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  1. Topotecan and cisplatin in combination with concurrent twice-daily chemoradiation in limited disease small cell lung cancer-a Danish Oncological Lung Cancer Group (DOLG) phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Morten; Lassen, Ulrik; Palshof, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    topotecan with concurrent twice-daily radiochemotherapy in LD SCLC. PATIENT AND METHODS: Multicentre phase II study of three cycles of regimen A (topotecan i.v., 1.5mg/m(2), day 1-5; cisplatin 50mg/m(2), day 1) and three cycles of regimen B (etoposide i.v., 120mg/m(2), day 1-3; carboplatin, AUC=5, day 1......; vincristine, 1.3mg/m(2), day 1) given in the following sequence: A-B-B-A-B-A every 21 days. Twice-daily radiotherapy (1.5Gyx30, 10fr/wk, 45Gy) was delivered concurrently with the first cycle B. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was offered to patients (pts) in complete remission. Eligible were pts with LD SCLC...... with no prior treatment for SCLC, adequate organ functions, and WHO performance status (PS) two times the upper limit were excluded. RESULT: Fourty-five pts were included in four centres. Five patients did not meet the inclusion criteria. The median age of the eligible pts was 60 years, range 43-75. PS...

  2. Topotecan and cisplatin in combination with concurrent twice-daily chemoradiation in limited disease small cell lung cancer-a Danish Oncological Lung Cancer Group (DOLG) phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, U.; Palshof, T.;

    2008-01-01

    age of the eligible pts was 60 years, range 43-75. PS was < or =1 in 90% of pts. Non-haematological toxicity was mild except grade 3 esophagitis, which was observed in 26.5% of pts. One pt developed an esophageal stricture. Grade 3/4 leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 82.5% and 75.0 of...

  3. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood gro...... tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). DISCUSSION: Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research....

  4. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan. PMID:20670961

  5. Ethnic group and survival from childhood cancer: report from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, C A; Bunch, K. J.; Lewis, I. J.

    2000-01-01

    Survival following cancer was analysed in relation to ethnic group among children diagnosed in Britain during 1981–1996 and treated at paediatric oncology centres by members of the UK Children's Cancer Study Group. Survival was analysed for 11 diagnostic groups: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, astrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyos...

  6. Proposal for a Group Counseling Experience for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Linda S.

    A model for using group counseling with cancer patients is proposed in this document. The literature on the psychological effects of cancer and the effects of social support are summarized. It is concluded that the literature shows cancer patients are subjected to intense psychological distress and that at the same time their social supports may…

  7. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  8. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  9. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  10. Canadian Nurses’ Perspectives on Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ko, Wellam F.; Oliffe, John L.; Han, Christina S.; Garrett, Bernie; Henwood, Tim; Tuckett, Anthony G.; Sohrevardi, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) are community-based organizations that offer information and psychosocial support to men who experience prostate cancer and their families. Nurses are well positioned to refer men to a range of psychosocial resources to help them adjust to prostate cancer; however, little is known about nurses’ perspectives on PCSGs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ views about PCSGs as a means to making recommendations for advancing t...

  11. The prognostic value of ABO blood group in cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The antigens of the ABO system are expressed on red blood cell membranes as well as on the surface of several other normal and pathological cells and tissues. Following the first clinical observations more than 60 years ago, the role of ABO blood group in cancer biology has been intensely studied by several investigators, and it is now widely recognised that ABO antigens are associated with the risk of developing several types of tumours, namely pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, whether this association also affects the clinical outcome of cancer patients is less certain. In this narrative review, based on literature data, we discuss the role of ABO blood types as prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current knowledge of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the association is also analysed. PMID:26674825

  12. A support group for fathers whose partners died from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Justin Michael; Rosenstein, Donald Lee

    2013-04-01

    Men who are raising dependent children after their spouses or partners have died from cancer face unique challenges adjusting to single parenthood while managing their grief and the grief of their children. Unfortunately, the needs of those widowers have been overlooked in the clinical literature and no published interventions are designed specifically for that population. The current article details the creation and implementation of a peer support group for fathers recently widowed because of their wives' deaths from cancer. Initial observations and emergent themes from the group are described. Group members suggested that they benefited from participation in the support group and that this form of psychosocial support is a promising intervention for fathers in similar circumstances. PMID:23538252

  13. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  14. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research...

  15. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North......PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  16. Colorectal cancer screening brochure for Latinos: focus group evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.

  17. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  18. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  19. The Effects of Cognitive Behavorial Therapy Group and Social Support Group on the Self Esteem among Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namora Lumongga Lubis; Mohamad Hashim Bin Othman

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the main effects of CBT group, social support group (DS) and control group (KK) on the self esteem among breast cancer patients. Rosemberg self esteem scale (RSE) was used to measure self-esteem. The treatment group consisted of CBT and DS groups. Each treatment group received 12 counselling sessions within six weeks. Quantitative analysis general linear model (GLM) repeated measures was used to identify the groups’ (CBT, DS, and KK) main effect, the repeated...

  20. Clinical trials update of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present clinical trial update consists of a review of two of eight current studies (the 10981-22023 AMAROS trial and the 10994 p53 trial) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group, as well as a preview of the MIND-ACT trial. The AMAROS trial is designed to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. The p53 trial started to assess the potential predictive value of p53 using a functional assay in yeast in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory or large operable breast cancer prospectively randomised to a taxane regimen versus a nontaxane regimen

  1. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  2. University student understanding of cancer: analysis of ethnic group variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence; Trad, Megan; Martinez, Gloria

    2012-06-01

    Traditional university and college students ages 18-24 are traversing an important period in their lives in which behavioral intervention is critical in reducing their risk of cancer in later years. The study's purpose was to determine the perceptions and level of knowledge about cancer of white, Hispanic, and black university students (n=958). Sources of student information about cancer were also identified. The survey results showed all students know very little about cancer and their perceptions of cancer are bad with many students thinking that cancer and death are synonymous. We also discovered university students do not discuss cancer often in their classrooms nor with their family or friends. Moreover, university students are unlikely to perform monthly or even yearly self-examinations for breast or testicular cancers; black students have the lowest rate of self-examinations. PMID:22477236

  3. Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast ...

  4. Tomorrow’s Cancer Treatments Today: The First 50 Years of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Mark R.; George, Stephen L; Schilsky, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B have been striving to improve cancer therapies for more than 50 years. The organization began in the mid 1950s as a multi-institutional collaboration between investigators at the National Cancer Institute, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, and the Children’s Hospital in Buffalo New York. In 1956 it was officially designated as the Acute Leukemia Group B (ALGB) and for most of its first decade focused largely on leukemia research. Reflecting an expansi...

  5. Food intake in three groups of cancer patients. A prospective study during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, K F; Gooskens, A C; Wedel, M; Bruning, P F

    1987-02-01

    The dietary intake of 105 adult Dutch Caucasian patients (28 women with endometrial or cervical cancer, 50 men with bladder or prostate cancer and 14 men and 13 women with malignant lymphoma) was studied for 19 weeks. Energy and nutrient intakes of all patients were assessed by a dietary history with cross-check over 2 months prior to treatment and by seven 48-h dietary records filled in just before, during and after cancer therapy. No differences were observed between the results obtained with the dietary history and the first 48-h diary. In females treated with abdominal irradiation the mean daily intake of fat, dietary fibre, iron and thiamin decreased during therapy. In men treated with radiotherapy the intake of vegetable protein, polysaccharides, dietary fibre and thiamin also decreased during treatment. This may be partly explained by the observation that many of these patients had spontaneously chosen a 'constipating diet' because of diarrhoea. As compared with the Dutch Recommended Dietary Allowance only the iron intake of the women gave rise to some concern. In our study we did not observe marked changes in dietary intake and nutritional status. In females who underwent irradiation therapy especially, the dietary intake increased after a period of intensive treatment. This demonstrates that food intake of these groups of cancer patients is not consistently reduced by chemotherapy or even abdominal radiotherapy.

  6. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exist...

  7. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months....... The objective response to therapy was better in the Zoladex plus flutamide group, but no differences in subjective response, time to disease progression, or survival have been demonstrated between the 2 groups. Adverse effects were more common in the Zoladex plus flutamide group. Thus, 'total androgen blockade......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer....

  8. The effect of group cohesion on rehabilitation outcome in cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    May, Anne M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Den Borne, Bart; Mesters, Ilse; van der Schans, Cees P; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Group-based physical training interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing quality of life in cancer survivors. Until now, however, the impact of cohesion within the group on intervention outcome has not been investigated. Methods: We examined self-reported individual group cohesion ratings collected in the first half of a 12-week rehabilitation programme for cancer survivors (N = 132). Four dimensions of group cohesion were measured, i.e. the bond with the group as ...

  9. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  10. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  11. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  12. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors: selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Dulmen-den Broeder, E. van; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C.; Dorp, W. van; Kremer, L.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M. van den; Huizinga, G.; Loonen, J.J.; Versluys, A.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C.; Kaspers, G.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  13. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors : selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M. H.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C. M.; van Dorp, W.; Kremer, L. C.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; Huizinga, G. A.; Loonen, J. J.; Versluys, A. B.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C. B.; Kaspers, G. J. L.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  14. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a ''rebellious thrush'' and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babes'' Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 – 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas

  15. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  16. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  17. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. Material-methods In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. Results The ductal type...

  18. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.;

    2008-01-01

    after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history was...... added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. RESULTS: In all......, 10 236 women with primary breast cancer aged 45 years or less at the time of diagnosis were followed for 95 616 person years. Among these, 371 women experienced pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer. In a multivariate analysis that included age at diagnosis, stage of disease, and pregnancy...

  19. The implication and potential applications of high-mobility group box 1 protein in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohun, Moonindranath; Shen, Huiling

    2016-06-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, non-histone and ubiquitous chromosomal protein found enriched in active chromatin forming part of the high mobility group family of proteins and is encoded by the HMGB1 gene (13q12) in human beings. It has various intranuclear and extracellular functions. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. In 2012, there was approximately 1.67 million new breast cancer cases diagnosed which makes it the second most frequent cancer in the world after lung cancer (25% of all cancers) and the commonest cancer among women. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that HMGB1 might be a useful target in the management of breast cancer. This review summarises the structure and functions of HMGB1 and its dual role in carcinogenesis both as a pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic factor. It also sums up evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies using breast cancer cell lines and samples which demonstrate its influence in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in breast cancer. It may have particular importance in HER2 positive and metastatic breast cancer. It might pave the way for new breast cancer treatments through development of novel drugs, use of microRNAs (miRNAs), targeting breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and breast cancer immunotherapy. It may also play a role in determining breast cancer prognosis. Thus HMGB1 may open up novel avenues in breast cancer management.

