrast ductography, fine-needle aspirations, and mammography. With the financial participation of the Clorox Company, it is shown that the concept of the BDC is economically sound and fills a need in the community

  16. Programs | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCG facilitates cancer genomics research through a series of highly-focused programs. These programs generate and disseminate genomic data for use by the cancer research community. OCG programs also promote advances in technology-based infrastructure and create valuable experimental reagents and tools. OCG programs encourage collaboration by interconnecting with other genomics and cancer projects in order to accelerate translation of findings into the clinic. Below are OCG’s current, completed, and initiated programs:

  17. Image-Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  18. Advances in Lung Cancer Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Rahimi

    2010-01-01

    Imaging has a critical role in diagnosis, staging and monitoring of patients with lung cancer."nThe role of imaging in screening for malignancy has not been established."nWe discuss new concepts in staging also the early diagnosis and screening for lung cancer.

  19. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  20. Functional imaging in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Balyasnikowa, S; Fischer, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional ima...

  1. MR imaging of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since publication of the Radiologic Diagnostic Oncology Group Report in 1991, the clinical application of pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to patients with lung cancer has been limited. Computed tomography has been much more widely available for staging of lung cancer in clinical situations. Currently, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy is the only modality that demonstrates pulmonary function while 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is the only modality that reveals biological glucose metabolism of lung cancer. However, recent advancements in MR imaging have made it possible to evaluate morphological and functional information in lung cancer patients more accurately and quantitatively. Pulmonary MR imaging may hold significant potential to substitute for nuclear medicine examinations. In this review, we describe recent advances in MR imaging of lung cancer, focusing on (1) characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules; (2) differentiation from secondary change; evaluation of (3) medastinal invasion, (4) chest wall invasion, (5) lymph node metastasis, and (6) distant metastasis; and (7) pulmonary functional imaging. We believe that further basic studies, as well as clinical applications of newer MR techniques, will play an important role in the management of patients with lung cancer

  2. MR imaging of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu E-mail: yosirad@med.kokbe-u.ac.jpyosirad@kobe-u.ac.jpyoshiharuohno@aol.com; Sugimura, Kazuro; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2002-12-01

    Since publication of the Radiologic Diagnostic Oncology Group Report in 1991, the clinical application of pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to patients with lung cancer has been limited. Computed tomography has been much more widely available for staging of lung cancer in clinical situations. Currently, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy is the only modality that demonstrates pulmonary function while 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is the only modality that reveals biological glucose metabolism of lung cancer. However, recent advancements in MR imaging have made it possible to evaluate morphological and functional information in lung cancer patients more accurately and quantitatively. Pulmonary MR imaging may hold significant potential to substitute for nuclear medicine examinations. In this review, we describe recent advances in MR imaging of lung cancer, focusing on (1) characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules; (2) differentiation from secondary change; evaluation of (3) medastinal invasion, (4) chest wall invasion, (5) lymph node metastasis, and (6) distant metastasis; and (7) pulmonary functional imaging. We believe that further basic studies, as well as clinical applications of newer MR techniques, will play an important role in the management of patients with lung cancer.

  3. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sairah R; Rockall, Andrea G; Barwick, Tara D

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed. PMID:26859085

  4. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  5. Imaging of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Ariff; Claire R Lloyd; Sameer Khan; Mohamed Shariff; Andrew V Thillainayagam; Devinder S Bansi; Shahid A Khan; Simon D Taylor-Robinson; Adrian KP Lim

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in imaging technology allow exploitation of the dual blood supply of the liver to aid in the identi-fication and characterisation of both malignant and benign liver lesions. Imaging techniques available include contrast enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This review discusses the application of several imaging techniques in the diagnosis and staging of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and outlines certain characteristics of benign liver lesions. The advantages of each imaging technique are highlighted, while underscoring the potential pitfalls and limitations of each imaging modality.

  6. Splicing Programs and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Germann; Lise Gratadou; Martin Dutertre; Didier Auboeuf

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies report splicing alterations in a multitude of cancers by using gene-by-gene analysis. However, understanding of the role of alternative splicing in cancer is now reaching a new level, thanks to the use of novel technologies allowing the analysis of splicing at a large-scale level. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing...

  7. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) seeks to improve the lives of cancer patients by finding better treatments, control mechanisms, and cures for cancer. CTEP funds a national program of cancer research, sponsoring clinical trials to evaluate new anti-cancer agents.

  8. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter, as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers.

  9. Head and neck cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, R. (ed.) [University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art imaging in head and neck cancer. Precise determination of tumor extent is of the utmost importance in these neoplasms, as it has important consequences for staging of disease, prediction of outcome and choice of treatment. Only the radiologist can fully appreciate submucosal, perineural, and perivascular tumor spread and detect metastatic disease at an early stage. Imaging is also of considerable benefit for patient surveillance after treatment. All imaging modalities currently used in the management of head and neck neoplasms are considered in depth, and in addition newer techniques such as PET-CT and diffusion-weighted MRI are discussed. This book will help the reader to recommend, execute and report head and neck imaging studies at a high level of sophistication and thereby to become a respected member of the team managing head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  10. Imaging for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the last three decades, 3D imaging with X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were introduced to characterize tumour morphology for improved delineation of target volumes. At present, the time has come to also start the assessment and correction of the temporal alterations of the target volume. This is leading to 'image guided radiotherapy' (IGRT), which is characterized by the integration of 2D and 3D imaging modalities into the radiotherapy workflow. The vision is to detect deformations and motion between radiotherapy fractions (inter-fractional IGRT) and during beam delivery (intra fractional IGRT). Considering these changes and correcting for them either by gating or tracking of the irradiation beam is leading a step further to 'time adapted radiotherapy' (ART). Many institutions are currently addressing this technical challenge, with the goal of implementing IGRT and ART into radiotherapy as a faster, safer and more efficient treatment technique. Another innovation, which is currently coming up is biological adaptive radiotherapy. The background for this approach is the fact, that the old hypothesis of radiotherapy assuming that the tumor consists of homogenous tissue and therefore a homogeneous dose distribution has to be delivered to the target can no longer be sustained. It is known today, that a tumor may consist of various subvolumes with different radiobiological properties. New methods are currently being developed to characterize these properties more appropriately, e.g. by functional and molecular imaging using new tracers for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The challenge in radiotherapy is to develop concepts to include and integrate this information into radiotherapy planning and beam delivery, first by extending the morphological image content towards a biological planning target volume including subvolumes of different radiosensitivity, and

  11. Imaging for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last three decades, 3D imaging with X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were introduced to characterize tumour morphology for improved delineation of target volumes. At present, the time has come to also start the assessment and correction of the temporal alterations of the target volume. This is leading to 'image guided radiotherapy' (IGRT), which is characterized by the integration of 2D and 3D imaging modalities into the radiotherapy workflow. The vision is to detect deformations and motion between radiotherapy fractions (inter-fractional IGRT) and during beam delivery (intra fractional IGRT). Considering these changes and correcting for them either by gating or tracking of the irradiation beam is leading a step further to 'time adapted radiotherapy' (ART). Many institutions are currently addressing this technical challenge, with the goal of implementing IGRT and ART into radiotherapy as a faster, safer and more efficient treatment technique. Another innovation, which is currently coming up is 'biological adaptive radiotherapy'. The background for this approach is the fact, that the old hypothesis of radiotherapy assuming that the tumor consists of homogenous tissue and therefore a homogeneous dose distribution has to be delivered to the target can no longer be sustained. It is known today, that a tumor may consist of various subvolumes with different radiobiological properties. New methods are currently being developed to characterize these properties more appropriately, e.g. by functional and molecular imaging using new tracers for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The challenge in radiotherapy is to develop concepts to include and integrate this information into radiotherapy planning and beam delivery, first by extending the morphological image content towards a biological planning target volume including subvolumes of different radiosensitivity, and second by

  12. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  13. Molecular imaging in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyners, A K L; Broekman, K E; Glaudemans, A W J M; Brouwers, A H; Arts, H J G; van der Zee, A G J; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27141066

  14. Imaging probe for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High spatial resolution, small Field Of View (FOV), fully portable scintillation cameras are lower cost and obviously lower weight than large FOV, not transportable Anger gamma cameras. Portable cameras allow easy transfer of the detector, thus of radioisotope imaging, where the bioptical procedure takes place. In this paper we describe a preliminary experience on radionuclide Breast Cancer (BC) imaging with a 22.8x22.8 mm2 FOV minicamera, already used by our group for sentinel node detection with the name of Imaging Probe (IP). In this work IP BC detection was performed with the aim of guiding biopsy, in particular open biopsy, or to help or modify fine needle or needle addressing when main driving method was echography or digital radiography. The IP prototype weight was about 1 kg. This small scintillation camera is based on the compact Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube Hamamatsu R7600-00-C8, coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillation array 2.6x2.6x5.0 mm3 crystal-pixel size. Spatial resolution of the IP was 2.5 mm Full-Width at Half-Maximum at laboratory tests. IP was provided with acquisition software allowing quick change of pixels number on the computer acquisition frame and an on-line image-smoothing program. Both these programs were developed in order to allow nuclear physicians to quickly get target source when the patient was anesthetized in the operator room, with sterile conditions. 99mTc Sestamibi (MIBI) was injected at the dose of 740 MBq 1 h before imaging and biopsy to 14 patients with suspicious or known BC. Scintigraphic images were acquired before and after biopsy in each patient. Operator was allowed to take into account scintigraphic images as well as previously performed X-ray mammograms and echographies. High-resolution IP images were able to guide biopsy toward cancer or washout zones of the cancer, that are thought to be chemoresistant in 7 patients out of 10. Four patients, in whom IP and MIBI were not able to guide biopsy, did not show

  15. Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

  16. Cancer imaging: is it cost-effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, K A

    2004-01-01

    With expenditure on imaging patients with cancer set to increase in line with rising cancer prevalence, there is a need to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of advanced cancer imaging techniques. Cost-effectiveness studies aim to quantify the cost of providing a service relative to the amount of desirable outcome gained, such as improvements in patient survival. Yet, the impact of imaging on the survival of patients with cancer is small compared to the impact of treatment and is therefore ha...

  17. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun-Jin; Cho, Gyunggoo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. Ho...

  18. Molecular imaging for cancer targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Molecular-genetic imaging which has grown rapidly is currently been applied to studies of gene expression regulation, activity of signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, tumor metastases, stem cell migration, and monitoring cells involved in different components of immune response. Our Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core (MAGIC), established in late 2002, has developed a platform of small animal functional, molecular, and morphologic quantitative imaging techniques which are providing data about biochemical, genetic or pharmacological processes in vivo, and repetitively in the same animal. We first established chimeric reporter and therapeutic gene systems for specific targeting on hepatoma of mouse model. In- vivo microPET and bioluminescence imaging demonstrated the usefulness of tissue specific chimeric tk and hNIS genes. For trafficking the stem cell and cancer cells, we also have established dual and triple reporter gene system and correspondent reporter probes for in vivo imaging by microPET or microSPECT. The second application of translational biomedical imaging of cancer targeting therapy is on the inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, the key enzyme of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR have higher levels of basal receptor phosphorylation and that are associated with clinical responsiveness to Iressa in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). High mutation rate for EGFR in Taiwanese patients of adenocarcinoma of lung suggests an urgent requirement of a non-invasive imaging tool for pre-treatment and during therapy evaluation of lung cancer patients using EGFR signalling inhibitor. Our current work on radiosynthesis of the analogue of Iressa--morpholino-[124I]-IPQA and in vitro and in vivo studies of high basal EGFR-expressing H1299's derivatives (L858R and E746-A750 del cell lines) subcutaneous tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice, has proven that [124I]-IPQA is a feasible in vivo imaging

  19. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  20. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  1. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  2. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  3. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  4. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  5. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic infrared imaging in identification of breast cancer tissue with combined image processing and frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Soimakallio, S; Järvenpää, R; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Dastidar, P

    2008-01-01

    Five combinations of image-processing algorithms were applied to dynamic infrared (IR) images of six breast cancer patients preoperatively to establish optimal enhancement of cancer tissue before frequency analysis. mid-wave photovoltaic (PV) IR cameras with 320x254 and 640x512 pixels were used. The signal-to-noise ratio and the specificity for breast cancer were evaluated with the image-processing combinations from the image series of each patient. Before image processing and frequency analysis the effect of patient movement was minimized with a stabilization program developed and tested in the study by stabilizing image slices using surface markers set as measurement points on the skin of the imaged breast. A mathematical equation for superiority value was developed for comparison of the key ratios of the image-processing combinations. The ability of each combination to locate the mammography finding of breast cancer in each patient was compared. Our results show that data collected with a 640x512-pixel mid-wave PV camera applying image-processing methods optimizing signal-to-noise ratio, morphological image processing and linear image restoration before frequency analysis possess the greatest superiority value, showing the cancer area most clearly also in the match centre of the mammography estimation. PMID:18666012

  7. FES Documentation - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

  8. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  9. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  10. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential ...

  11. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author)

  12. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients with...

  13. Molecular Imaging of Pulmonary Cancer and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Divgi, Chaitanya R.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) may be defined as imaging in vivo using molecules that report on biologic function. This review will focus on the clinical use of radioactive tracers (nonpharmacologic amounts of compounds labeled with a radioactive substance) that permit external imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (planar, SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Imaging of lung cancer has been revolutionized with the use of fluorine-18–labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F...

  14. Integrative Medicine Program- MD Anderson Cancer Center

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrative Medicine Program at MD Anderson Cancer Center was first established in 1998.  Our mission is to empower patients with cancer and their families to become active partners in their own physical, psycho-spiritual, and social health through personalized education and evidenced-based clinical care to optimize health, quality of life, and clinical outcomes across the cancer continuum.  The program consists of three main components: clinical care, research, and education.  The Integr...

  15. Developing Effective Cancer Pain Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michelle Y.; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A.; Johns, Shelley A.

    2012-01-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of d...

  16. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Hedgire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, prostate cancer has an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100,000 men and is responsible for 9% of cancer-related mortality. It is the only malignancy that is diagnosed with an apparently blind technique, i.e., transrectal sextant biopsy. With increasing numbers of high-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI equipment being installed in India, the radiologist needs to be cognizant about endorectal MRI and multiparametric imaging for prostate cancer. In this review article, we aim to highlight the utility of multiparamteric MRI in prostate cancer. It plays a crucial role, mainly in initial staging, restaging, and post-treatment follow-up.

  17. Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhled S. AL-TARAWNEH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, image processing techniques are widely used in several medical areas for image improvement in earlier detection and treatment stages, where the time factor is very important to discover the abnormality issues in target images, especially in various cancer tumours such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image quality and accuracy is the core factors of this research, image quality assessment as well as improvement are depending on the enhancement stage where low pre-processing techniques is used based on Gabor filter within Gaussian rules. Following the segmentation principles, an enhanced region of the object of interest that is used as a basic foundation of feature extraction is obtained. Relying on general features, a normality comparison is made. In this research, the main detected features for accurate images comparison are pixels percentage and mask-labelling.

  18. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  19. Non-conventional imaging of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomi, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This presentation discusses the optimum magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence for lung cancer assessment in a clinical setting, and the sensitivity and specificity of MRI (alone and in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-MR) compared with those of computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) for lung cancer staging. The role of perfusion studies (by CT or MRI), of DWI-MRI, blood oxygenation level dependent sequences and PET in d...

  20. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of a

  1. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kemal Kara; Ersin Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as as...

  2. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  3. Imaging Surveillance of Patients with Breast Cancer after Primary Treatment: Current Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Women who have been treated for breast cancer are at risk for second breast cancers, such as ipsilateral recurrence or contralateral metachronous breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, interest in patient management and surveillance after treatment has also increased. However, post-treatment surveillance programs for patients with breast cancer have not been firmly established. In this review, we focus on the imaging modalities that have been used in post-treatment surveillance for patients with breast cancer, such as mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, the effectiveness of each modality for detecting recurrence, and how they can be applied to manage patients.

  4. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  5. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to...... investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  6. CT Lung Cancer Screening Program Development: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Radiology administrators must use innovative strategies around clinical collaboration and marketing to ensure that patients access the service in sufficient numbers. Radiology Associates of South Florida in collaboration with Baptist Health South Florida have developed a successful lung cancer screening program. The biggest factors in their success have been the affordability of their service and the quality of the program. Like mammography, lung cancer screening programs serve as an entry point to other services that generate revenue for the hospital. Patients may require further evaluation in the form of more imaging or surgical services for biopsy. Part 1 provided background and laid out fundamentals for starting a program. Part 2 focuses on building patient volume, marketing, and issues related to patient management after the screen is performed. PMID:26314180

  7. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  8. Imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dizdarevic, S.; Peters, A M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Primary intrinsic and/or acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main obstacle to successful cancer treatment. Functional molecular imaging of MDR in cancer using single photon or positron emitters may be helpful to identify multidrug-resistant tumours and predict not only those patients who are resistant to treatment, with a clinically unfavourable prognosis, but also those who are susceptible to the development of drug toxicity or even certain tumours . Variations in the mdr1 ge...

  9. Narrow band imaging for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. Hsueh; Allen W. Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a newly developed technology aiming to provide additional endoscopic information for patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the diagnostic accuracy and treatment outcome using NBI cystoscopy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Current results showed improved sensitivity of NBI cystoscopy compared to conventional white light cystoscopy, although lower specificity and increased false-positive results were reported using NBI cystosc...

  10. Head and neck cancer imaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, Robert (ed.) [University Hospital Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2008-07-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art imaging in head and neck cancer. Precise determination of tumor extent is of the utmost importance in these neoplasms, as it has important consequences for staging of disease, prediction of outcome and choice of treatment. Only the radiologist can fully appreciate submucosal, perineural, and perivascular tumor spread and detect metastatic disease at an early stage. Imaging is also of considerable benefit for patient surveillance after treatment. All imaging modalities currently used in the management of head and neck neoplasms are considered in depth, and in addition newer techniques such as PET-CT and diffusion-weighted MRI are discussed. This book will help the reader to recommend, execute and report head and neck imaging studies at a high level of sophistication and thereby to become a respected member of the team managing head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  11. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  12. Medical imaging and computers in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and quantitative image analysis (QIA) methods (i.e., computerized methods of analyzing digital breast images: mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance images) can yield novel image-based tumor and parenchyma characteristics (i.e., signatures that may ultimately contribute to the design of patient-specific breast cancer management plans). The role of QIA/CAD has been expanding beyond screening programs towards applications in risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy as well as in data mining to discover relationships of image-based lesion characteristics with genomics and other phenotypes; thus, as they apply to disease states. These various computer-based applications are demonstrated through research examples from the Giger Lab.

  13. Fluorescent nanoparticle probes for imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Swadeshmukul; Malhotra, Astha

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) have received immense popularity in cancer imaging in recent years because of their attractive optical properties. In comparison to traditional organic-based fluorescent dyes and fluorescent proteins, FNPs offer much improved sensitivity and photostability. FNPs in certain size range have a strong tendency to enter and retain in solid tumor tissue with abnormal (leaky) vasculature--a phenomenon known as Enhanced Permeation and Retention (EPR) effect, advancing their use for in vivo tumor imaging. Furthermore, large surface area of FNPs and their usual core-shell structure offer a platform for designing and fabricating multimodal/multifunctional nanoparticles (MMNPs). For effective cancer imaging, often the optical imaging modality is integrated with other nonoptical-based imaging modalities such as MRI, X-ray, and PET, thus creating multimodal nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging probes. Such multimodal NP probes can be further integrated with therapeutic drug as well as cancer targeting agent leading to multifunctional NPs. Biocompatibility of FNPs is an important criterion that must be seriously considered during FNP design. NP composition, size, and surface chemistry must be carefully selected to minimize potential toxicological consequences both in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we will mainly focus on three different types of FNPs: dye-loaded NPs, quantum dots (Qdots), and phosphores; briefly highlighting their potential use in translational research. PMID:21480546

  14. Imaging of Lung Cancer in the Era of Molecular Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, Mizuki; Jackman, David M.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Jänne, Pasi A.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Van den Abbeele, Annick D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries characterizing the molecular basis of lung cancer brought fundamental changes in lung cancer treatment. The authors review the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer, including genomic abnormalities, targeted therapies, and resistance mechanisms, and discuss lung cancer imaging with novel techniques. Knowledge of the molecular basis of lung cancer is essential for radiologists to properly interpret imaging and assess response to therapy. Quantitative and functional imaging h...

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Imaging: Which Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the 10th most common malignancy and the 4th largest cancer killer in adults. Surgery offers the only chance of curing these patients. Complete surgical resection is associated with a 5-year survival rate of between 20 and 30%. The challenge is how to best select those patients for curative surgery. Early studies demonstrated excellent sensitivity of EUS in detecting pancreatic tumors in comparison to CT. Similarly, EUS showed an 85-94% accuracy rate for T staging and 70-80% accuracy rate for N staging. Later studies report on substantially less TN staging accuracy for EUS. Possible explanations and the problem of vascular involvement assessment by EUS will be provided. Considering the role of EUS in M staging and a comparison between EUS, MRI, and positron emission tomography, scanning will be presented. A diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of patients with a suspected pancreatic mass will be offered, stressing the pivotal role of EUS.

  16. Confocal Raman imaging for cancer cell classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Evelien; Van Dorpe, Pol; Stakenborg, Tim; Liu, Chengxun; Lagae, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    We propose confocal Raman imaging as a label-free single cell characterization method that can be used as an alternative for conventional cell identification techniques that typically require labels, long incubation times and complex sample preparation. In this study it is investigated whether cancer and blood cells can be distinguished based on their Raman spectra. 2D Raman scans are recorded of 114 single cells, i.e. 60 breast (MCF-7), 5 cervix (HeLa) and 39 prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells and 10 monocytes (from healthy donors). For each cell an average spectrum is calculated and principal component analysis is performed on all average cell spectra. The main features of these principal components indicate that the information for cell identification based on Raman spectra mainly comes from the fatty acid composition in the cell. Based on the second and third principal component, blood cells could be distinguished from cancer cells; and prostate cancer cells could be distinguished from breast and cervix cancer cells. However, it was not possible to distinguish breast and cervix cancer cells. The results obtained in this study, demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman imaging for cell type classification and identification purposes.

  17. Integrative Medicine Program- MD Anderson Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Integrative Medicine Program at MD Anderson Cancer Center was first established in 1998.  Our mission is to empower patients with cancer and their families to become active partners in their own physical, psycho-spiritual, and social health through personalized education and evidenced-based clinical care to optimize health, quality of life, and clinical outcomes across the cancer continuum.  The program consists of three main components: clinical care, research, and education.  The Integrative Medicine Center provides clinical services to patients through individual and group programs.  The clinical philosophy of the center is to work collaboratively with the oncology teams to build comprehensive and integrative care plans that are personalized, evidence-based, and safe with the goal of improving clinical outcomes.  The individual services comprise of integrative oncology consultation, acupuncture, meditation, music therapy, nutrition, and oncology massage.  The center also provides a variety of group programs including meditation, yoga, tai chi, cooking classes and others.  Over the past 13 years, over 70,000 patients and families have participated in services and programs offered by the center.  The research portfolio focuses on three main areas: mind-body interventions, acupuncture, and meditation.  This lecture will focus on providing an overview of the Integrative Medicine Program at MD Anderson with a focus on the clinical services provided.  Participants will learn about the integrative clinical model and how this is applied to the care of cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center.  Current and future research topics will be discussed as well as patient cases.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for detecting prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, some difficulties still exist. We retrospectively studied the pathohistological accuracy of MRI, comparing with that of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). We used AIRIS on a 0.3 tesla MRI unit with a body coil. 50 cases (prostate cancer: 30, BPH: 20) histologically diagnosed by sextant biopsy were studied. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis in MRI and TRUS were 76% and 72%, respectively. There is no significant difference. The prostate cancer in the peripheral zone was previously reported being as a low signal intensity on the T2 weighted image. But in the present study, over 85% of the cases did not revealed so-called typical appearance. There was no advantage clarified in diagnosing prostate cancer using MRI over TRUS. There is a certain limit to MRI in diagnosing prostatic cancer. But considering its ability of three-dimensional analysis, evaluating organs locally and generally, and MRI will be more advantageous. (author)

  19. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2001-01-01

    areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  20. GPU programming for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Luca; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-08-01

    Scientific computing is rapidly advancing due to the introduction of powerful new computing hardware, such as graphics processing units (GPUs). Affordable thanks to mass production, GPU processors enable the transition to efficient parallel computing by bringing the performance of a supercomputer to a workstation. We elaborate on some of the capabilities and benefits that GPU technology offers to the field of biomedical imaging. As practical examples, we consider a GPU algorithm for the estimation of position of interaction from photomultiplier (PMT) tube data, as well as a GPU implementation of the MLEM algorithm for iterative image reconstruction.

  1. Metabolic alterations in bladder cancer: applications for cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyard, Terry; Waltzer, Wayne C; Waltzer, Douglas; Romanov, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Treatment planning, outcome and prognosis are strongly related to the adequate tumor staging for bladder cancer (BC). Unfortunately, a large discrepancy exists between the preoperative clinical and final pathologic staging. Therefore, an advanced imaging-based technique is crucial for adequate staging. Although Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently the best in vivo imaging technique for BC staging because of its excellent soft-tissue contrast and absence of ionizing radiation it lacks cancer-specificity. Tumor-specific positron emission tomography (PET), which is based on the Warburg effect (preferential uptake of glucose by cancer cells), exploits the radioactively-labeled glucose analogs, i.e., FDG. Although FDG-PET is highly cancer specific, it lacks resolution and contrast quality comparable with MRI. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI enables the detection of low concentrations of metabolites containing protons. BC is an attractive target for glucose CEST MRI because, in addition to the typical systemic administration, glucose might also be directly applied into the bladder to reduce toxicity-related complications. As a first stage of the development of a contrast-specific BC imaging technique we have studied glucose uptake by bladder epithelial cells and have observed that glucose is, indeed, consumed by BC cells with higher intensity than by non-transformed urothelial cells. This effect might be partly explained by increased expression of glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 in transformed cells as compared to normal urothelium. We also detected higher lactate production by BC cells which is another cancer-specific manifestation of the Warburg effect. In addition, we have observed other metabolic alterations in BC cells as compared to non-transformed cells: in particular, increased pyruvate synthesis. When glucose was substituted by glutamine in culture media, preferential uptake of glutamine by BC cells was observed. The preferential

  2. Restoration of body image and self-esteem for women after cancer treatment: a rehabilitative strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M S; Johnson, J

    1994-01-01

    Cancer treatment has the potential for limited or permanent impact on body image and self-esteem. Physical changes that impose cosmetic and appearance challenges can be psychologically immobilizing for women with cancer. Their ability to function within social roles may also be affected. This paper describes a restorative strategy as part of a comprehensive cancer rehabilitation program. Women who have had cancer are invited to an informal event that combines fashion modeling with practical suggestions for adaptive and cosmetic needs. Fashion and beauty products are displayed and informational materials provided. It incorporates components of Look Good ... Feel Better, a joint program of the American Cancer Society, the National Cosmetology Association and the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association Foundation. Evaluations show this program to be helpful and enjoyable for attendees. Health professionals can utilize this strategy in a variety of settings as a component of a cancer rehabilitation program. PMID:7697072

  3. Pitfalls of Imaging in Breast Cancer Diagnosis:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalantari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nWith the introduction of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer a new horizon is created in breast cancer diagnosis. Instead of palpated easy-to-manage lesions, now the surgeon is confronted with non palpable findings on the mammogram, sometimes very difficult for decision, that highlight the importance of the role of the interventional breast radiologist in the team and surgeon-radiologist collaboration. "nThis close collaboration would eliminate many difficulties in correct cancer diagnosis, both for the radiologist and the surgeon. "nIn this study, reviewing interesting difficult cases during the last 8 years, we present all pitfalls in imaging that can be avoided in majority by team work collaboration.  

  4. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakumaeki, Juhana M. [Cellular and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Biomedical NMR, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) and Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: juhana.hakumaki@uku.fi; Liimatainen, Timo [Cellular and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Biomedical NMR, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-11-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer. Mechanisms hindering its action are implicated in a number of malignancies. Also, the induction of apoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment regimes such as irradiation, chemotherapy, or hormones. Recent advanced in imaging science have made it now possible for us to detect and visualize previously inaccessible and even unrecognized biological phenomena in cells and tissue undergoing apoptosis in vivo. Not only are these imaging techniques painting an intriguing picture of the spatiotemporal characteristics and metabolic and biophysical of apoptosis in situ, but they are expected to have an ever increasing impact in preclinical testing and design of new anticancer agents as well. Rapid and accurate visualization of apoptotic response in the clinical settings can also be of significant diagnostic and prognostic worth. With the advent of molecular medicine and patient-tailored treatment options and therapeutic agents, such monitoring techniques are becoming paramount.

  5. SPECT imaging for breast cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate staging in breast cancer, including tumour sizing and the assessment of nodal and distant metastases, is required in order to plan surgery and post-operative therapy. Medical imaging techniques have made an important contribution to the diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast and the evaluation of local, regional and distant metastases. The study is aimed at establishing certain aspects of the diagnostic importance and priority of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in breast cancer. SPECT was carried out just after planar scintigraphy and then after intravenous injection of different radiopharmaceuticals in 45 women with histologically confirmed post-operation breast cancer. In 21 patients under loco-regional control of the disease before and/or after surgery, planar mammoscintigraphy and SPECT were conducted after intravenous injection of 99Tcm-MIBI (methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) or 99Tcm-anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Bone SPECT was carried out in 24 patients when whole body scintigraphy was unable to determine the exact localization of bone metastatic lesions in the skull, thorax and pelvis. The results suggest that SPECT with 99Tcm-MIBI and 99Tcm-anti-CEA MoAb has high sensitivity and improves the results of conventional planar scintigraphy for breast cancer detection. Breast SPECT is a preferable method for tumour and lymph node imaging because of the excellent separation of the deep breast structures from the myocardium in the left breast and of the right breast from the liver, thus improving the resolution of small, deep seated lesions. SPECT improves breast cancer staging, and determines the tumour, nodule and metastasis categories, which are important for the treatment strategy and prognosis of the disease. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of prostatic cancer is histological. Apart from rectal examination, only imaging techniques allow evaluation of the extension of the cancer. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) was performed with a Magniscan 5000 (Thomson C.G.R., France) apparatus. Three types of sequences were used: a short RT sequence (30/500, a multi-echo sequence with a long RT (40/2500) and echo gradient sequences (12 scans in less than 3 minutes). The MRI study of the pelvis is favoured by the abundance of fat which gives good contrast, spontaneous visualization of the vessels and the presence of the bladder with a high signal for urine in T2. This provides a very good anatomical study in three planes. In prostatic cancer, the study of the long sequence signal reveals heterogeneity of the prostatic signal on the second echo, but this is a non-specific variation. The staging of prostatic cancer is facilitated by scans in three planes. Different examples are presented in relation to various stages of the disease. Three clinical cases demonstrate that Magnetic Resonance may become an important element in the choice of treatment

  8. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  9. SEGMENTATION OF LUNG CANCER PET SCAN IMAGES USING FUZZY CMEANS

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh T; Narasimha Prasad L V

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a vital role in medical image processing. Eventually, the proposed work is subjected to classify the tumour and non-tumour parts, followed by the segmentation of tumour region in PET scan images. Lung cancer has been the largest cause of cancer deaths. This paper focuses on Fuzzy C means algorithm for Lung tumour part segmentation of PET scan images to diagnose accurately the region of cancer. A PET scan can often detect cellular level metabolic changes at the earl...

  10. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  11. Engineered antibodies for molecular imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Antibody technology has transformed drug development, providing robust approaches to producing highly targeted and active therapeutics that can routinely be advanced through clinical evaluation and registration. In parallel, there is an emerging need to access similarly targeted agents for diagnostic purposes, including non-invasive imaging in preclinical models and patients. Antibody engineering enables modification of key properties (immunogenicity, valency, biological inertness, pharmacokinetics, clearance route, site-specific conjugation) in order to produce targeting agents optimized for molecular imaging. Expanded availability of positron-emitting radionuclides has led to a resurgence of interest and applications of immunoPET (immuno-positron emission tomography). Molecular imaging using engineered antibodies and fragments provides a general approach for assessing cell surface phenotype in vivo and stands to play an increasingly important role in cancer diagnosis, treatment selection, and monitoring of molecularly targeted therapeutics. PMID:24091005

  12. Opinion of nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatramana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Found to be effective in its treatment. The increased incidence of breast cancer supports the implementation of breast cancer screening programs. The present study evaluates the opinion among nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs in United Arab Emirates (UAE. Materials and Methods: The study population included 154 nurses practicing at different hospitals in United Arab Emirates (UAE, all nurses who participated in the breast cancer awareness programme organized by Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE. A self-administered, pretested, structured, close-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis was performed using Predictive Analytic Software (PASW 17. Results: The participants′ age ranged between 20 and 59 years. Fifty percent of the participants strongly agreed with the early detection of breast cancer by performing breast self examination. Thirty-nine percent were of the opinion that women aged 40 years and older should have a mammogram every year and continue to do so and 25.3% strongly felt that women in their 20s and 30s should have clinical breast examination as part of their periodic health examination by health professionals. 33.8% of the respondents strongly agree on providing information on the benefits and limitations of BSE to the female population. Twenty-six percent of the participants strongly agree that women at high risk should get magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram done every year. Conclusion: The present study indicates the need for providing workplace training programs thus equipping them with better knowledge and enhancing their service among the general population.