  20. Prognostic Impact of ABO Blood Group on the Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Li-Chao; He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Fang-Yan; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of ABO blood group on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the ABO blood group in ovarian cancer patients. Methods: 256 ovarian cancer patients who received a cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the ABO blood group with respect to overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 57 months and the 5-year OS was 70.1%. T...

  1. Oncogene amplification as tumor marker in a group of Colombian lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Carrillo; Yazmín Rocío Arias; Sandra J. Perdomo; Aristizábal, Fabio A; Paulina Ojeda; Diana M. Palacios

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of recent treatment advances, lung cancer continues to be the first world cancer related death cause; its mortality associated occupied the fifth place in Colombia in 2004. Complete surgical resection is the therapeutic option with the greatest cure probability, however it results frequently ineffective given the current incapacity in Colombia to an early detection of the disease. This study reports the characterization of a group of 30 lung cancer patients regarding th...

  2. Prognostic value of ABO blood group in patients with surgically resected colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    X. Cao; Wen, Z-S; Sun, Y-J; Li, Y.; Zhang, L.; Han, Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies supported a link between the ABO blood type and survival for several types of malignancies. Nonetheless, the relationship between ABO blood type and survival in colon cancer patients has not been rigorously evaluated. The goal of this retrospective analysis was to discern the correlations between ABO blood group and colon cancer survival. Methods: A total of 1555 colon cancer patients that underwent curative-intent surgery between October 1995 and June 2002 were e...

  3. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein;

    2009-01-01

    area under the curve (AUC) = 5 (Calvert's formula) on day 1 or gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin AUC = 5 on day 1 every 3 weeks for up to four cycles. The primary end point was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) defined as global quality of life, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were enrolled....../carboplatin, including leukopenia (46% v 23%, respectively; P platelets, whereas the frequencies of neutropenic infections...

  4. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  5. Factors influencing work functioning after cancer diagnosis : a focus group study with cancer survivors and occupational health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, J. G.; Ranchor, A. V.; Bultmann, U.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CSs) frequently return to work, but little is known about work functioning after return to work (RTW). We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators of work functioning among CSs. Three focus groups were conducted with CSs (n = 6, n = 8 and n = 8) and one focus group with occupati

  6. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat...

  7. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  8. The effect of group cohesion on rehabilitation outcome in cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; van den Borne, Bart; Mesters, Ilse; van der Schans, Cees P.; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Group-based physical training interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing quality of life in cancer survivors. Until now, however, the impact of cohesion within the group on intervention outcome has not been investigated. Methods: We examined self-reported individual group

  9. Assessing Stakeholder Opinion on Relations between Cancer Patient Groups and Pharmaceutical Companies in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Leto di Priolo; Andras Fehervary; Phil Riggins; Kathy Redmond

    2012-01-01

    Background:Background: The relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups has been the subject of much scrutiny and skepticism, and some high-profile negative media coverage has focused attention on some of the problematic aspects of the relationship. Both the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups have made an effort in recent years to improve the transparency and openness of their relations, specifically with regard to the financial support offered by ...

  10. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...

  11. Strategic development on generic anti-cancer drugs Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride for Harbin Pharmaceutical Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheung Fat Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ With improved economy, changing life styles, aging population and health care reform, China had a very potential anti-cancer drug market.The patents of popular anti-cancer drugs Avastin and Tarceva would expire in few years.Generic versions of Avastin and Tarceva were Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride respectively.Harbin Pharmaceutical Group was proposed to develop strategically both generic medicines to enter the high-end anti-cancer drug market for targeted cancer therapies.The vital to success of developing the generic drugs were discussed.

  12. Impact of Cancer Support Groups on Childhood Cancer Treatment and Abandonment in a Private Pediatric Oncology Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Arathi Srinivasan; Khushboo Tiwari; Julius Xavier Scott; Priya Ramachandran; Mathangi Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed...

  13. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  14. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... who are not inclined to use internet-based interventions are characterized by social position and employ more passive coping strategies....

  15. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  16. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...

  17. Illustrating the Multi-Faceted Dimensions of Group Therapy and Support for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, Janine; Brandelli, Yvonne; Kronenwetter, Carol; Golant, Mitch; Cordova, Matthew; Twirbutt, Suzanne; Chang, Vickie; Kraemer, Helena C; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    In cancer support groups, choice of therapy model, leadership style, and format can impact patients' experiences and outcomes. Methodologies that illustrate the complexity of patients' group experiences might aid in choosing group style, or testing therapeutic mechanisms. We used this naturalistic study as a beginning step to explore methods for comparing cancer group contexts by first modifying a group-experience survey to be cancer-specific (Group Experience Questionnaire (GEQ)). Hypothesizing that therapist-led (TL) would differ from non-therapist-led (NTL), we explored the GEQ's multiple dimensions. A total of 292 patients attending three types of groups completed it: 2 TL groups differing in therapy style ((1) Supportive-Expressive (SET); (2) The Wellness Community (TWC/CSC)); (3) a NTL group. Participants rated the importance of "Expressing True Feelings" and "Discussing Sexual Concerns" higher in TL than NTL groups and "Discussing Sexual Concerns" higher in SET than other groups. They rated "Developing a New Attitude" higher in TWC/CSC compared to NTL. In addition, we depict the constellation of group qualities using radar-charts to assist visualization. These charts facilitate a quick look at a therapy model's strengths and weaknesses. Using a measure like the GEQ and this visualization technique could enable health-service decision making about choice of therapy model to offer. PMID:27490581

  18. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  19. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  20. The Effects of Personal Construct Group Therapy on Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Lisbeth G.; Viney, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of a brief personal construct group therapy on breast cancer survivors (N = 42) randomly assigned to either the treatment or wait-list control condition. The Gottschalk Gleser Content Analysis Scales were used to measure the effects for group across time (preand posttreatment, pretreatment, and…

  1. Clinical use of cancer biomarkers in epithelial ovarian cancer: updated guidelines from the European Group on Tumor Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sölétormos, G.; Duffy, M.J.; Othman Abu Hassan, S.; Verheijen, RHM; Tholander, B.; Bast jr., R.C.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Sturgeon, C.M.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Petersen, P.H.; Troonen, H.; Carlo Torre, G.; Kanty Kulpa, J.; Tuxen, M.K.; Molina, R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: Because of its low sens

  2. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...... incidence rates. Percent change in the average rate from the pre- to the post-crossing period. RESULTS: In the pre-crossing period, Norwegian male managers/administrators had the highest colon cancer incidence, but the largest increase in incidence from the pre-to the post-crossing period was seen...

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Behavorial Therapy Group and Social Support Group on the Self Esteem among Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namora Lumongga Lubis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine the main effects of CBT group, social support group (DS and control group (KK on the self esteem among breast cancer patients. Rosemberg self esteem scale (RSE was used to measure self-esteem. The treatment group consisted of CBT and DS groups. Each treatment group received 12 counselling sessions within six weeks. Quantitative analysis general linear model (GLM repeated measures was used to identify the groups’ (CBT, DS, and KK main effect, the repeated test RSE scale (pre test, post test 1, post test 2, and post test 3 main effect and the interaction effect (CBT, DS, and KK, and repeated tests RSE scale (pre test, post test 1,post test 2, post test 3. There was no significant difference in the groups (CBT, DS, and KK main effect on the Rosenberg Self Esteem (RSE scores. There was a significant difference (F (3.10 = 66.823,p = 0.0001 (Wilk's Lambda on the repeated test RSE scale (pre test, post test 1, post test 2, and post test 3 main effects on self esteemscore. Overall findings showed an increase in RSE scores between the pre test, post test 1, post test 2 and post test 3.

  4. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  5. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-liang Shi; Ning Qu; Tian Liao; Wen-jun Wei; Yu-Long Wang; Qing-hai Ji

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox mod...

  6. Social support sources, types, and generativity: a focus group study of cancer survivors and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alison G; Ki, Ppudah; Maharaj, Artie; Brown, Edna; Davis, Cindy; Apolinsky, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Various research studies have identified the sources and types of support that people with cancer receive; however, few have focused on identifying the specific characteristics of emotional, instrumental, and informational support. In this study, focus groups consisting of Gilda's Club members explored the types of support that people with cancer and their caregivers experienced and valued. Results showed that although men and women with cancer and caregivers identify similar sources of support, they experience different types of support. Results also indicated a desire among participants to help and support others, a concept referred to as generativity. Implications for social workers and health care providers are explored.

  7. Cancer-related electronic support groups as navigation-aids: Overcoming geographic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Till, James E

    2004-01-01

    Cancer-related electronic support groups (ESGs) may be regarded as a complement to face-to-face groups when the latter are available, and as an alternative when they are not. Advantages over face-to-face groups include an absence of barriers imposed by geographic location, opportunities for anonymity that permit sensitive issues to be discussed, and opportunities to find peers online. ESGs can be especially valuable as navigation aids for those trying to find a way through the healthcare syst...

  8. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it.

  9. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it. PMID:26515989

  10. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.

  11. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health. PMID:25153949

  12. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  13. Impact of group psychotherapy in chemotherapy induced vomiting for treatment of advanced breast and lungs cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of group psychotherapy in the management of the side effects of chemotherapy treatment in advanced breast and lung cancer. One hundred patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced stage (IIIB and IV) breast and lung cancer were selected with ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. All patients received anti-emetic medications half an hour before chemotherapy. All those patients in this category who completed fist line chemotherapy with 6 cycles were included. Fifty were subjected to group discussions with other patients, family members and medical staff. This was labeled group A. The other 50 were not included in group discussion and were labeled group B. Both the group received similar standard chemotherapy and pre-medication for vomiting as per their disease and chemotherapy schedule. Breast and lung cancer patients were 29 and 21 in each arm respectively. At the end of the discharge, grade 2 and above of vomiting, according to common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) was counted for all patients in both the arms A and B, over full length of treatment for 6 cycles, and then were compared statistically. Mean with standard deviation for adverse event (vomiting) in group A and B was 6.2 + 2.6 and 13.4 + 3.8 respectively per cycle of treatment. It was observed that group psychotherapy had statistically significant effect (p-value <0.05) on the management of vomiting. Group psychotherapy can be used to reduce the incidence of vomiting in advanced breast and lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. (author)

  14. Long-term results of Danish Prostatic Cancer Group trial 86. Goserelin acetate plus flutamide versus orchiectomy in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Klarskov, Peter;

    1993-01-01

    In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering...... of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer....