  13. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  14. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  15. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for Bone Cancer Metastasis Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Bianca Feliciano; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Iscaife, Alexandre; Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos; de Souza Junqueira, Mara; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery systems are under intense investigation all around the world, especially in oncology research. Indeed, in some cases, like bone metastasis, nanodrugs may represent the last and best choice for both treatment and imaging of early cancer foci. Nuclear medicine has been using MDP labelled with 99mTc as radiopharmaceuticals for many years; however, their use as nanoradiopharmaceuticals is very innovative and creates a new way to establish radiopharmacy in this new scenario offered by nanotechnology. In this study we developed and tested nano-MDP-labelled with 99mTc in rats induced with bone cancer metastasis and the results showed that it may work in patients. However, some further experiments are required in order to initiate protocols in humans. PMID:25847010

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging of the prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of DTI for prostate cancer. Methods: From October 2009 to December 2010,44 patients suspected of prostate cancer received MRI and DTI. The data of MRI and DTI were analyzed retrospectively. By histopathology, prostate cancer was proved in 16 patients,and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was proved in 28 patients. Differences in ADC and FA values between prostate cancer and BPH were compared by independent samples t test. Diagnostic accuracy of FA value and ADC value for prostate cancer was analyzed by using ROC curve, and the diagnostic threshold of FA value and ADC value for prostate cancer was determined. Results: The mean FA value of the tumor regions and BPH were 0.308±0.084 and 0.203 ±0.029, respectively. The mean ADC value of the tumor regions and BPH were (0.883±0.192) × 10-3 mm2/s and ( 1.408 ±0.130) × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in ADC and FA values between tumor regions and BPH (t values were 4.833 and 10.779 respectively, P<0.01). The ADC value area under curve of ROC was 0.996 (95% CI was 0.984 to 1.007); the FA value area under curve of ROC was 0.904 (95% CI was 0.812 to 0.996); Combined the FA and ADC value area under curve of ROC is 0.996 (95% CI was 0.984 to 1.007); Using the ADC value of 0.725 × 10-3 mm2/s as the ROC cut off point, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.0%, respectively; Using the FA value of 0.311 as the ROC cut off point,the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was 100.0% and 68.7%, respectively. Conclusion: DTI imaging can provide valuable information for prostate cancer diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and improve the diagnosis ability of prostate cancer. (authors)

  17. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  18. Novel imaging strategies for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic imaging is the cornerstone of all cancer treatment. Unfortunately, modern imaging modalities have several unsolved problems and limitations. The differentiation between inflammation and cancer infiltration, false positive and false negative findings as well as lack of...... confirming biopsies in suspected metastases may have serious negative consequences in cancer patients. This review describes some of these problems and challenges the use of conventional imaging by suggesting new combined strategies that include selective use of confirming biopsies and complementary methods...

  19. How to improve your breast cancer program: Standardized reporting using the new American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the USA, the use of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS) has served not only as a quality assurance tool and guide to standardizing breast imaging reports but has also improved communication between referring physicians, researchers, and patients. In fact, in the USA, the Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1997 requires that all mammograms be assigned a BI-RADS category based on the finding of most concern. In this manuscript, we aim to review the recommendations provided in the 4th edition of the ACR BI-RADS for mammography, USG, and MRI. We also review the major controversies surrounding the use of ACR BI-RADS

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary and recurrent anal carcinoma, and to demonstrate the commonest patterns of local and distant disease spread. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 27 cases of biopsy-proven anal carcinoma, where MRI was used for primary staging (9 patients) or suspected recurrence (18 patients). Two oncological radiologists reviewed the MR images, following a standardized approach. The size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumour were documented. Metastatic disease spread to lymph nodes, viscera and bone was recorded. In all, 7 patients with recurrent disease underwent surgery and subsequent histological correlation was performed. RESULTS: Primary and recurrent tumours were of high signal intensity relative to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images (T2WI), and of low to intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI). Lymph node metastases were of similar signal intensity to the anal cancer. Recurrent tumours were more locally advanced than primary tumours and extended into adjacent organs and the pelvic skeleton. Recurrent lymph node disease involved perirectal, presacral and internal iliac nodes more commonly than did primary lymph node disease. CONCLUSION: MRI can be useful in the primary staging of bulky tumours or of those with a long craniocaudal extent. MR has a role in the preoperative evaluation and surgical planning of cases of recurrent disease following radiotherapy

  1. Innovative Program Aims to Improve Support for Cancer Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An article about an educational program at the City of Hope Cancer Center intended to provide health professionals with the tools and information needed to help family caregivers care for themselves and their loved ones with cancer.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by comparison of MRI studies and pathological findings in lung cancer patients. From May 2005 to May 2006, 52 lung cancer patients underwent surgical operation in our division. Forty-five patients, each with a preoperatively recognized peripheral lung lesion underwent the MRI study. Short TI inversion recovery (STIR), high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with free breathing scanning and dynamic MRI studies were performed. There was no statistically significant difference between adenocarcinoma (n=35) and other carcinomas (n=10) on MRI findings. Twenty-seven adenocarcinomas (less than 30 mm in diameter) were histologically diagnosed as follows: 9 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), 12 patients with advanced BAC, and 6 non-BAC cases (adenocarcinoma without a BAC component) group. When the lesions demonstrated a strong enhancement (steep type) on dynamic studies or showed a strong signal (score 4) intensity on DWI, we judged them to be positive (indicating invasion). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 94.4%, 66.6%, and 85.2%, respectively. The MRI studies permitted the acquisition of more detailed information on peripheral lung adenocarcinomas, and high b-value DWI is valuable as a supporting tool in evaluating the grade of malignancy. (author)

  3. Applications of molecular MRI and optical imaging in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Penet, Marie-France; Mikhaylova, Maria; Li, Cong; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Glunde, Kristine; Pathak, Arvind P.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most exciting advances in molecular-functional imaging of cancer are occurring at the interface between chemistry and imaging. Several of these advances have occurred through the development of novel imaging probes that report on molecular pathways, the tumor micro-environment and the response of tumors to treatment; as well as through novel image-guided platforms such as nanoparticles and nanovesicles that deliver therapeutic agents against specific targets and pathways. Cancer c...

  4. Molecular imaging of cancer: MR spectroscopy and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the investigation of cancer metabolism. As an adjunct to morphologic and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, it is routinely used for the staging, assessment of treatment response, and therapy monitoring in brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Recently, its application was extended to other cancerous diseases, such as malignant soft-tissue tumours, gastrointestinal and gynecological cancers, as well as nodal metastasis. In this review, we discuss the current and evolving clinical applications of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. In addition, we will briefly discuss other evolving techniques, such as phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, sodium imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer assessment.

  5. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is diagn

  6. Implementation of an image-guided radiation therapy program: lessons learn and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this paper is to detail the experience obtained in implementing an image-guided radiation therapy program at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. This required retrofitting a Varian Clinac 21EX with an on-board imager. The commissioning and quality assurance procedures, organisation of a multidisciplinary image guided radiation therapy group, and the development of clinical protocols for orthogonal kV and cone beam computed tomography implementation are described. Reassessment of the image-guided radiation therapy program has continued as new equipment and software versions were made available in the department.

  7. Self-assembled levan nanoparticles for targeted breast cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Bae, Pan Kee; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the targeted imaging of breast cancer using self-assembled levan nanoparticles. Indocyanine green (ICG) was encapsulated in levan nanoparticles via self-assembly. Levan-ICG nanoparticles were found to be successfully accumulated in breast cancer via specific interaction between fructose moieties in levan and overexpressed glucose transporter 5 in breast cancer cells. PMID:25383444

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Yong Du; Hanfeng Yang; Yayong Huang; Jun Meng; Dongmei Xiao

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available,the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization.In clinical practice,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer,the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location,size,and extent,while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness.This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI)for aiding prostate cancer management.

  9. Developing imaging strategies for castration resistant prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the understanding of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have lead to a growing number of experimental therapies, many of which are directed against the androgen-receptor (AR) signaling axis. These advances generate the need for reliable molecular imaging biomarkers to non-invasively determine efficacy, and to better guide treatment selection of these promising AR-targeted drugs. Methods. We draw on our own experience, supplemented by review of the current literature, to discuss the systematic development of imaging biomarkers for use in the context of CRPC, with a focus on bone scintigraphy, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and PET imaging of the AR signaling axis. Results. The roadmap to biomarker development mandates rigorous standardization and analytic validation of an assay before it can be qualified successfully for use in an appropriate clinical context. The Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) criteria for 'radiographic' progression by bone scintigraphy serve as a paradigm of this process. Implemented by the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC), these consensus criteria may ultimately enable the co-development of more potent and versatile molecular imaging biomarkers. Purported to be superior to single-photon bone scanning, the added value of Na18F-PET for imaging of bone metastases is still uncertain. FDG-PET already plays an integral role in the management of many diseases, but requires further evaluation before being qualified in the context of CRPC. PET tracers that probe the AR signaling axis, such as 18F-FDHT and 89Zr-591, are now under development as pharmacodynamic markers, and as markers of efficacy, in tandem with FDG-PET. Semi-automated analysis programs for facilitating PET interpretation may serve as a valuable tool to help navigate the biomarker roadmap. Conclusions. Molecular imaging strategies, particularly those that probe the AR signaling axis, have the potential to

  10. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  11. Rapid Cancer Fluorescence Imaging Using A γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase-Specific Probe For Primary Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hino, Haruaki; Kamiya, Mako; Kitano, Kentaro; Mizuno, Kazue; Tanaka, Sayaka; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Urano, Yasuteru; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We set out to examine the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) in lung cancer and the validity of γ-glutamyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (gGlu-HMRG) for intraoperative imaging of primary lung cancer. METHODS: GGT activities and mRNA expression levels of GGT1 (one of the GGT subtypes) in five human lung cancer cell lines were examined by fluorescence imaging and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vivo imaging of an orthotopic A549 xenograft mod...

  12. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  13. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  14. Breast cancer imaging by microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minghua; Ku, Geng; Jin, Xing; Wang, Lihong V.; Fornage, Bruno D.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2005-04-01

    We report a preliminary study of breast cancer imaging by microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography. In this study, we built a prototype of breast cancer imager based on a circular scan mode. A 3-GHz 0.3~0.5-μs microwave is used as the excitation energy source. A 2.25-MHz ultrasound transducer scans the thermoacoustic signals. All the measured data is transferred to a personal computer for imaging based on our proposed back-projection reconstruction algorithms. We quantified the line spread function of the imaging system. It shows the spatial resolution of our experimental system reaches 0.5 mm. After phantom experiments demonstrated the principle of this technique, we moved the imaging system to the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to image the excised breast cancer specimens. After the surgery performed by the physicians at the Cancer Center, the excised breast specimen was placed in a plastic cylindrical container with a diameter of 10 cm; and it was then imaged by three imaging modalities: radiograph, ultrasound and thermoacoustic imaging. Four excised breast specimens have been tested. The tumor regions have been clearly located. This preliminary study demonstrated the potential of microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for applications in breast cancer imaging.

  15. Biomedical Image Analysis by Program "Vision Assistant" and "Labview"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces application in image analysis of biomedical images. General task is focused on analysis and diagnosis biomedical images obtained from program ImageJ. There are described methods which can be used for images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on particle analysis, pattern matching techniques. For this task was chosensophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  16. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Clinical imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most well-characterized mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) involves P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. The recognition of 99mTc-Sestamibi and other lipophilic cations as transport substrates for Pgp provided the necessary tool for the clinical assessment of Pgp function in patients with cancer. Many clinical studies from different institutions and trials including variety of malignancies indicate that both tumor uptake and clearance of 99mTc-Sestamibi are correlate with Pgp expression and may be used for the phenotypic assessment of multidrug resistance. Although both parameters may predict tumor responsible to chemotherapy, the extraction of efflux rate constants appeared o provide a more direct index of Pgp function as compared tp tracer uptake ratio allowing to trace a continuous spectrum of drug transport activity. Preliminary studies the use of MDR imaging agents to monitor the modulating ability of revertant compounds. Although the results support the feasibility of this approach, the alteration of tracer pharmacokinetics induced by the modulators certainly constitute a challenge in the development of a simple functional test suitable in clinical practice. The extension of the acquired imaging methodology to tumors with redundant intrinsic resistant mechanism. Due to multifactorial nature of phenomenon, the development of new tracers with substrate specificity for other known the complex array of cellular mechanisms contributing to treatment failure

  18. Clinical imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Vecchi, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Salvatore, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Medicina Nucleare. Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali

    1999-06-01

    The most well-characterized mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) involves P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. The recognition of {sup 9}9mTc-Sestamibi and other lipophilic cations as transport substrates for Pgp provided the necessary tool for the clinical assessment of Pgp function in patients with cancer. Many clinical studies from different institutions and trials including variety of malignancies indicate that both tumor uptake and clearance of {sup 9}9mTc-Sestamibi are correlate with Pgp expression and may be used for the phenotypic assessment of multidrug resistance. Although both parameters may predict tumor responsible to chemotherapy, the extraction of efflux rate constants appeared o provide a more direct index of Pgp function as compared tp tracer uptake ratio allowing to trace a continuous spectrum of drug transport activity. Preliminary studies the use of MDR imaging agents to monitor the modulating ability of revertant compounds. Although the results support the feasibility of this approach, the alteration of tracer pharmacokinetics induced by the modulators certainly constitute a challenge in the development of a simple functional test suitable in clinical practice. The extension of the acquired imaging methodology to tumors with redundant intrinsic resistant mechanism. Due to multifactorial nature of phenomenon, the development of new tracers with substrate specificity for other known the complex array of cellular mechanisms contributing to treatment failure.

  19. Targeted Gold Nanoparticles enable Molecular CT Imaging of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Popovtzer, Rachela; Agrawal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Popovtzer, Aron; Balter, James; Carey, Thomas E.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-01-01

    X-ray based computed tomography (CT), is among the most convenient imaging/diagnostic tools in hospitals today in terms of availability, efficiency and cost. However, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and various nuclear medicine imaging modalities, CT is not considered a molecular imaging modality since targeted and molecularly specific contrast agents have not yet been developed. Here we describe a targeted molecular imaging platform that enables, for the first time, cancer de...

  20. "I Am More than My Cancer": An Exploratory Examination of Adventure Programming and Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Adventure programs have recently emerged that are specifically designed for individuals living with cancer, yet few research studies document the outcomes of such programs. The purpose of the current qualitative study was to examine the effects of an adventure program on individual adult cancer survivors. Three central themes emerged from the…

  1. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    molecular imaging information. Developments in imaging technologies, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), have improved the detection rate of prostate cancer. MRI has improved lesion detection and local staging. Furthermore, MRI......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an essential role in the clinical management of patients. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis of anatomic, functional, and....../CT imaging of prostate cancer. Among these, choline (labeled with (18)F or (11)C), (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-fluoride have demonstrated promising results, and other new radiopharmaceuticals are currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies....

  2. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an essential role in the clinical management of patients. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis of anatomic, functional, and...... molecular imaging information. Developments in imaging technologies, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), have improved the detection rate of prostate cancer. MRI has improved lesion detection and local staging. Furthermore, MRI....../CT imaging of prostate cancer. Among these, choline (labeled with (18)F or (11)C), (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-fluoride have demonstrated promising results, and other new radiopharmaceuticals are currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies....

  3. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observe...

  4. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps of the...

  5. Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sachiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Miyoshi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopic images of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectrometer. For the systematic identification of cancer tumors, the principal component analysis and the clustering analysis were applied. In three of the four samples, the cancer tissue was recognized as an aggregate of the data points in the principal component plots. By the agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the data points were well categorized into cancer and the other tissues. This method can be also applied to various kinds of automatic discrimination of plural components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

  6. Cancer Imaging at the Crossroads of Precision Medicine: Perspective From an Academic Imaging Department in a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Krajewski, Katherine M; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Fennessy, Fiona M; DiPiro, Pamela J; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Harris, Gordon J; Jacene, Heather A; Lefever, Greg; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-04-01

    The authors propose one possible vision for the transformative role that cancer imaging in an academic setting can play in the current era of personalized and precision medicine by sharing a conceptual model that is based on experience and lessons learned designing a multidisciplinary, integrated clinical and research practice at their institution. The authors' practice and focus are disease-centric rather than imaging-centric. A "wall-less" infrastructure has been developed, with bidirectional integration of preclinical and clinical cancer imaging research platforms, enabling rapid translation of novel cancer drugs from discovery to clinical trial evaluation. The talents and expertise of medical professionals, scientists, and staff members have been coordinated in a horizontal and vertical fashion through the creation of Cancer Imaging Consultation Services and the "Adopt-a-Radiologist" campaign. Subspecialized imaging consultation services at the hub of an outpatient cancer center facilitate patient decision support and management at the point of care. The Adopt-a-Radiologist campaign has led to the creation of a novel generation of imaging clinician-scientists, fostered new collaborations, increased clinical and academic productivity, and improved employee satisfaction. Translational cancer research is supported, with a focus on early in vivo testing of novel cancer drugs, co-clinical trials, and longitudinal tumor imaging metrics through the imaging research core laboratory. Finally, a dedicated cancer imaging fellowship has been developed, promoting the future generation of cancer imaging specialists as multidisciplinary, multitalented professionals who are trained to effectively communicate with clinical colleagues and positively influence patient care. PMID:26774886

  7. Quantification of mouse pulmonary cancer models by microcomputed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advances in preclinical cancer models, including orthotopic implantation models or genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, enable pursuing the molecular mechanism of cancer disease that might mimic genetic and biological processes in humans. Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer deaths; therefore, the treatment and prevention of lung cancer are expected to be improved by a better understanding of the complex mechanism of disease. In this study, we have examined the quantification of two distinct mouse lung cancer models by utilizing imaging modalities for monitoring tumor progression and drug efficacy evaluation. The utility of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) for real-time/non-invasive monitoring of lung cancer progression has been confirmed by combining bioluminescent imaging and histopathological analyses. Further, we have developed a more clinically relevant lung cancer model by utilizing K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H mutant mice. Using micro-CT imaging, we monitored the development and progression of solitary lung tumor in K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H mutant mouse, and further demonstrated tumor growth inhibition by anticancer drug treatment. These results clearly indicate that imaging-guided evaluation of more clinically relevant tumor models would improve the process of new drug discovery and increase the probability of success in subsequent clinical studies. (author)

  8. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Leest, Cor

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is diagnosed at an early stage patients are considered to have the best overall survival rate 2. Unfortunately, only a minority of patients is currently diagnosed at a curable stage of disease. The lack of...

  9. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  10. Image-derived biomarkers and multimodal imaging strategies for lung cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Divine, Mathew R.; Pichler, Bernd J. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. For this reason, advances in diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. With the introduction of new, highly innovative hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/CT, staging and therapy response monitoring in lung cancer patients have substantially evolved. In this review, we discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in the management of lung cancer patients and the importance of new emerging imaging technologies and radiotracer developments on the path to personalized medicine. (orig.)

  11. Image-derived biomarkers and multimodal imaging strategies for lung cancer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. For this reason, advances in diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. With the introduction of new, highly innovative hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/CT, staging and therapy response monitoring in lung cancer patients have substantially evolved. In this review, we discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in the management of lung cancer patients and the importance of new emerging imaging technologies and radiotracer developments on the path to personalized medicine. (orig.)

  12. Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period. It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body. This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society. PMID:24769802

  13. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X [Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xiao Tiqiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: pingliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisaxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-21

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  14. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Jianqi; Gu, Xiang; Xiao, Tiqiao; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2010-04-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  15. Imaging Pancreatic Cancer with Folic Acid Terminated Luminescent Silicon Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erogbogbo, Folarin; Swihart, Mark T.

    2010-10-01

    Quantum dots have great potential for visualization of medically relevant targets such as cancer. However, potential toxicity, stemming from the use of heavy metal based semidonductor materials, has been a major impediment to use of quantum dots in vivo. Silicon is an inherently non-toxic element. By combining the unique optical properties of silicon quantum dots with fundamentals of cancer biology, we can develop probes that safely target and enable the visualization of cancer cells. Many cancer cells overexpress folate receptors, making the folate receptors a suitable target for cancer imaging evaluations. Here, we report the synthesis of folic acid coated silicon quantum dots for targeting pancreatic cancer cells. Folic acid on the silicon quantum dots improves selectivity and may decrease possible negative side effects. This demonstration adds to the evidence that silicon can be sucessfully used for biological imaging.

  16. Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Peng, Yuan-yuan; Guo, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recently emerged as a promising imaging technique for prostate cancer. But there was still a lot of challenge in the PAI for prostate cancer detection, such as laser illumination modality. Knowledge of absorbed light distribution in prostate tissue was essential since the distribution characteristic of absorbed light energy would influence the imaging depth and range of PAI. In order to make a comparison of different laser illumination modality of photoacoustic imaging technique for prostate cancer, optical model of human prostate was established and combined with Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the light absorption distribution in the prostate tissue. Characteristic of light absorption distribution of transurethral and trans-rectal illumination case, and of tumor at different location was compared with each other.The relevant conclusions would be significant for optimizing the light illumination in a PAI system for prostate cancer detection.

  17. IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY AND -BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh eDutta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy.Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT, allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer.

  18. Image-guided radiotherapy and -brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suresh; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Vock, Jacqueline; Kerr, Christine; Godinez, Juan; Bose, Satya; Jang, Siyoung; Chi, Alexander; Almeida, Fabio; Woods, William; Desai, Anand; David, Rick; Karlsson, Ulf Lennart; Altdorfer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy. Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT), allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer. PMID:25853092

  19. Clinical study of imaging skin cancer margins using polarized light imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Lee, Ken; Jacques, Steven L.

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer is most commons type of cancer in United States that occur on sun-exposed cosmetically sensitive areas like face, neck, and forearms. Surgical excision of skin cancer is challenging as more than one-third the actual margins extend beyond the clinically determined margins. Polarized light camera (polCAM) provides images of the superficial layers of the tissue with enhanced contrast which was used to image skin cancer margins. In a NIH-funded pilot study polCAM was used to image skin cancer in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery for skin cancer. Polarized light imaging utilizes the polarization properties of light to create an image of a lesion comprised only of light scattering from the superficial layers of the skin which yields a characteristic "fabric pattern" of the putative lesion and the surrounding normal tissue. In several case studies conducted with a system developed for the clinic, we have found that skin cancer disrupts this fabric pattern, allowing the doctor a new means of identifying the margins of the lesion. Data is acquired before the patient underwent surgery. The clinically determined skin cancer margins were compared with margins determined by examination of the polCAM images. The true margins were provided by the dermatophathologist on examination of the frozen sections. Our initial data suggests that the contrast due to polarization changes associated with cancerous lesions can elucidate margins that were not recognized by the surgeon under normal conditions but were later confirmed by the pathologist.

  20. The National Cancer Program: Driving Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of NCI’s role in driving cancer research discoveries: conducting and funding research in challenging areas and providing resources and leadership to national infrastructures for cancer research.

  1. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  2. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers. PMID:24511645

  3. Image-guided focal therapy for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Wood, Bradford J.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Diaz, Annerleim Walton; Hoang, Anthony N.; Pinto, Peter A.; Peter L. Choyke; Türkbey, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of routine prostate specific antigen screening has led to the discovery of many small and low-grade prostate cancers which have a low probability of causing mortality. These cancers, however, are often treated with radical therapies resulting in long-term side effects. There has been increasing interest in minimally invasive focal therapies to treat these tumors. While imaging modalities have improved rapidly over the past decade, similar advances in image-guided therapy are now ...

  4. Targeting Strategies for Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Kyung Yu, Jinho Park, Sangyong Jon

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles harboring various functions including targeting, imaging, therapy, and etc have been intensively studied aiming to overcome limitations associated with conventional cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of various nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property have shown potential as multifunctional nanoparticles for clinical translation because they have been used...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationshi...

  6. Silica nanoparticle-based dual imaging colloidal hybrids: cancer cell imaging and biodistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Haisung Lee,1 Dongkyung Sung,2 Jinhoon Kim,3 Byung-Tae Kim,3 Tuntun Wang,4 Seong Soo A An,5 Soo-Won Seo,6 Dong Kee Yi4 1Molecular Diagnostics, In Vitro Diagnostics Unit, New Business Division, SK Telecom, 2Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Korea University, 3Interdisciplinary Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, 4Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Seoul, 5Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, 6Medical Device Development Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: In this study, fluorescent dye-conjugated magnetic resonance (MR imaging agents were investigated in T mode. Gadolinium-conjugated silica nanoparticles were successfully synthesized for both MR imaging and fluorescence diagnostics. Polyamine and polycarboxyl functional groups were modified chemically on the surface of the silica nanoparticles for efficient conjugation of gadolinium ions. The derived gadolinium-conjugated silica nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. MR equipment was used to investigate their use as contrast-enhancing agents in T1 mode under a 9.4 T magnetic field. In addition, we tracked the distribution of the gadolinium-conjugated nanoparticles in both lung cancer cells and organs in mice. Keywords: dual bioimaging, MR imaging, silica colloid, T1 contrast imaging, nanohybrid

  7. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  8. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amal S. Ibrahim; Khaled, Hussein M.; Nabiel NH Mikhail; Hoda Baraka; Hossam Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data ...

  9. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  10. Increasing Underrepresented Scientists in Cancer Research: The UCSD CURE Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred, Lawrence; Beerman, Paula R.; Tahir, Zunera; LaHousse, Sheila F.; Russell, Percy; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-01-01

    The Moores UCSD Cancer Center’s Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences program aims to increase the number of underrepresented students pursuing careers in cancer research, cancer care, and health disparities research. Participants receive 8 weeks of laboratory and classroom training during the summer followed by participation in research mentors’ laboratories. Of the 82 CURE students accrued (2002 and 2008), 91% persisted in science after 1 year. Of the 63 students eligible to graduate ...

  11. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system, the...

  12. Alternative Splicing Programs in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Sette

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most frequent causes of death for cancer in the male population. Although the initial antiandrogenic therapies are efficacious, PCa often evolves into a hormone-resistant, incurable disease. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of this type of cancer renders its diagnosis and cure particularly challenging. Mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing, the process that allows production of multiple mRNA variants from each gene, contributes ...

  13. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  14. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  15. Lung cancer screening program using annual chest radiographs with computed radiography (FCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ikegaki, Shigeru; Chika, Koyata; Nitta, Haruo; Seno, Takashi; Miyashita, Yukichi; Kobayashi, Tadashi

    1987-08-01

    In the Wajima lung cancer screening program conducted under the auspices of Kanazawa University Hospital, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was utilized in a new chest radiography trial. The results of the screening program are that the necessity of repeat examinations due to poor image quality are less common and the method enables detection of small pulmonary nodular shadows which are possibly candidates for surgery. Oblique chest X-ray with FCR is remarkably effective for the detection and the identification of small lesions. However, the disadvantage of slow processing and high cost must be fully satisfied if FCR is to become a new imaging modality for mass screening.

  16. Imaging hallmarks of cancer in living mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Saskia I J; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    To comprehend the complexity of cancer, the biological characteristics acquired during the initiation and progression of tumours were classified as the 'hallmarks of cancer'. Intravital microscopy techniques have been developed to study individual cells that acquire these crucial traits, by visualiz

  17. Clinical PET-MR Imaging in Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samuel L; Friedman, Kent P

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid imaging systems have dramatically improved thoracic oncology patient care over the past 2 decades. PET-MR imaging systems have the potential to further improve imaging of thoracic neoplasms, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic advantages compared with current MR imaging and PET-computed tomography systems. Increasing soft tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity, improved image registration, reduced radiation exposure, and improved patient convenience are immediate clinical advantages. Multiparametric quantitative imaging capabilities of PET-MR imaging have the potential to improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer and treatment effects, potentially guiding improvements in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27593245

  18. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program. Based on a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most distinctive feature of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. 'FDG-PET cancer screening' was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and

  19. An Image Processing Approach Based on Gnu Image Manipulation Program Gimp to the Panoramic Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    International audience We have recently proposed, in a paper published by the International Journal of Sciences, the use of some freely available image processing tools to enhance images of the fundus of the eye. In particular, we have discussed the use of GIMP, the GNU Image Manipulation Program, and of some wavelet filters and fractional gradient methods from other image processing programs. Here we propose GIMP to enhance the images given by panoramic radiography. This approach can prod...

  20. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  1. Multimodal and three-dimensional imaging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhenghong; Sodee, D Bruce; Resnick, Martin; Maclennan, Gregory T

    2005-09-01

    Accurate characterization of prostate cancer is crucial for treatment planning and patient management. Non-invasive SPECT imaging using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, 111In-labeled capromab pendetide, offers advantage over existing means for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. However, there are difficulties associated with the interpretation of these SPECT images. In this study, we developed a 3D surface-volume hybrid rendering method that utilizes multi-modality image data to facilitate diagnosis of prostate cancer. SPECT and CT or MRI (or both) images were aligned either manually or automatically. 3D hybrid rendering was implemented to blend prostate tumor distribution from SPECT in pelvis with anatomic structures from CT/MRI. Feature extraction technique was also implemented within the hybrid rendering for tumor uptake enhancement. Autoradiographic imaging and histological evaluation were performed to correlate with the in-vivo SPECT images. Warping registration of histological sections was carried out to compensate the deformation of histology slices during fixation to help the alignment between histology and in-vivo images. Overall, the rendered volumetric evaluation of prostate cancer has the potential to greatly increase the confidence in the reading of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody scans, especially in patients where there is a high suspicion of prostate tumor metastasis. PMID:15893911

  2. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and...... conductivity in the breast. In this paper two nonlinear tomographic algorithms are compared – one is a single-frequency algorithm and the other is a time-domain algorithm....

  3. Cost of Starting Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs: Results From Five Federally Funded Demonstration Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Royalty, MS; James Gardner, MSPH; A. Blythe Ryerson, MPH; Marion Nadel, PhD; Florence K. L. Tangka, PhD; Sujha Subramanian, PhD; Bela Bapat, MS; Laura C. Seeff, MD; Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) started a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration project and funded five programs to explore the feasibility of a colorectal cancer program for the underserved U.S. population. CDC is evaluating the five programs to estimate implementation cost, identify best practices, and determine the most cost-effective approach. The objectives are to calculate start-up costs and estimate funding requirements for widespre...

  4. PET and PET/CT for imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article provides an overview of the current literature data regarding the value of PET and PET/CT for imaging of prostate cancer. Most widely used PET tracers for prostate cancer imaging are 11C-acetate and 11C- or 18F-labeled choline. Available literature data on the performance of PET and PET/CT in the detection of the primary malignancy as well as local or distant metastases are presented and discussed. In addition, our own preliminary results regarding the diagnostic efficacy of 11C-choline PET and PET/CT in 43 patients with suspected prostate cancer are provided. The prevalence of prostate cancer in this patient sample was 55.8%. PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 88% with a specificity of 63% in the detection of the primary prostate cancer. The sensitivity in the detection of metastatic spread was 77% and no false-positives were found. The possible value and limitations of combined PET/CT systems when compared to stand alone PET scanners are discussed. PET and PET/CT is at present the single imaging modality providing functional information not only regarding the primary malignancy but also its metastases. This unique feature distinguishes PET from MRI complemented with magnetic resonance spectroscopy - a competing procedure. Our own results as well as the still limited literature data suggest, that PET and PET/CT may prove to be useful methods for imaging of prostate cancer. (orig.)

  5. MR images of oral cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the effect of preoperative radiotherapy for oral cancer and the changes of signal intensity with MR images. T2-weighted images were compared before and after radiotherapy in 18 patients with primary oral cancer, and the effect on the lesions was histologically evaluated in surgically resected specimens obtained four weeks after the therapy. The MR images showed significantly decreased signal intensity of the lesions. The decrease of signal intensity was remarkable starting at two weeks after completion of the radiotherapy, compared with the decrease at less than two weeks after the therapy. The change of signal intensity was more obvious in tongue cancer than in other oral cancers. There was no significant difference in the change of the signal intensity between cancers with histologically poor response to the therapy and those with good response. These results suggested that signal intensity of oral cancer on T2-weighted images showed a significant decrease after preoperative radiotherapy, and that the intensity could be affected by duration after radiotherapy and primary sites. (author)

  6. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  7. SU-E-J-10: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate imaging doses and cancer risks to organs-at-risk as a Result of cumulative doses from various radiological imaging procedures in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a large cohort of cancer patients. Methods: With IRB approval, imaging procedures (computed tomography, kilo-voltage portal imaging, megavoltage portal imaging and kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography) of 4832 cancer patients treated during 4.5 years were collected with their gender, age and circumference. Correlations between patient’s circumference and Monte Carlo simulated-organ dose were applied to estimate organ doses while the cancer risks were reported as 1+ERR using BEIR VII models. Results: 80 cGy or more doses were deposited to brain, lungs and RBM in 273 patients (maximum 136, 278 and 267 cGy, respectively), due largely to repetitive imaging procedures and non-personalized imaging settings. Regardless of gender, relative cancer risk estimates for brain, lungs, and RBM were 3.4 (n = 55), 2.6 (n = 49), 1.8 (n = 25) for age group of 0–19; 1.2 (n = 87), 1.4 (n = 98), 1.3 (n = 51) for age group of 20–39; 1.0 (n = 457), 1.1 (n = 880), 1.8 (n=360) for age group of 40–59; 1.0 (n = 646), 1.1 (n = 1400), 2.3 (n = 716) for age group of 60–79 and 1.0 (n = 108),1.1 (n = 305),1.6 (n = 147) for age group of 80–99. Conclusion: The cumulative imaging doses and associated cancer risks from multi-imaging procedures were patient-specific and site-dependent, with up to 2.7 Gy imaging dose deposited to critical structures in some pediatric patients. The associated cancer risks in brain and lungs for children of age 0 to 19 were 2–3 times larger than those for adults. This study indicated a pressing need for personalized imaging protocol to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship

  8. SU-E-J-10: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Bai, S [Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Y [Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Ed, Beijing, Beijing (China); Deng, J [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate imaging doses and cancer risks to organs-at-risk as a Result of cumulative doses from various radiological imaging procedures in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a large cohort of cancer patients. Methods: With IRB approval, imaging procedures (computed tomography, kilo-voltage portal imaging, megavoltage portal imaging and kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography) of 4832 cancer patients treated during 4.5 years were collected with their gender, age and circumference. Correlations between patient’s circumference and Monte Carlo simulated-organ dose were applied to estimate organ doses while the cancer risks were reported as 1+ERR using BEIR VII models. Results: 80 cGy or more doses were deposited to brain, lungs and RBM in 273 patients (maximum 136, 278 and 267 cGy, respectively), due largely to repetitive imaging procedures and non-personalized imaging settings. Regardless of gender, relative cancer risk estimates for brain, lungs, and RBM were 3.4 (n = 55), 2.6 (n = 49), 1.8 (n = 25) for age group of 0–19; 1.2 (n = 87), 1.4 (n = 98), 1.3 (n = 51) for age group of 20–39; 1.0 (n = 457), 1.1 (n = 880), 1.8 (n=360) for age group of 40–59; 1.0 (n = 646), 1.1 (n = 1400), 2.3 (n = 716) for age group of 60–79 and 1.0 (n = 108),1.1 (n = 305),1.6 (n = 147) for age group of 80–99. Conclusion: The cumulative imaging doses and associated cancer risks from multi-imaging procedures were patient-specific and site-dependent, with up to 2.7 Gy imaging dose deposited to critical structures in some pediatric patients. The associated cancer risks in brain and lungs for children of age 0 to 19 were 2–3 times larger than those for adults. This study indicated a pressing need for personalized imaging protocol to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship.