  15. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  16. Determinants of participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Visser, A.; Fischer, M.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims at determining factors related to the intention to participate and actual participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients, using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. The factors studied are background variables, medical variables, psychosoci

  17. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  18. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  19. Paclitaxel for malignant pleural mesothelioma : A phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanMeerbeeck, J; Debruyne, C; vanZandwijk, N; Postmus, PE; Pennucci, MC; vanBreukelen, F; Galdermans, D; Groen, H; Pinson, P; vanGlabbeke, M; vanMarck, E; Giaccone, G

    1996-01-01

    The EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group undertook a phase II study of paclitaxel in 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Paclitaxel was given intravenously at a dose of 200 mg m(-2), as a 3 h infusion every 3 weeks, after standard premedication with corticosteroids and

  20. Polycomb group proteins: navigators of lineage pathways led astray in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer. ...

  1. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard;

    2006-01-01

    investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ...

  2. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  3. Case report: diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having altered protein glycosilation, modified blood group substances have been widely studied [Kannagi R, Miyake M, Zenita KM, Itai S, Hiraiwa N, Shigeta K, et al. Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens: modified blood group substances and oncodevelopmental antigens on tumor cells. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 1988; 34: p. 15-28; Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O their changes associated with human cancer. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999; 1473: p. 247-266; Brooks SA, Carter TM, Royle L, Harvey DJ, Fry SA, Kinch C, et al. Altered glycosilation of proteins in cancer: what is the potential for new anti-tumour strategies. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2008; 8: p. 2-21]. In the study reported here, a 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with circulatory failure. At autopsy, the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with a diffusely blackberry-colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology, the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Using immunohistochemistry, an antibody to breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient was blood group O. Labelling for binding of lectins with and without blood group antigen specificity and monoclonal antibodies was carried out. The B blood group specific Banderiaea simplicifolia agglutinin I and an anti-B blood group monoclonal antibody labelled all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow intensely. There was no detection of blood group A antigen by either binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The surviving carcinoma cells may have found a place of refuge from immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow

  4. Targeting the Psychosexual Challenges Faced by Couples with Breast Cancer: Can Couples Group Psychotherapy Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Fobair, Patricia; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    The need for the psychosexual rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors and their intimate partners is underscored by the high prevalence of multiple psychosexual difficulties encountered by this patient population. Concerns about health, sexuality, and emotional distress are common among women with breast cancer and are often related to the side effects of cancer treatment. Additionally, both intimate relationship problems and partners’ distress are likely to influence patients’ psychosexual health. A clearer understanding of these complex clinical issues is needed in order to implement effective psychosexual rehabilitation interventions. In this article, we extended the use of the manualized and empirically validated Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) model to target the specific psychosexual needs of couples with breast (as well as other types of) cancer. In view of the pertinent literature in this area and based on our clinical experience utilizing this group therapy model with different patient populations, we have discussed how clinicians involved in the psychosexual care of oncology patients could apply such a model within a couples group therapy format. PMID:27239398

  5. Classical pathological variables recorded in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register 1978-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Henrik W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Nielsen, Bernt B;

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register containing data from about 75 000 patients undergoing surgery for primary invasive breast cancer from 1978-2006 has been examined for classical pathological variables. During that period the diagnostic approach of malignant breast tumours...... surgical procedure. The subsequent decline from 2002-2006 is the result of the introduction of the sentinel node technique. In the five-year period 2002-2006 following the introduction of sentinel node technique, the frequency of patients having at least one lymph node metastases (48.7%) was higher than...

  6. A group cognitive behaviour therapy programme with metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, S; Bell, D R; Kidman, A D

    1999-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty-four patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to either a group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) intervention, or to a no-therapy control group condition. Both groups received standard oncological care; however, therapy recipients also attended eight weekly sessions of group CBT, followed by a family night, and three further monthly sessions. Patients completed the 'Profile of Mood States' (POMS) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSI) before and after therapy, and at 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. Outcome data in the period following therapy showed reduced depression and total mood disturbance, as well as improved self-esteem amongst therapy participants, relative to a no-therapy control group. These improvements were no longer evident at the 3 or 6 month follow-up assessments. We also report on the difficulties associated with conducting a group intervention with this patient cohort. PMID:10474848

  7. Selecting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors: Two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Henrietta L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess potential long-term consequences of cancer treatment, studies that include comparison groups are needed. These comparison groups should be selected in a way that allows the subtle long-range effects of cancer therapy to be detected and distinguishes them from the effects of aging and other risk factors. The purpose of this investigation was to test two methods of recruiting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors (peer-nominated and listed sample with emphasis on feasibility and the quality of the match. Methods Participants were drawn from a pool of 5-year survivors treated at a large Southeastern hospital. A peer-nominated sample was solicited from the survivors. A listed sample matched on sex, age, and zip code was purchased. Telephone interviews were conducted by a professional call center. Results The following represent our key findings: The quality of matching between survivors and listed sample was better than that between survivors and peer-nominated group in age and sex. The quality of matching between the two methods on other key variables did not differ except for education, with the peer method providing a better match for the survivors than the listed sample. The yield for the listed sample method was greater than for the peer-nominated method. The cost per completed interview was greater for the peer-nominated method than the listed sample. Conclusion This study not only documents the methodological challenges in selecting a comparison group for studies examining the late effects of cancer treatment among older individuals but also documents challenges in matching groups that potentially have disproportionate levels of comorbidities and at-risk health behaviors.

  8. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  9. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  10. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  11. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  12. Cancer pain management by radiotherapists: a survey of radiation therapy oncology group physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) physicians were surveyed to determine their approach to and attitudes toward cancer pain management. Methods and Materials: Physicians completed a questionnaire assessing their estimates of the magnitude of pain as a specific problem for cancer patients, their perceptions of the adequacy of pain management, and their report of how they manage pain in their own practice setting. Results: Eighty-three percent believed the majority of cancer patients with pain were undermedicated. Forty percent reported that pain relief in their own practice setting was poor or fair. Assessing a case scenario, 23% would wait until the patient's prognosis was 6 months or less before starting maximal analgesia. Adjuvants and prophylactic side effect management were underutilized in the treatment plan. Barriers to pain management included poor pain assessment (77%), patient reluctance to report pain (60%), patient reluctance to take analgesics (72%), and staff reluctance to prescribe opioids (41%). Conclusions: Physicians' perceptions of barriers to cancer pain management remain quite stable over time, and physicians continue to report inadequate pain treatment education. Future educational efforts should target radiation oncologists as an important resource for the treatment of cancer pain

  13. How curable is relapsed Wilms' tumour? The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot-Loonen, J.J.; Pinkerton, C. R.; Morris-Jones, P H; Pritchard, J.

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and eighty one children with Wilms' tumour were treated on the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group WT1 Study (1980/6). Seventy one patients relapsed during or after treatment, which included surgery and chemotherapy, with irradiation depending on stage and histology. Despite treatment with various combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy there were only 17 survivors. For unfavourable histology, any stage, only two of 20 survive. We conclude that, after re...

  14. The role of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Süren, Dinç; Yıldırım, Mustafa; Demirpençe, Özlem; Kaya, Vildan; Alikanoğlu, Arsenal Sezgin; Bülbüller, Nurullah; Yıldız, Mustafa; Sezer, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Background HMGB1, the most important member of the high mobility group box protein family, is a nuclear protein with different functions in the cell; it has a role in cancer progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis development. We studied the expression of HMGB1 and whether it is a prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma. Material/Methods The study included 110 cases that were histopathologically diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma from the tissue samples acquired by surgical res...

  15. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  16. Excision repair cross complementation group 1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chao; DENG Zai-chun; ZHANG Yan-mei; WANG Ran; SUN Shi-fang; CHEN Zhong-bo; MA Hong-ying; YU Yi-ming; DING Qun-li; SHU Li-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between polymorphisms of encoding excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) enzyme and lung cancer risk in diverse populations but with conflicting results.By pooling the relatively small samples in each study, it is possible to perform a meta-analysis of the evidence by rigorous methods.Methods Embase, Ovid, Medline and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched. Additional studies were identified from references in original studies or review articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results We found 3810 cases with lung cancer and 4332 controls from seven eligible studies. T19007C polymorphism showed no significant effect on lung cancer risk (C allele vs. T allele: odds ratio (OR)=0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.80-1.04; CC vs. TT: OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.56-1.02; CC vs. (CT+TT): OR=0.96, 95% CI=-0.84-1.10). Similarly,there was no significant main effects for T19007C polymorphism on lung cancer risk when stratified analyses by ethnicity (Chinese or Caucasian). No significant association was found between C8092A polymorphism (3060 patients and 2729 controls) and the risk of lung cancer (A allele vs. C allele: OR=1.03, 95% CI=0.95-1.11; AA vs. CC: OR=1.08, 95% CI=-0.88-1.33; AA vs. (AC+CC): OR=1.08, 95% CI=-0.88-1.31).Conclusion We found little evidence of an association between the T1900C or C8092A polymorphisms of ERCC 1 and the risk of lung cancer in Caucasian or Han Chinese people.

  17. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments.

  18. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

  19. High Mobility Group B Proteins, Their Partners, and Other Redox Sensors in Ovarian and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Barreiro-Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells try to avoid the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by metabolic rearrangements. These cells also develop specific strategies to increase ROS resistance and to express the enzymatic activities necessary for ROS detoxification. Oxidative stress produces DNA damage and also induces responses, which could help the cell to restore the initial equilibrium. But if this is not possible, oxidative stress finally activates signals that will lead to cell death. High mobility group B (HMGB proteins have been previously related to the onset and progressions of cancers of different origins. The protein HMGB1 behaves as a redox sensor and its structural changes, which are conditioned by the oxidative environment, are associated with different functions of the protein. This review describes recent advances in the role of human HMGB proteins and other proteins interacting with them, in cancerous processes related to oxidative stress, with special reference to ovarian and prostate cancer. Their participation in the molecular mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, a drug commonly used in chemotherapy, is also revised.