  9. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  10. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  11. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET] have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”.

  12. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  13. Pancreatic Cancer and Cancer Screening Programs: From Nihilism to Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common incipit of papers published regarding exocrine pancreatic neoplasms is that pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, with a rate of incidence equal to that of mortality. Pancreatic cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms in which pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common. For the most part, the problems related to the early diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are three: 1 to better understand the biology of this tumor; 2 to better investigate the precursors of this tumor; and 3 to plan projects for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk individuals. Recently, Yachida et al. [1] performed rapid autopsies on seven individuals with Stage IV pancreatic cancer and they found that the clonal populations which give rise to distant metastases are represented within the primary carcinoma, but these clones are genetically evolved from the original parental, non-metastatic clone. Thus, the genetic heterogeneity of the metastases reflects that of the primary carcinoma. Most important, when the authors performed a quantitative analysis of the timing of the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer, they found that there was at least a decade between the occurrence of the initial mutation and the birth of the parental, non-metastatic founder cell. At least five more years are required for the acquisition of metastatic ability and patients die an average two years thereafter. As underscored by the authors, these data have an important implication in planning population screening for the purpose of preventing pancreatic cancer deaths: in fact, quantitative analysis indicated a large window, of at least a decade, in which the disease could be diagnosed while it is still in the curative stage. This model also predicts an average of 6.8 years between the birth of the cell giving rise to the parental clone and the seeding of the index metastasis.

  14. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy

  15. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  16. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  17. Cloud Tracking in METEOSAT Images Using GIMP Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cloud tracking is the analysis of remote sensing images from which it is possible to evaluate the speed of winds drifting the clouds. Here we are proposing a simple approach to the cloud drift, based on a method that uses GIMP, the GNU Image Manipulation Program, applied to METEOSAT images

  18. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, M-A; Formanek, F; Yasuda, A [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Sekine, M; Ando, N; Eishii, Y, E-mail: florian.formanek@jp.sony.co [Department of Human Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan)

    2010-08-21

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 {mu}m thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  19. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 μm thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  20. Ovarian Cancer Management: The role of imaging and diagnostic challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharwani, Nishat, E-mail: nishat.bharwani@nhs.net [Barts and the London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, Rodney H.; Rockall, Andrea G. [Barts and the London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Worldwide, ovarian cancer accounts for 4% of all female cancers with over 190,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The incidence rates vary considerably across the globe with the highest rates seen in Europe and the USA and low rates in Africa and Asia. Ovarian cancer has been termed a 'silent' killer with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease due to the vague, non-specific nature of the presenting symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and bloating in 50%. The most important determinant of survival for ovarian cancer patients is the disease stage at diagnosis. Therefore there is a thrust for early detection and two large screening trials are currently underway in the UK and USA. Ovarian cancer is most commonly staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) surgical-pathological staging system. Imaging findings are not a formal component of the staging system but in clinical practice they play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of suspected ovarian cancer. Adnexal masses which are shown to have benign features on imaging can undergo simple excision at a local unit by a non-oncological gynaecologist. If a mass has malignant characteristics on imaging, then a radical surgical approach is indicated and this should be performed by a gynaecological oncological surgeon at a specialist cancer centre, as optimal cytoreductive surgery has been reported to improve outcome. This review article discusses the role of various imaging modalities in the initial assessment of an adnexal mass, the contribution to management planning and to the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer.

  1. Ovarian Cancer Management: The role of imaging and diagnostic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, ovarian cancer accounts for 4% of all female cancers with over 190,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The incidence rates vary considerably across the globe with the highest rates seen in Europe and the USA and low rates in Africa and Asia. Ovarian cancer has been termed a 'silent' killer with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease due to the vague, non-specific nature of the presenting symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and bloating in 50%. The most important determinant of survival for ovarian cancer patients is the disease stage at diagnosis. Therefore there is a thrust for early detection and two large screening trials are currently underway in the UK and USA. Ovarian cancer is most commonly staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) surgical-pathological staging system. Imaging findings are not a formal component of the staging system but in clinical practice they play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of suspected ovarian cancer. Adnexal masses which are shown to have benign features on imaging can undergo simple excision at a local unit by a non-oncological gynaecologist. If a mass has malignant characteristics on imaging, then a radical surgical approach is indicated and this should be performed by a gynaecological oncological surgeon at a specialist cancer centre, as optimal cytoreductive surgery has been reported to improve outcome. This review article discusses the role of various imaging modalities in the initial assessment of an adnexal mass, the contribution to management planning and to the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer.

  2. Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jignesh; Park, Suhyun; Aglyamov, Salavat; Larson, Timothy; Ma, Li; Sokolov, Konstantin; Johnston, Keith; Milner, Thomas; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is a noninvasive, targeted, laser-based technique for cancer treatment. During photothermal therapy, light energy is converted to heat by tumor-specific photoabsorbers. The corresponding temperature rise causes localized cancer destruction. For effective treatment, however, the presence of photoabsorbers in the tumor must be ascertained before therapy and thermal imaging must be performed during therapy. This study investigates the feasibility of guiding photothermal ther...

  3. Images in Rheumatology: a multimedia program for medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Nashel, D J; Martin, J J

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, undergraduate medical education has benefited from the use of computer-based instructional programs. However, in the case of clinical and postgraduate medical education there is a scarcity of such programs, particularly those with access to high-resolution images. Having a fundamental knowledge base of disease-associated images is crucial for the physicians during the diagnostic process. To fill this gap in clinical instruction in the rheumatic diseases, Images in Rheumatolog...

  4. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  6. Medical image diagnosis of liver cancer using artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH)-type neural network algorithm using artificial intelligence technology for medical image diagnosis is proposed and is applied to medical image diagnosis of liver cancer. In this algorithm, the knowledge base for medical image diagnosis are used for organizing the neural network architecture for medical image diagnosis. Furthermore, the revised GMDH-type neural network algorithm has a feedback loop and can identify the characteristics of the medical images accurately using feedback loop calculations. The optimum neural network architecture fitting the complexity of the medical images is automatically organized so as to minimize the prediction error criterion defined as Prediction Sum of Squares (PSS). It is shown that the revised GMDH-type neural network can be easily applied to the medical image diagnosis. (author)

  7. Nano technology for imaging and drug delivery in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles are multifunctional in characteristics and may be used for diagnosis as well as treatment of cancer. Nanoparticles enhance permeability, retention effects and target the tumor by avoiding reticuloendothelial system. The various nano technological approaches are used in treatment of the diseases and imaging of biological materials; like localized delivery of heat by nanoparticles, mini emulsion polymerization by nanoparticles, nanoparticles responsive to pH gradient and Nanoparticles along with ultrasonic radiations. In future, new herbal nanoparticles may be proved better in treatment of cancer and may improve life style of cancer patient. (author)

  8. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Kokila Krishnamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is increasingly used for the staging of solidmalignancies, including lung and esophagus. However, controversy still exists in relation to the application of PET inpancreatic cancer. The authors review seven studies (Abstracts #183, #189, #190, #254, #357, #375, #378 presented at the2014 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium and discuss on the role of PET in this disease. As the limitations of theResponse Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST continue to become evident, FDG-PET may identify changes in themetabolic activity within pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and can provide both diagnostic and prognostic information.

  9. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  10. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  11. Thermoacoustic imaging and spectroscopy for enhanced cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel Ryan

    Early detection of cancer is paramount for improved patient survival. This dissertation presents work developing imaging techniques to improve cancer diagnostics and detection utilizing light and microwave induced thermoacoustic imaging. In the second chapter, the well-established pre-clinical mouse window chamber model is interfaced with simultaneously acquired high-resolution pulse echo (PE) ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Co-registered PE and PA imaging, coupled with developed image segmentation algorithms, are used to quantitatively track and monitor the size, shape, heterogeneity, and neovasculature of the tumor microenvironment during a month long study. Average volumetric growth was 5.35 mm3/day, which correlated well with two dimensional results from fluorescent imaging (R = 0.97, p injection of the contrast agent. Additionally, after direct subcutaneous injections of two different gold nanorods into a breast tumor, the concentration of each nanoparticle was discriminated in vivo with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 25 dB. This technique has great potential for improved early cancer detection and individualized cancer treatment through advanced pharmacokinetic monitoring of therapeutic agents. Finally, the fourth chapter presents significant improvements made to enhance breast cancer detection with thermoacoustic (TA) imaging. In a breast cancer simulating phantom, the initial demonstration of TA spectroscopy (TAS) is used to detect and discriminate relative water / fat composition based solely on the sample's intrinsic spectral absorption. The slope of the TA signal was highly correlated with that of the absorption coefficient (R 2 = 0.98, p < 0.01), indicating TAS can distinguish materials based on their dielectric properties. Furthermore, the use of carbon nanotubes as a potential TA contrast agent is explored. These nanoparticles significantly enhance the magnitude of the TA signal (8 dB larger than water), and also demonstrate unique

  12. Examining the Perceptions of Brand Images Regarding Competing MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Timothee; Falgoust, Dexter; Thomas, Kerry, Jr.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    In today's economic environment, it is crucial to create a strong, consistent brand image within a graduate business program. This study examines the perceptions that students at Southeastern Louisiana University hold about its MBA program and the MBA programs of its main competitors. A focus group was conducted to identify competitors and factors…

  13. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  14. Hyperspectral imaging for cancer surgical margin delineation: registration of hyperspectral and histological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The determination of tumor margins during surgical resection remains a challenging task. A complete removal of malignant tissue and conservation of healthy tissue is important for the preservation of organ function, patient satisfaction, and quality of life. Visual inspection and palpation is not sufficient for discriminating between malignant and normal tissue types. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has the potential to noninvasively delineate surgical tumor margin and can be used as an intra-operative visual aid tool. Since histological images provide the ground truth of cancer margins, it is necessary to warp the cancer regions in ex vivo histological images back to in vivo hyperspectral images in order to validate the tumor margins detected by HSI and to optimize the imaging parameters. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA) is utilized to extract the principle component bands of the HSI images, which is then used to register HSI images with the corresponding histological image. Affine registration is chosen to model the global transformation. A B-spline free form deformation (FFD) method is used to model the local non-rigid deformation. Registration experiment was performed on animal hyperspectral and histological images. Experimental results from animals demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral imaging method for cancer margin detection.

  15. Breast cancer prevention and control programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511

  16. Quantification of tumor fluorescence during intraoperative optical cancer imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Judy, Ryan P.; Keating, Jane J.; Elizabeth M. DeJesus; Jack X. Jiang; Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; Shuming Nie; Holt, David E.; Arlauckas, Sean P.; Low, Phillip S.; E. James Delikatny; Sunil Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative optical cancer imaging is an emerging technology in which surgeons employ fluorophores to visualize tumors, identify tumor-positive margins and lymph nodes containing metastases. This study compares instrumentation to measure tumor fluorescence. Three imaging systems (Spectropen, Glomax, Flocam) measured and quantified fluorescent signal-to-background ratios (SBR) in vitro, murine xenografts, tissue phantoms and clinically. Evaluation criteria included the detection of small ch...

  17. Knowledge-Guided Semantic Indexing of Breast Cancer Histopathology Images

    OpenAIRE

    Tutac, Adina,; Racoceanu, Daniel; Putti, Thomas; Xiong, Wei; Leow, Wee-Kheng; Cretu, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Narrowing the semantic gap represents one of the most outstanding challenges in medical image analysis and indexing. This paper introduces a medical knowledge – guided paradigm for semantic indexing of histopathology images, applied to breast cancer grading (BCG). Our method improves pathologists' current manual procedures consistency by employing a semantic indexing technique, according to a rule-based decision system related to Nottingham BCG system. The challenge is to move from the medica...

  18. Quantitative phase imaging of Breast cancer cell based on SLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaqin; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Wu, Shulian

    2016-02-01

    We illustrated a novel optical microscopy technique to observe cell dynamics via spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). SLIM combines Zemike's phase contrast microscopy and Gabor's holography. When the light passes through the transparent specimens, it could render high contrast intensity and record the phase information from the object. We reconstructed the Breast cancer cell phase image by SLIM and the reconstruction algorithm. Our investigation showed that SLIM has the ability to achieve the quantitative phase imaging (QPI).

  19. Beyond Histologic Staging: Emerging Imaging Strategies in Colorectal Cancer with Special Focus on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraum, Tyler J; Owen, Joseph W; Fowler, Kathryn J

    2016-09-01

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in the staging and management of colorectal cancer. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has supplanted transrectal ultrasound as the preferred modality for the locoregional staging of rectal cancer. Furthermore, the advent of both diffusion-weighted imaging and hepatobiliary contrast agents has significantly enhanced the ability of MRI to detect colorectal liver metastases. In clinical practice, MRI routinely provides prognostic information, helps to guide surgical strategy, and determines the need for neoadjuvant therapies related to both the primary tumor and metastatic disease. Expanding on these roles for MRI, positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI is the newest clinical hybrid imaging modality and combines the metabolic information of PET with the high soft tissue contrast of MRI. The addition of PET/MRI to the clinical staging armamentarium has the potential to provide comprehensive state-of-the-art colorectal cancer staging in a single examination. PMID:27582645

  20. Assessment and Development of Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    . However, a number of different challenges arise when using data from multiple frequencies for imaging of biological targets. The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different......At the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a 3D tomographic microwave imaging system is currently being developed with the aim of using nonlinear microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection. The imaging algorithm used in the system is based on an iterative Newton-type scheme. In this algorithm...... algorithm used in the microwave tomographic imaging system is presented. Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal...

  1. 76 FR 13404 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, is announcing the final revision of the NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation... Register of April 6, 2010 (FR Vol. 65, No. 65), the National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment..., Associate Director, Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and......

  2. Near Infrared Imaging of Molecular Beacons in Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Britton

    2001-03-01

    The recent demonstrations of the efficacy of the tumor to background contrast in breast cancer using the tricarbo-cyanine near infrared (NIR) agent with time domain 2-D imaging presages the greater efficacy of site-directed optical contrast agents for early detection of cancers which show contrast (tissue to background) of over 20 fold. Further increases of contrast are obtained with structures that quench the fluorescence until the agent is delivered, recognized, and opened by specific enzymatic activity of the tumor. These are termed ``Molecular Beacons". In order to image the localization of the Beacons, we employ light pen ( 20μ) in LN2 gives the desired 3D high resolution image of the location of the Beacon within in the cancer cell. Since cancer prevention is linked to early detection, the high signal to background obtainable with Molecular Beacons enables the detection of very early subsurface cancers, especially breast and prostate (NIH, UIP). Thus the fluorescent Beacon excites and emits in the NIR window and signals from several cm deep in breast are detected by diffusive wave optical tomography (DWOT). Detection of objects ( 800 nm) affording 0.2 mm object detection of even low Beacon concentrations. One, two, and 3-D localization is made possible by one, two, and three orthogonal phase array null planes.

  3. Pet imaging of estrogen receptors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiopharmaceutical for imaging steroid receptors in breast cancer could have considerable clinical value because of the known relationship between the levels of steroid receptors, particularly for estrogen and progestin, and the natural history and response of this cancer to therapy. We recently reported preliminary clinical investigation of a new radiopharmaceutical, 16α-[18F]fluoro-estradiol-17β (FES), which had shown highly favorable biodistribution as an estrogen receptor ligand in animals. Twelve women undergoing preliminary evaluation for new breast masses and later confirmed to have breast cancer were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and FES. PET-measured primary tumor uptake of the tracer was shown to have an excellent correlation with tumor estrogen receptor concentration (r = 0.96) determined by in vitro techniques. PET images demonstrated primary breast cancers, as well as several foci of axillary metastases. Additionally, one distant site of metastasis on the anterior chest wall was visualized. To further evaluate this radioligand, additional patients with breast cancer and documented osseous and soft tissue metastases have been studied prior to and after initiation of antiestrogen chemotherapy (tamoxifen). PET imaging before antiestrogen therapy showed multiple metastatic sites. After initiation of therapy, the uptake of the FES was dramatically reduced

  4. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Bishnu P. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wang, Thomas D., E-mail: thomaswa@umich.edu [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Cuong V; Steenbergen, Peter; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Heijmink, Stijn W T J P; Pos, Floris J; Haustermans, Karin; van der Heide, Uulke A

    2016-03-01

    For radiotherapy of prostate cancer, MRI is used increasingly for delineation of the prostate gland. For focal treatment of low-risk prostate cancer or focal dose escalation for intermediate and high-risk cancer, delineation of the tumor is also required. While multi-parametric MRI is well established for detection of tumors and for staging of the disease, delineation of the tumor inside the prostate is not common practice. Guidelines, such as the PI-RADS classification, exist for tumor detection and staging, but no such guidelines are available for tumor delineation. Indeed, interobserver studies show substantial variation in tumor contours. Computer-aided tumor detection and delineation may help improve the robustness of the interpretation of multi-parametric MRI data. Comparing the performance of an earlier developed model for tumor segmentation with expert delineations, we found a significant correlation between tumor probability in a voxel and the number of experts identifying this voxel as tumor. This suggests that the model agrees with 'the wisdom of the crowd', and thus could serve as a reference for individual physicians in their decision making. With multi-parametric MRI it becomes feasible to revisit the GTV-CTV concept in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. While detection of index lesions is quite reliable, contouring variability and the low sensitivity to small lesions suggest that the remainder of the prostate should be treated as CTV. Clinical trials that investigate the options for dose differentiation, for example with dose escalation to the visible tumor or dose reduction to the CTV, are therefore warranted. PMID:26858164

  6. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  7. Development of the image registration program for portal and DRR images in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors propose an image registration program of portal images and digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) images used as simulation images for external beam radiation therapy planning. First, the center of the radiation field in a portal image taken using a computed radiograhy cassette is matched to the center of the portal image. Then scale points projected on a DRR image and the portal image are deleted, and the portal image with the radiation field is extracted. Registration of the DRR and portal images is performed using mutual information as the registration criterion. It was found that the absolute displacement misregistrations in two directions (x, y) were 1.2±0.7 mm and 0.5±0.3 mm, respectively, and rotation disagreement about the z axis 0.3±0.3deg. It was concluded the proposed method was applicable to image registration of portal and DRR images in radiation therapy. (author)

  8. Cervical cancer detection using colposcopic images: a temporal approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta-Mesa, H. G.; Zitová, Barbara; Ríos-Figueroa, H. V.; Cruz-Ramírez, N. V.; Marín-Hernández, A.; Hernández-Jiménez, R.; Cocotle-Ronzón, B. E.; Hernández-Galicia, E.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE, 2005, s. 1-7. ISBN 0-7695-2454-0. [Mexican International Conference in Computer Science. ENC'05. Puebla (MX), 26.09.2005-30.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : cervical cancer detection * colposcopy * digital image processing * time analysis Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  9. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  10. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm in...... medicine towards more individualized treatment....

  11. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  12. Imaging oncogene MRNA for early diagnosis of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 breast cancer attacked approximately 210 000 and took the lives of 40 000 women in the United States of America. Standard screening with breast self-examination and mammography, recommended to minimize breast cancer morbidity, miss 10-20% (up to 40% in young women) of breast cancer. Moreover, if an abnormality is found, an invasive diagnostic procedure is required to determine if the breast contains hyperplasia, atypical, or cancer. Approximately 80% of invasive procedures detect a benign pathology. Breast cancer cells express a gene product, cell surface receptor VPAC1, so named because the endogenous growth hormones vasoctive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cylcase activating peptide bind to VPAC1 receptors with high affinity. VPAC1 receptors are overexpressed on 100% of human breast cancer cells. Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the cell cycle and overexpressed in 50-80% of breast cells, whereas it is low or absent in normal breast tissues. The human breast cancer cell line MCF7 displays elevated levels of CCND1 mRNA, encoding cyclin D1, and an elevated level of IGF1R mRNA, encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. The authors hypothesize that 99mTc or 64Cu labelled VIP analogues, or a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) chimera specific for IGFI receptor and CCND1 mRNA, will permit the early imaging of breast cancer by planar, SPECT or PET methods. The authors synthesized, characterized and administered i.v. 99mTc-AcGly-D (Ala)-Gly-Gly-aminobutanoyl-VIP (TP3654), 64Cu diaminodithiol-aminobutanoyl-VIP (TP3982), 99mTc-AcGly-D(Ala)- Gly-Gly-PNA-D(Cys-ser-lys-Cys) chimera (WT4185) and 64Cu-DOTA-PNA-D(cys-serlys- cys) WT4348. A 12mer, CTGGTGTTCCAT nucleic acid sequence served as the PNA and 3 or 4 mer mismatched PNAs as negative controls. Using 99mTc-TP3654, the authors have successfully imaged human breast cancers not detectable by current modalities. In athymic, nude mice bearing MCF-7 human breast cancer xenorgraphs, 64Cu-TP3982 tumour uptake was

  13. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  14. Gold nanocages for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Laura; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Galbiati, Elisabetta; Locarno, Silvia A.; Macchi, Chiara; D'Alfonso, Laura; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Magni, Paolo; Collini, Maddalena; Romeo, Sergio; Chirico, Giuseppe; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanocages (AuNCs) have been shown to be a useful tool both for imaging and hyperthermia therapy of cancer, thanks to their outstanding optical properties, low toxicity and facile functionalization with targeting molecules, including peptides and antibodies. In particular, hyperthermia is a minimally invasive therapy which takes advantage of the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles to efficiently convert the absorbed light into heat. Here, we use AuNCs for the selective targeting and imaging of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we report the hyperthermic effect characterization of the AuNCs both in solution and internalized in cells. Prostate cancer cells were irradiated at different exposure times, with a pulsed near infrared laser, and the cellular viability was evaluated by confocal microscopy.

  15. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Fales, Andrew; Register, Janna; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-08-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS) exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  16. Imaging and PET-CT evaluation of Gi tract cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a pivotal role in the management of G.I. tract cancers for diagnosis, characterization, locoregional staging, metastatic work-up and follow-up during and after curative or palliative treatment. The imaging protocols should be optimized and reproducible because of their impact on therapy. Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic CT is the cornerstone of the imaging work-up, optimized and reproducible because of their impact on therapy. Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic CT is the cornerstone of the imaging work-up, optimized and tailored to the specific G.I. segment involved, requiring good G.I. tract distension. Image interpretation of native axial and reformatted multiplanar images is routinely performed. In specific cases, additional targeted imaging with the US or MRI or whole body imaging with PET/CT or MRI may be valuable. PET/CT is a complement to morphological imaging. PET allows detection of lesions otherwise undetected on morphological imaging, usually due to poor contrast with surrounding tissues, and characterization of known lesions. PET/CT is best used as an integral part of a comprehensive imaging work-up. Radiologist and nuclear medicine specialists provide complementary information. each must be familiar with the clinical questions at hand and related stakes, and advantages and limitations of each modality to optimize treatment as part of a multidisciplinary management approach. (authors)

  17. Rapid Cancer Fluorescence Imaging Using A γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase-Specific Probe For Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruaki Hino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We set out to examine the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT in lung cancer and the validity of γ-glutamyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (gGlu-HMRG for intraoperative imaging of primary lung cancer. METHODS: GGT activities and mRNA expression levels of GGT1 (one of the GGT subtypes in five human lung cancer cell lines were examined by fluorescence imaging and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vivo imaging of an orthotopic A549 xenograft model in nude mice was performed to confirm its applicability to intraoperative imaging. Furthermore, ex vivo imaging of 73 specimens from lung cancer patients were performed and analyzed to calculate the sensitivity/specificity of gGlu-HMRG for lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: GGT activities and mRNA expression levels of GGT1 are diverse depending on cell type; A549, H441, and H460 showed relatively high GGT activities and expression levels, whereas H82 and H226 showed lower values. In the in vivo mouse model study, tiny pleural dissemination and hilar/mediastinal lymph node metastasis (less than 1 mm in diameter were clearly detected 15 minutes after topical application of gGlu-HMRG. In the ex vivo study of specimens from patients, the sensitivity and specificity of gGlu-HMRG were calculated to be 43.8% (32/73 and 84.9% (62/73, respectively. When limited to female patients, never smokers, and adenocarcinomas, these values were 78.9% (15/19 and 73.7% (14/19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although GGT activity of lung cancer cells vary, gGlu-HMRG can serve as an intraoperative imaging tool to detect small foci of lung cancer when such cells have sufficient GGT activity.

  18. Copper-Based Nanomaterials for Cancer Imaging and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tian, Mei; Li, Chun

    2016-05-18

    Copper based nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted increased attention for biomedical applications. Copper chalcogenide NPs exhibit strong absorption in near-infrared region, demonstrate highly efficient light-to-heat transformation under near-infrared laser irradiation, and cause selective thermal destruction to the tumor. Smaller copper NPs display fluorescence signal and capability for optical imaging. Copper based NPs also serve as a versatile vehicle for drug delivery and image-guided therapy. This review covers recent advances related to the biomedical application of copper based NPs, with a focus on cancer imaging and therapy. We also discuss challenges to their successful clinical translation. PMID:27094828

  19. Imaging in primary penile cancer: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Rohit; Taylor, Ben [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sangar, Vijay [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in the developed world. Clinical assessment often results in inaccurate staging and radiological techniques have a key role in staging and postoperative assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts penile anatomy in detail and is the most accurate technique for local staging and postoperative follow-up. MRI and ultrasound (US), although helpful for assessment of lymph nodes, are not reliable enough for accurate nodal staging. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), however, remains a valuable tool to confirm metastases in suspicious inguinal nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy with dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a promising technique used to predict occult lymph node metastases. Novel imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and nanoparticle enhanced MRI have high sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases but their availability is limited and clinical utility is not fully established. The radiologist needs to be familiar with the normal penile anatomy, imaging appearances of pre- and post-treatment penile cancer, and the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques. This review highlights the above points and presents a systematic approach to make the best use of imaging in the management of patients with penile cancer. (orig.)

  20. A targeted molecular probe for colorectal cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Indrevoll, B.; Moestue, S.; Rogstad, A.; Bendiksen, R.; Healey, A.; Johannesen, E.

    2008-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. Morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs can be reduced if the disease can be detected at an early stage. Screening is a viable approach as there is a clear link to risk factors such as age. We have developed a fluorescent contrast agent for use during colonoscopy. The agent is administered intravenously and is targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent consists of a targeting section comprising a peptide, and a fluorescent reporter molecule. Clinical imaging of the agent is to be performed with a far red fluorescence imaging channel (635 nm excitation/660-700 nm emission) as an adjunct to white light colonoscopy. Preclinical proof of mechanism results are presented. The compound has a K d of ~3nM. Two human xenograft tumour models were used. Tumour cells were implanted and grown subcutaneously in nude mice. Imaging using a fluorescence reflectance imaging system and quantitative biodistribution studies were performed. Substances tested include the targeted agent, and a scrambled sequence of the peptide (no binding) used as a negative control. Competition studies were also performed by co-administration of 180 times excess unlabelled peptide. Positive imaging contrast was shown in the tumours, with a clear relationship to expression levels (confirmed with quantitative biodistribution data). There was a significant difference between the positive and negative control substances, and a significant reduction in contrast in the competition experiment.

  1. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  2. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  3. Catalytic Molecular Imaging of MicroRNA in Living Cells by DNA-Programmed Nanoparticle Disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuewen; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhi; Wang, Ganglin; Ma, Nan

    2016-02-24

    Molecular imaging is an essential tool for disease diagnostics and treatment. Direct imaging of low-abundance nucleic acids in living cells remains challenging because of the relatively low sensitivity and insufficient signal-to-background ratio of conventional molecular imaging probes. Herein, we report a class of DNA-templated gold nanoparticle (GNP)-quantum dot (QD) assembly-based probes for catalytic imaging of cancer-related microRNAs (miRNA) in living cells with signal amplification capacity. We show that a single miRNA molecule could catalyze the disassembly of multiple QDs with the GNP through a DNA-programmed thermodynamically driven entropy gain process, yielding significantly amplified QD photoluminescence (PL) for miRNA imaging. By combining the robust PL of QDs with the catalytic amplification strategy, three orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity is achieved in comparison with non-catalytic imaging probe, which enables facile and accurate differentiation between cancer cells and normal cells by miRNA imaging in living cells. PMID:26694689

  4. Image quality of mammography in Croatian nationwide screening program: Comparison between various types of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The study was aimed to provide objective evidence about the mammographic image quality in Croatia, to compare it between different types of MG facilities and to identify the most common deficiencies and possible reasons as well as the steps needed to improve image quality. Materials and methods: A total of 420 mammographic examinations collected from 84 mammographic units participating in the Croatian nationwide breast cancer screening program were reviewed in terms of four image quality categories: identification of patient and examination, breast positioning and compression, exposure and contrast, and artifacts. Those were rated using image evaluating system based on American College of Radiology and European Commission proposals. The results were compared among different types of mammographic units, and common image quality deficiencies were identified. Results: Total image quality scores of 12.8, 16.1, 13.0 and 13.7 were found for general hospitals, university hospitals, private clinics and public healthcare centres, respectively. Average score for all mammographic units was 13.5 (out of 25 points). University hospitals were significantly better than all other mammography units in overall image quality, which was mostly contributed by better breast positioning practices. Private clinics showed the worst results in identification, exposure, contrast and artifacts. Conclusions: Serious deficiencies in identification and breast positioning, which might compromise breast cancer screening outcome, were detected in our material. They occur mainly due to subjective reasons and could be corrected through additional staff training and improvement of working discipline.

  5. Imaging the cranial nerves in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cranial nerves are often involved in head and neck malignancies. Some malignancies have a strong propensity to show perineural spread. Cranial nerve palsy may be the presenting sign of metastatic disease to the skull base. Like metastatic disease to the lungs or liver, the cranial nerves themselves may be the site of metastatic disease. In addition, cranial nerves can be injured by radiation therapy or sacrificed during surgical treatment. This paper focuses on the imaging features of per...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riccardo; De; Robertis; Paolo; Tinazzi; Martini; Emanuele; Demozzi; Flavia; Dal; Corso; Claudio; Bassi; Paolo; Pederzoli; Mirko; D’Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) is a reliable and accurate imaging method for the evaluation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma(PDAC). Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) is a relatively recent technological improvement that expanded MRI capabilities, having brought functional aspects into conventional morphologic MRI evaluation. DWI can depict the random diffusion of water molecules within tissues(the so-called Brownian motions). Modifications of water diffusion induced by different factors acting on the extracellular and intracellular spaces, as increased cell density, edema, fibrosis, or altered functionality of cell membranes, can be detected using this MR sequence. The intravoxel incoherent motion(IVIM) model is an advanced DWI technique that consent a separate quantitative evaluation of all the microscopic random motions that contribute to DWI, which are essentially represented by molecular diffusion and blood microcirculation(perfusion). Technological improvements have made possible the routine use of DWI during abdominal MRI study. Several authors have reported that the addition of DWI sequence can be of value for the evaluation of patients with PDAC, especially improving the staging; nevertheless, it is still unclear whether and how DWI could be helpful for identification, characterization, prognostic stratification and follow-up during treatment. The aim of this paper is to review up-to-date literature data regarding the applications of DWI and IVIM to PDACs.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Riccardo; Tinazzi Martini, Paolo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Dal Corso, Flavia; Bassi, Claudio; Pederzoli, Paolo; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2015-10-28

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a reliable and accurate imaging method for the evaluation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a relatively recent technological improvement that expanded MRI capabilities, having brought functional aspects into conventional morphologic MRI evaluation. DWI can depict the random diffusion of water molecules within tissues (the so-called Brownian motions). Modifications of water diffusion induced by different factors acting on the extracellular and intracellular spaces, as increased cell density, edema, fibrosis, or altered functionality of cell membranes, can be detected using this MR sequence. The intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model is an advanced DWI technique that consent a separate quantitative evaluation of all the microscopic random motions that contribute to DWI, which are essentially represented by molecular diffusion and blood microcirculation (perfusion). Technological improvements have made possible the routine use of DWI during abdominal MRI study. Several authors have reported that the addition of DWI sequence can be of value for the evaluation of patients with PDAC, especially improving the staging; nevertheless, it is still unclear whether and how DWI could be helpful for identification, characterization, prognostic stratification and follow-up during treatment. The aim of this paper is to review up-to-date literature data regarding the applications of DWI and IVIM to PDACs. PMID:26516428

  10. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  11. Comparing Relaxation Programs for Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, women with breast cancer who have had surgery and are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to one of two different stretching and relaxation programs or to a control group that will receive usual care.

  12. Breast imaging technology: Application of magnetic resonance imaging to early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first introduction approximately 10 years ago, there has been extensive progress in the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced MRI has been shown to have value in the diagnostic work-up of women who present with mammogram or clinical abnormalities. In addition, it has been demonstrated that MRI can detect mammogram occult multifocal cancer in patients who present with unifocal disease. Advances in risk stratification and limitations in mammography have stimulated interest in the use of MRI to screen high-risk women for cancer. Several studies of MRI high-risk screening are ongoing. Preliminary results are encouraging

  13. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  14. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage;

    2011-01-01

    and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27.......0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number...

  15. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  16. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  17. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  18. SU-D-9A-07: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Bai, S [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Zhang, Y [Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China); Ming, X [TianJin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Y [Tianjin University, Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Deng, J [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate the imaging doses and cancer risks associated with various imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation during image-guided radiotherapy of an increasingly large number of cancer patients. Methods: 141 patients (52 brain cases, 47 thoracic cases, 42 abdominal cases, aged 3 to 91 years old) treated between October 2009 and March 2010 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. During the whole radiotherapy course, each patient underwent at least one type of imaging procedures, i.e., kV portal, MV portal and kVCBCT, besides CT simulations. Based on Monte Carlo modeling and particle transport in human anatomy of various dimensions, the correlations between the radiation doses to the various organs-at-risk (OARs) at the head, the thoracic and the abdominal regions and one's weight, circumference, scan mAs and kVp have been obtained and used to estimate the radiation dose from a specific imaging procedure. The radiation-induced excess relative risk (ERR) was then estimated with BEIR VII formulism based on one's gender, age and radiation dose. 1+ ERR was reported in this study as relative cancer risk. Results: For the whole cohort of 141 patients, the mean imaging doses from various imaging procedures were 8.3 cGy to the brain, 10.5 cGy to the lungs and 19.2 cGy to the red bone marrow, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer risks were 1.140, 1.369 and 2.671, respectively. In comparison, MV portal deposited largest doses to the lungs while kVCBCT delivered the highest doses to the red bone marrow. Conclusion: The compiled imaging doses to a patient during his/her treatment course were patient-specific and site-dependent, varying from 1.2 to 263.5 cGy on average, which were clinically significant and should be included in the treatment planning and overall decision-making. Our results indicated the necessity of personalized imaging to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing the associated cancer risks

  19. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  20. Molecular application of spectral photoacoustic imaging in pancreatic cancer pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Minalini; Hupple, Clinton; Lohse, Ines; Hedley, David; Needles, Andrew; Theodoropoulos, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Spectral imaging is an advanced photo-acoustic (PA) mode that can discern optical absorption of contrast agent(s) in the tissue micro-environment. This advancement is made possible by precise control of optical wavelength using a tunable pulsed laser, ranging from 680-970 nm. Differential optical absorption of blood oxygenation states makes spectral imaging of hemoglobin ideal to investigate remodeling of the tumor microenvironment- a molecular change that renders resistance to standard cancer treatment. Approach: Photo-acoustic imaging was performed on the Vevo® LAZR system (VisualSonics) at 5-20 Hz. Deep abdominal imaging was accomplished with a LZ250D probe at a center frequency of 21MHz and an axial resolution of 75 μm. The tumor model was generated in an immune compromised mouse by surgical implantation of primary patient derived tumors, in the pancreas. Results: Spectral imaging for oxygen saturation at 750 nm and 850 nm characterized this tumor with a poorly oxygenated core surrounded by a well oxygenated periphery. Multispectral imaging identified a sub region in the core with a four-fold signal exclusively at 750 and 800 nm. A co-registered 2D image of this region was shown to be echogenic and calcification was suspected. Perfusion imaging with contrast enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles (Vevo MicroMarker® contrast agents, VisualSonics) identified functional vessels towards this sub region. Histology confirmed calcification and vascularization in the tumor core. Taken together, non-invasive characterization of the tumor microenvironment using photo-acoustics rendered spectral imaging a sensitive tool to monitor molecular changes representative of progression of pancreatic cancer that kills within 6 months of diagnosis.

  1. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can read more about imaging tests in Imaging (Radiology) Tests . Other tests Laparoscopy If this procedure is ... Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products ...

  2. An image-processing program for automated counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.J.; Anderson, W.H.; Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    An image-processing program developed by the National Institute of Health, IMAGE, was modified in a cooperative project between remote sensing specialists at the Ohio State University Center for Mapping and scientists at the Alaska Science Center to facilitate estimating numbers of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in flocks at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The modified program, DUCK HUNT, runs on Apple computers. Modifications provide users with a pull down menu that optimizes image quality; identifies objects of interest (e.g., brant) by spectral, morphometric, and spatial parameters defined interactively by users; counts and labels objects of interest; and produces summary tables. Images from digitized photography, videography, and high- resolution digital photography have been used with this program to count various species of waterfowl.

  3. Patient Perspectives and Preferences for communication of Medical imaging risks in a cancer care setting1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Raymond H.; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Shuk, Elyse; Bylund, Carma L.; Banerjee, Smita C.; Maloney, Erin; Fox, Lindsey B.; Beattie, Christopher M.; Hricak, Hedvig; Hay, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify opportunities for improving patient-centered communication about diagnostic imaging tests that involve the use of radiation in a cancer care setting. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA–compliant study. Patient knowledge, information sources, and communication preferences were assessed in six focus groups during 2012. The groups consisted of patients undergoing treatment for metastatic colorectal carcinoma, women treated within the past 6 months for early-stage breast carcinoma, men undergoing surveillance after testicular cancer treatment, parents of patients treated for stage I–III neuroblastoma, patients in a thoracic oncology survivorship program, and participants in a lung cancer screening program. A multidisciplinary research team performed thematic content analysis of focus group transcripts. High-level findings were summarized during consensus conferences. Results Although they were aware of the long-term risk of cancer from exposure to ionizing radiation, most participants reported that their health care provider did not initiate discussion about benefits and risks of radiation from imaging tests. Most patients obtained information by means of self-directed internet searches. Participants expressed gratitude for tests (“That CT saved my daughter’s life,” “I’d rather have the radiation dosage than being opened up”), yet they expressed concern about having to initiate discussions (“If you don’t ask, nobody is going to tell you anything”) and the desire to be offered information concerning the rationale for ordering specific imaging examinations, intervals for follow-up imaging, and testing alternatives. Participants believed that such information should be available routinely and that conversation with their personal physician or endorsed, readily available reference materials were ideal methods for information exchange. Understanding imaging

  4. Tactile imaging of palpable breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanchana, Rujirutana; Wang, Yue J.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Nguyen, Charles C.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a prototype Tactile Mapping Device (TMD) system comprised mainly of a tactile sensor array probe (TSAP), a 3-D camera, and a force/torque sensor, which can provide the means to produce tactile maps of the breast lumps during a breast palpation. Focusing on the key tactile topology features for breast palpation such as spatial location, size/shape of the detected lesion, and the force levels used to demonstrate the palpable abnormalities, these maps can record the results of clinical breast examination with a set of pressure distribution profiles and force sensor measurements due to detected lesion. By combining the knowledge of vision based, neural networks and tactile sensing technology; the TMD is integrated for the investigation of soft tissue interaction with tactile/force sensor, where the hard inclusion (breast cancer) can be characterized through neural network learning capability, instead of using simplified complex biomechanics model with many heuristic assumptions. These maps will serve as an objective documentation of palpable lesions for future comparative examinations. Preliminary results of simulated experiments and limited pre-clinical evaluations of the TMD prototype have tested this hypothesis and provided solid promising data showing the feasibility of the TMD in real clinical applications.

  5. Breast imaging technology: Application of magnetic resonance imaging to angiogenesis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques enable vascular function to be mapped with high spatial resolution. Current methods for imaging in breast cancer are described, and a review of recent studies that compared dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with histopathological indicators of tumour vascular status is provided. These studies show correlation between in vivo dynamic contrast measurements and in vitro histopathology. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI is also being applied to assessment of the response of breast tumours to treatment

  6. Photoacoustic Image Analysis for Cancer Detection and Building a Novel Ultrasound Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Saugata

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging non-invasive soft tissue imaging modality which has the potential to detect tissue abnormality at early stage. Photoacoustic images map the spatially varying optical absorption property of tissue. In multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging, the soft tissue is imaged with different wavelengths, tuned to the absorption peaks of the specific light absorbing tissue constituents or chromophores to obtain images with different contrasts of the same tissue sample. From those images, spatially varying concentration of the chromophores can be recovered. As multiwavelength PA images can provide important physiological information related to function and molecular composition of the tissue, so they can be used for diagnosis of cancer lesions and differentiation of malignant tumors from benign tumors. In this research, a number of parameters have been extracted from multiwavelength 3D PA images of freshly excised human prostate and thyroid specimens, imaged at five different wavelengths. Using marked histology slides as ground truths, region of interests (ROI) corresponding to cancer, benign and normal regions have been identified in the PA images. The extracted parameters belong to different categories namely chromophore concentration, frequency parameters and PA image pixels and they represent different physiological and optical properties of the tissue specimens. Statistical analysis has been performed to test whether the extracted parameters are significantly different between cancer, benign and normal regions. A multidimensional [29 dimensional] feature set, built with the extracted parameters from the 3D PA images, has been divided randomly into training and testing sets. The training set has been used to train support vector machine (SVM) and neural network (NN) classifiers while the performance of the classifiers in differentiating different tissue pathologies have been determined by the testing dataset. Using the NN

  7. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluorescent labeled (NIRF) tracers for detection of breast cancer. Thus far, only a few molecular imaging tracers have been taken to the clinic of which most are suitable for PET. My thesis describes the e...

  8. Intervention levels in a precocious detection program for breast cancer and evaluation of four participant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the basis to make a cost benefit analysis for a breast cancer precocious detection program and consequently the keys for its optimization from the radiological point of view. Taking this as a reference it is made an exhaustive quality control to four mammographic unities which were participating or they were candidates to participate in a breast cancer precocious detection program. Also it is presented its results. It is followed the protocol for quality control in mammography in Spain obtaining values for the measurement of twelve interesting parameters. It should be maintained the standard breast dose about 1 mGy/ image. It should be available a 24 x 30 cm portacassete and considering the utilization of a single projection by breast. (Author)

  9. Cellular transfer and AFM imaging of cancer cells using Bioimprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville DOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A technique for permanently capturing a replica impression of biological cells has been developed to facilitate analysis using nanometer resolution imaging tools, namely the atomic force microscope (AFM. The method, termed Bioimprint™, creates a permanent cell 'footprint' in a non-biohazardous Poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS polymer composite. The transfer of nanometer scale biological information is presented as an alternative imaging technique at a resolution beyond that of optical microscopy. By transferring cell topology into a rigid medium more suited for AFM imaging, many of the limitations associated with scanning of biological specimens can be overcome. Potential for this technique is demonstrated by analyzing Bioimprint™ replicas created from human endometrial cancer cells. The high resolution transfer of this process is further detailed by imaging membrane morphological structures consistent with exocytosis. The integration of soft lithography to replicate biological materials presents an enhanced method for the study of biological systems at the nanoscale.

  10. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  11. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. PMID:27593246

  12. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenziani, Monica [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Casalini, Patrizia [Molecular Biology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Gandola, Lorenza; Trecate, Giovanna [Radiology and Radiotherapy Departments, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Catania, Serena; Cefalo, Graziella [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Conti, Alberto [Breast Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Massimino, Maura; Meazza, Cristina; Podda, Marta; Spreafico, Filippo [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Suman, Laura [Radiology and Radiotherapy Departments, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Gennaro, Massimiliano, E-mail: gennaromassimiliano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Breast Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  13. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  14. Be smart against cancer! A school-based program covering cancer-related risk behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stölzel, Friederike; Seidel, Nadja; Uhmann, Stefan; Baumann, Michael; Berth, Hendrik; Hoyer, Jürgen; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that most school-age children are poorly informed about cancer risk factors. This study examines the effectiveness of the ‘Be smart against cancer’ (BSAC) program in promoting cancer awareness and intentions to engage in health-promoting behavior. Methods: 235 seventh-grade students were randomized to either the intervention (N = 152) or the wait-control group (N = 83). The intervention included the modules: “What is cancer?,” “Sun protection,” “Non smoking...

  15. CT images in brain metastases of the primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain was carried out in 366 patients with lung cancer in order to evaluate brain metastases. Suggestive evidences of metastases such as low density or contrast enhancement were observed in 65 cases (18%), although 26% of the metastatic cases revealed no signs or symptoms of neurological disorders. These facts emphasize that brain CT should be conducted in all patients with lung cancer, irrespective of signs and symptoms. A solitary lesion was noted in 37 out of 65 metastatic cases. More than 80% of the metastatic lesions were demonstrated as iso-density on plain CT films and were enhanced by intravenous injection of contrast medium. Although CT images of metastatic lesions reveal certain characteristic appearances according to the histologic type of the primary cancer, perifocal low density and central cavitation were observed independent of histologic type. (author)

  16. Deformable image registration for multimodal lung-cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) serve as major diagnostic imaging modalities in the lung-cancer staging process. Modern scanners provide co-registered whole-body PET/CT studies, collected while the patient breathes freely, and high-resolution chest CT scans, collected under a brief patient breath hold. Unfortunately, no method exists for registering a PET/CT study into the space of a high-resolution chest CT scan. If this could be done, vital diagnostic information offered by the PET/CT study could be brought seamlessly into the procedure plan used during live cancer-staging bronchoscopy. We propose a method for the deformable registration of whole-body PET/CT data into the space of a high-resolution chest CT study. We then demonstrate its potential for procedure planning and subsequent use in multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy.

  17. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application. PMID:26540668

  18. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini;

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  19. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Hu, Chaoxin [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Maitra, Anirban [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pomper, Martin G, E-mail: mpomper@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeled anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in pancreatic

  20. Staging and imaging of small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kalemkerian, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been primarily classified as limited or extensive, with limited stage confined to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes. In the future, the TNM staging system should be integrated into the classification of SCLC. The appropriate staging work-up for patients with SCLC has traditionally included contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen, bone scan, and magnetic resonance imaging or CT scan of the brain. Recent data ...

  1. Integrating new imaging modalities in breast cancer management

    OpenAIRE

    Pouw, B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aimed to integrate new imaging modalities in breast cancer management. In Part 1 the focus was to assess the current status of radioactive seed localisation (RSL) in clinical practice. Both patients as well as physicians or surgeons rated the technique superior compared to the conventional techniques. It is our expectation that when legislation is simplified and standard protocols for this procedure are available the adaptation rate of this procedure will further increase since le...

  2. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  3. Breast cancer targeting novel microRNA-nanoparticles for imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Venugopal, Senthil K.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Zern, Mark A.

    2009-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most prevalent small (~22 nucleotide) regulatory RNA classes in animals. These miRNAs constitute nearly one percent of genes in the human genome, making miRNA genes one of the more abundant types of regulatory molecules. MiRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell development, apoptosis, and other fundamental biological processes. MiRNAs exert their influence through complementary base-pairing with specific target mRNAs, leading to degradation or translational repression of the targeted mRNA. We have identified and tested a novel microRNA (miR-491) and demonstrated increased apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and in human breast cancer cells (HBT3477) in vitro. We prepared a novel cancer targeting assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with Quantum dots, miR-491, and MAb-ChL6 coupled through streptavidin/biotin for effective transfection, and to induce apoptosis in specific cancer cells for imaging and targeted therapy. The targeting and apoptosis inducing ability was tested by confocal and electron microscopy. The MAb-GNP-miR491-Qdot construct effectively transfected into the HBT3477 cells and induced apoptosis the confirmation of these results would suggest a new class of molecules for the imaging and therapy of breast cancer.

  4. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  5. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied

  6. A rehabilitation program for lung cancer patients during postthoracotomy chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman AJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Amy J Hoffman,1 Ruth Ann Brintnall,2 Alexander von Eye,3 Lee W Jones,4 Gordon Alderink,5 Lawrence H Patzelt,6 Jean K Brown7 1College of Nursing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2Kirkhof College of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA; 3Psychology Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 4Duke Center for Cancer Survivorship Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Frederik Meijer Honors College, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA; 6Spectrum Health, Grand Rapids, MI, USA and College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 7School of Nursing, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to describe the effects of a 16-week home-based rehabilitative exercise program on cancer-related fatigue (CRF, other symptoms, functional status, and quality of life (QOL for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after thoracotomy starting within days after hospital discharge and continuing through the initiation and completion of chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Five patients with NSCLC completed the Brief Fatigue Inventory (measuring CRF severity and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (measuring symptom severity before and after thoractomy, and at the end of each week of the 16-week exercise program. Additionally, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (measuring physical and mental functional status and the Quality of Life Index (measuring QOL were completed before and after thoracotomy, after weeks 3, 6, 12, and 16 (the end of the exercise program. Further, the 6-minute walk test (measuring functional capacity was administered before thoracotomy, prior to the initiation of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, and at the end of the 16-week exercise program, after completion of chemotherapy. Results: Participants had a

  7. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure. PMID:24980159

  8. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Neri, MD, MPH; Sherri L. Stewart, PhD; William Angell, MS

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalition...

  9. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients

  10. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeryoung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

  11. PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer.

  12. Multicentric Cancer Detected at Breast MR Imaging and Not at Mammography: Important or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacconi, Chiara; Galman, Lanie; Zheng, Junting; Sacchini, Virgilio; Sutton, Elizabeth J; Dershaw, David; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To review the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and pathologic features of multicentric cancer detected only at MR imaging and to evaluate its potential biologic value. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant; informed consent was waived. A review of records from 2001 to 2011 yielded 2021 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer who underwent biopsy after preoperative MR imaging, 285 (14%) of whom had additional cancer detected at MR imaging that was occult at mammography. In 73 patients (3.6%), MR imaging identified 87 cancers in different quadrants than the known index cancer, constituting the basis of this report. In 62 of 73 patients (85%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 75, 92), one additional cancer was found, and in 11 of 73 (15%; 95% CI: 8, 25), multiple additional cancers were found. A χ(2) test with adjustment for multiple lesions was used to examine whether MR imaging and pathologic features differ between the index lesion and additional multicentric lesions seen only at MR imaging. Results Known index cancers were more likely to be invasive than MR imaging-detected multicentric cancers (88% vs 76%, P = .023). Ductal carcinoma in situ (21 of 87 lesions [24%]; 95% CI: 15, 36) represented a minority of additional MR imaging-detected multicentric cancers. Overall, the size of MR imaging-detected multicentric invasive cancers (median, 0.6 cm; range, 0.1-6.3 cm) was smaller than that of the index cancer (median, 1.2 cm; range, 0.05-7.0 cm; P = .023), although 17 of 73 (23%) (95% CI: 14, 35) patients had larger MR imaging-detected multicentric cancers than the known index lesion, and 18 of 73 (25%) (95% CI: 15, 36) had MR imaging-detected multicentric cancers larger than 1 cm. MR imaging-detected multicentric cancers and index cancers differed in histologic characteristics, invasiveness, and grade in 27 of 73 (37%) patients (95% CI: 26, 49). In four of 73 (5%) patients (95% CI: 2, 13

  13. Structure-based optimization of GRP78-binding peptides that enhances efficacy in cancer imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Hung; Lee, Andy Chi-Lung; Chen, I-Ju; Chang, Nai-Chuan; Wu, Han-Chung; Yu, Hui-Ming; Chang, Ya-Jen; Lee, Te-Wei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Yu, Alice L; Yu, John

    2016-07-01

    It is more challenging to design peptide drugs than small molecules through molecular docking and in silico analysis. Here, we developed a structure-based approach with various computational and analytical techniques to optimize cancer-targeting peptides for molecular imaging and therapy. We first utilized a peptide-binding protein database to identify GRP78, a specific cancer cell-surface marker, as a target protein for the lead, L-peptide. Subsequently, we used homologous modeling and molecular docking to identify a peptide-binding domain within GRP78 and optimized a series of peptides with a new protein-ligand scoring program, HotLig. Binding of these peptides to GRP78 was confirmed using an oriented immobilization technique for the Biacore system. We further examined the ability of the peptides to target cancer cells through in vitro binding studies with cell lines and clinical cancer specimens, and in vivo tumor imaging and targeted chemotherapeutic studies. MicroSPECT/CT imaging revealed significantly greater uptake of (188)Re-liposomes linked to these peptides as compared with non-targeting (188)Re-liposomes. Conjugation with these peptides also significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy of Lipo-Dox. Notably, peptide-conjugated Lipo-Dox significantly reduced stem-cell subpopulation in xenografts of breast cancer. The structure-based optimization strategy for peptides described here may be useful for developing peptide drugs for cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:27088408

  14. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  15. Imfit: A Fast, Flexible New Program for Astronomical Image Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    I describe a new, open-source astronomical image-fitting program called Imfit, specialized for galaxies but potentially useful for other sources, which is fast, flexible, and highly extensible. A key characteristic of the program is an object-oriented design which allows new types of image components (2D surface-brightness functions) to be easily written and added to the program. Image functions provided with Imfit include the usual suspects for galaxy decompositions (Sersic, exponential, Gaussian), along with Core-Sersic and broken-exponential profiles, elliptical rings, and three components which perform line-of-sight integration through 3D luminosity-density models of disks and rings seen at arbitrary inclinations. Available minimization algorithms include Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead simplex, and Differential Evolution, allowing trade-offs between speed and decreased sensitivity to local minima in the fit landscape. Minimization can be done using the standard chi^2 statistic (using either data or mode...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI Study of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Ashok

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and most serious form of neoplastic diseases in both developed and developing countries. Mammography and ultrasound are the most often used screening methods in breast cancer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI uses the protons in water and fat to create the image of breast cancer. But recent studies says neoplastic breast lesions contains elevated choline concentration (tCho and altered mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC which can be used as good biomarkers to evaluate the cancer stages even follow up the Neoadjuvent Chemotherapy (NACT.Aim & Objectives:1. To evaluate the relation of age, tCho concentration and mean ADC with breast cancer.2. To estimate the correlation between the factors.3. To calculate the main difference between breast cancer patient before and after menopause.Methods/Study Design: This was a cross sectional, observational study done on 14 randomly selected diagnosed stage I breast cancer patients newly registered in surgery department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India during 3 months study period. Intentionally 7 of them were selected to be postmenopausal and rest 7 premenopausal. Patients with claustrophobia, serious illness, pacemaker or associated diseases were excluded. Volunteers were selected by lottery method after confirmation of absence of the exclusion criteria in them. All the breast MRS images were taken only after signing the consent form of being a volunteer for the study with breast coil. All the spectroscopic images were analyzed with computer technologies and SPPS software with the help of non-parametric statistical tests.Results/Findings: Mean age of patients were 44.85±6.97 where in premenopausal and postmenopausal women it was 40.14±4.59 and 49.57±5.26 respectively. tCho concentration was high in postmenopausal women (4.85±2.64 mmol/kg vs 3.72±1.64 where unlike to them premenopausal women

  17. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  18. Feature Selection and Molecular Classification of Cancer Using Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite important advances in microarray-based molecular classification of tumors, its application in clinical settings remains formidable. This is in part due to the limitation of current analysis programs in discovering robust biomarkers and developing classifiers with a practical set of genes. Genetic programming (GP is a type of machine learning technique that uses evolutionary algorithm to simulate natural selection as well as population dynamics, hence leading to simple and comprehensible classifiers. Here we applied GP to cancer expression profiling data to select feature genes and build molecular classifiers by mathematical integration of these genes. Analysis of thousands of GP classifiers generated for a prostate cancer data set revealed repetitive use of a set of highly discriminative feature genes, many of which are known to be disease associated. GP classifiers often comprise five or less genes and successfully predict cancer types and subtypes. More importantly, GP classifiers generated in one study are able to predict samples from an independent study, which may have used different microarray platforms. In addition, GP yielded classification accuracy better than or similar to conventional classification methods. Furthermore, the mathematical expression of GP classifiers provides insights into relationships between classifier genes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GP may be valuable for generating effective classifiers containing a practical set of genes for diagnostic/ prognostic cancer classification.

  19. Imaging evaluation of liver cancer after radiofrequency ablation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency ablation has been an important means of the comprehensive therapy for liver cancers, especially for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Radiofrequency ablation has already showed encouraging clinical effects. However, due to the limitation of ablation extent the remnants of tumor lesions or the recurrence of tumor are often seen. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the curative effect of radiofrequency ablation. This paper aims to summarize the evaluation of curative effect of radiofrequency ablation with different imaging methods, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these different imaging methods in order to provide a correct reference for taking reasonable imaging means to help make the proper clinical treatment. (authors)

  20. A minimum spanning forest based hyperspectral image classification method for cancerous tissue detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert; Patton, Samuel K.; Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma V.; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a developing modality for cancer detection. The rich information associated with hyperspectral images allow for the examination between cancerous and healthy tissue. This study focuses on a new method that incorporates support vector machines into a minimum spanning forest algorithm for differentiating cancerous tissue from normal tissue. Spectral information was gathered to test the algorithm. Animal experiments were performed and hyperspectral images were acquired from tumor-bearing mice. In vivo imaging experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed classification method for cancer tissue classification on hyperspectral images.

  1. A new programming metaphor for image processing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Piskunov, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Most image processing systems, besides an Application Program Interface (API) which lets users write their own image processing programs, also feature a higher level of programmability. Traditionally, this is a command or macro language, which can be used to build large procedures (scripts) out of simple programs or commands. This approach, a legacy of the teletypewriter has serious drawbacks. A command language is clumsy when (and if! it attempts to utilize the capabilities of a multitasking or multiprocessor environment, it is but adequate for real-time data acquisition and processing, it has a fairly steep learning curve, and the user interface is very inefficient,. especially when compared to a graphical user interface (GUI) that systems running under Xll or Windows should otherwise be able to provide. ll these difficulties stem from one basic problem: a command language is not a natural metaphor for an image processing procedure. A more natural metaphor - an image processing factory is described in detail. A factory is a set of programs (applications) that execute separate operations on images, connected by pipes that carry data (images and parameters) between them. The programs function concurrently, processing images as they arrive along pipes, and querying the user for whatever other input they need. From the user's point of view, programming (constructing) factories is a lot like playing with LEGO blocks - much more intuitive than writing scripts. Focus is on some of the difficulties of implementing factory support, most notably the design of an appropriate API. It also shows that factories retain all the functionality of a command language (including loops and conditional branches), while suffering from none of the drawbacks outlined above. Other benefits of factory programming include self-tuning factories and the process of encapsulation, which lets a factory take the shape of a standard application both from the system and the user's point of view, and

  2. Esophageal Cancer: Role of Imaging in Primary Staging and Response Assessment Post Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Yvette

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the early detection and treatment of esophageal cancer have meant improved survival rates for patients with esophageal cancer. Accurate pretreatment and post-neoadjuvant treatment staging of esophageal cancer is essential for assessing operability and determining the optimum treatment plan. This article reviews the multimodality imaging approach in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of treatment response in esophageal cancer. PMID:27342898

  3. Body diffusion-weighted MR imaging of uterine endometrial cancer: Is it helpful in the detection of cancer in nonenhanced MR imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: rad068@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Nakai, Go; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Tanikake, Masato; Narabayashi, Isamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Yamada, Takashi; Tsuji, Motomu [Department of Pathology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Objective: In this study, the authors discussed the feasibility and value of diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging in the detection of uterine endometrial cancer in addition to conventional nonenhanced MR images. Methods and materials: DW images of endometrial cancer in 23 patients were examined by using a 1.5-T MR scanner. This study investigated whether or not DW images offer additional incremental value to conventional nonenhanced MR imaging in comparison with histopathological results. Moreover, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in the regions of interest within the endometrial cancer and compared with those of normal endometrium and myometrium in 31 volunteers, leiomyoma in 14 patients and adenomyosis in 10 patients. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used, with a p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: In 19 of 23 patients, endometrial cancers were detected only on T2-weighted images. In the remaining 4 patients, of whom two had coexisting leiomyoma, no cancer was detected on T2-weighted images. This corresponds to an 83% detection sensitivity for the carcinomas. When DW images and fused DW images/T2-weighted images were used in addition to the T2-weighted images, cancers were identified in 3 of the remaining 4 patients in addition to the 19 patients (overall detection sensitivity of 96%). The mean ADC value of endometrial cancer (n = 22) was (0.97 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, which was significantly lower than those of the normal endometrium, myometrium, leiomyoma and adenomyosis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: DW imaging can be helpful in the detection of uterine endometrial cancer in nonenhanced MR imaging.

  4. Image quality and cancer visibility of T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the prostate at 7 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the image quality of T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and the visibility of prostate cancer at 7 Tesla (T). Seventeen prostate cancer patients underwent T2w imaging at 7T with only an external transmit/receive array coil. Three radiologists independently scored images for image quality, visibility of anatomical structures, and presence of artefacts. Krippendorff's alpha and weighted kappa statistics were used to assess inter-observer agreement. Visibility of prostate cancer lesions was assessed by directly linking the T2w images to the confirmed location of prostate cancer on histopathology. T2w imaging at 7T was achievable with 'satisfactory' (3/5) to 'good' (4/5) quality. Visibility of anatomical structures was predominantly scored as 'satisfactory' (3/5) and 'good' (4/5). If artefacts were present, they were mostly motion artefacts and, to a lesser extent, aliasing artefacts and noise. Krippendorff's analysis revealed an α = 0.44 between three readers for the overall image quality scores. Clinically significant cancer lesions in both peripheral zone and transition zone were visible at 7T. T2w imaging with satisfactory to good quality can be routinely acquired, and cancer lesions were visible in patients with prostate cancer at 7T using only an external transmit/receive body array coil. (orig.)

  5. Image quality and cancer visibility of T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the prostate at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, E.K.; Lagemaat, M.W.; Barentsz, J.O.; Fuetterer, J.J.; Zamecnik, P.; Roozen, H.; Maas, M.C. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, P.O. box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Orzada, S.; Bitz, A.K. [Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Scheenen, T.W.J. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, P.O. box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    To assess the image quality of T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and the visibility of prostate cancer at 7 Tesla (T). Seventeen prostate cancer patients underwent T2w imaging at 7T with only an external transmit/receive array coil. Three radiologists independently scored images for image quality, visibility of anatomical structures, and presence of artefacts. Krippendorff's alpha and weighted kappa statistics were used to assess inter-observer agreement. Visibility of prostate cancer lesions was assessed by directly linking the T2w images to the confirmed location of prostate cancer on histopathology. T2w imaging at 7T was achievable with 'satisfactory' (3/5) to 'good' (4/5) quality. Visibility of anatomical structures was predominantly scored as 'satisfactory' (3/5) and 'good' (4/5). If artefacts were present, they were mostly motion artefacts and, to a lesser extent, aliasing artefacts and noise. Krippendorff's analysis revealed an α = 0.44 between three readers for the overall image quality scores. Clinically significant cancer lesions in both peripheral zone and transition zone were visible at 7T. T2w imaging with satisfactory to good quality can be routinely acquired, and cancer lesions were visible in patients with prostate cancer at 7T using only an external transmit/receive body array coil. (orig.)

  6. Approximate Bayesian Image Interpretation using Generative Probabilistic Graphics Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mansinghka, Vikash K.; Kulkarni, Tejas D.; Perov, Yura N.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of computer vision as the Bayesian inverse problem to computer graphics has a long history and an appealing elegance, but it has proved difficult to directly implement. Instead, most vision tasks are approached via complex bottom-up processing pipelines. Here we show that it is possible to write short, simple probabilistic graphics programs that define flexible generative models and to automatically invert them to interpret real-world images. Generative probabilistic graphics program...

  7. ORIS: the Oak Ridge Imaging System program listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) is a general purpose access, storage, processing and display system for nuclear medicine imaging with rectilinear scanner and gamma camera. This volume contains listings of the PDP-8/E version of ORIS Version 2. The system is designed to run under the Digital Equipment Corporation's OS/8 monitor in 16K or more words of core. System and image file mass storage is on RK8E disk; longer-time image file storage is provided on DECtape. Another version of this program exists for use with the RF08 disk, and a more limited version is for DECtape only. This latter version is intended for non-medical imaging

  8. Interval colon cancer in a Lynch syndrome patient under annual colonoscopic surveillance: a case for advanced imaging techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxentenko Amy S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome confers increased risk for various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Colonoscopic surveillance programs have led to reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy every 1–2 years beginning at age 20–25, or 10 years earlier than the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a family, with annual colonoscopy after age 40, is the recommended management for mutation carriers. Screening programs have reduced colon cancer mortality, but interval cancers may occur. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman with Lynch syndrome who was found to have an adenoma with invasive colorectal cancer within one year after a normal colonoscopy. Conclusion Our patient illustrates two current concepts about Lynch syndrome: 1 adenomas are the cancer precursor and 2 such adenomas may be “aggressive,” in the sense that the adenoma progresses more readily and more rapidly to carcinoma in this setting compared to usual colorectal adenomas. Our patient’s resected tumor invaded only into submucosa and all lymph nodes were negative; in that sense, she represents a success for annual colonoscopic surveillance. Still, this case does raise the question of whether advanced imaging techniques are advisable for surveillance colonoscopy in these high-risk patients.

  9. Simultaneous Imaging of Two Different Cancer Biomarkers Using Aptamer-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying gene expression profile in a single cancer cell is important because multiple genes are associated with cancer development. Quantum dots (QDs have been utilized as biological probes for imaging and detection. QDs display specific optical and electrical properties that depend on their size that can be applied for imaging and sensing applications. In this study, simultaneous imaging of the cancer biomarkers, tenascin-C and nucleolin, was performed using two types of aptamer-conjugated QDs. The simultaneous imaging of these two different cancer markers in three cancer cell lines was reliable and cell line-specific. Current requirements for cancer imaging technologies include the need for simple preparation methods and the ability to detect multiple cancer biomarkers and evaluate their intracellular localizations. The method employed in this study is a feasible solution to these requirements.

  10. New approaches to image thyroid cancer cells and microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UDTC) are still life-threatening pathologies, because of the lack of well-established diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the past, many attempts have been made to develop radiopharmaceutical to diagnose or treat radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory metastases or recurrences, with limited results. Indeed, it was not possible to find a specific and over expressed marker to be used as target of radiopharmaceuticals or targeted therapies. Nowadays, with novel advances in the field of tumor microenvironment, many new markers are available to be used as suitable targets for targeted therapies interfering with signalling pathways of cells involved in the mechanisms that favour tumor growth and metastatization. This opened new perspective in the use of radiopharmaceuticals targeting components of tumor microenvironment for early diagnosis, pre-operative staging or therapy planning and follow up with targeted drugs. In the present review we present the state of novel approaches to image thyroid cancer and its microenvironment, focusing on RAI-refractory thyroid cancer as a real clinical problem to be solved.