  20. Polycomb Group Proteins: Multi-Faceted Regulators of Somatic Stem Cells and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Martin; Sauvageau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that epigenetically modify chromatin and participate in the establishment and maintenance of cell fates. These proteins play important roles in both stem cell self-renewal and in cancer development. Our understanding of their mechanism of action has greatly advanced over the past 10 years, but many unanswered questions remain. In this review, we present the currently available experimental data that connect PcG protein function with some of the key processes which govern somatic stem cell activity. We also highlight recent studies suggesting that a delicate balance in PcG gene dosage is crucial for proper stem cell homeostasis and prevention of cancer stem cell development. PMID:20804967

  1. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    were offered two weekly 6-h sessions of psycho-education and eight weekly 2-h sessions of group psychotherapy. All participants were followed up for Quality of Life, coping ability and social relations 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention and on survival 4 years after surgical treatment. Results......: No statistically significant effects of the intervention were found on any of the psychosocial questionnaire outcomes. There were not enough cases of death to analyse overall survival. The only statistically significant result was for patients who used anti depressive medication, for whom almost all measures...... improved over time, in both the control and intervention groups. Conclusion: Psycho-education and group psychotherapy did not decrease psychological distress or increase Quality of Life, Mental Adjustment or improve marital relationship among patients with primary breast cancer. (C) 2011 Published...

  2. Information contracting tools in a cancer specialist unit:the role of Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Marlow

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality management information within the contracting process has driven many of the major developments in health service computing. These have often merged clinical and financial requirements, usually along patient-centred lines. In order to identify a common currency for a range of clinical activities that are inherently variable, price tariffs have been drawn up on the basis of 'episodes of care' within specialties. Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs were designed to meet the need for a common information currency. However, they were designed for acute care. The study on which this paper is based aims to examine their applicability to chronic care in a cancer specialist unit. The data were drawn from the patient information system within a major cancer unit. The focus of the investigation is encapsulated in the following questions: a Do HRGs really work as a grouping and costing methodology? b How relevant are HRG classifications for long-term patient care? The investigation demonstrated that not all HRGs are iso-resource within this environment. The findings from the data analysis are echoed by the NHS Executive's own evaluation . This does not negate advantages in their use. Furthermore, the development of Health Benefit Groups as information management tools, through a focus on health conditions and interventions rather than on purely on treatments, offers potential for greater validity within a chronic care situation.

  3. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen;

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti...... with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier...

  5. Long-term results of Danish Prostatic Cancer Group trial 86. Goserelin acetate plus flutamide versus orchiectomy in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Klarskov, Peter;

    1993-01-01

    In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering...... of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer....... a median follow-up for survival of 57 months. Of 262 patients who were evaluated, 208 have died. As noted in earlier analyses of this study, no differences in time to progression and cause-specific and overall survival could be identified between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, the combination...

  6. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  7. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    : Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles. The...... not associated with increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine showed a significant improvement in overall response and time to progression compared with capecitabine alone in women with HER-2-positive breast cancer who experienced progression during trastuzumab......PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS...

  8. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  9. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trial*

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Afsaneh Malekpour; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Rajabi, Fariborz Mokarian; Zamani, Ahmad Reza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program) on quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in pee...

  10. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. de; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Ares, L.P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the Amst

  11. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. De; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  12. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  13. The efficacy of the inhalation of an aerosolized Group A streptococcal preparation in the treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Xiang Liu; Fei Cui; Guoqin Chen; Yubao Guan; Jianxing He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of the inhalation of an aerosolized group A streptococcal (GAS) preparation in treating orthotopic lung cancer in mouse models and assess the feasibility,safety,and effectiveness of this administration mode for lung cancer.Methods:Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell strains were administered via intrathoracic injection to establish orthotopic lung cancer mouse models.After the tumor-bearing models were successfully established,as confirmed by computed tomography,the mice were administered by inhalation with an aerosolized GAS preparation (GAS group) or aerosolized normal saline (control group).The anti-tumor effect of the aerosolized GAS preparation was evaluated histologically; meanwhile,the survival and quality of life were compared between these two groups.Results:The aerosolized GAS preparation showed remarkably anti-tumor effect,causing the necrosis of the orthotopic lung cancer cells in tumor-bearing mice.Furthermore,mice in the GAS group had significantly better quality of life and longer survival than those in control group.conclusions:The inhalation of aerosolized GAS preparation may be a feasible,safe and effective solution for lung cancer.

  14. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T; Schulz, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions....

  15. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  16. Patterns of failure in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for limited small cell lung cancer: Southeastern Cancer Study Group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this analysis, we compare the patterns of failure in the first 12 months for 660 eligible patients randomized to two Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) protocols for limited extent, small cell carcinoma of the lung between 1978 and 1985. In each protocol, a different schedule of radiotherapy was given in conjunction with combination chemotherapy and was compared with combination chemotherapy alone. In protocol 78 LUN 328, radiotherapy was given between courses of chemotherapy, and in protocol LUN 81343, it was given simultaneously. The rates of local failure, either as an initial or subsequent site, in the first 12 months were significantly lower when thoracic irradiation was given than when it was not (P less than .01). When the 2 radiotherapy arms were compared, there were no significant differences in the rates of local failure alone, but a smaller proportion of patients developed both local failure and distant metastases (P less than .01) when simultaneous radiotherapy was administered. Survival on all 4 arms was similar during the first 2 years of patient study. After 2 years, both radiotherapy regimens showed a trend toward improved survival compared with the combination drug alone (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) arms. On both protocols, survival from 12 months was significantly longer for those with local control at 12 months than for those who did not show local control

  17. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  18. Prostate cancer support groups, health literacy and consumerism: are community-based volunteers re-defining older men's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; McKenzie, Michael M; Hislop, T Gregory; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Oglov, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    In this article we describe the connections between prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) and men's health literacy and consumer orientation to health care services. The study findings are drawn from participant observations conducted at 16 PCSGs in British Columbia, Canada and 54 individual interviews that focused on men's experiences of attending group meetings. Men's communication and interactions at PCSGs provide important insights for how men talk about and conceptualize health and illness. For example, biomedical language often predominated at group meetings, and men used numbers and measures to engage with risk discourses in linking prostate cancer markers to various treatment options and morbidity and mortality rates. Many groups afforded opportunities for men to interact with health care providers as a means to better understand the language and logic of prostate cancer management. The health literacy skills fostered at PCSGs along with specific group-informed strategies could be mobilized in the men's subsequent clinical consultations. Consumer discourses and strategies to contest power relations with health care professionals underpinned many men's search for prostate cancer information and their commitment to assisting other men. Key were patients' rights, and perhaps responsibility, to compare diverse health products and services in making decisions across the entire trajectory of their prostate cancer. Overall, the study findings reveal PCSGs as having the capacity to contest as well as align with medical expertise and services facilitating men's transition from patient to informed health care consumers. The processes through which this occurs may direct the design of older men's health promotion programs.

  19. Prishla pora otdat Viiraltu dolg / Rein Raamat ; interv. Nikolai Hrustaljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raamat, Rein, 1931-

    2000-01-01

    Endine joonisfilmide looja, praegune tõsielufilmide produtsent ja režissöör oma tööst, eriti kahest viimasest portreefilmist "Inimene, kes oskab olla õnnelik" ja "Maire Männik, 54 rue du Montparnasse"

  20. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 trial: an international breast cancer prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pater, J.; Richardson, H.; Johnston, D.; Goss, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    Several large phase iii trials have demonstrated that tamoxifen—and more recently, raloxifene—can effectively reduce the incidence of invasive breast cancer by 50%. However, these selective estrogen receptor modulators can also be associated with several rare, but serious, adverse events. Recently, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIS) have demonstrated excellent efficacy in adjuvant breast cancer trials, and they show particular promise in the breast cancer prevention setting. The ...

  1. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D 751 polymorphism as a predictive factor in resected gastric cancer treated withchemo-radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zarate, R; F. Arias; Bandres, E; Cubedo, E.; Malumbres, R.; Garcia-Foncillas, J

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential association of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codon 751 variant with outcome after chemo-radiotherapy in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: We used PCR-RFLP to evaluate the genetic XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in 44 patients with stage III (48%) and IV (20%) gastric cancer treated with surgery following radiation therapy plus 5-fluorouracil/ leucovorin based chemotherapy. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that 75% (...

  2. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tural Deniz; Selçukbiricik Fatih; Serdengeçti Süheyla; Büyükünal Evin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all...

  3. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopf Eva M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although treatment regimen have improved in the last few years, prostate cancer patients following a radical prostatectomy still experience severe disease- and treatment-related side effects, including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and psychological issues. Despite high incidence rates and the common adverse effects there is a lack of supportive measures for male patients and specific physical exercise recommendations for prostate cancer patients during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. Methods/Design The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program. Starting 8–12 weeks after prostatectomy or combination therapy, prostate cancer patients will exercise for 15 months within a patient preference randomized controlled trial. One exercise session will be conducted within a pre-established rehabilitative sports group, while the other will be completed independently. Patients in the control group will not participate in the intervention. The main outcomes of the study include aerobic fitness, quality of life, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Discussion By combining science, practice, and public relations the first rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients in Germany have been set up and thus contribute to the care structure for prostate cancer patients. By offering a 15-month physical exercise intervention that is conducted in supervised group sessions, long-term lifestyle changes and therefore improvements in quality of life in prostate cancer patients can be expected. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004184

  4. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion o...

  5. Along the Cancer Continuum: Integrating Therapeutic Support and Bereavement Groups for Children and Teens of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M.