  11. Potential of biological images for radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent technical advances in 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy (3DCRT and IMRT) based, on patient-specific CT and MRI images, have the potential of delivering exquisitely conformal dose distributions to the target volume while avoiding critical structures. Emerging clinical results in terms of reducing treatment-related morbidity and increasing local control appear promising. Recent developments in imaging have suggested that biological images may further positively impact cancer diagnosis, characterization and therapy. While in the past radiological images are largely anatomical, the new types of images can provide metabolic, biochemical, physiological, functional and molecular (genotypic and phenotypic) information. For radiation therapy, images that give information about factors (e.g. tumor hypoxia, Tpot) that influence radiosensitivity and treatment outcome can be regarded as radiobiological images. The ability of IMRT to 'paint' (in 2D) or 'sculpt' (in 3D) the dose, and produce exquisitely conformal dose distributions begs the '64 million dollar question' as to how to paint or sculpt, and whether biological imaging may provide the pertinent information. Can this new approach provide 'radiobiological phenotypes' non-invasively, and incrementally improve upon the predictive assays of radiobiological characteristics such as proliferative activity (Tpot - the potential doubling time), radiosensitivity (SF2 - the surviving fraction at a dose of 2 Gy), energy status (relative to sublethal damage repair), pH (a possible surrogate of hypoxia), tumor hypoxia, etc. as prognosticator(s) of radiation treatment outcome. Important for IMRT, the spatial (geometrical) distribution of the radiobiological phenotypes provide the basis for dose distribution design to conform to both the physical (geometrical) and the biological attributes. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  12. Quantification of tumor fluorescence during intraoperative optical cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Ryan P; Keating, Jane J; DeJesus, Elizabeth M; Jiang, Jack X; Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Nie, Shuming; Holt, David E; Arlauckas, Sean P; Low, Phillip S; Delikatny, E James; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative optical cancer imaging is an emerging technology in which surgeons employ fluorophores to visualize tumors, identify tumor-positive margins and lymph nodes containing metastases. This study compares instrumentation to measure tumor fluorescence. Three imaging systems (Spectropen, Glomax, Flocam) measured and quantified fluorescent signal-to-background ratios (SBR) in vitro, murine xenografts, tissue phantoms and clinically. Evaluation criteria included the detection of small changes in fluorescence, sensitivity of signal detection at increasing depths and practicality of use. In vitro, spectroscopy was superior in detecting incremental differences in fluorescence than luminescence and digital imaging (Ln[SBR] = 6.8 ± 0.6, 2.4 ± 0.3, 2.6 ± 0.1, p = 0.0001). In fluorescent tumor cells, digital imaging measured higher SBRs than luminescence (6.1 ± 0.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.4, p = 0.001). Spectroscopy was more sensitive than luminometry and digital imaging in identifying murine tumor fluorescence (SBR = 41.7 ± 11.5, 5.1 ± 1.8, 4.1 ± 0.9, p = 0.0001), and more sensitive than digital imaging at detecting fluorescence at increasing depths (SBR = 7.0 ± 3.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.03). Lastly, digital imaging was the most practical and least time-consuming. All methods detected incremental differences in fluorescence. Spectroscopy was the most sensitive for small changes in fluorescence. Digital imaging was the most practical considering its wide field of view, background noise filtering capability, and sensitivity to increasing depth. PMID:26563091

  13. Fluoroscopic tumor tracking for image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Cerviño, Laura I.; Tang, Xiaoli; Vasconcelos, Nuno; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate lung tumor tracking in real time is a keystone to image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancers. Existing lung tumor tracking approaches can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) deriving tumor position from external surrogates; (2) tracking implanted fiducial markers fluoroscopically or electromagnetically; (3) fluoroscopically tracking lung tumor without implanted fiducial markers. The first approach suffers from insufficient accuracy, while the second may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previous studies in fluoroscopic markerless tracking are mainly based on template matching methods, which may fail when the tumor boundary is unclear in fluoroscopic images. In this paper we propose a novel markerless tumor tracking algorithm, which employs the correlation between the tumor position and surrogate anatomic features in the image. The positions of the surrogate features are not directly tracked; instead, we use principal component analysis of regions of interest containing them to obtain parametric representations of their motion patterns. Then, the tumor position can be predicted from the parametric representations of surrogates through regression. Four regression methods were tested in this study: linear and two-degree polynomial regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results based on fluoroscopic sequences of ten lung cancer patients demonstrate a mean tracking error of 2.1 pixels and a maximum error at a 95% confidence level of 4.6 pixels (pixel size is about 0.5 mm) for the proposed tracking algorithm.

  14. Integrin αβ3-Targeted Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin αβ3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory. In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK]2 for lung cancer imaging. The PEGylated RGD peptide indicated integrin αβ3 avidity, but the PEGylation reduced the receptor binding affinity of this ligand compared to the unmodified RGD dimer. The radiotracer revealed rapid blood clearance and predominant renal clearance route. The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, diaphragm. As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background. 64Cu-DOTA-PEGE[c(RGDyK]2 is an excellent positron emission tomography (PET tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging. Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

  15. Prostate cancer risk stratification with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Ely R; Margolis, Daniel J; Nassiri, Nima; Marks, Leonard S

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has shown promise for prostate cancer (PCa) risk stratification. mpMRI, often followed by targeted biopsy, can be used to confirm low-grade disease before enrollment in active surveillance. In patients with intermediate or high-risk PCa, mpMRI can be used to inform surgical management. mpMRI has sensitivity of 44% to 87% for detection of clinically significant PCa and negative predictive value of 63% to 98% for exclusion of significant disease. In addition to tumor identification, mpMRI has also been shown to contribute significant incremental value to currently used clinical nomograms for predicting extraprostatic extension. In combination with conventional clinical criteria, accuracy of mpMRI for prediction of extraprostatic extension ranges from 92% to 94%, significantly higher than that achieved with clinical criteria alone. Supplemental sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, allow quantitative evaluation of cancer-suspicious regions. Apparent diffusion coefficient appears to be an independent predictor of PCa aggressiveness. Addition of apparent diffusion coefficient to Epstein criteria may improve sensitivity for detection of significant PCa by as much as 16%. Limitations of mpMRI include variability in reporting, underestimation of PCa volume and failure to detect clinically significant disease in a small but significant number of cases. PMID:27040381

  16. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Regeling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI is increasingly gaining acceptance in the medical field. Up until now, HSI has been used in conjunction with rigid endoscopy to detect cancer in vivo. The logical next step is to pair HSI with flexible endoscopy, since it improves access to hard-to-reach areas. While the flexible endoscope’s fiber optic cables provide the advantage of flexibility, they also introduce an interfering honeycomb-like pattern onto images. Due to the substantial impact this pattern has on locating cancerous tissue, it must be removed before the HS data can be further processed. Thereby, the loss of information is to minimize avoiding the suppression of small-area variations of pixel values. We have developed a system that uses flexible endoscopy to record HS cubes of the larynx and designed a special filtering technique to remove the honeycomb-like pattern with minimal loss of information. We have confirmed its feasibility by comparing it to conventional filtering techniques using an objective metric and by applying unsupervised and supervised classifications to raw and pre-processed HS cubes. Compared to conventional techniques, our method successfully removes the honeycomb-like pattern and considerably improves classification performance, while preserving image details.

  17. Fluoroscopic tumor tracking for image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate lung tumor tracking in real time is a keystone to image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancers. Existing lung tumor tracking approaches can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) deriving tumor position from external surrogates; (2) tracking implanted fiducial markers fluoroscopically or electromagnetically; (3) fluoroscopically tracking lung tumor without implanted fiducial markers. The first approach suffers from insufficient accuracy, while the second may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previous studies in fluoroscopic markerless tracking are mainly based on template matching methods, which may fail when the tumor boundary is unclear in fluoroscopic images. In this paper we propose a novel markerless tumor tracking algorithm, which employs the correlation between the tumor position and surrogate anatomic features in the image. The positions of the surrogate features are not directly tracked; instead, we use principal component analysis of regions of interest containing them to obtain parametric representations of their motion patterns. Then, the tumor position can be predicted from the parametric representations of surrogates through regression. Four regression methods were tested in this study: linear and two-degree polynomial regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results based on fluoroscopic sequences of ten lung cancer patients demonstrate a mean tracking error of 2.1 pixels and a maximum error at a 95% confidence level of 4.6 pixels (pixel size is about 0.5 mm) for the proposed tracking algorithm.

  18. A computer program for planimetric analysis of digitized images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Lynnerup, O; Homøe, P

    1992-01-01

    Planimetrical measurements are made to calculate the area of an entity. By digitizing the entity the planimetrical measurements may be done by computer. This computer program was developed in conjunction with a research project involving measurement of the pneumatized cell system of the temporal...... bones as seen on X-rays. By placing the X-rays on a digitizer tablet and tracing the outline of the cell system, the area was calculated by the program. The calculated data and traced images could be stored and printed. The program is written in BASIC; necessary hardware is an IBM-compatible personal...... computer, a digitizer tablet and a printer....

  19. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertan, Francesca V; Greer, Matthew D; Borofsky, Sam; Kabakus, Ismail M; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2016-06-01

    There is growing consensus that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is an effective modality in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy and radiation therapy. The emergence of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focal therapies, such as cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and laser ablation, have made the use of mpMRI even more important, as the normal anatomy is inevitably altered and the detection of recurrence is made more difficult. The aim of this article is to review the utility of mpMRI in detecting recurrent prostate cancer in patients following radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and focal therapy and to discuss expected post-treatment mpMRI findings, the varied appearance of recurrent tumors, and their mimics. PMID:27187164

  20. Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging in an Ocular Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kolomeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe integration of fundus autofluorescence (FAF imaging into an ocular screening program. Methods. Fifty consecutive screening participants were included in this prospective pilot imaging study. Color and FAF (530/640 nm exciter/barrier filters images were obtained with a 15.1MP Canon nonmydriatic hybrid camera. A clinician evaluated the images on site to determine need for referral. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and ocular pathology detected by color fundus and FAF imaging modalities were recorded. Results. Mean ± SD age was 47.4 ± 17.3 years. Fifty-two percent were female and 58% African American. Twenty-seven percent had a comprehensive ocular examination within the past year. Mean VA was 20/39 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Mean IOP was 15 mmHg bilaterally. Positive color and/or FAF findings were identified in nine (18% individuals with diabetic retinopathy or macular edema (n=4, focal RPE defects (n=2, age-related macular degeneration (n=1, central serous retinopathy (n=1, and ocular trauma (n=1. Conclusions. FAF was successfully integrated in our ocular screening program and aided in the identification of ocular pathology. Larger studies examining the utility of this technology in screening programs may be warranted.

  1. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  2. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cros...

  3. Breast imaging technology: Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging - applications to breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review addresses the capacity of optical imaging to resolve functional and molecular characteristics of breast cancer. We focus on recent developments in optical imaging that allow three-dimensional reconstruction of optical signatures in the human breast using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). These technologic advances allow the noninvasive, in vivo imaging and quantification of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of contrast agents that target the physiologic and molecular functions of tumors. Hence, malignancy differentiation can be based on a novel set of functional features that are complementary to current radiologic imaging methods. These features could enhance diagnostic accuracy, lower the current state-of-the-art detection limits, and play a vital role in therapeutic strategy and monitoring

  4. Correlations between diffusion-weighted imaging and breast cancer biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martincich, Laura; Deantoni, Veronica; Bertotto, Ilaria; Liotti, Michele; Regge, Daniele [Unit of Radiology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Redana, Stefania; Rossi, Valentina; Aglietta, Massimo; Montemurro, Filippo [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Division of Medical Oncology, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Kubatzki, Franziska; Ponzone, Riccardo [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Division of Gynecological Oncology, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Sarotto, Ivana [Unit of Pathology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Turin (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We evaluated whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varies according to biological features in breast cancer. DWI was performed in 190 patients undergoing dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. For each of the 192 index cancers we studied the correlation between ADC and classical histopathological and immunohistochemical breast tumour features (size, histological type, grade, oestrogen receptor [ER] and Ki-67 expression, HER2 status). ADC was compared with immunohistochemical surrogates of the intrinsic subtypes (Luminal A; Luminal B; HER2-enriched; triple-negative). Correlations were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. A weak, statistically significant correlation was observed between ADC values and the percentage of ER-positive cells (-0.168, P = 0.020). Median ADC values were significantly higher in ER-negative than in ER-positive tumours (1.110 vs 1.050 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P = 0.015). HER2-enriched tumours had the highest median ADC value (1.190 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, range 0.950-2.090). Multiple comparisons showed that this value was significantly higher than that of Luminal A (1.025 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [0.700-1.340], P = 0.004) and Luminal B/HER2-negative (1.060 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [0.470-2.420], P = 0.008) tumours. A trend towards statistical significance (P = 0.018) was seen with Luminal B/HER2-positive tumours. ADC values vary significantly according to biological tumour features, suggesting that cancer heterogeneity influences imaging parameters. (orig.)

  5. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  6. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging

  7. Fluorescent supramolecular micelles for imaging-guided cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Yin, Wenyan; Dong, Xinghua; Yang, Wantai; Zhao, Yuliang; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-02-01

    A novel smart fluorescent drug delivery system composed of a perylene diimide (PDI) core and block copolymer poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) is developed and named as PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8. The biodegradable PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8 is a unimolecular micelle and can self-assemble into supramolecular micelles, called as fluorescent supramolecular micelles (FSMs), in aqueous media. An insoluble drug camptothecin (CPT) can be effectively loaded into the FSMs and exhibits pH-responsive release. Moreover, the FSMs with good biocompatibility can also be employed as a remarkable fluorescent probe for cell labelling because the maximum emission of PDI is beneficial for bio-imaging. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrate that the micelles are easily endocytosed by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth-inhibitory studies reveal a better therapeutic effect of FSMs after CPT encapsulation when compared with the free CPT drug. The multifunctional FSM nanomedicine platform as a nanovehicle has great potential for fluorescence imaging-guided cancer therapy.A novel smart fluorescent drug delivery system composed of a perylene diimide (PDI) core and block copolymer poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) is developed and named as PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8. The biodegradable PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8 is a unimolecular micelle and can self-assemble into supramolecular micelles, called as fluorescent supramolecular micelles (FSMs), in aqueous media. An insoluble drug camptothecin (CPT) can be effectively loaded into the FSMs and exhibits pH-responsive release. Moreover, the FSMs with good biocompatibility can also be employed as a remarkable fluorescent probe for cell labelling because the maximum emission of PDI is beneficial for bio-imaging. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrate that the micelles are easily endocytosed by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth

  8. Molecular imaging of cancer with radiolabeled peptides and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vāvere, Amy L; Rossin, Raffaella

    2012-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides hold promise for diagnosis and therapy of cancer as well as for early monitoring of therapy outcomes, patient stratification, etc. This manuscript focuses on the development of peptides labeled with 18F, 64Cu, 68Ga and other positron-emitting radionuclides for PET imaging. The major techniques for radionuclide incorporation are briefly discussed. Then, examples of positron-emitting peptides targeting somatostatin receptors, integrins, gastrin-releasing peptide receptors, vasointestinal peptide receptors, melanocortin 1 receptors and others are reviewed. PMID:22292762

  9. Imaging Pancreatic Cancer Using Bioconjugated InP Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Ken-Tye; Ding, Hong; Roy, Indrajit; Law, Wing-Cheung; Bergey, Earl J.; Maitra, Anirban; Prasad, Paras N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the successful use of non-cadmium based quantum dots (QDs) as highly efficient and non-toxic optical probes for imaging live pancreatic cancer cells. Indium phosphide (core)-zinc sulphide (shell), or InP/ZnS, QDs with high quality and bright luminescence were prepared by a hot colloidal synthesis method in non-aqueous media. The surfaces of these QDs were then functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid to make them highly dispersible in aqueous media. Further bioconjug...

  10. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  11. Effect of image processing version on detection of non-calcification cancers in 2D digital mammography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. M.; Cooke, J.; Given-Wilson, R. M.; Wallis, M. G.; Halling-Brown, M.; Mackenzie, A.; Chakraborty, D. P.; Bosmans, H.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2013-03-01

    Image processing (IP) is the last step in the digital mammography imaging chain before interpretation by a radiologist. Each manufacturer has their own IP algorithm(s) and the appearance of an image after IP can vary greatly depending upon the algorithm and version used. It is unclear whether these differences can affect cancer detection. This work investigates the effect of IP on the detection of non-calcification cancers by expert observers. Digital mammography images for 190 patients were collected from two screening sites using Hologic amorphous selenium detectors. Eighty of these cases contained non-calcification cancers. The images were processed using three versions of IP from Hologic - default (full enhancement), low contrast (intermediate enhancement) and pseudo screen-film (no enhancement). Seven experienced observers inspected the images and marked the location of regions suspected to be non-calcification cancers assigning a score for likelihood of malignancy. This data was analysed using JAFROC analysis. The observers also scored the clinical interpretation of the entire case using the BSBR classification scale. This was analysed using ROC analysis. The breast density in the region surrounding each cancer and the number of times each cancer was detected were calculated. IP did not have a significant effect on the radiologists' judgment of the likelihood of malignancy of individual lesions or their clinical interpretation of the entire case. No correlation was found between number of times each cancer was detected and the density of breast tissue surrounding that cancer.

  12. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women: the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Beerman, Paula R.; Lee, Kathy; Hung, Jenny; Nguyen, Helene; Cho, Janet; Huang, Wennie

    2012-01-01

    Asian American women's historically low breast cancer mortality rate has remained constant as rates decreased for all other races. From 2000 to 2004, a randomized controlled trial explored the Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program's impact on Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n=1,540). Women aged 40 and older and non-adherent for annual screening mammograms were more likely to schedule a mammogram after receiving the breast cancer education program than wome...

  13. Receptivity and preferences of pancreatic cancer family members for participating in lifestyle programs to reduce cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Lisa A; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Brockman, Tabetha A; Patten, Christi A.; Decker, Paul A.; Ehlers, Shawna L.; Nadeau, Ashley; Rabe, Kari G.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is a shared family experience that might provide an opportunity for lifestyle change among at-risk family members. The purpose of this study was to assess receptivity and preferences for cancer risk reduction programs among at-risk family members with two or more relatives affected with pancreas cancer. Methods We surveyed 401 at-risk family members in an existing pancreatic cancer family registry. Participants completed a mailed survey which examined demographic, medical, a...

  14. Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging in Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Breast Cancer: Comparison with Single-Shot Echo-Planar Imaging in Image Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast

  15. Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging in Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Breast Cancer: Comparison with Single-Shot Echo-Planar Imaging in Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Suk [Department of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Sook [Department of Radiology, St. Paul Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 130-709 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Yo Han [Healthcare Sector, Siemens Ltd., Seoul 120-837 (Korea, Republic of); Porter, David Andrew [Healthcare Sector, Siemens AG, Erlangen 91050 (Germany); Song, Byung Joo [Department of General Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast.

  16. Programmed death-1 & its ligands: promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Rajeev K; Janik, John E; Abu-Eid, Rasha; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and BRAF inhibitor. Here, we discuss strategies of combining PD-1/PD-ligand interaction inhibitors with other immune checkpoint modulators and standard-of-care therapy to break immune tolerance and induce a potent antitumor activity, which is currently a research area of key scientific pursuit. PMID:26250412

  17. An Automated System for the Detection of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Cancer Cell Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Krishna Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer disease is a difficult problem and if it is not detected in starting phase the cancer can be fatal. Current medical procedures which are used to diagnose the cancer in body partsare time taking and more laboratory work is required for them. This work is an endeavor to possible recognition of cancer cells in the body part. The process consists of image taken of the affected area and digital image processing of the images to get a morphological pattern which differentiate normal cell to cancer cell. The technique is different than visual inspection and biopsy process. Image processing enables the visualization of cellular structure with substantial resolution. The aim of the work is to exploit differences in cellular organization between cancerous and normal tissue using image processing technique, thus allowing for automated, fast and accurate diagnosis.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique; Bipat, Shandra; Barbaro, Brunella; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Luís; Fenlon, Helen M; Gollub, Marc J; Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Halligan, Steve; Hoeffel, Christine; Kim, Seung Ho; Laghi, Andrea; Maier, Andrea; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Stoker, Jaap; Taylor, Stuart A; Torkzad, Michael R; Blomqvist, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach regarding the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. METHODS: A consensus meeting of 14 abdominal imaging experts from the European...

  19. Maximizing Benefits for Effective Cancer Survivorship Programming: Defining a Dissemination and Implementation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham A.; Proctor, Enola K.

    2011-01-01

    The latest in implementation science is used to outline a process that cancer organizations can use in designing, implementing, prioritizing, and evaluating cancer survivor programs to improve patient outcomes, using smoking cessation as a primary example.

  20. Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Meaney, Paul M; Kaufman, Peter A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring. PMID:22562726

  1. Quantitative imaging features to predict cancer status in lung nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Atwater, Thomas; Antic, Sanja; Li, Qian; Walker, Ronald; Smith, Gary T.; Massion, Pierre P.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: We propose a systematic methodology to quantify incidentally identified lung nodules based on observed radiological traits on a point scale. These quantitative traits classification model was used to predict cancer status. Materials and Methods: We used 102 patients' low dose computed tomography (LDCT) images for this study, 24 semantic traits were systematically scored from each image. We built a machine learning classifier in cross validation setting to find best predictive imaging features to differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. Results: The best feature triplet to discriminate malignancy was based on long axis, concavity and lymphadenopathy with average AUC of 0.897 (Accuracy of 76.8%, Sensitivity of 64.3%, Specificity of 90%). A similar semantic triplet optimized on Sensitivity/Specificity (Youden's J index) included long axis, vascular convergence and lymphadenopathy which had an average AUC of 0.875 (Accuracy of 81.7%, Sensitivity of 76.2%, Specificity of 95%). Conclusions: Quantitative radiological image traits can differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. These semantic features along with size measurement enhance the prediction accuracy.

  2. Individualized image guided iso-NTCP based liver cancer SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly individualized stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) strategy was developed to allow a wide spectrum of patients with liver cancer to be treated. This phase I/II study encompasses individualization of immobilization, radiation planning, PTV margin determination, image guidance strategy and prescription dose. Active breathing control breath hold is used to immobilize the liver when feasible. Image guidance strategies include orthogonal MV images and orthogonal kV fluoroscopy using the diaphragm for a surrogate for the liver, and kV cone beam CT using the liver or tumour for guidance. The prescription dose is individualized to maintain the same estimated risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), based on a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model, with a maximum permitted dose of 60 Gy in 6 fractions. Since August 2003, 79 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (33), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (12) and liver metastases (34) were treated. The median tumour volume was 293 cm3 (2.9-3088 cm3). The median prescribed dose was 36.6 Gy (24.0 Gy-57.0 Gy) in 6 fractions. The median effective liver volume irradiated was 45% (9-80%). Sixty percent of patients were treated with breath hold to immobilize their liver. Intra-fraction reproducibility (s) of the liver with repeat breath holds was excellent (1.5?mm); however inter-fraction reproducibility (s) was worse (3.4 mm). Image guidance reduced the residual systematic and random setup errors significantly

  3. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (program in this work is applied.

  4. Advanced Imaging (Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and Image-Guided Biopsy in Initial Staging and Monitoring of Therapy of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Shaheen; Walker, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the National Lung Screening Trial strongly support early detection and definitive treatment to reduce lung cancer mortality. Once lung cancer is discovered, accurate staging at baseline is imperative to maximize patient benefit and cost-effective use of health care resources. Although computed tomography (CT) remains a powerful tool for staging of lung cancer, advances in other imaging modalities, specifically positron emission tomography/CT and magnetic resonance imaging, can ...

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  6. Cancer Control Planners’ Perceptions and Use of Evidence-Based Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Peggy A.; Maria E. Fernandez; Williams, Rebecca; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Escoffery, Cam; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Pfeiffer, Debra; Kegler, Michelle C.; Reese, LeRoy; Mistry, Ritesh; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) surveyed 282 cancer control planners to inform its efforts to increase the use of evidence-based cancer control programs (EBPs; programs that have been scientifically tested and successfully changed behavior). Respondents included planners from organizations in state Comprehensive Cancer Control coalitions as well as other governmental and non-governmental organizations, and community-based coalitions. Respondents provided information...

  7. Association of the California tobacco control program with declines in lung cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The California tobacco control program enacted in 1988 has been associated with declines in smoking and heart disease mortality. Since smoking also causes lung cancer, we investigated whether the program was associated with a decline in lung and other cancer incidence. Methods: Age-adjusted incidence rates of lung and bladder cancer (which are caused by smoking) and prostate and brain cancer (which are not) in the San Francisco-Oakland (SFO) Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (S...

  8. Novel Fuzzy Technique for Cancer Detection in Noisy Breast Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alamelumangai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Detecting tumor areas in breast Ultrasound (US images is a challenging task. The occurrence of benign areas in breast may result in false identification of malignant areas which may have serious outcome. Approach: The CAD system could act as a major function in the early detection of breast cancer and could decrease the death rate among women with breast cancer. This challenge was especially daunting in non homogenous noisy US Images where benign and malignant images were difficult to identify. The US images possess speckle noise which was its inherent property. This study was an attempt to reduce false alarm in Breast cancer detection using computationally efficient fuzzy based image clustering. Results: The proposed system was tested using images which was obtained from the famous American Cancer database for conducting experiments. We had compared the Noise Induced images with that of the De-speckled images and found that the de-speckled images yeild a better image for diagnosis based. Later the image was clustered based on Fuzzy C-Means based clustering technique to identify the cancerous cells. Conclusion: An efficient method is suggested in this study which assist in diagnosing the cancer cells. The Fuzzy C-Means clustering system identifies various important artifacts, such as cyst, tumor and micro calcifications. The challenge in this system is the speckle noise. It can be extended to FCM class 2 non-homogeneous images.

  9. Advocacy resource: engaging the media and promoting your cancer program in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Reams, R Renee; Odedina, Folakemi T; Pressey, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    To address the need for a significant increase in cancer advocacy programs in Africa, the University of Florida (UF), the Prostate Net, and the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) co-hosted the first biennial International Workshop on Cancer Advocacy for African Countries (CAAC) on November 29, 2011, one-day prior to AORTIC’s 8th International Cancer Conference in Cairo, Egypt. Over 70 African cancer advocates representing about 12 African countries participated ...

  10. Impact of two types of image processing on cancer detection in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, Padraig T.; Dance, David R.; Wilkinson, Louise; Wallis, Matthew G.; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Cooke, Julie; McAvinchey, Rita; Young, Kenneth C.

    2016-03-01

    The impact of image processing on cancer detection is still a concern to radiologists and physicists. This work aims to evaluate the effect of two types of image processing on cancer detection in mammography. An observer study was performed in which six radiologists inspected 349 cases (a mixture of normal cases, benign lesions and cancers) processed with two types of image processing. The observers marked areas they were suspicious were cancers. JAFROC analysis was performed to determine if there was a significant difference in cancer detection between the two types of image processing. Cancer detection was significantly better with the standard setting image processing (flavor A) compared with one that provides enhanced image contrast (flavor B), p = 0.036. The image processing was applied to images of the CDMAM test object, which were then analysed using CDCOM. The threshold gold thickness measured with the CDMAM test object was thinner using flavor A than flavor B image processing. Since Flavor A was found to be superior in both the observer study and the measurements using the CDMAM phantom, this may indicate that measurements using the CDMAM correlate with change in cancer detection with different types of image processing.

  11. Exercise in clinical cancer care: a call to action and program development description

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Mina, D.; Alibhai, S.M.H.; Matthew, A.G.; Guglietti, C.L.; Steele, J.; Trachtenberg, J; Ritvo, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    A large and convincing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of exercise for cancer survivors during and after treatment. Based on that literature, more cancer survivors should be offered exercise support and programming. Unfortunately, exercise programs remain an exception rather than the norm in cancer care. Not surprisingly, common barriers to the implementation of exercise programs in oncology include limited resources, expertise, and awareness of benefits on the part of patients and...

  12. NCI Approves Funding Plan for NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2014, the Scientific Program Leaders (SPL) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) approved the funding plan for the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP), a national network of investigators, cancer care providers, academic institutions, and other organizations. NCORP will conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and studies in diverse populations in community-based healthcare systems across the United States. The program will receive $93 million a year for five years. |

  13. IMFIT: A FAST, FLEXIBLE NEW PROGRAM FOR ASTRONOMICAL IMAGE FITTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I describe a new, open-source astronomical image-fitting program called IMFIT, specialized for galaxies but potentially useful for other sources, which is fast, flexible, and highly extensible. A key characteristic of the program is an object-oriented design that allows new types of image components (two-dimensional surface-brightness functions) to be easily written and added to the program. Image functions provided with IMFIT include the usual suspects for galaxy decompositions (Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian), along with Core-Sérsic and broken-exponential profiles, elliptical rings, and three components that perform line-of-sight integration through three-dimensional luminosity-density models of disks and rings seen at arbitrary inclinations. Available minimization algorithms include Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead simplex, and Differential Evolution, allowing trade-offs between speed and decreased sensitivity to local minima in the fit landscape. Minimization can be done using the standard χ2 statistic (using either data or model values to estimate per-pixel Gaussian errors, or else user-supplied error images) or Poisson-based maximum-likelihood statistics; the latter approach is particularly appropriate for cases of Poisson data in the low-count regime. I show that fitting low-signal-to-noise ratio galaxy images using χ2 minimization and individual-pixel Gaussian uncertainties can lead to significant biases in fitted parameter values, which are avoided if a Poisson-based statistic is used; this is true even when Gaussian read noise is present

  14. IMFIT: A FAST, FLEXIBLE NEW PROGRAM FOR ASTRONOMICAL IMAGE FITTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, Peter [Max-Planck-Insitut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, GermanyAND (Germany); Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    I describe a new, open-source astronomical image-fitting program called IMFIT, specialized for galaxies but potentially useful for other sources, which is fast, flexible, and highly extensible. A key characteristic of the program is an object-oriented design that allows new types of image components (two-dimensional surface-brightness functions) to be easily written and added to the program. Image functions provided with IMFIT include the usual suspects for galaxy decompositions (Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian), along with Core-Sérsic and broken-exponential profiles, elliptical rings, and three components that perform line-of-sight integration through three-dimensional luminosity-density models of disks and rings seen at arbitrary inclinations. Available minimization algorithms include Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead simplex, and Differential Evolution, allowing trade-offs between speed and decreased sensitivity to local minima in the fit landscape. Minimization can be done using the standard χ{sup 2} statistic (using either data or model values to estimate per-pixel Gaussian errors, or else user-supplied error images) or Poisson-based maximum-likelihood statistics; the latter approach is particularly appropriate for cases of Poisson data in the low-count regime. I show that fitting low-signal-to-noise ratio galaxy images using χ{sup 2} minimization and individual-pixel Gaussian uncertainties can lead to significant biases in fitted parameter values, which are avoided if a Poisson-based statistic is used; this is true even when Gaussian read noise is present.

  15. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Ge, B H; Shen, X; Wang, Y G; Yu, R C

    2016-07-01

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. PMID:27093687

  16. Application of CT perfusion imaging in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of CT perfusion imaging in evaluation of therapeutic effect and prognosis in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Methods: Fifty-one cases of lung cancer who were unable or refused to be operated on, 36 males and 15 females, aged 37-80, underwent CT perfusion imaging, 29 of which only before radiotherapy and 22 before and after radiotherapy twice. The images were collected by cine dynamic scanning (5 mm/4 slices) and input into the GE AW4.0 workstation for data processing. The slice positions of CT imaging were determined according to the largest tumor size in CT scan. Regions of interest of tumor were drawn at the region corresponding to the original images of CT perfusion. Radiotherapy was performed after CT perfusion imaging. Relevant parameters, including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface (PS) were calculated. The treatment response after radiotherapy was evaluated by RECIST. At 2 -4 weeks after the treatment, CT examination was conducted once more. Results: The tests of the 51 patients showed that the BV was 13.6 ml·100 g-1, the BF was 129.5 ml·min-1 ·100 g-1, the MTT was 9.1 s, and the PS was 10.0 ml· min-1· 100 g-1 before radiotherapy. The tests of the 22 of the 51 patients showed that the values of BV and BF after radiotherapy were 7.6 ml· 100 g-1 and 97.8 ml·min-1· 100 g-1, respectively, both lower than those before radiotherapy (11.2 and 108.7 ml·min-1·100 g-1, respectively), however, both not significantly (t=1.28, 0.40, P>0.05); and the values of MTT and PS after radiotherapy were 8.9 s and 7.8 ml·min-1· 100 g-1, respectively, both not significantly higher than those before radiotherapy (7.2 s and 6.8 ml· min-1· 100 g-1, respectively, t=-1.15, -0.57, P>0.05). The mean area of tumor after radiotherapy was 1189.6 mm2, significantly less than that before radiotherapy (1920.3 mm2, t=3.98, P<0.05). The MTT of the SCLC patients was 12.9 s, significantly longer than

  17. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  18. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  19. Extracting optical scattering properties on the basis of phase contrast images for diagnosing stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine morphological granulometry with Mie theory in order to analyze phase contrast images of biomedical tissue for cancer diagnosis. This method correlates microscopic phase distributions of the tissue image and macroscopic optical scattering properties of the tissue. Our results show that the particle size density distribution can be used to quantitatively identify morphological changes of cancerous stomach tissues. Our method can distinguish normal tissue from cancerous tissues, using the significant differences in scattering coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and phase function. Therefore, this method can provide not only quantitative information for the diagnosis of cancer, but also accurate optical scattering parameters for photothermal therapy for cancer. (paper)

  20. Endoscopic molecular imaging of human bladder cancer using a CD47 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Mach, Kathleen E; Rouse, Robert V; Liu, Jen-Jane; Sahoo, Debashis; Chang, Timothy C; Metzner, Thomas J; Kang, Lei; van de Rijn, Matt; Skinner, Eila C; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Weissman, Irving L; Liao, Joseph C

    2014-10-29

    A combination of optical imaging technologies with cancer-specific molecular imaging agents is a potentially powerful strategy to improve cancer detection and enable image-guided surgery. Bladder cancer is primarily managed endoscopically by white light cystoscopy with suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Emerging optical imaging technologies hold great potential for improved diagnostic accuracy but lack imaging agents for molecular specificity. Using fluorescently labeled CD47 antibody (anti-CD47) as molecular imaging agent, we demonstrated consistent identification of bladder cancer with clinical grade fluorescence imaging systems, confocal endomicroscopy, and blue light cystoscopy in fresh surgically removed human bladders. With blue light cystoscopy, the sensitivity and specificity for CD47-targeted imaging were 82.9 and 90.5%, respectively. We detected variants of bladder cancers, which are diagnostic challenges, including carcinoma in situ, residual carcinoma in tumor resection bed, recurrent carcinoma following prior intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and excluded cancer from benign but suspicious-appearing mucosa. CD47-targeted molecular imaging could improve diagnosis and resection thoroughness for bladder cancer. PMID:25355698

  1. Altered Sexuality and Body Image after Gynecological Cancer Treatment: How Can Psychologists Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacerdoti, Rebecca Caldwell; Lagana’, Luciana; Koopman, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Once medical treatment for gynecological cancer is completed, what happens to patients’ sexuality and body image? Due to the delicate nature of the cancer site, treating this cancer typically affects sexual functioning and body image adversely, making it critical to identify the concerns of these patients and do so in a manner less restrictive than paper-and-pencil assessment. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenological experiences in question, we interviewed nine gynecological can...

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of endometrial cancer. Optimizing the imaging delay for tumour-myometrium contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the optimal imaging delay time of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with endometrial cancer. This prospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the participants. Thirty-five women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 29-66 years) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a temporal resolution of 25-40 seconds. The signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were analyzed to investigate the optimal imaging delay time using single change-point analysis. The optimal imaging delay time for appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast ranged from 31.7 to 268.1 seconds. The median optimal imaging delay time was 91.3 seconds, with an interquartile range of 46.2 to 119.5 seconds. The median signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were 0.03, with an interquartile range of -0.01 to 0.06, on the pre-contrast MR imaging and 0.20, with an interquartile range of 0.15 to 0.25, on the post-contrast MR imaging. An imaging delay of approximately 90 seconds after initiating contrast material injection may be optimal for obtaining appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast in women with endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of endometrial cancer. Optimizing the imaging delay for tumour-myometrium contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Bin [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, 41, Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sohee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, 41, Department of Biostatistics, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the optimal imaging delay time of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with endometrial cancer. This prospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the participants. Thirty-five women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 29-66 years) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a temporal resolution of 25-40 seconds. The signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were analyzed to investigate the optimal imaging delay time using single change-point analysis. The optimal imaging delay time for appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast ranged from 31.7 to 268.1 seconds. The median optimal imaging delay time was 91.3 seconds, with an interquartile range of 46.2 to 119.5 seconds. The median signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were 0.03, with an interquartile range of -0.01 to 0.06, on the pre-contrast MR imaging and 0.20, with an interquartile range of 0.15 to 0.25, on the post-contrast MR imaging. An imaging delay of approximately 90 seconds after initiating contrast material injection may be optimal for obtaining appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast in women with endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  4. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation. PMID:27069764

  5. Experimental Study of Breast Cancer Detection Using UWB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alshehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer detection using UWB imaging is presented in this paper. The study is performed experimentally. Homogeneous breast phantom is constructed using pure petroleum jelly. The tumor is modeled using mixture of water and wheat flour. The breast fatty tissue and tumor tissue are put in breast shaped glass which mimics the skin. The dielectric properties values are comparable to previous study. Neural Network (NN was trained and tested using feature vector which is prepared by performing discrete cosine transform (DCT of the received UWB signals. Very encouraging results were obtained. Up to 100 % tumor existence detection was achieved. Tumor size and location detection rate were 91.3% and 95.6% respectively.

  6. Implementation of a program of quality assurance of image in an imaging system of flat panel portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (IGRT) image-guided radiation therapy is the one in which images are used to locate the area of treatment. Modern irradiation systems are equipped with different modalities for obtaining images, such as flat panel systems, systems conebeam, tomoimagen, etc. This paper describes the start-up and the experience of a quality assurance program based on a flat panel portal Imaging System. (Author)

  7. Fluorescent Cy5 silica nanoparticles for cancer cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Claire; Nooney, Robert I.; Glynn, MacDara; Ducree, Jens; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-08-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with metastasis responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) play a central role in metastasis. Fluorescent silica particles (NPs), of diameter ~50 nm which contain a large concentration of Cy5 dye molecules and are extremely bright, have been developed to detect these rare CTCs. Due to this brightness, the particles have superior performance compared to single Cy5 dye molecule labels, for detecting cancer cells. Fluorescence measurements show that the NPs are almost 100 times brighter than the free dye. They do not photo bleach as readily and, due to the biocompatible silica surface, they can be chemically modified, layer-by-layer, in order to bind to cells. The choice of these chemical layers, in particular the NP to antibody linker, along with the incubation period and type of media used in the incubation, has a strong influence on the specific binding abilities of the NPs. In this work, NPs have been shown to selectively bind to the MCF-7 cell line by targeting epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) present on the MCF-7 cell membrane by conjugating anti-EpCAM antibody to the NP surface. Results have shown a high signal to noise ratio for this cell line in comparison to a HeLa control line. NP attachment to cells was verified qualitatively with the use of fluorescence microscopy and quantitatively using image analysis methods. Once the system has been optimised, other dyes will be doped into the silica NPs and their use in multiplexing will be investigated.

  8. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  9. Radiofrequency Heat-Enhanced Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: Towards Interventional Molecular Image-Guided Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yurong; Han, Guocan; Wang, Yue; Hu, Xi; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Lumin; Bai, Weixian; Luo, Jingfeng; Zhang, Yajing; Sun, Jihong; Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Recent developments in minimally invasive interventional radiology techniques have significantly improved breast cancer treatment. This study aimed to develop a novel technique for the local management of breast cancers using radiofrequency heat (RFH). We performed both in vitro experiments using human breast cancer cells and in vivo validation in xenograft animal models with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological corr...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major health problem in women and early detection is of prime importance. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides both physical and physiologic tissue features that are useful in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Contrast enhanced MRI is valuable for diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast and the structural and kinetic parameters improved the specificity of diagnosing benign from malignant lesions. It is a complimentary modality for preoperative staging, to follow response to therapy, to detect recurrences and for screening high risk women. Diffusion, perfusion and MR elastography have been applied to breast lesion characterization and show promise.In-vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS is a valuable method to obtain the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Malignant tissues contain high concentration of choline containing compounds that can be used as a biochemical marker. MRS helps to increase the specificity of MRI in lesions larger than 1cm and to monitor the tumor response. Various MR techniques show promise primarily as adjunct to the existing standard detection techniques, and its acceptability as a screening method will increase if specificity can be improved. This review presents the progress made in different MRI and MRS techniques in breast cancer management.

  11. Molecular MR imaging of cancer gene therapy. Ferritin transgene reporter takes the stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been actively investigated and made rapid progress in the past decade. Applied to cancer gene therapy, the technique's high spatial resolution allows evaluation of gene delivery into target tissues. Because noninvasive monitoring of the duration, location, and magnitude of transgene expression in tumor tissues or cells provides useful information for assessing therapeutic efficacy and optimizing protocols, molecular imaging is expected to become a critical step in the success of cancer gene therapy in the near future. We present a brief overview of the current status of molecular MR imaging, especially in vivo reporter gene imaging using ferritin and other reporters, discuss its application to cancer gene therapy, and present our research of MR imaging detection of electroporation-mediated cancer gene therapy using the ferritin reporter gene. (author)

  12. Efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin chemotherapy programs as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of 5-fluorouracil and calcium folinatc combined with oxaliplatin(FOLFOX) program with capecitabine regimen combined oxaliplatin(XELOX) program as adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer after surgery.

  13. Patient-Centered Cancer Care Programs in Italy: Benchmarking Global Patient Education Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of their own health conditions in particular. The National Cancer Institute in the USA and the Organization of European Cancer Institutes encourage comprehensive cancer centers in providing educational programs conceived to overcome these gaps. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe the key elements necessary to develop a global patient education program and provide recommendations for strategies with practical examples for implementation in the daily activities of cancer institutes. A multidisciplinary committee was established for patient education, including patient representatives as equal partners, to define, implement, verify, and evaluate the fundamental steps for establishing a comprehensive education program. Six essential topics were identified for the program: appropriate communication of cancer epidemiology, clinical trial information, new therapeutic technologies, support in the use of medicines, psycho-oncological interventions, age-personalized approaches, and training programs for healthcare providers. Integration of these topics along with patient feedback is the key to a successful model for educational programs. An integrated educational program can transform a comprehensive cancer center to an institution that provides research and care for and with patients. PMID:25773134

  14. Current status of PET imaging of differentiated thyroid cancer with second generation radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is favorable, some histotypes show worst clinical outcome and higher risk of recurrence. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and 131I-whole-body-scan (WBS), together with neck ultrasound (US), represent the golden standard for DTC follow-up. Nevertheless, the relatively high frequency of patients with high Tg levels and negative WBS requires further investigations by using new imaging modalities. The availability of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) methods, in parallel with the advances in radiochemistry, offer a wide substrate for many solutions. To this day 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT still represents the imaging of choice in follow-up of patients with high serum Tg and negative 131I-WBS but in the last decades the research has focused on finding “second generation” radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging, with both diagnostic and prognostic purposes, aiming to change the way to image thyroid cancer. Moreover, the use of various PET radiopharmaceuticals, that offer the possibility to explore different pathways involved in thyroid cancer, could find important applications in the near future for clinical decision making in order to program tailored treatments and follow-up. It would be desirable to use the same radiopharmaceutical for both imaging and dosimetric purpose to achieve a tailored therapy. Many efforts are focused in this direction and 124I-PET/CT is now emerging as a valid tool in restaging and therapy management of DTC with promising results. Although the preliminary data available in literature require a confirmation in larger studies with longer follow-up, we think that in next future 124-PET/CT could gain an important role for management of DTC. The aim of this review was to perform a systematic analysis of literature describing the state of art of “second generation” PET-radiopharmaceuticals for imaging DTC. Discussion is focused on the utility of 124I

  15. Embossed radiography utilizing an image-shifting subtraction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Osawa, Akihiro; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    We developed an image-shifting subtraction program and carried out embossed radiography (ER) utilizing single- and dual-energy subtractions. In particular, dual-energy subtraction was carried out to decrease the absorption contrast of unnecessary regions. The contrast resolution of a target region was increased using the subtraction program and a linear-contrast system in a flat panel detector (FPD). The X-ray generator had a 100 μm-focus tube, and the subtractions were performed at tube voltages of 40 and 70 kV, a tube current of 0.50 mA, and an X-ray exposure time of 5.0 s. ER was achieved with cohesion imaging using the FPD with pixel sizes of 48×48 μm 2, and the shifting dimension of an object in the horizontal and vertical directions ranged from 48 to 96 μm. At a shifting distance of 96 μm, the spatial resolutions in the horizontal and vertical directions measured with a lead test chart were both 83 μm. In ER of animal phantoms, we obtained high-contrast embossed images of fine bones, gadolinium oxide particles in blood vessels, iodine-based microspheres in coronary arteries approximately 100 μm in diameter.

  16. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  17. Opportunities for Cancer Prevention Using Employee Wellness Programs: The Case of Kansas State Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly; Shireman, Theresa I.; Hunt, Suzanne; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The utility of employee wellness programs (EWPs) in cancer prevention and control is not well established. Purpose: This project is to determine the potential value of EWPs in preventing cancer by examining the characteristics of EWP participants and their prevalence of cancer risk factors. Methods: A secondary data analysis of health…

  18. Prostate Cancer: Sextant Localization at MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopic Imaging before Prostatectomy—Results of ACRIN Prospective Multi-institutional Clinicopathologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Coakley, Fergus V.; Wheeler, Thomas M; Cormack, Jean B.; Sotto, Christopher K.; Cho, Haesun; Kawashima, Akira; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Rosen, Mark; Gerst, Scott R.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incremental benefit of combined endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging, as compared with endorectal MR imaging alone, for sextant localization of peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer.

  19. Prospective Evaluation of Dual-Energy Imaging in Patients Undergoing Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Initial Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherertz, Tracy; Hoggarth, Mark; Luce, Jason; Block, Alec M.; Nagda, Suneel; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Emami, Bahman; Roeske, John C., E-mail: jroeske@lumc.edu

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: A prospective feasibility study was conducted to investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) imaging compared to conventional x-ray imaging for patients undergoing kV-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved feasibility study enrolled patients with lung cancer undergoing IGRT and was initiated in September 2011. During daily setup, 2 sequential respiration-gated x-ray images were obtained using an on-board imager. Imaging was composed of 1 standard x-ray image at 120 kVp (1 mAs) and a second image obtained at 60 kVp (4 mAs). Weighted logarithmic subtraction of the 2 images was performed offline to create a soft tissue-selective DE image. Conventional and DE images were evaluated by measuring relative contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and also by comparing spatial localization, using both approaches. Imaging dose was assessed using a calibrated ion chamber. Results: To date, 10 patients with stage IA to IIIA lung cancer were enrolled and 57 DE images were analyzed. DE subtraction resulted in complete suppression of overlying bone in all 57 DE images, with an average improvement in relative contrast of 4.7 ± 3.3 over that of 120 kVp x-ray images (P<.0002). The improvement in relative contrast with DE imaging was seen for both smaller (gross tumor volume [GTV] ≤5 cc) and larger tumors (GTV >5 cc), with average relative contrast improvement ratios of 3.4 ± 4.1 and 5.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Moreover, the GTV was reliably localized in 95% of the DE images versus 74% of the single energy (SE images, (P=.004). Mean skin dose per DE image set was 0.44 ± 0.03 mGy versus 0.43 ± 0.03 mGy, using conventional kV imaging parameters. Conclusions: Initial results of this feasibility study suggest that DE thoracic imaging may enhance tumor localization in lung cancer patients receiving kV-based IGRT without increasing imaging dose.

  20. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs; Simulacion de la reduccion de mortalidad por cancer de mama en programas de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  1. Magnification Embossed Radiography Utilizing Image-Shifting Subtraction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Sato, Eiichi; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nagao, Jiro; Abderyim, Purkhet; Aizawa, Katsuo; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Akira; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-03-01

    We developed an image-shifting subtraction program and carried out magnification embossed radiography (MER) utilizing single- and dual-energy subtractions. In particular, dual-energy subtraction was carried out to decrease the absorption contrast of unnecessary regions. The contrast resolution of the target region was increased by the use of subtraction software and a linear-contrast system in a flat-panel detector (FPD). The X-ray generator had a 100-µm-focus tube, and the subtractions were performed at tube voltages of 40 and 70 kV, a tube current of 0.50 mA, and an X-ray exposure time of 5.0 s. MER images with threefold magnification were obtained using the FPD with a pixel size of 48×48 µm2, and the shifting dimensions of the imaged object in the horizontal and vertical directions ranged from 48 to 192 µm. At a shifting distance ranging from 48 to 144 µm, the spatial resolutions in the horizontal and vertical directions measured with a lead test chart were both 50 µm. In the MER of nonliving animals, we obtained high-contrast embossed images of fine bones, gadolinium oxide particles in blood vessels, and iodine-based microspheres in coronary arteries of approximately 100 µm diameter.

  2. Magnification embossed radiography utilizing image-shifting subtraction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed an image-shifting subtraction program and carried out magnification embossed radiography (MER) utilizing single-and dual-energy subtractions. In particular, dual-energy subtraction was carried out to decrease the absorption contrast of unnecessary regions. The contrast resolution of the target region was increased by the use of subtraction software and a linear-contrast system in a flat-panel detector (FPD). The X-ray generator had a 100-μm-focus tube, and the subtractions were performed at tube voltages of 40 and 70 kV, a tube current of 0.50 mA, and an X-ray exposure time of 5.0 s. MER images with threefold magnification were obtained using the FPD with a pixel size of 48 x 48 μm2, and the shifting dimensions of the imaged object in the horizontal and vertical directions ranged from 48 to 192 μm. At a shifting distance ranging from 48 to 144 μm, the spatial resolutions in the horizontal and vertical directions measured with a lead test chart were both 50 μm. In the MER of nonliving animals, we obtained high-contrast embossed Images of fine bones, gadolinium oxide particles in blood vessels, and iodine-based microspheres in coronary arteries of approximately 100 μm diameter. (author)

  3. Imaging diagnosis of gas exchange in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional images of the ventilation-perfusion ratios and the mean transit time of Xe-133 were then obtained through computer analysis. In addition, an overall lung function test and arterial blood gas analysis were carried out on the same day. %V radical with Kr-81m during tidal breathing expressed as the percentage of tumor-bearing lung to total lung correlated significantly with %VC(r=0.666, p<0.0005). Likewise, there was a significant correlation (r=0.713, p<0.005) between %VC and %Q radical with Tc-99m MAA. The correlation coefficient between the relative mean transit time of Xe-133 and FEVsub(1.0)% was -0.433(p<0.1). On the other hand, FEVsub(1.0)% did not correlate with %V radical with Kr-81m and %Q radical Tc-99m MAA. Ventilation and perfusion in the affected lung showed no significant difference between UICC.TNM stages I and II. In stages III and IV, however, regional ventilation and perfusion decreased significantly. The T factor had a more serious influence on ventilation and perfusion in the affected lung than the N factor. The V radical sub(A)/Q radical sub(C) distribution was calculated from the functional image of the ventilation-perfusion ratios in 17 cases with lung cancer. Four types of V radical sub(A)/Q radical sub(C) distribution were found: Type I (a pattern with nearly normal distribution) was observed in 8 of 17 cases, Type II (a pattern with a high V radical sub(A)/Q radical area) was seen in 7 cases, Type III (a pattern with a low V radical sub(A)/Q radical area) was seen in one case, and Type IV (a pattern with both a high and low V radical sub(A)/Q radical area) was found in the remaining case. The functional image obtained with ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy allowed visual and quantitative evaluation of changes of regional lung function and provided important information on regional ventilation and perfusion in patients with lung cancer. (J.P.N.)

  4. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  5. How Is Anal Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scans and x-rays, see our document Imaging (Radiology) Tests . Last Medical Review: 04/09/2014 Last ... Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products ...

  6. Hybrid anisotropic nanostructures for dual-modal cancer imaging and image-guided chemo-thermo therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiping; Cheng, Kai; Antaris, Alexander L; Ma, Xiaowei; Yang, Min; Ramakrishnan, Sindhuja; Liu, Guifeng; Lu, Alex; Dai, Hongjie; Tian, Mei; Cheng, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The multimodality theranostic system, which can integrate two or more different therapeutic modalities and multimodal imaging agents into a nanoentity, shows great promising prospects for the cancer treatment. Herein, we developed an efficient and novel strategy to synthesize hybrid anisotropic nanoparticles (HANs) with intrinsic multimodal theranostic capability [chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI)]. For the first time, under the guidance of MRI and PAI, the chemotherapy and thermotherapy induced by administration of multifunctional hybrid nanoprobes were applied simultaneously to the treatment of colon cancer-bearing mice in vivo. PMID:27394161

  7. Clinical chest CAD system for lung cancer, COPD, and osteoporosis based on MDCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. Lung cancer screening using low-dose CT have been performed in many countries. Comparative reading of current and past CT images is important for evaluation of pulmonary nodules in lung cancer CT screening. However, primary problem in comparative reading is mismatch of slice and nodule positions caused by lung variation. It is hard for physicians to manually match slice positions, nodule positions, and evaluate the nodule's degree of change. A system to assist smooth comparative reading is necessary. We proposed a comparative reading system for lung cancer CT screening. A distinctive feature is highly accurate matching method of region of interest based on thoracic organs registration. Pulmonary blood vessels registration using analysis of the tree structure is performed. The system is evaluated by 1 mm and 2 mm slice thickness CT images obtained from lung cancer CT screening. We show how it is useful for lung cancer CT screening. (author)

  8. Introducing Students to Cancer Prevention Careers through Programmed Summer Research Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Carrie; Collie, Candice L.; Chang, Shine

    2012-01-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program’s success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs’ success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in rese...

  9. Body diffusion-weighted MR imaging of uterine endometrial cancer: Is it helpful in the detection of cancer in nonenhanced MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In this study, the authors discussed the feasibility and value of diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging in the detection of uterine endometrial cancer in addition to conventional nonenhanced MR images. Methods and materials: DW images of endometrial cancer in 23 patients were examined by using a 1.5-T MR scanner. This study investigated whether or not DW images offer additional incremental value to conventional nonenhanced MR imaging in comparison with histopathological results. Moreover, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in the regions of interest within the endometrial cancer and compared with those of normal endometrium and myometrium in 31 volunteers, leiomyoma in 14 patients and adenomyosis in 10 patients. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used, with a p -3 mm2/s, which was significantly lower than those of the normal endometrium, myometrium, leiomyoma and adenomyosis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: DW imaging can be helpful in the detection of uterine endometrial cancer in nonenhanced MR imaging.

  10. Development and evaluation of a support program for prostate cancer survivors in Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Stacy; DeCourtney, Christine; Thorsness, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer survivors in Alaska and elsewhere have unmet support needs. The Men’s Prostate Cancer Survivorship Retreat, or “men’s retreat,” was developed targeting Alaska Native and non-Native men who were survivors of prostate cancer. The program brought together survivors in a supportive environment to discuss and share their experiences.Objective. Despite the proven effectiveness of support groups for improving quality of life for cancer patients, men typically do not parti...

  11. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH; Arica White, MPH; Anne E. Lubenow, MPH; Sally Palmer

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and...

  12. Employer-Based Disease Management Programs in Cancer: Experience to Date

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick C. Lee

    2004-01-01

    The cancer disease management field took root in the early 1990s. Health plans in the US seeking to aggressively manage cancer reached out to entrepreneurial start-ups that had infused the general principles of managed care into cancer programs. More than two dozen health plans had adopted some form of cancer disease management by the end of the century. However, employers, witnessing the managed care backlash and experiencing difficulty recruiting an adequate pool of skilled labor during flu...

  13. NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Schmidt, Gregory; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

  14. Including Antenna Models in Microwave Imaging for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a tool for screening for breast cancer, but the lack of methods for including the characteristics of the antennas of the imaging systems in the imaging algorithms limits their performance. In this paper, a method for incorporating the full antenna characteristics...

  15. Deformable image registration for geometrical evaluation of DIBH radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Katarina Wiviann; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard; Borrisova, S.; Mellemgaard, Anders; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2014-01-01

    Respiration and anatomical variation during radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer yield dosimetric uncertainties of the delivered dose, possibly affecting the clinical outcome if not corrected for. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART), based on deformable image registration (DIR) and Deep-Inspiration-Breath-Ho......Respiration and anatomical variation during radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer yield dosimetric uncertainties of the delivered dose, possibly affecting the clinical outcome if not corrected for. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART), based on deformable image registration (DIR) and Deep...... locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were included, each with a planning-, midterm- and final CT (pCT, mCT, fCT) and 7 CBCTs acquired weekly and on the same day as the mCT and fCT. All imaging were performed in both FB and DIBH, using Varian RPM system for respiratory tracking...... perform better image registration than FB images. However DIR is a feasible tool for ART of lung cancer....

  16. Digital image analysis outperforms manual biomarker assessment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhammar, Gustav; Fuentes Martinez, Nelson; Lippert, Michael; Tobin, Nicholas P; Mølholm, Ida; Kis, Lorand; Rosin, Gustaf; Rantalainen, Mattias; Pedersen, Lars; Bergh, Jonas; Grunkin, Michael; Hartman, Johan

    2016-04-01

    In the spectrum of breast cancers, categorization according to the four gene expression-based subtypes 'Luminal A,' 'Luminal B,' 'HER2-enriched,' and 'Basal-like' is the method of choice for prognostic and predictive value. As gene expression assays are not yet universally available, routine immunohistochemical stains act as surrogate markers for these subtypes. Thus, congruence of surrogate markers and gene expression tests is of utmost importance. In this study, 3 cohorts of primary breast cancer specimens (total n=436) with up to 28 years of survival data were scored for Ki67, ER, PR, and HER2 status manually and by digital image analysis (DIA). The results were then compared for sensitivity and specificity for the Luminal B subtype, concordance to PAM50 assays in subtype classification and prognostic power. The DIA system used was the Visiopharm Integrator System. DIA outperformed manual scoring in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the Luminal B subtype, widely considered the most challenging distinction in surrogate subclassification, and produced slightly better concordance and Cohen's κ agreement with PAM50 gene expression assays. Manual biomarker scores and DIA essentially matched each other for Cox regression hazard ratios for all-cause mortality. When the Nottingham combined histologic grade (Elston-Ellis) was used as a prognostic surrogate, stronger Spearman's rank-order correlations were produced by DIA. Prognostic value of Ki67 scores in terms of likelihood ratio χ(2) (LR χ(2)) was higher for DIA that also added significantly more prognostic information to the manual scores (LR-Δχ(2)). In conclusion, the system for DIA evaluated here was in most aspects a superior alternative to manual biomarker scoring. It also has the potential to reduce time consumption for pathologists, as many of the steps in the workflow are either automatic or feasible to manage without pathological expertise. PMID:26916072

  17. Staging N0 Oral Cancer: Lymphoscintigraphy and Conventional Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Karstoft, J.; Krogdahl, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, and Pathology

    2005-08-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1 and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by a gamma probe and Patent Blue. Palpation, Doppler ultrasonography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared to a combination of histopathology and follow-up. Diagnostic testing was performed using the x2 test. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed metastatic spread to the neck in 14 of 40 patients. One patient had bilateral neck disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography were performed in 80 neck sides of 40 patients and MRI in 70 neck sides (5 patients were claustrophobic). SN revealed suspicious lymph nodes in 12 necks, ultrasonography in 23 necks, and MRI in 9 necks. The positive predictive value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 100%, ultrasonography 57%, and MRI 56%. The respective negative predictive values were 96%, 96%, and 85%. The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy 80% was comparable to ultrasonography 87%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and Doppler ultrasonography may further improve staging. MRI and simple palpation results were poor.

  18. Staging N0 Oral Cancer: Lymphoscintigraphy and Conventional Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1 and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by a gamma probe and Patent Blue. Palpation, Doppler ultrasonography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared to a combination of histopathology and follow-up. Diagnostic testing was performed using the x2 test. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed metastatic spread to the neck in 14 of 40 patients. One patient had bilateral neck disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography were performed in 80 neck sides of 40 patients and MRI in 70 neck sides (5 patients were claustrophobic). SN revealed suspicious lymph nodes in 12 necks, ultrasonography in 23 necks, and MRI in 9 necks. The positive predictive value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 100%, ultrasonography 57%, and MRI 56%. The respective negative predictive values were 96%, 96%, and 85%. The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy 80% was comparable to ultrasonography 87%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and Doppler ultrasonography may further improve staging. MRI and simple palpation results were poor

  19. Necroptosis: an alternative cell death program defending against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshi; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2016-04-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is resistance to programmed cell death, which maintains the survival of cells en route to oncogenic transformation and underlies therapeutic resistance. Recent studies demonstrate that programmed cell death is not confined to caspase-dependent apoptosis, but includes necroptosis, a form of necrotic death governed by Receptor-Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, and Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like (MLKL) protein. Necroptosis serves as a critical cell-killing mechanism in response to severe stress and blocked apoptosis, and can be induced by inflammatory cytokines or chemotherapeutic drugs. Genetic or epigenetic alterations of necroptosis regulators such as RIP3 and cylindromatosis (CYLD), are frequently found in human tumors. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis elicits a more robust immune response that may function as a defensive mechanism by eliminating tumor-causing mutations and viruses. Furthermore, several classes of anticancer agents currently under clinical development, such as SMAC and BH3 mimetics, can promote necroptosis in addition to apoptosis. A more complete understanding of the interplay among necroptosis, apoptosis, and other cell death modalities is critical for developing new therapeutic strategies to enhance killing of tumor cells. PMID:26968619

  20. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-rich tumours have been associated with increased cancer metastasis and aggressive clinical behaviours. Nonetheless, pathologists cannot classify lipid-rich tumours as a clinically distinctive form of carcinoma due to a lack of mechanistic understanding on the roles of lipids in cancer development. Methods Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy is employed to study cancer cell behaviours in excess lipid environments in vivo and in vitro. The impacts of a high fat diet on cancer development are evaluated in a Balb/c mice cancer model. Intravital flow cytometry and histology are employed to enumerate cancer cell escape to the bloodstream and metastasis to lung tissues, respectively. Cancer cell motility and tissue invasion capability are also evaluated in excess lipid environments. Results CARS imaging reveals intracellular lipid accumulation is induced by excess free fatty acids (FFAs. Excess FFAs incorporation onto cancer cell membrane induces membrane phase separation, reduces cell-cell contact, increases surface adhesion, and promotes tissue invasion. Increased plasma FFAs level and visceral adiposity are associated with early rise in circulating tumour cells and increased lung metastasis. Furthermore, CARS imaging reveals FFAs-induced lipid accumulation in primary, circulating, and metastasized cancer cells. Conclusion Lipid-rich tumours are linked to cancer metastasis through FFAs-induced physical perturbations on cancer cell membrane. Most importantly, the revelation of lipid-rich circulating tumour cells suggests possible development of CARS intravital flow cytometry for label-free detection of early-stage cancer metastasis.

  1. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid-rich tumours have been associated with increased cancer metastasis and aggressive clinical behaviours. Nonetheless, pathologists cannot classify lipid-rich tumours as a clinically distinctive form of carcinoma due to a lack of mechanistic understanding on the roles of lipids in cancer development. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is employed to study cancer cell behaviours in excess lipid environments in vivo and in vitro. The impacts of a high fat diet on cancer development are evaluated in a Balb/c mice cancer model. Intravital flow cytometry and histology are employed to enumerate cancer cell escape to the bloodstream and metastasis to lung tissues, respectively. Cancer cell motility and tissue invasion capability are also evaluated in excess lipid environments. CARS imaging reveals intracellular lipid accumulation is induced by excess free fatty acids (FFAs). Excess FFAs incorporation onto cancer cell membrane induces membrane phase separation, reduces cell-cell contact, increases surface adhesion, and promotes tissue invasion. Increased plasma FFAs level and visceral adiposity are associated with early rise in circulating tumour cells and increased lung metastasis. Furthermore, CARS imaging reveals FFAs-induced lipid accumulation in primary, circulating, and metastasized cancer cells. Lipid-rich tumours are linked to cancer metastasis through FFAs-induced physical perturbations on cancer cell membrane. Most importantly, the revelation of lipid-rich circulating tumour cells suggests possible development of CARS intravital flow cytometry for label-free detection of early-stage cancer metastasis

  2. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  3. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, Patrick R.G.