    2009-01-01

    Family life is altered irrevocably when a young parent is diagnosed with or dies from cancer. This article tracks the genesis and transformation of a comprehensive psychoeducational support and bereavement program for children, adolescents, and parents affected by cancer. From the inception of the program, families with parents in active treatment…

  6. Serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is closely associated with the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jae

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a newly recognized factor regulating cancer cell tumorigenesis, expansion and invasion. We investigated the correlation between the serum HMGB1 levels and the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer and evaluated the validity of HMGB1 as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 227 subjects were classified into 5 disease groups according to the 'gastritis-dysplasia-carcinoma' sequence of gastric carcinogenesis and their serum levels of HMGB1 were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Clinical parameters, International Union Against Cancer (UICC TNM stage, cancer size, differentiation or lymphatic invasion, vascular or perineural invasion and prognosis were used as analysis variables. Results The serum HMGB1 levels were significantly different among disease groups (ANOVA, p and HMGB1 levels tended to increase according to the progression of gastric carcinogenesis. Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and poor prognosis (p . However, HMGB1 levels were not associated with patient gender or age, differentiation of tumor cells, or lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion, or the existence of distant metastasis in advanced cancer (p > 0.05. The sensitivity and specificity of serum HMGB1 was 71% and 67% (cut-off value of 5 ng/ml for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer, and 70% and 64% (cut-off value of 4 ng/ml for the diagnosis of high-risk lesions, respectively. These values were greater than those for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA (30–40% of sensitivity. Conclusion HMGB1 appears to be a useful serological biomarker for early diagnosis as well as evaluating the tumorigenesis, stage, and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  7. Are different groups of cancer patients offered rehabilitation to the same extent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit;

    2012-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors is growing and cancer is now viewed as a chronic disease. This has highlighted the importance of providing adequate rehabilitation to prevent physical, psychological, and social sequelae of cancer. However, it is unclear whether those in need of rehabilitation are o...... are offered this....

  8. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  9. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well.

  10. Palliation of symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer: a study by the Yorkshire Regional Cancer Organisation Thoracic Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Muers, M. F.; Round, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although most treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is palliative, data on the adequacy of symptom control are scanty and there has been little discussion about the appropriate indices. METHODS--Two hundred and eighty nine unselected patients presenting sequentially to six specialists were studied; 242 cases were confirmed histologically and all were managed as non-small cell lung cancer. At presentation and two monthly for one year or until death each of 12 symptoms was graded...

  11. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  12. An exploratory study into the effect of group psychotherapy on cardiovascular and immunoreactivity to acute stress in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G; Antoni, MH; Duivenvoorden, HJ; Simonis, RFA; van der Vegt, SGL; Hijnen, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Background. Previous studies of cancer patients investigated the effect of psychological treatment on basal endocrine and immune values. Using a randomized experiment, we explored the effect of a 13-week experiential-existential group psychotherapy (EEGP) program on the reactivity to a speech task i

  13. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in minority groups in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D B

    1979-11-01

    Of 13 cancers that tend to occur at lower rates in aboriginal Americans or in the native lands of Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish-speaking persons than in United States whites, rates for all but one (laryngeal) have increased in migrants to the United States. In addition to leukemia, these 13 cancers include neoplasms that have been related, at least in part, to a diet high in animal fats or proteins (colon and rectum cancer); reproductive and endocrinologic factors and a diet high in animal fats or protein (prostate, ovary, corpus uteri, breast, and testis cancer); chemical carcinogens (lung, larynx, bladder, and pancreas cancer); and a common infectious agent that, like polio viruses, causes clinically overt disease with a frequency directly related to age of patient at initial infection (Hodgkin's disease). Of 9 cancers that occur at higher rates in aboriginal Americans or in one or more of the native lands of migrants than in United States whites, the rates of 5 tend to decrease in migrants. These include cancers that may be related to food preservation (stomach cancer); products of microorganisms that may contaminate foods (esophagus and liver cancer); and infectious agents (nasopharynx, cervix uteri, and liver cancer). In addition, rates of cancer of the thyroid are high in aboriginal Americans; those of the gallbladder are high in individuals of native American ancestry and in Japanese; incidence of salivary gland tumors is high in Alaskan natives and Colombians; and rates of kidney cancer are high in Alaskan natives. Five types of epidemiologic studies are described that should be conducted in the migrants and in their countries of origin and adoption to elucidate further the etiology of various neoplasms.

  14. Clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑛; 叶俊; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    Background Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPPC) is one of the most common genetic syndrome related with mutation of human mismatch repair genes. This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (sHNPCC) criteria I and the clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-HNPCC (ICG-HNPCC) and sHNPCC families.Methods Twenty-nine ICG-HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria and 34 sHNPCC families fulfilling the sHNPCC criteria I were collected. PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis were employed to screen the germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in these families.Results The ICG group had more colorectal cancer (CRC) patients per family than did the suspected group (P0.05), mutation type, and mutation distribution. Comparison of the families with and without mutation showed no significant difference in CRC patients per family, Lynch classification, and tumor spectrum.Conclusions ICG-HNPCC and sHNPCC families that have similar clinical manifestations and genetic basis indicate a similar nature for cancer development. The application of sHNPCC criteria I will facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment of small families.

  15. Is screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk groups cost-effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maiken Thyregod; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sørensen, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, symptoms are few and diffuse, and when the diagnosis has been made only 10-15% would benefit from resection. Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for pancreatic cancer, and the prognosis seems...... with Hereditary pancreatitis or with a disposition of HP and 40 first-degree relatives of patients with Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) were screened for development of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with yearly endoscopic ultrasound. The cost-effectiveness of screening in comparison with no...

  16. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focu...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  17. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2- (triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. Results A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  18. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2-(triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. RESULTS: A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  19. Impact of two common xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD gene polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA repair genes (EG: xeroderma pigmentosum group D, XPD may affect the capacity of encoded DNA repair enzymes to effectively remove DNA adducts or lesions, which may result in enhanced cancer risk. The association between XPD gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of prostate cancer (PCa was inconsistent in previous studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A meta-analysis based on 9 independent case-control studies involving 3165 PCa patients and 3539 healthy controls for XPD Gln751Lys SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism and 2555 cases and 3182 controls for Asn312Asp SNP was performed to address this association. Meanwhile, odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA10.0. No significant association was found between XPD Gln751Lys SNP and PCa risk. On the other hand, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, associations were observed in Asian (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.16-1.55; Asn/Asn+Asn/Asp vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42 and African (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.01-1.70; Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.03-7.10 populations for Asn312Asp SNP. Moreover, similar associations were detected in hospital-based controls studies; the frequency of Asn/Asn genotype in early stage of PCa men was poorly higher than those in advanced stage of PCa men (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.00-2.11. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations demonstrate that XPD Asn312Asp SNP not the Gln751Lys SNP, might poorly increase PCa risk in Asians and Africans, moreover, this SNPs may associate with the tumor stage of PCa. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted to determine the role of XPD gene polymorphisms in PCa risk.

  20. Online interaction. Effects of storytelling in an internet breast cancer support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Johansen, Christoffer; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2005-01-01

    cancer and chronic pain, by analysing the storytelling emerging on the Scandinavian Breast Cancer Mailing list. Using participant observation and face-to-face or online interviews of participants, we investigated the motivations of 15 women who chose the internet to counteract social isolation after...

  1. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J.M.; Hospers, Geke A.; Mulder, Nanno J.; Siesling, Sabine; Aa, van der Maaike A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  2. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran. PMID:27165237

  3. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic fa...

  4. Group II and IV phospholipase A2 are produced in human pancreatic cancer cells and influence prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwagi, M; Friess, H; Uhl, W.; Berberat, P; Abou-Shady, M; MARTIGNONI, M.; Anghelacopoulos, S; Zimmermann, A.; Buchler, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is involved in regulating biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and its metabolites. There are three major structurally different forms of PLA2: group I, also called pancreatic PLA2 (PLA2-I); group II, referred to as secretory non-pancreatic or synovial or platelet PLA2 (PLA2-II); group IV, referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (PLA2-IV).
AIMS—To examine PLA2-I, PLA2-II, and PLA2-IV in normal and pancreatic cancer tissues.
 Patients—PLA2 was studied in 58 pancreatic aden...

  5. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival. PMID:26731659

  6. The effects of a support group on selected psychosocial outcomes of bereaved parents whose child died from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, S P; Ruffin, J; Goon-Johnson, K

    1995-04-01

    Group support for bereaved parents whose child died from cancer has been suggested as a means of helping parents express emotions about their loss and improve their coping. Using a quasi-experimental design, we sought to determine the selected psychosocial effects of participation in a support group for bereaved parents whose child died from cancer. Five bereaved parents completed the Emotions Profile Index, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report before and after the seven group sessions. No statistically significant differences were found. Descriptive data were analyzed from the co-therapists' process log and the participants' evaluation forms. The group process log revealed intense pain and grief over the loss of the child and the parents' conscious struggle to adapt to the present and prepare for the future. The discussions poignantly indicated the great extent to which the child's death had changed their lives. Using the group evaluation form parents reported high satisfaction with the group sessions. Tentative conclusions support the value of such a group in providing a forum for some bereaved parents to ventilate feelings and thoughts and validate the normalcy of their reactions. PMID:7612198

  7. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Plant, Nick J

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  8. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients ≤50 years vs. ≥65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed

  9. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  10. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joseph Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64. Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old, had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups.

  11. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  12. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Deniz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all, 151 patients over 70 years of age and 715 patients age 70 years or younger were analyzed. Categorical and continuous variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using statistical software. Overall survival rates were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range: 22 to 90 years. Between 1999 and 2002 the annual median age for patients aged older than70 years was 9.8%, which increased to 20% between 2007 and 2010. The one-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease (stage IV was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9% to 12.9% and 27.8% (95% CI: 17.3% to 38.2% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.015. The five-year survival rate for patients with non-metastatic disease (in whom curative surgery was performed was 15.5% (95% CI = 12% to 19% and 26.9% (95% CI = 25.9% to 27.9% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.03. There were no significant differences in gender, tumor localization in the stomach, tumor histology, perineural invasion (PNI, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, tumor stage, or type of surgery between the two groups. However, fewer of the patients in group 1 underwent adjuvant treatment (P = 0.02 and palliative chemotherapy (P = 0.007 than group 2 patients that were non-metastatic and metastatic at presentation, respectively. Conclusions Groups 1 and 2 were similar in terms of histopathological features and surgical modality; however, the survival rate was lower in group 1 than in group 2

  13. Spinal high-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms underlying bone cancer-induced pain are largely unknown. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn is especially involved. Being first reported as a nonhistone chromosomal protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now implicated as a mediator of inflammation. We hypothesized that HMGB1 could trigger the release of cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn and contribute to bone cancer pain. To test this hypothesis, we first built a bone cancer pain model induced by intratibal injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The structural damage to the tibia was monitored by radiological analysis. The mechanical allodynia was measured and the expression of spinal HMGB1 and IL-1β was evaluated. We observed that inoculation of cancer cells, but not heat-killed cells, induced progressive bone destruction from 9 d to 21 d post inoculation. Behavioral tests demonstrated that the significant nociceptive response in the cancer cells-injected rats emerged on day 9 and this kind of mechanical allodynia lasted at least 21 d following inoculation. Tumor cells inoculation significantly increased HMGB1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn, while intrathecal injecting a neutralizing antibody against HMGB1 showed an effective and reliable anti-allodynia effect with a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β was significantly increased in caner pain rats while intrathecally administration of anti-HMGB1 could decrease IL-1β. Together with previous reports, we predict that bone cancer induces HMGB1 production, enhancing spinal IL-1β expression and thus modulating spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and pain response.

  14. Spinal high-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [Department of Out-Patient, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Wei; Huang, Jing [Department of Anatomy and K. K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ren, Ning [Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wu, Sheng-Xi, E-mail: shengxi@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and K. K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li, Yong-Qi, E-mail: devneuro@fmmu.edu.cn [Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-05-14

    Mechanisms underlying bone cancer-induced pain are largely unknown. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn is especially involved. Being first reported as a nonhistone chromosomal protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now implicated as a mediator of inflammation. We hypothesized that HMGB1 could trigger the release of cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn and contribute to bone cancer pain. To test this hypothesis, we first built a bone cancer pain model induced by intratibal injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The structural damage to the tibia was monitored by radiological analysis. The mechanical allodynia was measured and the expression of spinal HMGB1 and IL-1{beta} was evaluated. We observed that inoculation of cancer cells, but not heat-killed cells, induced progressive bone destruction from 9 d to 21 d post inoculation. Behavioral tests demonstrated that the significant nociceptive response in the cancer cells-injected rats emerged on day 9 and this kind of mechanical allodynia lasted at least 21 d following inoculation. Tumor cells inoculation significantly increased HMGB1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn, while intrathecal injecting a neutralizing antibody against HMGB1 showed an effective and reliable anti-allodynia effect with a dose-dependent manner. IL-1{beta} was significantly increased in caner pain rats while intrathecally administration of anti-HMGB1 could decrease IL-1{beta}. Together with previous reports, we predict that bone cancer induces HMGB1 production, enhancing spinal IL-1{beta} expression and thus modulating spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and pain response.

  15. Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-09-20

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.

  16. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  17. Tumor markers in breast cancer - European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie; Duffy, Michael J.; Einarsson, Roland; Gion, Massimo; Goike, Helena; Lamerz, Rolf; Nap, Marius; Sölétormos, György; Stieber, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for the routine clinical use of serum and tissue-based markers in the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer. Their low sensitivity and specificity preclude the use of serum markers such as the MUC-1 mucin glycoproteins ( CA 15.3, BR 27.29) and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. However, serial measurement of these markers can result in the early detection of recurrent disease as well as indicate the efficacy of the...

  18. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Michael, E-mail: mng@radoncvic.com.au [Radiation Oncology Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Carroll, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Wiltshire, Kirsty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Kachnic, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  19. Evidence-based recommendations of postoperative radiotherapy in lung cancer from Oncologic Group for the Study of Lung Cancer (Spanish Radiation Oncology Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; González, J A; Couñago, F; Vallejo, C; Casas, F; de Dios, N Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a diversified illness in which postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for complete resection with positive hiliar (pN1) and/or mediastinal (pN2) lymph nodes is controversial. Although several studies have shown that PORT has beneficial effects, randomized trials are needed to demonstrate its impact on overall survival. In this review, the Spanish Radiation Oncology Group for Lung Cancer describes the most relevant literature on PORT in NSCLC patients stage pN1-2. In addition, we have outlined the current recommendations of different national and international clinical guidelines and have also specified practical issues regarding treatment volume definition, doses and fractionation. PMID:26280402

  20. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2000-01-01

    = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...

  1. Research and development of the system for group examination of lung cancer by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the ultimate purpose of heavy particle therapy of lung cancer at an early stage, the system in the title with low dose radiation has been investigated by cooperation of NIRS (as a leading part) and medical/industrial facilities all over the country. The project started essentially in 1984 and has been continuing at 2003. This book described Results hitherto and Materials for application to medical care at disaster (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster in 1995) together with reference materials. Results contain all fields of nuclear medicine and of imaging involved in examination/diagnosis of lung cancer, achieved by NIRS, by Health management center and Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University and Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association in Chiba, by the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Fac. Med., Chiba Univ., by Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, by Nippon Med. School, Arakawa-ku cancer protection center and Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences, by Hitachi health management center, by Fukui Med. College, by Hitachi Medical Corp., by NTT research laboratories, and by Toyohashi Univ. of Technology. The Materials involve Process and summary of conducting the medical care activities, Improvement of the examination automobile, Supplementary equipments and measures for legal problems, System for the medical care activities, Record of the examination automobile activities, Problems in future, and Completion of the medical activities. Reference materials are related with the Materials above. (N.I.)

  2. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, C.H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and

  3. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Stevens; J. Hansen; G. Costa; E. Haus; T. Kauppinen; K.J. Aronson; G. Castaño-Vinyals; S. Davis; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; L. Fritschi; M. Kogevinas; K. Kogi; J.A. Lie; A. Lowden; B. Peplonska; B. Pesch; E. Pukkala; E. Schernhammer; R.C. Travis; R. Vermeulen; T. Zheng; V. Cogliano; K. Straif

    2011-01-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to

  4. EORTC-GU group expert opinion on metastatic renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Reijke; J. Bellmunt; H. van Poppel; S. Marreaud; M. Aapro

    2009-01-01

    There is no consensus on the detailed surveillance of renal cell cancer (RCC) patients after radical resection of the kidney. Where relapse is unlikely, one reasonable option would be to confine investigations to chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound-carried out at 3-month intervals during the first

  5. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  6. A Phase I study of olaparib and irinotecan in patients with colorectal cancer: Canadian Cancer Trials Group IND 187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric X; Jonker, Derek J; Siu, Lillian L; McKeever, Karyn; Keller, Deborah; Wells, Julie; Hagerman, Linda; Seymour, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Background Olaparib is an orally available inhibitor of PARP-1. In pre-clinical studies, olaparib was shown to potentiate anti-tumor effects of irinotecan in colon cancer cell lines. This phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of olaparib in combination with irinotecan. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced colorectal cancer whose disease progressed after at least one systemic therapy regimen were enrolled. Dose escalation and de-escalation were based on toxicity assessment. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected in Cycle 1 for olaparib, irinotecan and SN-38. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled, 11 patients on a schedule of continuous olaparib and irinotecan every 3 weeks (Part A) and 14 patients on a schedule of intermittent olaparib and irinotecan every 2 weeks (Part B). Continuous olaparib administration was associated with higher than expected toxicities and was not considered to be tolerable. Intermittent olaparib administration was better tolerated, and the recommended phase 2 doses were olaparib 50 mg p.o twice daily days 1-5 and irinotecan 125 mg/m(2) i.v. every 2 weeks. Common toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and abdominal pain. Nine patients had stable disease as the best response, 2 from Part A (3 and 9 months respectively), and 7 from Part B (median duration: 7.4 months; range: 4 to 13 months). There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between olaparib and irinotecan. Conclusions Olaparib can be combined with irinotecan if administered intermittently. Both olaparib and irinotecan required significant dose reductions. The lack of anti-tumor efficacy observed in this trial makes this combination of little interest for further clinical development. Trial Registration ID NCT00535353. PMID:27075016

  7. Barriers to a Career Focus in Cancer Prevention: A Report and Initial Recommendations From the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and

  8. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette F. Street

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated.

  9. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun Choi

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C for comparative analysis.The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months.The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors.

  10. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on Dmean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage (6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with Dmean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD50, the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ50, the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD50. Results: Dmean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, Dmean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ50=3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ50=2.9). Conclusions: Dose

  11. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...... care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where...... improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement....

  12. The Adherence to Physical Exercise in a Group of Prostate Cancer: an Integrated Model to Improve the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat-Carles Serdà i Ferrer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a model of adherence integrated into an exercise program in men with prostate cancer to get the autonomous practice at home. The study design is qualitative following Grounded Theory principles. The sample of 33 participants and it has been built through an intensive sampling by theoretical representativeness. The analytical procedure corresponds to the Method of Constants Comparisons. The design of simple and flexible program with a modular structure allows the user to adapt the exercise to his health, his symptoms resulting from the disease and his everyday life situation. The figure of professional trainer is essential in the process of achieving the autonomy. Working adherence as a process empowers the participant to maintain the autonomous activity at home. The adherence model integrated to a group exercise program is effective for improving the quality of life of older people affected by prostate cancer.

  13. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted

  14. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  15. Tribulations of a prostate cancer trial - lessons learned from TOAD, a cancer council Victoria and Transtasman Radiation Oncology Group Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From 2004-2009 a total of 226 out of a target of 750 prostate cancer patients have been randomised into the Timing of Androgen Deprivation trial between immediate and delayed androgen deprivation. A screening log was kept by participating centres for the first 928 patients, which documented the reasons for non-entry into the trial; 42.7% of screened patients were ineligible and a further 33.0% were not entered for other reasons. Fewer than 10% of patients cited not wanting to be part of a clinical trial as a reason for non-entry. Strategies to improve recruitment included broadening the eligibility criteria, encouraging international collaboration, the use and support of research nurses in the private health care environment, and the use of phone follow-up. Recruitment will be completed at the number originally intended to inform the interim analysis designed to test the validity of the statistical assumptions, and a combined survival analysis with the Canadian study is planned.

  16. The sense of well-being in a group of patients with gastro-intestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Christina

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to describe patients with gastro-intestinal cancer and their general health and well-being during different stages of the disease. Questionnaires concerning coping ability, general health, well-being and the frequencies and occurrences of symptoms were used to collect data about the patient's pre- and post-surgical situation. Two of these questionnaires, the Health Index (Hl) and the General Health Rating Index (GHRI), were addressed to a ...

  17. The Prognostic Value of Polycomb Group Protein BMI1 in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Linnemann, D.; Christensen, I.J.;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of B-cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) protein expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a retrospective patient...... cohort consisting of 144 stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 expression at the invasive front of the primary tumors correlated with mismatch repair status of the tumors. Furthermore, BMI1 expression at the luminal surface correlated with T-stage, tumor location, and the histological subtypes....... Likewise, there was no association between 5-year overall survival and BMI1 expression at the invasive front (HR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.80-1.56; p = 0.46) or at the luminal surface of the tumor (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.86-1.60; p = 0.33). In conclusion, BMI1 expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer...