    2000-04-01

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  4. Sequential FDG-PET and induction chemotherapy in locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the Oesophago-gastric junction (AEG: The Heidelberg Imaging program in Cancer of the oesophago-gastric junction during Neoadjuvant treatment: HICON trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichert Wilko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (18F-FDG-PET can be used for early response assessment in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the oesophagogastric junction (AEG undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It has been recently shown in the MUNICON trials that response-guided treatment algorithms based on early changes of the FDG tumor uptake detected by PET are feasible and that they can be implemented into clinical practice. Only 40%-50% of the patients respond metabolically to therapy. As metabolic non-response is known to be associated with a dismal prognosis, metabolic non-responders are increasingly treated with alternative neoadjuvant chemotherapies or chemoradiation in order to improve their clinical outcome. We plan to investigate whether PET can be used as response assessment during radiochemotherapy given as salvage treatment in early metabolic non-responders to standard chemotherapy. Methods/Design The HICON trial is a prospective, non-randomized, explorative imaging study evaluating the value of PET as a predictor of histopathological response in metabolic non-responders. Patients with resectable AEG type I and II according to Siewerts classification, staged cT3/4 and/or cN+ and cM0 by endoscopic ultrasound, spiral CT or MRI and FDG-PET are eligible. Tumors must be potentially R0 resectable and must have a sufficient FDG-baseline uptake. Only metabolic non-responders, showing a 18FDG-PET scans will be performed before ( = Baseline and after 14 days of standard neoadjuvant therapy as well as after the first cycle of salvage docetaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy (PET 1 and at the end of radiochemotherapy (PET2. Tracer uptake will be assessed semiquantitatively using standardized uptake values (SUV. The percentage difference ΔSUV = 100 (SUVBaseline - SUV PET1/SUVBaseline will be calculated and assessed as an early predictor of histopathological response. In a secondary analysis, the association between the difference

  5. Sequential FDG-PET and induction chemotherapy in locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the Oesophago-gastric junction (AEG): The Heidelberg Imaging program in Cancer of the oesophago-gastric junction during Neoadjuvant treatment: HICON trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (18F-FDG-PET) can be used for early response assessment in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the oesophagogastric junction (AEG) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It has been recently shown in the MUNICON trials that response-guided treatment algorithms based on early changes of the FDG tumor uptake detected by PET are feasible and that they can be implemented into clinical practice. Only 40%-50% of the patients respond metabolically to therapy. As metabolic non-response is known to be associated with a dismal prognosis, metabolic non-responders are increasingly treated with alternative neoadjuvant chemotherapies or chemoradiation in order to improve their clinical outcome. We plan to investigate whether PET can be used as response assessment during radiochemotherapy given as salvage treatment in early metabolic non-responders to standard chemotherapy. The HICON trial is a prospective, non-randomized, explorative imaging study evaluating the value of PET as a predictor of histopathological response in metabolic non-responders. Patients with resectable AEG type I and II according to Siewerts classification, staged cT3/4 and/or cN+ and cM0 by endoscopic ultrasound, spiral CT or MRI and FDG-PET are eligible. Tumors must be potentially R0 resectable and must have a sufficient FDG-baseline uptake. Only metabolic non-responders, showing a < 35% decrease of SUV two weeks after the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy are eligible for the study and are taken to intensified taxane-based RCT (chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy) before surgery. 18FDG-PET scans will be performed before (= Baseline) and after 14 days of standard neoadjuvant therapy as well as after the first cycle of salvage docetaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy (PET 1) and at the end of radiochemotherapy (PET2). Tracer uptake will be assessed semiquantitatively using standardized uptake values (SUV). The percentage difference ΔSUV = 100 (SUVBaseline - SUV PET1)/SUVBaseline will be

  6. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  7. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  8. Robust Automatic Breast Cancer Staging Using A Combination of Functional Genomics and Image-Omics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai; Shen, Yong; Xing, Fuyong; Qi, Xin; Hirshfield, Kim M.; Yang, Lin; Foran, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers worldwide. Precision medicine is a new trend that systematically examines molecular and functional genomic information within each patient's cancer to identify the patterns that may affect treatment decisions and potential outcomes. As a part of precision medicine, computer-aided diagnosis enables joint analysis of functional genomic information and image from pathological images. In this paper we propose an integrated framework for breast cancer staging using image-omics and functional genomic information. The entire biomedical imaging informatics framework consists of image-omics extraction, feature combination, and classification. First, a robust automatic nuclei detection and segmentation is presented to identify tumor regions, delineate nuclei boundaries and calculate a set of image-based morphological features; next, the low dimensional image-omics is obtained through principal component analysis and is concatenated with the functional genomic features identified by a linear model. A support vector machine for differentiating stage I breast cancer from other stages are learned. We experimentally demonstrate that compared with a single type of representation (image-omics), the combination of image-omics and functional genomic feature can improve the classification accuracy by 3%. PMID:26737959

  9. Folate Receptor-Beta Has Limited Value for Fluorescent Imaging in Ovarian, Breast and Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther de Boer

    Full Text Available Tumor-specific targeted imaging is rapidly evolving in cancer diagnosis. The folate receptor alpha (FR-α has already been identified as a suitable target for cancer therapy and imaging. FR-α is present on ~40% of human cancers. FR-β is known to be expressed on several hematologic malignancies and on activated macrophages, but little is known about FR-β expression in solid tumors. Additional or simultaneous expression of FR-β could help extend the indications for folate-based drugs and imaging agents. In this study, the expression pattern of FR-β is evaluated in ovarian, breast and colorectal cancer.FR-β expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays (TMAs of 339 ovarian cancer patients, 418 breast cancer patients, on 20 slides of colorectal cancer samples and on 25 samples of diverticulitis.FR-β expression was seen in 21% of ovarian cancer samples, 9% of breast cancer samples, and 55% of colorectal cancer samples. Expression was weak or moderate. Of the diverticulitis samples, 80% were positive for FR-β expression in macrophages. FR-β status neither correlated to known disease-related variables, nor showed association with overall survival and progression free survival in ovarian and breast cancer. In breast cancer, negative axillary status was significantly correlated to FR-β expression (p=0.022.FR-β expression was low or absent in the majority of ovarian, breast and colorectal tumor samples. From the present study we conclude that the low FR-β expression in ovarian and breast tumor tissue indicates limited practical use of this receptor in diagnostic imaging and therapeutic purposes. Due to weak expression, FR-β is not regarded as a suitable target in colorectal cancer.

  10. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a fast track program for patients with suspicion of head and neck cancer (HNC) was introduced in Denmark to reduce unnecessary waiting time. The program was based on so called "package solutions" including pre-booked slots for outpatient evaluation, imaging, and diagnostic surgical...... procedures. The purpose of this study is to present a model for fast track handling of patients suspicious of cancer in the head and neck region and to evaluate the effect of implementation on the diagnostic work up time. Patients with suspicion of HNC referred to the same university department of ENT Head...... and Neck Surgery during three comparable time intervals 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2011-2012 (groups 1-3) were investigated. We recorded the time from patient referral, to first consultation and final diagnosis. The first interval was before initiation of the "package solution", the second just after...

  11. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  12. Distribution of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Adult Cancer Patients Determined Using FLT-PET Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Given that proliferating hematopoietic stem cells are especially radiosensitive, the bone marrow is a potential organ at risk, particularly with the use of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Existing data on bone marrow distribution have been determined from the weight and visual appearance of the marrow in cadavers. 18F-fluoro-L-deoxythymidine concentrates in bone marrow, and we used its intensity on positron emission tomography imaging to quantify the location of the proliferating bone marrow. Methods and Materials: The 18F-fluoro-L-deoxythymidine positron emission/computed tomography scans performed at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre between 2006 and 2009 on adult cancer patients were analyzed. At a minimum, the scans included the mid-skull through the proximal femurs. A software program developed at our institution was used to calculate the percentage of administered activity in 11 separately defined bony regions. Results: The study population consisted of 13 patients, 6 of whom were men. Their median age was 61 years. Of the 13 patients, 9 had lung cancer, 2 had colon cancer, and 1 each had melanoma and leiomyosarcoma; 6 had received previous, but not recent, chemotherapy. The mean percentage of proliferating bone marrow by anatomic site was 2.9% ± 2.1% at the skull, 1.9% ± 1.2% at the proximal humeri, 2.9% ± 1.3% at the sternum, 8.8% ± 4.7% at the ribs and clavicles, 3.8% ± 0.9% at the scapulas, 4.3% ± 1.6% at the cervical spine, 19.9% ± 2.6% at the thoracic spine, 16.6% ± 2.2% at the lumbar spine, 9.2% ± 2.3% at the sacrum, 25.3% ± 4.9% at the pelvis, and 4.5% ± 2.5% at the proximal femurs. Conclusion: Our modern estimates of bone marrow distribution in actual cancer patients using molecular imaging of the proliferating marrow provide updated data for optimizing normal tissue sparing during external beam radiotherapy planning.

  13. Data-driven analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data in breast cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Twellmann, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    In the European Union, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women. If diagnosed in an early stage, breast cancer has an encouraging cure rate. Thus, early detection of breast cancer continues to be the key for an effective treatment. Recently, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been identified as a valuable complementary technique for breast imaging. DCE-MRI has demonstrated to be highly sensitive for the detection of cancer, motivating the...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Standards News Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison ... Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Program for Validation and Verification of ...

  15. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  16. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, W; Hrycushko, B; Yan, Y; Foster, R; Albuquerque, K [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  17. Design of a smartphone-camera-based fluorescence imaging system for the detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Ross

    Shown is the design of the Smartphone Oral Cancer Detection System (SOCeeDS). The SOCeeDS attaches to a smartphone and utilizes its embedded imaging optics and sensors to capture images of the oral cavity to detect oral cancer. Violet illumination sources excite the oral tissues to induce fluorescence. Images are captured with the smartphone's onboard camera. Areas where the tissues of the oral cavity are darkened signify an absence of fluorescence signal, indicating breakdown in tissue structure brought by precancerous or cancerous conditions. With this data the patient can seek further testing and diagnosis as needed. Proliferation of this device will allow communities with limited access to healthcare professionals a tool to detect cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of cancer reversal.

  18. Patient navigator programs, cancer disparities, and the patient protection and affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Beverly; Chabner, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Patients in vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. Patient navigator programs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Among its provisions relevant to disparities in cancer care, The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act authorizes continued funding of patient navigator programs. However, given the current economic and political environment, this funding is in jeopardy. This article describes patient navigator programs and summarizes the elements of the health care law that are relevant to these programs. It is vital that the entire oncology community remain committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among our most vulnerable patients. PMID:21804070

  19. Imaging of prostate cancer local recurrences: why and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, Olivier; Lyonnet, Denis [Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Medecine Lyon Nord (France); Service d' Imagerie Urinaire et Vasculaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); INSERM U 556, Lyon (France); Vitry, Thierry [Service d' Imagerie Urinaire et Vasculaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)

    2010-05-15

    Because prostate cancer local recurrences can be efficiently treated by salvage therapies, it becomes critical to detect them early. The first alert is the rise of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) level after the post-treatment nadir, which can correspond to a distant recurrence, a local recurrence or both. This so-called biochemical failure (BF) is defined as PSA level >0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy (RP) and PSA level > nadir+2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. There is no consensual definition of BF after cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation or brachytherapy. Local recurrences after RP are treated by radiotherapy, those after radiotherapy by RP, cryotherapy, brachytherapy or HIFU ablation. Recurrences after cryotherapy or HIFU ablation can be treated by a second session or radiotherapy. Recurrences after brachytherapy are difficult to treat. In patients with BF, MRI can detect local recurrences, whatever the initial treatment was. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI seems particularly accurate. The role of spectroscopy remains controversial. Ultrasound-based techniques are less accurate, but this may change with the advent of ultrasonic contrast media. These recent advances in imaging may improve the outcome of salvage therapies (by improving patient selection and treatment targeting) and should open the way to focal salvage treatments in the near future. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of prostate cancer local recurrences: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because prostate cancer local recurrences can be efficiently treated by salvage therapies, it becomes critical to detect them early. The first alert is the rise of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) level after the post-treatment nadir, which can correspond to a distant recurrence, a local recurrence or both. This so-called biochemical failure (BF) is defined as PSA level >0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy (RP) and PSA level > nadir+2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. There is no consensual definition of BF after cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation or brachytherapy. Local recurrences after RP are treated by radiotherapy, those after radiotherapy by RP, cryotherapy, brachytherapy or HIFU ablation. Recurrences after cryotherapy or HIFU ablation can be treated by a second session or radiotherapy. Recurrences after brachytherapy are difficult to treat. In patients with BF, MRI can detect local recurrences, whatever the initial treatment was. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI seems particularly accurate. The role of spectroscopy remains controversial. Ultrasound-based techniques are less accurate, but this may change with the advent of ultrasonic contrast media. These recent advances in imaging may improve the outcome of salvage therapies (by improving patient selection and treatment targeting) and should open the way to focal salvage treatments in the near future. (orig.)

  1. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  2. Imaging challenges: a US perspective on controlling exposure to ionizing radiation in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues pertaining to control of radiation dose exposures in pediatric imaging are on the forefront of patient care worldwide. Certain factors contribute to appropriate - or inappropriate - use of ionizing radiation in pediatric medical imaging. Such issues include naivete regarding cancer risk and the role of medical imaging in its development, misinformation about exposure to ionizing radiation, resource availability, staffing, scheduling ''snags,'' costs, limited evidence-based imaging practice information and shrinking funding. These issues will be introduced in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Common and uncommon pitfalls in pancreatic imaging: it is not always cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernuccio, F; Borhani, A A; Dioguardi Burgio, M; Midiri, M; Furlan, A; Brancatelli, G

    2016-02-01

    Despite advances in multimodality imaging of pancreas, there is still overlap between imaging findings of several pancreatic/peripancreatic disease processes. Pancreatic and peripancreatic non-neoplastic entities may mimic primary pancreatic neoplasms on ultrasound, CT, and MRI. On the other hand, primary pancreatic cancer may be overlooked on imaging because of technical and inherent factors. The purpose of this pictorial review is to describe and illustrate pancreatic imaging pitfalls and highlight the basic radiological features for proper differential diagnosis. PMID:26867910

  4. Cancer detection using NIR elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence under long-wavelength laser excitation are explored for cancer detection. Various types of normal and malignant human tissue samples were utilized in this investigation

  5. Has PET-imaging changed the scenario in cancer management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET imaging changed the scenario of cancer management in India. With the help of institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Radiation Medical Centre it would have been impossible to extend services to the needy at economical price

  6. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA): maintaining and operating a public information repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Vendt, Bruce; Smith, Kirk; Freymann, John; Kirby, Justin; Koppel, Paul; Moore, Stephen; Phillips, Stanley; Maffitt, David; Pringle, Michael; Tarbox, Lawrence; Prior, Fred

    2013-12-01

    The National Institutes of Health have placed significant emphasis on sharing of research data to support secondary research. Investigators have been encouraged to publish their clinical and imaging data as part of fulfilling their grant obligations. Realizing it was not sufficient to merely ask investigators to publish their collection of imaging and clinical data, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) created the open source National Biomedical Image Archive software package as a mechanism for centralized hosting of cancer related imaging. NCI has contracted with Washington University in Saint Louis to create The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA)-an open-source, open-access information resource to support research, development, and educational initiatives utilizing advanced medical imaging of cancer. In its first year of operation, TCIA accumulated 23 collections (3.3 million images). Operating and maintaining a high-availability image archive is a complex challenge involving varied archive-specific resources and driven by the needs of both image submitters and image consumers. Quality archives of any type (traditional library, PubMed, refereed journals) require management and customer service. This paper describes the management tasks and user support model for TCIA. PMID:23884657

  7. Basic research and clinical application of optical molecular imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rapidly developing biomedical imaging technology,in vivo optical molecular imaging has been widely applied in various research fields owing to its unique real-time, quantitative and noninvasive characteristics. The applications of in vivo optical imaging technology in the basic and clinical research of breast cancer were reviewed, including detection of distant metastasis,tumor apoptosis, cell cycle, hypoxia and angiogenesis, ER-mediated molecular pathway, breast cancer stem cells, early diagnosis, sentinel node biopsy, evaluation of drug efficacy and detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression. They all seem to have a promising potential in in vivo optical molecular imaging. (authors)

  8. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  9. Spiral (Helical) computed tomographic imaging for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Vascular and pancreatic invasions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several imaging techniques for diagnosing bile duct cancer have improved, however, its diagnosis at the early stage is still difficult. We discuss the significance of the spiral (helical) computed tomography (SCT) imaging for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer at an early stage. We performed, as a preoperative examination, SCT under intravenous angiography (IV-SCT) for all cases, which included 233 cases of benign bile duct diseases, 42 cases of gallbladder cancer and 22 cases of bile duct cancer. The accuracy rate of diagnosis ability of 42 cases of gallbladder cancer by IV-SCT was 91%, and that of portal vein invasion was 91%. In the cases of bile duct cancer, IV-SCT showed destructive images of the bile duct wall and the tumor images invaded into the pancreatic parenchyma, in the cases of invasion at the splenic vein and confluence site of the portal vein, IV-SCT gave clearer 3D images than conventional angiography. The accuracy rate of diagnosing pancreatic invasion in bile duct cancer by IV-SCT was 80%. However, it is still difficult to determine completely the layer structures of the bile duct and the invasion into the walls along the long axis. As the future development of SCT for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer, we expect further progression of diagnosis ability of bile duct cancer and the invasion level by the applying high resolution thin-section CT images or endoscopical images of the luminal organs in examining the bile duct. (K.H.)

  10. IMAGING OF THE INTERACTION OF CANCER CELLS AND THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Cao, Hop S.; McElroy, Michele; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Robert M. Hoffman; Bouvet, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system and its interaction with cancer cells is crucial to our ability to fight cancer metastasis. Efforts to study the lymphatic system had previously been limited by the inability to visualize the lymphatic system in vivo in real time. Fluorescence imaging can address these limitations and allow for visualization of lymphatic delivery and trafficking of cancer cells and possibly therapeutic agents as well. Here, we review recent articles in which an...

  11. New prospects for PET in prostate cancer imaging: a physicist's viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer among men. Early diagnosis, correct staging, accurate detection of metastasis, and monitoring of the therapy are the key tasks that could greatly benefit from medical imaging. After a review of the main developments in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for prostate cancer, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with good spatial resolution and high sensitivity is discussed, together with the latest development...

  12. Peptide-Targeted Nanoglobular Gd-DOTA Monoamide Conjugates for Magnetic Resonance Cancer Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Mingqian; Wu, Xueming; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Chen, Qianjin; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Effective imaging of cancer molecular biomarker is critical for accurate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. CLT1 peptide was observed to specifically bind to the fibrin-fibronectin complexes presented in tumor extracellular matrix. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated CLT1 peptide-targeted nanoglobular Gd-DOTA monoamide conjugates for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the fibrin-fibronectin complexes in tumor. The targeted nanoglobular contrast agents were prepared by conjugating peptide...

  13. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  14. Early Cancer Detection and Targeted Therapy by Magnetic Resonance Molecular Imaging and Nano Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The common theme of my 5-year PhD research is to channel progress in spin physics and nano-bio-materials into meaningful improvements in the theoretical studies, methodological developments, and advanced applications of magnetic resonance (MR) to: 1) MR Molecular Imaging: to detect lesions (especially cancers) at early stages through imaging the existence and locations of physiologically important biomarkers; and2) MR Nano Medicine: to cure diseases (especially cancers) by targeted therapy th...

  15. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in detection of breast cancer recurrence: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue in the breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be superior to traditional imaging in diagnosis of recurrence because of its ability to differentiate malignancy from scarring. Current guidelines on investigation of suspected breast cancer recurrence recommend MRI when other investigations have equivocal findings. We performed the first systematic review on this topic.

  16. T2-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Westphalen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the accuracy of T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy and to investigate the relationship between imaging accuracy and time since therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained and the study was HIPPA compliant. We identified 59 patients who underwent 1.5 Tesla endorectal MR imaging of the prostate between 1999 and 2006 after definitive external beam radiation therapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Two readers recorded the presence or absence of tumor on T2-weighted images. Logistic regression and Fisher’s exact tests for 2x2 tables were used to determine the accuracy of imaging and investigate if accuracy differed between those imaged within 3 years of therapy (n = 25 and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (n = 34. Transrectal biopsy was used as the standard of reference for the presence or absence of recurrent cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-four of 59 patients (58% had recurrent prostate cancer detected on biopsy. The overall accuracy of T2-weighted MR imaging in the detection cancer after external beam radiation therapy was 63% (37/59 for reader 1 and 71% for reader 2 (42/59. For both readers, logistic regression showed no difference in accuracy between those imaged within 3 years of therapy and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (p = 0.86 for reader 1 and 0.44 for reader 2. CONCLUSION: T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging has low accuracy in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy, irrespective of the time since therapy.

  17. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad A. Al-Amri; Mohammed Y. Saeedi; Fatina M. Al-Tahan; Ali, Arwa M.; Shaker A. Alomary; Mostafa Arafa; Ibrahim, Ahmed K.; Kassim A. Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the br...

  18. Gastrointestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease: An update with emphasis on imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Matthias; Dohan, Anthony; Allez, Matthieu; Boudiaf, Mourad; Camus, Marine; Laurent, Valérie; Hoeffel, Christine; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers depending on the specific type of IBD, the extent of the disease and its location. Patients with IBD and extensive colonic involvement are at increased risk of colorectal cancer whereas patients with Crohn disease have an increased risk for small-bowel and anal carcinoma. These cancers preferentially develop on sites of longstanding inflammation. In regards to colon cancer, several key pathogenic events are involved, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation. The risk for colon cancer in IBD patients correlates with longer disease duration, presence of sclerosing cholangitis, pancolitis, family history of colorectal cancer, early onset of the disease and severity of bowel inflammation. Identification of increased colorectal cancer risk in individual IBD patients has led to formal surveillance guidelines. Conversely, although an increased risk for other types of cancer has been well identified, no specific formal screening recommendations exist. Consequently, the role of the radiologist is crucial to alert the referring gastroenterologist when a patient with IBD presents with unusual imaging findings at either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This review provides an update on demographics, molecular, clinical and histopathological features of gastrointestinal cancers in IBD patients including colorectal carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and anal carcinoma, along with a special emphasis on the current role of CT and MR imaging. PMID:26315381

  19. Algorithm for lung cancer detection based on PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Ishimatsu, Keita; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ohtsuka, Hideki; Nishitani, Hiromu; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    The five year survival rate of the lung cancer is low with about twenty-five percent. In addition it is an obstinate lung cancer wherein three out of four people die within five years. Then, the early stage detection and treatment of the lung cancer are important. Recently, we can obtain CT and PET image at the same time because PET/CT device has been developed. PET/CT is possible for a highly accurate cancer diagnosis because it analyzes quantitative shape information from CT image and FDG distribution from PET image. However, neither benign-malignant classification nor staging intended for lung cancer have been established still enough by using PET/CT images. In this study, we detect lung nodules based on internal organs extracted from CT image, and we also develop algorithm which classifies benignmalignant and metastatic or non metastatic lung cancer using lung structure and FDG distribution(one and two hour after administering FDG). We apply the algorithm to 59 PET/CT images (malignant 43 cases [Ad:31, Sq:9, sm:3], benign 16 cases) and show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  20. Limited evidence for the use of imaging to detect prostate cancer: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, L., E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Carlsson, S. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Gjertsson, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Heintz, E.; Hultcrantz, M.; Mejare, I. [The Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment, Stockholm (Sweden); Andrén, O. [School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer, ultrasound guided systematic biopsies is the golden standard for diagnosis. • Diagnostic imaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging, is being used in trials to aid detection of prostate cancer. • To date, there is insufficient scientific evidence for the use of imaging techniques to detect prostate cancer. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of imaging technologies for detecting prostate cancer in patients with elevated PSA-values or suspected findings on clinical examination. Methods: The databases Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, CRD HTA/DARE/NHS EED and EconLit were searched until June 2013. Pre-determined inclusion criteria were used to select full text articles. Risk of bias in individual studies was rated according to QUADAS or AMSTAR. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The performance of diagnostic imaging was compared with systematic biopsies (reference standard) and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: The literature search yielded 5141 abstracts, which were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Of these 4852 were excluded since they did not meet the inclusion criteria. 288 articles were reviewed in full text for quality assessment. Six studies, three using MRI and three using transrectal ultrasound were included. All were rated as high risk of bias. Relevant studies on PET/CT were not identified. Conclusion: Despite clinical use, there is insufficient evidence regarding the accuracy of imaging technologies for detecting cancer in patients with suspected prostate cancer using TRUS guided systematic biopsies as reference standard.

  1. The automatic surveillance, tracking, and imaging program. User manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szozda, Joe A.

    1989-03-01

    The automatic surveillance, tracking and imaging program (ASTIP) is a phased-array radar system which carries out surveillance of a designated field of view, and acquires and tracks multiple targets in its surveillance space. The user manual provides a detailed description of the device and file preparations that must be completed before ASTIP is run. The device and file preparations are summarized as an acquisition of resources list for quick reference by operators familiar with ASTIP. A detailed explanation of the preparations are presented in subsequent sections of the user manual. Each option in the menu-driven operator interface is discussed in detail. Diagrams of the ASTIP menus are located in the appendices. The error condition section explains the errors that are typically encountered and provides possible solutions to each of the problems. Finally, the procedures required to maintain the ASTIP software are explained in the building ASTIP section of the user manual.

  2. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior–inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT–contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

  3. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Chen Zhe; Yu, James B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard E.; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior-inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT-contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

  4. Recognizing ovarian cancer from co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Kumavor, Patrick; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    Unique features in co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ex vivo ovarian tissue are introduced, along with the hypotheses of how these features may relate to the physiology of tumors. The images are compressed with wavelet transform, after which the mean Radon transform of the photoacoustic image is computed and fitted with a Gaussian function to find the centroid of the suspicious area for shift-invariant recognition process. In the next step, 24 features are extracted from a training set of images by several methods; including features from the Fourier domain, image statistics, and the outputs of different composite filters constructed from the joint frequency response of different cancerous images. The features were chosen from more than 400 training images obtained from 33 ex vivo ovaries of 24 patients, and used to train a support vector machine (SVM) structure. The SVM classifier was able to exclusively separate the cancerous from the non-cancerous cases with 100% sensitivity and specificity. At the end, the classifier was used to test 95 new images, obtained from 37 ovaries of 20 additional patients. The SVM classifier achieved 76.92% sensitivity and 95.12% specificity. Furthermore, if we assume that recognizing one image as a cancerous case is sufficient to consider the ovary as malignant, then the SVM classifier achieves 100% sensitivity and 87.88% specificity.

  5. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O' Regan, K.N. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O' Connor, O.J. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); McLaughlin, P.D. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Trauma Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Power, D.G. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  6. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  7. FPs have vital role in ensuring success of breast cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, L.

    1997-01-01

    SCREENING IS THE ONLY PROVEN STRATEGY for reducing breast cancer mortality in women older than 50. Over the last 9 years, 8 provinces and 2 (territories have established independent dedicated mammography programs. A recent workshop on screening programs was told that family physicians play a crucial role in the ultimate success of these programs because of their referral role.

  8. Clinical imaging centers: The role of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection is mandated in all 50 states. Regulatory control over naturally occurring and accelerator produced radioactive materials use is exclusively by state government. Although states are independent bodies there are many similarities in their regulatory approaches. Differences in the degree of regulatory control are minimized through use of the Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation and other guidance documents provided by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. This paper discusses the general requirements to obtain a license and/or registration to produce radioactive material in an accelerator, prepare an imaging agent and/or operate an imaging clinic. These requirements include minimum standards for training and experience of all principal users, equipment specifications, facilities design and construction, specific operating and emergency procedures, radiation protection surveys and monitoring of personnel exposures, ongoing training of staff, and a commitment to ALARA (the philosophy of keeping radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable). The nature and frequency of routine inspections to ensure adequate protection of workers and the public is also covered

  9. Complementarity of ultrasound and fluorescence imaging in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease characterized by dismal 5-year survival rates and limited treatment options. In an effort to provide useful models for preclinical evaluation of new experimental therapeutics, we and others have developed orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer. The utility of these models for pre-clinical testing is dependent upon quantitative, noninvasive methods for monitoring in vivo tumor progression in real time. Toward this goal, we performed whole-body fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging to evaluate and to compare these noninvasive imaging modalities for assessing tumor burden and tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. The human pancreatic cancer cell line XPA-1, engineered for stable, high-level expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP), was implanted into the pancreas of nude mice using orthotopic implantation. The tumors were allowed to grow over a period of one to several weeks during which time the mice were imaged using both fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging to measure tumor burden and to monitor tumor growth. Whole-body fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging both allowed for the visualization and measurement of orthotopic pancreatic tumor implants in vivo. The imaging sessions were well-tolerated by the mice and yielded data which correlated well in the quantitative assessment of tumor burden. Whole-body fluorescence and two-dimensional ultrasound imaging showed a strong correlation for measurement of tumor size over a range of tumor sizes (R2 = 0.6627, P = 0.003 for an exposure time of 67 msec and R2 = 0.6553, P = 0.003 for an exposure time of 120 msec). Our findings suggest a complementary role for fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging in assessing tumor burden and tumor progression in orthotopic mouse models of human cancer

  10. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  11. Surface engineered antifouling optomagnetic SPIONs for bimodal targeted imaging of pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaohui Wang,1 Xiaohong Xing,1 Bingbo Zhang,1 Fengjun Liu,1 Yingsheng Cheng,2 Donglu Shi1,31Radiology Department of the Tenth People’s Hospital,The Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Materials Science and Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Targeted imaging contrast agents for early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma diagnosis was developed using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. For phase transfer of SPIONs, the hydrophobic SPIONs are first treated with tetrafluoroborate and then capped by bovine serum albumin (BSA via ligand exchange. It was experimentally found that nitrosyl tetrafluoroborate pretreatment and proper structures of molecules are essential to the effective surface functionalization of SPIONs. Nonspecific binding was found to be significantly reduced by BSA surface functionalized hydrophobic SPIONs (BSA·SPIONs. The BSA·SPIONs were monodispersed with an average size of approximately 18.0 nm and stable in a wide pH range and various ionic strengths even after 7 days of storage. The longitudinal and transverse proton relaxation rate (r1, r2 values of the BSA·SPIONs were determined to be 11.6 and 154.2 s-1 per mM of Fe3+ respectively. The r2/r1 ratio of 13.3 ensured its application as the T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. When conjugated with near-infrared fluorescent dye and monoclonal antibody, the dyeBSA·SPION-monoclonal antibody bioconjugates showed excellent targeting capability with minimal nonspecific binding in the bimodal imaging of pancreatic cancer cells. The experimental approach is facile, environmentally benign, and

  12. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute’s cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute’s profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  13. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J D; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiologic investigations has restricted the incorporation of biological and clinical parameters. The Childrens Cancer Group has developed an active program in epidemiologic research, with over a decade of experience demonstrating the feasibility and strengths of conducting analytic epidemiologic studies within a cooperative clinical trials network. The availability of detailed clinical and biologic data on cases diagnosed within the cooperative group facilitates the transfer of state-of-the-art technology to epidemiologic research. PMID:8549456

  14. From molecular imaging to personalized radionuclide therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. 68Gallium is a positron emitter (t1/2 68 min) which can be produced from a generator in a convenient, 'in-house' preparation and used for labeling of peptides, e.g. somatostatin analogues (SA) like DOTATOC or DOTATATE for molecular imaging of SSTR expressing tumors. Since 2004, we have performed over 7700 68Ga PET/CT studies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have established SSTR PET/CT as the new gold standard for imaging G1 and G2 NET (staging, re-staging, therapy response evaluation and detection of unknown primary NET). The same peptides can be labeled with 177Lutetium or 90Yttrium for radionuclide therapy, a form of personalized treatment (THERANOSTICS approach). PRRNT is based on the receptor-mediated internalization of SA. Several clinical trials indicate that PRRNT can deliver effective radiation doses to tumors. A German multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow up in 450 patients indicates that PRRT is an effective therapy for patients with G1-2 neuroendocrine tumors, irrespective of previous therapies, with a survival advantage of several years compared to other therapies and only minor side effects. Median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the start of treatment was 59 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) measured from last cycle of therapy accounted to 41 mo. Median PFS of pancreatic NET was 39 mo. Similar results were obtained for NET of unknown primary (median PFS: 38 mo) whereas NET of small bowel had a median PFS of 51 months. Side effects like 3-4 NEThro- or hemato-toxicity were observed in only 0.2% and 2% of patients respectively. PRRNT is highly effective in the management of NET, even in advanced cases. In patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors, fractionated, personalized PRRNT with lower doses of radioactivity given over a longer period of time (Bad Berka Concept using sequential (DUO) PRRNT) results in excellent therapeutic responses. By

  15. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Geun-Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Gol [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Clare-Chisu [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo-Bong [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  16. Folate Receptor-Beta Has Limited Value for Fluorescent Imaging in Ovarian, Breast and Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Esther; Crane, Lucia M.A.; van Oosten, Marleen; van der Vegt, Bert; van der Sluis, Tineke; Kooijman, Paulien; Low, Philip S.; van der Zee, Ate G.J.; Arts, Henriette J. G.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Bart, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Aims Tumor-specific targeted imaging is rapidly evolving in cancer diagnosis. The folate receptor alpha (FR-alpha) has already been identified as a suitable target for cancer therapy and imaging. FR-alpha is present on similar to 40% of human cancers. FR-beta is known to be expressed on several hematologic malignancies and on activated macrophages, but little is known about FR-beta expression in solid tumors. Additional or simultaneous expression of FR-beta could help extend the indications f...

  17. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  18. Quantitative optical imaging of early cervical cancer: mechanisms, methods, and clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao T.; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2009-02-01

    The primary goals of this study are to improve the accuracy of noninvasive diagnosis of early cervical cancer. In this study, a novel 3-D optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is developed to track the motion of patient and to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during the examination of colposcopy. This technology can quantify the acetic acid induced optical signals associated with early cancer development at cervix. The results of a preliminary clinical study of 65 patients demonstrate that the accuracy to differentiate pre-cancerous cervical tissue from normal tissue can be significantly increased.

  19. The teaching of computer programming and digital image processing in radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G L; Zylinski, J

    1998-06-01

    The increased use of digital processing techniques in Medical Radiations imaging modalities, along with the rapid advance in information technology has resulted in a significant change in the delivery of radiographic teaching programs. This paper details a methodology used to concurrently educate radiographers in both computer programming and image processing. The students learn to program in visual basic applications (VBA), and the programming skills are contextualised by requiring the students to write a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) package. Program code generation and image presentation interface is undertaken by the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. The user-friendly nature of this common interface enables all students to readily begin program creation. The teaching of programming and image processing skills by this method may be readily generalised to other vocational fields where digital image manipulation is a professional requirement. PMID:9726504

  20. Dual-contrast MR imaging of liver cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-03-01

    MR contrast agents increase hepatic tumor conspicuity, as measured in terms of contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios. With an animal model of hepatic metastases from breast cancer, IV administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) shows a biphasic time response, transiently increasing the signal intensity of liver relative to tumor, with C/N ratio magnitudes increasing from -5.7 to -16.3 (SE 250/20); after a delay, the signal intensity of tumor increases relative to liver with a reversal of the C/N sign from negative to positive and an increase in the C/N magnitude to +25.0. IV administration of ferrite particles (0.05 mmol Fe/kg) shows a monophasic time response, increasing signal intensity of tumor relative to liver from +1.5 to +49.5 (SE 500/30). When both contrast agents were administered together (dual-contrast technique), the tumor-liver C/N magnitude reached a maximum of +67.8 (SE 500/30) 12 min after drug infusion. Analysis of individual contrast and noise factors contributing to this technique revealed a strong correlation between the signal intensity of liver and the signal intensity of ghost artifacts, which increase after administration of Gd-DTPA (r = .89) and decrease after administration of ferrite (r = 1.0). Dual-contrast imaging shows a synergistic addition of contrast and suppression of noise from ghost artifacts, maximizing the C/N and increasing the conspicuity of focal liver lesions. PMID:3257610

  1. The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

    2014-01-01

    As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. We use the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master’s programs in psychology and examine how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and curren...

  2. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  4. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ2=12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  5. Imaging of lung cancer: Implications on staging and management

    OpenAIRE

    Purandare, Nilendu C; Venkatesh Rangarajan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Accurate assessment of disease extent is important in deciding the optimal treatment approach. To play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients, it is necessary that the radiologist understands the principles of staging and the implications of radiological findings on the various staging descriptors and eventual treatment decisions.

  6. Imaging of lung cancer: Implications on staging and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu C Purandare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Accurate assessment of disease extent is important in deciding the optimal treatment approach. To play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients, it is necessary that the radiologist understands the principles of staging and the implications of radiological findings on the various staging descriptors and eventual treatment decisions.