  18. Mortality and cancer in relation to ABO blood group phenotypes in the Golestan Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Emadi, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background A few studies have shown an association between blood group alleles and vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, which is thought to be due to the higher level of von Willebrand factor in these individuals and the association of blood group locus variants with plasma lipid levels. No large population-based study has explored this association with overall and cause-specific mortality. Methods We aimed to study the association between ABO blood groups and overall and cause-specif...

  19. The clinical database and the treatment guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG); its 30-years experience and future promise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, S.; Jensen, M.B.; Ejlertsen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Since 30 years, DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) has maintained a clinical database allowing the conduct of quality control studies, of randomised trials, examination of the epidemiology of breast cancer and of prognostic and predictive factors. Material and methods. The...

  20. Systematic reviews of oral complications from cancer therapies, Oral Care Study Group, MASCC/ISOO : methodology and quality of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosi

  1. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie;

    2012-01-01

    for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...

  2. Linguistic Predictors of Peer Responsiveness in an Online Cancer Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about how group cohesion develops in online support group communities. Previous research suggests that message content, self-disclosure, and emotional expression may be central to this process. The purpose of this study was to identify linguistic and qualitative characteristics of participants' messages that…

  3. Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United Kingdom: findings from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, D.; McKeever, P.; Carter, R.

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To review the presenting clinical features and the histology of cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) entered into the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group NHL Trial. METHODS: Sections of biopsy specimens from all cases entered into the trial were stained with Giemsa and haematoxylin and eosin. All cases were stained immunohistochemically for CD45, CD3, CD45RO, CD20, and CD30. Sections were stained with either naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase or KP1 (CD68) to identify granulocy...

  4. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D 751 polymorphism as a predictive factor in resected gastric cancer treated with chemo-radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RN Zárate R; F Arias; E Bandres; E Cubedo; R Malumbres; J García-Foncillas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential association of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codon 751 variant with outcome after chemo-radiotherapy in patients with resected gastric cancer.METHODS: We used PCR-RFLP to evaluate the genetic XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in 44 patients with stage Ⅲ (48%) and Ⅳ (20%) gastric cancer treated with surgery following radiation therapy plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin based chemotherapy.RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that 75% (12 of 16) of relapse patients showed Lys/Lys genotype more frequently (P = 0.042). The Lys polymorphism was an independent predictor of high-risk relapse-free survival from Cox analysis (HR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.07-8.78, P =0.036) and Kaplan-Meir test (P = 0.027, log-rank test).CONCLUSION: XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism may be an important marker in the prediction of clinical outcome to chemo-radiotherapy in resected gastric cancer patients.

  5. Reconsidering Physical Activity Restrictions for Mononephric Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Koh, Chester J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Rangan, Kasey E; Rodgers, Cheryl; Rosenthal, Yael; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Freyer, David R

    2016-07-01

    Although traditional recommendations for mononephric childhood cancer survivors are to avoid contact sports in order to protect the remaining kidney, review of available evidence suggests that the majority of renal loss is caused by accidents not involving sports. An interdisciplinary team performed a review of the English literature published from 1999 to 2012 within the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases. The level of evidence and proposed recommendations were graded according to an established rubric and GRADE criteria. Our review found that kidney loss is most commonly caused by nonsports activities such as motor vehicle accidents and falls, implying that restrictions on sports-related activity in mononephric pediatric survivors are not well supported. This favors encouraging ordinary sports and related activities without restriction in mononephric childhood cancer survivors because the known benefits of exercise outweigh the exceedingly low risk of renal loss. Accordingly, activity recommendations for mononephric patients have been revised in the most current version of the Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. This has important implications for this and similar populations who may now undertake individual and organized sports without undue regard for their mononephric status. PMID:26589357

  6. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER IN BREAST CANCER (BRCA) GENE CARRIER FEMALE IN- THE 30-60 YEARS AGE GROUP: A META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire S, Shrestha N, BK Baral

    2015-01-01

    The literature linking breast cancer with oral contraceptives and BRCA mutation as possible risk factors is equivocal. Hence, to account for these conflicting results in the existing literature and to observe the net effect, this meta-analysis aims to investigate whether oral contraceptives are a risk factor for developing breast cancer in breast cancer (BRCA) gene carrier female in the 30-60 years age group. Method: Systematic review of the literature, both published and unpublished, and met...

  7. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward

  8. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  9. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trialFNx01

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani; Ziba Farajzadegan; Fariborz Mokarian Rajabi; Ahmad Reza Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program) on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part i...

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean liver cancer study group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines compared with other guidelines and remaining issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Won [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed 'washout' in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  11. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  12. Preoperative chemoradiation for advanced vulvar cancer: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using preoperative chemoradiotherapy to avert the need for more radical surgery for patients with T3 primary tumors, or the need for pelvic exenteration for patients with T4 primary tumors, not amenable to resection by standard radical vulvectomy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three evaluable patients with clinical Stage III-IV squamous cell vulvar carcinoma were enrolled in this prospective, multi-institutional trial. Treatment consisted of a planned split course of concurrent cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy followed by surgical excision of the residual primary tumor plus bilateral inguinal-femoral lymph node dissection. Radiation therapy was delivered to the primary tumor volume via anterior-posterior-posterior-anterior (AP-PA) fields in 170-cGy fractions to a dose of 4760 cGy. Patients with inoperable groin nodes received chemoradiation to the primary vulvar tumor, inguinal-femoral and lower pelvic lymph nodes. Results: Seven patients did not undergo a post-treatment surgical procedure: deteriorating medical condition (2 patients); other medical condition (1 patient); unresectable residual tumor (2 patients); patient refusal (2 patients). Following chemoradiotherapy, 33/71 (46.5%) patients had no visible vulvar cancer at the time of planned surgery and 38/71 (53.5%) had gross residual cancer at the time of operation. Five of the latter 38 patients had positive resection margins and underwent: further radiation therapy to the vulva (3 patients); wide local excision and vaginectomy necessitating colostomy (1 patient); no further therapy (1 patient). Using this strategy of preoperative, split-course, twice-daily radiation combined with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, only 2/71 (2.8%) had residual unresectable disease. In only three patients was it not possible to preserve urinary and/or gastrointestinal continence. Toxicity was acceptable, with acute cutaneous reactions to chemoradiotherapy and

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in locally advanced prostate cancer: secondary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 8610

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis is a key element in solid-tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. VEGF is among the most potent angiogenic factor thus far detected. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential of VEGF (also known as VEGF-A) as a prognostic and predictive biomarker among men with locally advanced prostate cancer. The analysis was performed using patients enrolled on RTOG 8610, a phase III randomized control trial of radiation therapy alone (Arm 1) versus short-term neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation and radiation therapy (Arm 2) in men with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Tissue samples were obtained from the RTOG tissue repository. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed, and paraffin blocks were immunohistochemically stained for VEGF expression and graded by Intensity score (0–3). Cox or Fine and Gray’s proportional hazards models were used. Sufficient pathologic material was available from 103 (23%) of the 456 analyzable patients enrolled in the RTOG 8610 study. There were no statistically significant differences in the pre-treatment characteristics between the patient groups with and without VEGF intensity data. Median follow-up for all surviving patients with VEGF intensity data is 12.2 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between the intensity of VEGF expression and overall survival, distant metastasis, local progression, disease-free survival, or biochemical failure. VEGF expression was also not statistically significantly associated with any of the endpoints when analyzed by treatment arm. This study revealed no statistically significant prognostic or predictive value of VEGF expression for locally advanced prostate cancer. This analysis is among one of the largest sample bases with long-term follow-up in a well-characterized patient population. There is an urgent need to establish multidisciplinary initiatives for coordinating further research in the area of

  14. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting: Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Anders

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results Three main categories of experience were identified: 1 The health professionals' management, where a need to optimize was found. 2 Shared care, which was lacking. 3 The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement.

  15. Syntheses, characterization, and anti-cancer activities of pyridine-amide based compounds containing appended phenol or catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Nagendra K Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Eun Ha Choi; Rajeev Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Several pyridine-amide compounds appended with phenol/catechol groups are synthesized. These compounds consist of protected or deprotected phenol/catechol groups and offer pyridine, amide, and phenol/catechol functional groups. All compounds have been well-characterized by various spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and crystallography. The biological activities of all compounds were investigated while a few compounds significantly decreased the metabolic viability, growth and clonogenicity of T98G cells in dose dependent manner. Accumulation of ROS was observed in T98G cells, which displayed a compromised redox status as evident from increased cellular Caspase 3/7 activity and formation of micronuclei. The in silico pharmacokinetic studies suggest that all compounds have good bioavailability, water solubility and other drug-like parameters. A few compounds were identified as the lead molecules for future investigation due to their: (a) high activity against T98G brain, H-460 lung, and SNU-80 thyroid cancer cells; (b) low cytotoxicity in non-malignant HEK and MRC-5 cells; (c) low toxic risks based on in silico evaluation; (d) good theoretical oral bioavailability according to Lipinski ‘rule of five’ pharmacokinetic parameters; and (e) better drug-likeness and drug-score values.

  16. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  17. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...... on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article is partly based on a Danish paper to be published in the Centenary Jubilee book of the Danish Surgical Society...

  18. Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: Improving Access to National Cooperative Pediatric Oncology Group (AIEOP) Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Rondelli, Roberto; Pession, Andrea; Mascarin, Maurizio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Mosso, Maria Luisa; Maule, Milena; Barisone, Elena; Bertolotti, Marina; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This analysis compared the numbers of patients treated at Italian pediatric oncology group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica [AIEOP]) centers with the numbers of cases predicted according to the population-based registry. It considered 32,431 patients registered in the AIEOP database (1989-2012). The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases was 0.79 for children (0-14 years old) and 0.15 for adolescents (15-19 years old). The proportion of adolescents increased significantly over the years, however, from 0.05 in the earliest period to 0.10, 0.18, and then 0.28 in the latest period of observation, suggesting a greater efficacy of local/national programs dedicated to adolescents.