  7. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the reso...

  8. Novel Method for Detection of Gastric Cancer by Hyperspectral Image Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, many studies have been performed on the early detection of cancer.Gastric cancer causes about 8,00,00 deaths worldwide per year. The objective of the work is to develop a novel hyperspectral imaging algorithm for gastric cancer detection by the medical community, however, due to the amounts of data and the highly computational nature of the algorithms, running these complex algorithms can result computationally intensive. This paper, for the early detection of gastric cancer, proposes the analysis system of an endoscopic image of the stomach, which detects the abnormal region by using the change of color in the image and by providing the surface tissue information to the detector. While advanced inflammation and cancer may be easily detected, early inflammation and cancer are difficult to detect and requires more attention to be detected. This research proposes the implementation of the data bank that will provide the medical community with the necessary tools to develop novel algorithms for the early and accurate gastric cancer patents. Graphical processing unit provides the necessary computing power for the acceleration of the proposed algorithms in the data bank to their capability of running data parallel algorithms. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates of the algorithm’s diagnostic capability will be enhanced by image processing.

  9. Pancreatic cancer screening employing noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging combined with ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted an initial evaluation on the potential of combining noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) to screen for pancreatic cancer. An independent ethics committee approved this study. A total of 2511 patients who underwent US were enrolled. Among them, noncontrast MRI was performed in patients in whom the entire pancreas was difficult to depict or in those with US-suspected pancreatic lesions. In total, using 1.5-T MRI, T1- and T2-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and diffusion-weighted imaging, we acquired a variety of images. The efficacy of US and MRI in screening for pancreatic lesions, including pancreatic cancer, was evaluated. Of 2511 patients, 184 underwent MRI, and the pancreas was demonstrated in all of them. Among the 2511, five pancreatic cancers were detected by MRI combined with US (detection rate 0.20%). Of the five pancreatic cancers, three were detected by US (detection rate 0.12%) and two by MRI. Four of the five pancreatic cancers were resectable. By combining noncontrast MRI with US, pancreatic cancer can be detected with high accuracy. Other pancreatic lesions that require follow-up, including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, can also be detected. Thus, pancreatic cancer screening with a combination of US and MRI is suggested. (author)

  10. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  11. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment. (paper)

  12. Multifunctional magnetic-hollow gold nanospheres for bimodal cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Quan; An, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Kai; Qin, Meng-Yao; Fang, Bi-Yun; Li, Cheng; Xuan, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Ma, Zhi-Ya

    2015-08-01

    Multifunctional nanocomposites combining imaging and therapeutic functions have great potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we developed a novel theranostic agent based on hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO). Taking advantage of the excellent magnetic properties of SPIO and strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption property of HGNs, such nanocomposites were applied to targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of cancer cells. In vitro results demonstrated they displayed significant contrast enhancement for T2-weighted MRI and strong PAI signal enhancement. Simultaneously, the nanocomposites exhibited a high photothermal effect under the irradiation of the near-infrared laser and can be used as efficient photothermal therapy (PTT) agents for selective killing of cancer cells. All these results indicated that such nanocomposites combined with MRI-PAI and PTT functionality can have great potential for effective cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS in bladder cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponukalin A.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to identify the most characteristic and significant changes in indicators in patients with bladder cancer during diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS. Materials: From September 2009 till 2011 98 patients have been examined (61 (62,24% with morphologically verified bladder cancer and 37 (37,76% with cystitis. Results: The study has revealed that the sensitivity of DWIBS-study in detecting bladder cancer is 98,36%, specificity of 10,81 %, the efficacy of 65,38%. Conclusions: DWIBS is an informative noninvasive method for screening diagnostics of bladder cancer, to identify suspicious areas on regional, and distant metastases

  14. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer reduces integral dose despite daily volumetric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the integral radiation dose in 27 patients who had adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using kilo voltage cone beam CT imaging. Compared to conventional radiotherapy the reduction in margin and choice of best plan of three for the day resulted in a lower total dose in most patients despite daily volumetric imaging.

  15. Local staging of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, M.R.W.; Jager, G.J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Lier, H.J.J. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the influence of patient-, study design-, and imaging protocol characteristics on staging performance of MR imaging in prostate cancer. In an electronic literature search and review of bibliographies (January 1984 to May 2000) the articles selected included data on sen

  16. Phantom experiments with a microwave imaging system for breast-cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a promising technique for breast-cancer detection. In this paper, the microwave imaging system currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark is introduced. This system consists of 32 antennas positioned in a cylindrical setup, each equipped with...

  17. Age-based computer-aided diagnosis approach for pancreatic cancer on endoscopic ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Murat; Cakiroglu, Murat; Kocaman, Orhan; Kurt, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Bulent; Can, Guray; Korkmaz, Ugur; Dandil, Emre; Eksi, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to develop a high-performance computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with image processing and pattern recognition in diagnosing pancreatic cancer by using endosonography images. Materials and Methods: On the images, regions of interest (ROI) of three groups of patients (60) were extracted by experts; features were obtained from images using three different techniques and were trained separately for each age group with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose cancer. The study was conducted on endosonography images of 202 patients with pancreatic cancer and 130 noncancer patients. Results: 122 features were identified from the 332 endosonography images obtained in the study, and the 20 most appropriate features were selected by using the relief method. Images classified under three age groups (in years; 60) were tested via 200 random tests and the following ratios were obtained in the classification: accuracy: 92%, 88.5%, and 91.7%, respectively; sensitivity: 87.5%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively; and specificity: 94.1%, 91.7%, and 88.9%, respectively. When all the age groups were assessed together, the following values were obtained: accuracy: 87.5%, sensitivity: 83.3%, and specificity: 93.3%. Conclusions: It was observed that the CAD system developed in the study performed better in diagnosing pancreatic cancer images based on classification by patient age compared to diagnosis without classification. Therefore, it is imperative to take patient age into consideration to ensure higher performance. PMID:27080608

  18. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  19. CAN RAP: A Program to Help Patients Choose a Screening Strategy for Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Detmer, William M.; Gilbertson, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The CANcer Risk Assessment and Preference (CAN RAP) system is a prototype computer program that helps patients to select a screening strategy for colon cancer. CAN RAP uses demographic and risk-factor information to calculate the benefit and cost of various screening strategies. The system communicates to patients these benefits and costs, and elicits patient preferences using audio, text, and graphics.

  20. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  1. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  2. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  3. Profilometry and subsurface imaging in point of care diagnosis in ocular disease and lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Samir I.; Taghian, Alphonse

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) can be irreversible with profound negative impact on patients' quality of life. Programs that provide screening and active surveillance for BCRL are essential to determine whether early detection and intervention influences the course of lymphedema development. Established methods of quantitatively assessing lymphedema at early stages include "volume" methods such as perometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate 1) Use of topographical techniques analogous to those used in corneal topography 2) Development of point-of-care lymphedema detection and characterization based on off-the-shelf hardward 3) The role of subsurface imaging 4) Multimodal diagnostics and integration yielding higher sensitivity/ specificity.

  4. Image and pathological changes after microwave ablation of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenbin [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Yanni [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Chen, Lin; Ling, Lijun; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Siqi [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ding, Qiang [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Xiaoan, E-mail: liuxiaoan@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Shui, E-mail: ws0801@hotmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report successful experience of MWA in breast cancer under local anesthesia. • We report MR imaging evaluation of microwave ablation zone in breast cancer. • Pathological changes after microwave ablation in breast cancer was reported. • 2 min MWA caused an ablation zone with three diameters > 2 cm in breast cancer. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess MR imaging evaluation of the ablation zone and pathological changes after microwave ablation (MWA) in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Twelve enrolled patients, diagnosed with non-operable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were treated by MWA and then neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery. MR imaging was applied to evaluate the effect of MWA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the ablated area. Results: All MWA procedures were performed successfully under local anesthesia. For a mean duration of 2.15 min, the mean largest, middle and smallest diameters in the ablated zone 24-h post-ablation in MR imaging were 2.98 cm ± 0.53, 2.51 cm ± 0.41 and 2.23 cm ± 0.41, respectively. The general shape of the ablation zone was close to a sphere. The ablated area became gradually smaller in MR imaging. No adverse effects related to MWA were noted in all 12 patients during and after MWA. HE staining could confirm the effect about 3 months after MWA, which was confirmed by TEM. Conclusions: 2 min MWA can cause an ablation zone with three diameters larger than 2 cm in breast cancer, which may be suitable for the local treatment of breast cancer up to 2 cm in largest diameter. However, the long-term effect of MWA in the treatment of small breast cancer should be determined in the future.

  5. Image and pathological changes after microwave ablation of breast cancer: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report successful experience of MWA in breast cancer under local anesthesia. • We report MR imaging evaluation of microwave ablation zone in breast cancer. • Pathological changes after microwave ablation in breast cancer was reported. • 2 min MWA caused an ablation zone with three diameters > 2 cm in breast cancer. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess MR imaging evaluation of the ablation zone and pathological changes after microwave ablation (MWA) in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Twelve enrolled patients, diagnosed with non-operable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were treated by MWA and then neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery. MR imaging was applied to evaluate the effect of MWA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the ablated area. Results: All MWA procedures were performed successfully under local anesthesia. For a mean duration of 2.15 min, the mean largest, middle and smallest diameters in the ablated zone 24-h post-ablation in MR imaging were 2.98 cm ± 0.53, 2.51 cm ± 0.41 and 2.23 cm ± 0.41, respectively. The general shape of the ablation zone was close to a sphere. The ablated area became gradually smaller in MR imaging. No adverse effects related to MWA were noted in all 12 patients during and after MWA. HE staining could confirm the effect about 3 months after MWA, which was confirmed by TEM. Conclusions: 2 min MWA can cause an ablation zone with three diameters larger than 2 cm in breast cancer, which may be suitable for the local treatment of breast cancer up to 2 cm in largest diameter. However, the long-term effect of MWA in the treatment of small breast cancer should be determined in the future

  6. Photoacoustic spectral analysis to sense programmed erythrocyte cell death (eryptosis) for monitoring cancer response to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Muhannad N.; Kibria, Fayruz; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Many types of cancer therapies target the tumor microenvironment, causing biochemical and morphological changes in tissues. In therapies using ultrasound activated microbubbles, vascular collapse is typically reported. Red blood cells (RBCs) that leak out of the vasculature become exposed to the ceramide that is released from damaged endothelial cells. Ceramide can induce programmed cell death in RBCs (eryptosis), and is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and scrambling. Since the effect of eryptotic cells on generated photoacoustics (PA) signals has not been reported, we investigated the potential PA may have for cancer treatment monitoring by using PA spectral analysis to sense eryptosis. To induce eryptosis, C2-ceramide was added to RBC suspensions and that were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. A control and ceramide-induced sample was imaged in a vessel phantom using a high frequency PA system (VevoLAZR, 10 - 45 MHz bandwidth) irradiated with multiple wavelengths ranging from 680 to 900 nm. PA spectral parameters were measured and linked to changes in RBCs as it underwent eryptosis. These samples were examined using optical microscopy, a blood gas analyzer and an integrating sphere setup to measure optical properties (wavelengths 600 - 900 nm). The results of the experiment demonstrate how PA spectral analysis can be used to identify eryptosis at a depth of more than 1 cm into the phantom using ultrasound derived the y-intercept and mid bandfit (MBF) parameters at optical wavelengths of 800 - 900 nm. These parameters were correlated to the morphological and biochemical changes that eryptotic RBCs display. The results establish the potential of PA in cancer treatment monitoring through sensing treatment induced eryptosis.

  7. Exploring new quantitative CT image features to improve assessment of lung cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaminejad, Nastaran; Qian, Wei; Kang, Yan; Guan, Yubao; Lure, Fleming; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Due to the promotion of lung cancer screening, more Stage I non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are currently detected, which usually have favorable prognosis. However, a high percentage of the patients have cancer recurrence after surgery, which reduces overall survival rate. To achieve optimal efficacy of treating and managing Stage I NSCLC patients, it is important to develop more accurate and reliable biomarkers or tools to predict cancer prognosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate a new quantitative image analysis method to predict the risk of lung cancer recurrence of Stage I NSCLC patients after the lung cancer surgery using the conventional chest computed tomography (CT) images and compare the prediction result with a popular genetic biomarker namely, protein expression of the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) genes. In this study, we developed and tested a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to segment lung tumors and initially compute 35 tumor-related morphologic and texture features from CT images. By applying a machine learning based feature selection method, we identified a set of 8 effective and non-redundant image features. Using these features we trained a naïve Bayesian network based classifier to predict the risk of cancer recurrence. When applying to a test dataset with 79 Stage I NSCLC cases, the computed areas under ROC curves were 0.77±0.06 and 0.63±0.07 when using the quantitative image based classifier and ERCC1, respectively. The study results demonstrated the feasibility of improving accuracy of predicting cancer prognosis or recurrence risk using a CAD-based quantitative image analysis method.

  8. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer: a step toward an individualized 'image and treat' strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers....

  9. Identifying Women at Risk for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome Utilizing Breast Care Nurse Navigation at Mammography and Imaging Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Susan J; Cleiment, Rosemary J

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases appear in families at a higher rate and at an earlier onset than in the average population. Two known gene defects, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for the majority of these hereditary related breast cancers. Additionally, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are related to the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC), where risk for other related cancers are increased. Various health-care professional organizations provide guidelines that speak to the need for conducting risk assessments, but little research has been conducted focusing on the initial screening for this syndrome. This quality improvement project attempts to determine if Nurse Navigators can effectively perform the initial education and screening for HBOC syndrome within a mammography and women's breast imaging setting using a simplified patient history tool. E. M. Rodgers' Diffusion of Innovation model, a map of how new ideas and programs have become adopted and accepted, guided this project's development and implementation. Over the course of 8 weeks, 1,420 women seeking service at 3 mammography and imaging sites were given a new risk assessment tool for HBOC. Additionally, the use of Nurse Navigation to identify women who may be at risk for HBOC was implemented. Two populations seeking service at the study sites were evaluated: (1) women obtaining breast screening/imaging services and (2) women receiving breast biopsy results. Patients identified as "at-risk" were defined by evidence-based practice guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and were referred for further genetic evaluation by a genetic professional. During this initial implementation of the HBOC risk assessment program, low participation of screening/imaging patients requesting HBOC education and evaluation occurred (129 screening patients or 9%). High rates of positive biopsy patients (5 patients or 34.7%) werefound to be at risk for HBOC compared to similar studies. Identifying HBOC risk

  10. Edmonton Regional Palliative Care Program: impact on patterns of terminal cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    Bruera, E; Neumann, C M; Gagnon, B.; Brenneis, C; Kneisler, P; Selmser, P; J Hanson

    1999-01-01

    The Edmonton Regional Palliative Care Program was established in July 1995 to measure the access of patients with terminal cancer to palliative care services, decrease the number of cancer-related deaths in acute care facilities and increase the participation of family physicians in the care of terminally ill patients. In this retrospective study the authors compared the pattern of care and site of deaths before establishment of the program (1992/93) and during its second year of operation (1...

  11. Building a funded research program in cancer health disparities: considerations for young investigators

    OpenAIRE

    Heather M. Ochs-Balcom; Phillips, Lynette S.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Martinez, Elena; Thompson, Beti; Ojeifo, John; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop entitled “Building a funded research program in cancer health disparities” was held at the 38th Annual American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) Meeting. Organized by the Junior Members Interest Group, the session addressed topics relevant to career development for cancer disparities investigators. Such considerations include the development of research programs on a backdrop of existing multi- and trans-disciplinary teams, recognizing opportunities for advancing their researc...

  12. Patient-Centered Cancer Care Programs in Italy: Benchmarking Global Patient Education Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of th...

  13. Small-Protein-Stabilized Semiconductor Nanoprobe for Targeted Imaging of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Liu, Siyu; Jiang, Qike; Lan, Tian; Cheng, Zhen; Liu, Hongguang

    2016-07-01

    Recently, semiconductor nanoparticles such as quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant attention for bioimaging. Complex chemical functionalization, surface modification, and bioconjugation chemistry are generally required to tag biomolecules to QDs for imaging of different biomarkers. In this study, we report a simple method for production of QDs stabilized by the small protein, Affibody (AF-QDs) for fluorescent imaging of the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) in human A549 lung cancer cells. This one-pot synthesis of AF-QDs avoids complex chemical conjugation procedures and demonstrates a promising approach for the preparation of fluorescent nanoprobes for imaging of cancer targets. PMID:27123671

  14. Utility of high-definition FDG-PET image reconstruction for lung cancer staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta [Dept. of Radiology, Nagoya City Univ. Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Aichi (Japan)], e-mail: ykiooster@gmail.com; Tamaki, Tsuneo; Omi, Kumiko [Dept. of Radiology, East Nagoya Imaging Diagnosis Center, Aichi (Japan); Nishio, Masami [Dept. of Radiology, Nagoya PET Imaging Center, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Background: High-definition (HD) positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction is a new image reconstruction method based on the point spread function system, which improves the spatial resolution of the images. Purpose: To compare the utility of HD reconstruction of PET images for staging lung cancer with that of conventional 2D ordered subset expectation maximization + Fourier rebinning (2D) reconstruction. Material and Methods: Thirty-five lung cancer patients (24 men, 11 women; median age, 66 years) who underwent surgery after 18F-2-deoxy-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET-CT were studied. Their PET data were reconstructed with 2D and HD PET reconstruction algorithms. Two radiologists individually TNM staged both sets of images. They also evaluated the quality of the images and the diagnostic confidence that the images afforded them using 5-point scales. Results: T, N, and M stages were correctly diagnosed on both the 2D and HD reconstructed images in 23 (66%), 25 (71%), and 30 (86%) of 35 cases, respectively. Overall TNM stage was correctly diagnosed on both types of reconstructed images in 23 cases (66%), underestimated in three (9%), and overestimated in nine (26%). No significant difference in T, N, or M stage or overall TNM stage was observed between the two reconstruction methods. However, the HD reconstructed images afforded a significantly higher level of diagnostic confidence during TNM staging than the 2D reconstructed images and were also of higher quality than the 2D reconstructed images. Conclusion: Although HD reconstruction of FDG-PET images did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of lung cancer staging compared with 2D reconstruction, the quality of the HD reconstructed images and the diagnostic confidence level they afforded the radiologists were higher than those of the conventional 2D reconstructed images.

  15. Utility of high-definition FDG-PET image reconstruction for lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: High-definition (HD) positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction is a new image reconstruction method based on the point spread function system, which improves the spatial resolution of the images. Purpose: To compare the utility of HD reconstruction of PET images for staging lung cancer with that of conventional 2D ordered subset expectation maximization + Fourier rebinning (2D) reconstruction. Material and Methods: Thirty-five lung cancer patients (24 men, 11 women; median age, 66 years) who underwent surgery after 18F-2-deoxy-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET-CT were studied. Their PET data were reconstructed with 2D and HD PET reconstruction algorithms. Two radiologists individually TNM staged both sets of images. They also evaluated the quality of the images and the diagnostic confidence that the images afforded them using 5-point scales. Results: T, N, and M stages were correctly diagnosed on both the 2D and HD reconstructed images in 23 (66%), 25 (71%), and 30 (86%) of 35 cases, respectively. Overall TNM stage was correctly diagnosed on both types of reconstructed images in 23 cases (66%), underestimated in three (9%), and overestimated in nine (26%). No significant difference in T, N, or M stage or overall TNM stage was observed between the two reconstruction methods. However, the HD reconstructed images afforded a significantly higher level of diagnostic confidence during TNM staging than the 2D reconstructed images and were also of higher quality than the 2D reconstructed images. Conclusion: Although HD reconstruction of FDG-PET images did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of lung cancer staging compared with 2D reconstruction, the quality of the HD reconstructed images and the diagnostic confidence level they afforded the radiologists were higher than those of the conventional 2D reconstructed images

  16. New approaches to image thyroid cancer cells and microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, F.; Iodice, V.; Lauri, C.; Signore, A.

    2015-01-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UDTC) are still life-threatening pathologies, because of the lack of well-established diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the past, many attempts have been made to develop radiopharmaceutical to diagnose or treat

  17. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J;

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates...

  18. In vivo medical imaging technologies: new possibility in diagnosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Manuela; Zarzavadjian LE Bian, Alban

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers with an important related-mortality worldwide. It is preceded by a multistage pathological state arising from environmental and dietary factors. These factors influence intracellular molecular changes associated with the gastric carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology imaging, such as endoscopy, is essential for an early diagnosis as patients are typically asymptomatic at the onset of gastric cancer. Recent technological advances have allowed the development of novel imaging devices such as narrow-band imaging or high-definition endoscopy. Their accuracy in determining early gastric lesions makes biopsy of tissue unnecessary. They may largely simplify early diagnosis and improved prognosis. We performed a qualitative review about endoscopic application of advanced imaging technologies. PMID:26837334

  19. Towards prevention and early diagnosis of skin cancer: computer-aided analysis of dermoscopy images

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi*, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, must be diagnosed early for effective treatment. Irregular pigment network and streaks are important clues for melanoma diagnosis using dermoscopy images. This thesis describes novel image processing approaches for computer-aided pigment network and streaks detection on dermoscopy images. Our methods provide meaningful visualization of these structures, and extract features for irregularity detection. Additionally we present our efforts towards pre...

  20. Creating Synergy: Essential Components of a Successful R25E Cancer Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Gronemeyer, Suzanne A.

    2011-01-01

    For an R25E cancer research program to be a resounding success for both participating students and faculty, and to maintain federal funding, many synergistic elements are necessary. Essential components of the R25E Pediatric Oncology Education (POE) Program at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital include 1) a unique focus, 2) a program director who is passionate about the program and who is enthusiastically supported by the institution, 3) committed and involved faculty mentors, 4) a current...

  1. Breast Cancer Stage, Surgery, and Survival Statistics for Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2004–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Graff, Robert; Moran, Patti; Cariou, Charlene; Bordeaux, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women’s Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whet...

  2. Differentiating Between Cancer and Inflammation: A Metabolic-Based Method for Functional Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiei, Menachem; Dreifuss, Tamar; Betzer, Oshra; Panet, Hana; Popovtzer, Aron; Santana, Jordan; Abourbeh, Galith; Mishani, Eyal; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2016-03-22

    One of the main limitations of the highly used cancer imaging technique, PET-CT, is its inability to distinguish between cancerous lesions and post treatment inflammatory conditions. The reason for this lack of specificity is that [(18)F]FDG-PET is based on increased glucose metabolic activity, which characterizes both cancerous tissues and inflammatory cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a nanoparticle-based approach, utilizing glucose-functionalized gold nanoparticles (GF-GNPs) as a metabolically targeted CT contrast agent. Our approach demonstrates specific tumor targeting and has successfully distinguished between cancer and inflammatory processes in a combined tumor-inflammation mouse model, due to dissimilarities in angiogenesis occurring under different pathologic conditions. This study provides a set of capabilities in cancer detection, staging and follow-up, and can be applicable to a wide range of cancers that exhibit high metabolic activity. PMID:26886076

  3. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  4. MR imaging of gastric cancer in vitro: accuracy of invasion depth diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chiho; Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Kumada, Hisashi; Miura, Shunichi [Toyohashi Municipal Hospital, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of grading cancerous invasion of the gastric wall in vitro using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twelve specimens of gastric carcinoma were examined at 1.5-T using a small, loop surface coil. They were imaged within 2 days of fixation in formalin. The field of view was 30 mm; the matrix size was 256 x 256, and the section thickness was 2 mm. T1-weighted, T2-weighted and short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) images were obtained. Two radiologists evaluated the MR images independently, and in discrepant cases, consensus was obtained through discussion. Findings on MR images were compared with histopathologic findings. All T1-weighted, T2-weighted and STIR images depicted the normal gastric wall as consisting of six layers. STIR images depicted normal six layers most clearly. Histologically, the cancerous invasion was found to extend into the mucosa in 4 of the 12 specimens, the submucosa in 3, the muscularis propria in 2, the subserosa in 2 and the serosa in 1. The grading by MR imaging matched the histopathologic findings for all 12 tumors. The overall accuracy was 100%. Thus, MR imaging in vitro was sufficiently accurate for grading cancerous invasion of the gastric wall. (orig.)

  5. Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeling, Bianca; Laffers, Wiebke; Gerstner, Andreas O H; Westermann, Stephan; Müller, Nina A; Schmidt, Kai; Bendix, Jörg; Thies, Boris

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a technology with high potential in the field of non-invasive detection of cancer. However, in complex imaging situations like HSI of the larynx with a rigid endoscope, various image interferences can disable a proper classification of cancerous tissue. We identified three main problems: i) misregistration of single images in a HS cube due to patient heartbeat ii) image noise and iii) specular reflections (SR). Consequently, an image pre-processor is developed in the current paper to overcome these image interferences. It encompasses i) image registration ii) noise removal by minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and iii) a novel SR detection method. The results reveal that the pre-processor improves classification performance, while the newly developed SR detection method outperforms global thresholding technique hitherto used by 46%. The novel pre-processor will be used for future studies towards the development of an operational scheme for HS-based larynx cancer detection. RGB image of the larynx derived from the hyperspectral cube and corresponding specular reflections (a) manually segmented and (b) detected by a novel specular reflection detection method. PMID:26033881

  6. Metabolomic imaging of prostate cancer with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spur, Eva-Margarete [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Decelle, Emily A.; Cheng, Leo L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Metabolomic imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) aims to improve in vivo imaging capability so that PCa tumors can be localized noninvasively to guide biopsy and evaluated for aggressiveness prior to prostatectomy, as well as to assess and monitor PCa growth in patients with asymptomatic PCa newly diagnosed by biopsy. Metabolomics studies global variations of metabolites with which malignancy conditions can be evaluated by profiling the entire measurable metabolome, instead of focusing only on certain metabolites or isolated metabolic pathways. At present, PCa metabolomics is mainly studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and mass spectrometry (MS). With MRS imaging, the anatomic image, obtained from magnetic resonance imaging, is mapped with values of disease condition-specific metabolomic profiles calculated from MRS of each location. For example, imaging of removed whole prostates has demonstrated the ability of metabolomic profiles to differentiate cancerous foci from histologically benign regions. Additionally, MS metabolomic imaging of prostate biopsies has uncovered metabolomic expression patterns that could discriminate between PCa and benign tissue. Metabolomic imaging offers the potential to identify cancer lesions to guide prostate biopsy and evaluate PCa aggressiveness noninvasively in vivo, or ex vivo to increase the power of pathology analysis. Potentially, this imaging ability could be applied not only to PCa, but also to different tissues and organs to evaluate other human malignancies and metabolic diseases. (orig.)

  7. The Korean Version of the Body Image Scale-Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khang, Dongwoo; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Woo, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS). Methods The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 o...

  8. Automated prostate cancer detection via comprehensive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging texture feature models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North America. Auto-detection of prostate cancer can play a major role in early detection of prostate cancer, which has a significant impact on patient survival rates. While multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has shown promise in diagnosis of prostate cancer, the existing auto-detection algorithms do not take advantage of abundance of data available in MP-MRI to improve detection accuracy. The goal of this research was to design a radiomics-based auto-detection method for prostate cancer via utilizing MP-MRI data. In this work, we present new MP-MRI texture feature models for radiomics-driven detection of prostate cancer. In addition to commonly used non-invasive imaging sequences in conventional MP-MRI, namely T2-weighted MRI (T2w) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), our proposed MP-MRI texture feature models incorporate computed high-b DWI (CHB-DWI) and a new diffusion imaging modality called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI). Moreover, the proposed texture feature models incorporate features from individual b-value images. A comprehensive set of texture features was calculated for both the conventional MP-MRI and new MP-MRI texture feature models. We performed feature selection analysis for each individual modality and then combined best features from each modality to construct the optimized texture feature models. The performance of the proposed MP-MRI texture feature models was evaluated via leave-one-patient-out cross-validation using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier trained on 40,975 cancerous and healthy tissue samples obtained from real clinical MP-MRI datasets. The proposed MP-MRI texture feature models outperformed the conventional model (i.e., T2w+DWI) with regard to cancer detection accuracy. Comprehensive texture feature models were developed for improved radiomics-driven detection of prostate cancer using MP-MRI. Using a

  9. HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Zhang, Lingxia; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Yutian; Wang, Kan; Li, Chao; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Ni, Jian; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    The successful development of safe and highly effective nanoprobes for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer is a great challenge. Herein we reported for the first time that anti-α-subunit of ATP synthase antibody, HAI-178 monoclonal antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles, was successfully used for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer. A total of 172 specimens of gastric cancer tissues were collected, and the expression of α-subunit of ATP synthase in gastric cancer tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry method. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and conjugated with HAI-178 monoclonal antibody, and the resultant HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (HAI-178-FMNPs) were co-incubated with gastric cancer MGC803 cells and gastric mucous GES-1 cells. Gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models were established, were injected with prepared HAI-178-FMNPs via tail vein, and were imaged by magnetic resonance imaging and small animal fluorescent imaging system. The results showed that the α-subunit of ATP synthase exhibited high expression in 94.7% of the gastric cancer tissues. The prepared HAI-178-FMNPs could target actively MGC803 cells, realized fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of in vivo gastric cancer, and actively inhibited growth of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles have a great potential in applications such as targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo early gastric cancer cells in the near future.

  10. A Cost-Effective Mindfulness Stress Reduction Program: A Randomized Control Trial for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Kip, Kevin E; Reich, Richard R; Craig, Benjamin M; Mogos, Mulubrhan; Ramesar, Sophia; Paterson, Carly L; Farias, Jerrica R; Pracht, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer survivors continue to experience residual symptoms including anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, and pain. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction intervention for breast cancer survivors was examined. The cost of the program was assessed from the societal perspective, accounting for both direct medical and patient opportunity costs. The cost per quality-adjusted life year was relatively low compared to the cost-utility findings of other published breast cancer interventions. The program appears to provide for significantly improved health-related quality of life at a comparativelv low cost. PMID:26477119

  11. BE ACTIVE: an Education Program for Chinese Cancer Survivors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Sandy; Bedard, Angela

    2016-09-01

    The needs of cancer survivors have been well documented and tend to be higher in immigrant populations. In order to help address unmet needs of Chinese-speaking cancer survivors, we have developed a structured psycho-educational program for this group. The program development was informed by both cultural values of the population and published recommendations for cancer survivorship education and support. The program, entitled BE ACTIVE, includes topics related to key domains in cancer survivorship: psychosocial aspects, general medical management and follow up for late effects, complementary medicine, and lifestyle management through fitness and nutrition. We studied the program delivery in 2012 and 2013, where a total of 124 individuals took part. Participants reported high satisfaction, learning gains, and the willingness to recommend the program to others; they rated their understanding of the behaviors needed for wellness and their motivation for change as high. A facilitator toolkit, which includes topic content development guides and presentation examples, was developed to assist with delivery of the program by other centers. This type of program can improve access and delivery to underserved populations with unmet needs and may also benefit cancer survivors in other jurisdictions with similar concerns. PMID:26386593

  12. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  13. Analysis of Intrafractional Mass Variabilities Using Deformable Image Registration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to compare the geometric characteristics of the lung tumor, such as tumor centroid, HU change relative to breath phase, depending on tumor location and adhesion using 4DCT and deformable image registration program (MIMVista). The Y axis change was most significant and the mean Y axis centroid fluctuation was 7.32±6.88 in lower lung tumor. The mean HU variation in lower lung mass has changed more than other locations, and its mean HU variation was 7.7±4.97 and non-adhered mass was more changed. Correlation for the mass volume between 3DCT and MIP was very high and its coefficient was 0.998. The effect of tumor location, adhesion and diaphragm excursion to geometric uncertainties was analyzed by linear regression model, it was influenced to mass deformation and geometrical variation so much except diaphragm excursion. But intra-fractional and inter-patient's uncertainties were great, so it couldn't find any exact deformation trend.

  14. Frequently asked questions in the interpretation of preoperative and postoperative chest CT scans related to lung cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of multidetector-row CT, lung cancer imaging is much more promising than before. However, the effectiveness of multidetector-row CT in making an initial diagnosis, staging, and evaluating post-treatment changes of lung cancer still remains to be proved. Fast imaging along with volumetric data set and attendant multi-planar imaging provide much more details on the anatomic changes and pathology associated with lung cancer. However, with images showing anatomic and pathologic changes only, radiologists confront with several questions the answers of which may help evaluate lung cancer more thoroughly. The frequent questions that I have in daily practice of chest CT interpretation are as follows

  15. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturludóttir, Margrét, E-mail: margret.sturludottir@karolinska.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Martling, Anna, E-mail: anna.martling@ki.se [Center of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Carlsson, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.carlsson@ki.se [Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer.

  16. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer

  17. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  18. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; McGuff, H. Stan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Shen, Ting; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE VR® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE VR® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment. (paper)

  20. Breast MR imaging in women at high-risk of breast cancer. Is something changing in early breast cancer detection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, several papers have addressed the introduction of contrast-enhanced MR imaging for screening women at high risk for breast cancer. Taking in consideration five prospective studies, on 3,571 screened women with hereditary predisposition to the disease and 9,652 rounds, we found that 168 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (155 screen-detected, eight interval, and five cancers excluded from analysis) with a detection rate per year of 1.7%. These cancers were small (49% equal to or less than 10 mm in diameter) but aggressive, 82% being invasive and 49% with histologic grade 3; however, only 19% of these invasive cancers were associated with nodal involvement. The pooled sensitivity was 16% for clinical breast examination, 40% for mammography, 43% for ultrasound, and 81% for MR. The positive predictive value (calculated on the basis of the number of invasive diagnostic procedures due to false positives) was 33%, 47%, 18%, and 53%, respectively. Aim of the present article is to present the historical development of MR imaging of breast tumors that made this application theoretically and technically possible, to explain what strategic problems we face in the presence of a hereditary predisposition to the disease, to review the main results of the published studies, and to outline open problems and future perspectives. (orig.)