  19. The achievements of the EORTC Lymphoma Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, J; Kluin-Nelemans, H; Teodorovic, I; Meerwaldt, C; Noordijk, E; Thomas, J; Glabbeke, M van; Henry-Amar, M; Carde, P

    2002-03-01

    From 1964 onwards, the EORTC Lymphoma Group has conducted seven consecutive randomised phase 3 trials on early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma aiming at increasing efficacy, while decreasing short- and long-term toxicity. Staging laparotomy is definitely abandoned and replaced by identification of prognostic subgroups based on pretreatment clinical characteristics. Event-free and overall survival significantly improved from about 50 and then 70%, in the early years, to over 80 and then 90% more recently. Radiotherapy fields have become more restricted, whereas chemotherapy has become standard. Longitudinal quality-of-life assessment has become an integral part of our studies. In advanced stages, overall outcome has improved as well with 6-year survival rates of over 80%. In aggressive types of NHL, the second generation chemotherapy schedule CHVmP-BV was superior to CHVmP. We could not show any advantage for intensification of upfront treatment with autologous stem cell transplantation.

  20. A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Alliance, Group Cohesion, Empathy, and Goal Consensus/Collaboration in Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Cancer: Uncommon Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of four empirically supported therapeutic relationship factors (therapeutic alliance, empathy, goal consensus/collaboration, and group cohesion) on the outcome of psychotherapeutic interventions conducted with individuals living with cancer were systematically reviewed. PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched from their inception through November 13, 2008. Studies of psychotherapeutic interventions targeted to individuals living with cancer, which also empirically assessed the ...

  1. Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival in young American women aged 18–39 years in different ethnic groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...

  2. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity: state of the art and recommendations from the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy Special Interest Group on Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Rey, Jean-Baptiste; Isnard-Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert; Daouphars, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in the treatment of cancers present with variable renal tolerance profiles. Among drugs with a potential for renal toxicity, platinum salts, and especially cisplatin is a well-known agent that may induce acute and chronic renal failure. The mechanisms of its renal toxicity and the means of its prevention are presented in this article which represent the Clinical Recommendation from the Special Interest Group on Cancer Care of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy (ESCP).

  3. The consequences of treatment and disease in patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: cognitive function and performance status. North Central Cancer Treatment Group.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, B.P.; C. H. Wang; O'Fallon, J.R.; Colgan, J P; Earle, J. D.; Krigel, R. L.; Brown, L D; McGinnis, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    Per protocol, patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in an intergroup phase II trial conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group had their cognitive functions measured using the Folstein and Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and their physical functions measured using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Score (PS) at study entry, at each treatment evaluation, and at quarterly intervals thereafter until ...

  4. Technical guidelines for head and neck cancer IMRT on behalf of the Italian association of radiation oncology - head and neck working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) requires robust training and experience. Thus, in 2011, the Head and Neck Cancer Working Group (HNCWG) of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) organized a study group with the aim to run a literature review to outline clinical practice recommendations, to suggest technical solutions and to advise target volumes and doses selection for head and neck cancer IMRT. The main purpose was therefore to standardize the technical approach of radiation oncologists in this context. The following paper describes the results of this working group. Volumes, techniques/strategies and dosage were summarized for each head-and-neck site and subsite according to international guidelines or after reaching a consensus in case of weak literature evidence

  5. Effectiveness of Group Psycho-education on Well-being and Depression Among Breast Cancer Survivors of Melaka, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker Ram; Rajagopal Narayanasamy; Ankur Barua

    2013-01-01

    Background: The psychological stress after diagnosis of breast cancer is often severe. Most of the women with breast cancer and their families suffer from emotional, social, financial and psychological disturbances. Materials and Methods: A cluster non-randomized trial was conducted at a Cancer Society in Melaka, Malaysia to assess the effectiveness of psycho-education on well-being status and depression among breast cancer patients. The study period was for one month (11 th June 2011 and ...

  6. Downregulation of high mobility group box 1 modulates telomere homeostasis and increases the radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shaobo; Zhou, Fuxiang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Yuehua; Gong, Jun; Mei, Zijie; Wu, Lin; Yu, Haijun; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2015-03-01

    The functions of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. There is a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Our aim was to elucidate the relationship among HMGB1, telomere homeostasis and radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. In this study, we established stably transfected control (MCF-7-NC) and HMGB1 knockdown (MCF-7-shHMGB1) cell lines. The expression of HMGB1 mRNA and the relative telomere length were examined by real-time PCR. Radiosensitivity was detected by clonogenic assay. The protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. The telomerase activity was detected by PCR-ELISA. Proliferation ability was examined by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. DNA damage foci were detected by immunofluorescence. ShRNA-mediated downregulation of HMGB1 expression increased the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells, and reduced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1. Moreover, knockdown of HMGB1 in MCF-7 cells inhibited telomerase activity and cell proliferation, while increasing the extent of apoptosis. Downregulation of HMGB1 modulated telomere homeostasis by changing the level of telomere-binding proteins, such as TPP1 (PTOP), TRF1 and TRF2. This downregulation also inhibited the ATM and ATR signaling pathways. The current data demonstrate that knockdown of HMGB1 breaks telomere homeostasis, enhances radiosensitivity, and suppresses the repair of DNA damage in human breast cancer cells. These results suggested that HMGB1 might be a potential radiotherapy target in human breast cancer. PMID:25501936

  7. Measurement of Affective and Activity Pain Interference Using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI): Cancer and Leukemia Group B 70903*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Thomas M.; Halabi, Susan; Bennett, Antonia V.; Rogak, Lauren; Sit, Laura; Li, Yuelin; Kaplan, Ellen; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was designed to yield separate scores for pain intensity and interference. It has been proposed that the pain interference factor can be further broken down into unique factors of affective (e.g., mood) and activity (e.g., work) interference. The purpose of this analysis was to confirm this affective/activity interference dichotomy. Patients and Methods A retrospective confirmatory factor analysis was completed for a sample of 184 individuals diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (Age 40–86, M = 65.46, 77% White Non-Hispanic) who had been administered the BPI as part of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 9480. A one-factor model was compared against two-factor and three-factor models that were developed based on the design of the instrument. Results Root mean squared error of approximation (0.075), comparative fit index (0.971), and change in chi-square, given the corresponding change in degrees of freedom (13.33, p < .05) values for the three-factor model (i.e., pain intensity, activity interference, and affective interference) were statistically superior in comparison to the one- and two-factor models. This three-factor structure was found to be invariant across age, mean PSA and hemoglobin levels. Conclusions These results confirm that the BPI can be used to quantify the degree to which pain separately interferes with affective and activity aspects of a patient's everyday life. These findings will provide clinical trialists, pharmaceutical sponsors, and regulators with confidence in the flexibility of the BPI as they consider the use of this instrument to assist with understanding the patient experience as it relates to treatment. PMID:23110676

  8. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, Philippe, E-mail: radiologie@skynet.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Silva, Celso, E-mail: caras@uma.pt [Human Anatomy of Medical Course, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Gryspeerdt, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan@sgryspeerdt.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Rodrigues, António, E-mail: nucleo@nid.pt [Nucleo Imagem Diagnostica, Rua 5 De Outubro, 9000-216 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Rita, E-mail: rita@uma.pt [Department of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Teixeira, Ricardo, E-mail: j.teixeira1947@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Central Hospital of Funchal, Avenida Luís de Camões, 9004513 Funchal (Portugal); Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de, E-mail: fhgouveia@netmadeira.com [LANA, Pathology Centre, Rua João Gago, 10, 9000-071 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer.

  9. DNA-damaging activity in ethanol-soluble fractions of feces from New Zealand groups at varying risks of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Alley, P G; Gribben, B M

    1985-01-01

    Using repair-proficient and repair-deficient strains of E. coli, we investigated the application of a liquid incubation assay to measure the DNA-damaging activity of ethanol-soluble fecal extracts. This method appears to be suitable for the study of a wide range of sample types. It was used to measure the DNA-modifying activity of ethanol-soluble fecal extracts from a group of European colorectal cancer patients. Data were compared with those from Europeans of similar age and sex distribution who did not have bowel cancer. We also studied groups of Maoris, Samoans, and European Seventh-Day Adventists who followed an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet. There are significant levels of DNA-modifying materials in the feces of many Europeans on a mixed diet, regardless of whether or not they have cancer. The number of positive samples was less in the Polynesian groups, and there were no samples that could be unequivocally scored as positive in the Seventh-Day Adventist groups. We conclude that diet can significantly reduce the level of ethanol-soluble mutagens, at least in New Zealand Europeans. The data may provide an explanation for the reduced incidence of bowel cancer in Seventh-Day Adventist groups. PMID:3906579

  10. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  11. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  12. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  13. Patterns of radiotherapy practice for biliary tract cancer in Japan: results of the Japanese radiation oncology study group (JROSG) survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patterns of radiotherapy (RT) practice for biliary tract cancer (BTC) in Japan are not clearly established. A questionnaire-based national survey of RT used for BTC treatment between 2000 and 2011 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group. Detailed information was collected for 555 patients from 31 radiation oncology institutions. The median age of the patients was 69 years old (range, 33–90) and 81% had a good performance status (0–1). Regarding RT treatment, 78% of the patients were treated with external beam RT (EBRT) alone, 17% received intraluminal brachytherapy, and 5% were treated with intraoperative RT. There was no significant difference in the choice of treatment modality among the BTC subsites. Many patients with EBRT were treated with a total dose of 50 or 50.4 Gy (~40%) and only 13% received a total dose ≥60 Gy, even though most institutions (90%) were using CT-based treatment planning. The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 75% of the patients. Chemotherapy was used for 260 patients (47%) and was most often administered during RT (64%, 167/260), followed by after RT (63%, 163/260). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug for chemotherapy. This study established the general patterns of RT practice for BTC in Japan. Further surveys and comparisons with results from other countries are needed for development and optimization of RT for patients with BTC in Japan

  14. The identification of high and low risk groups for colorectal cancer using rectal mucosal crypt cell production rate (CCPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, P S; Clarke, P A; Gifford, K A; Hardcastle, J D; Armitage, N C

    1993-07-01

    Rectal mucosal proliferation was measured in 116 individuals using the metaphase arrest technique crypt cell production rate (CCPR). CCPR was found to be significantly elevated in individuals with adenomas (n = 42, CCPR = 13 cc c-1h-1, range 7-25 Cl 10-15) compared with normals (n = 21, CCPR = 10 cc c-1h-1 range 5-24 Cl 7-11, Mann-Whitney P = 0.001 z = 3.2). Mucosal proliferation was increased among individuals who were undergoing adenoma follow up but in whom no further adenomas were found (n = 37 CCPR = 12 range 5-26 cc c-1h-1 Cl 10-14) compared to controls (Mann-Whitney P = 0.01 z = 2.4) Proliferation in vegetarians i.e. low risk (n = 16) was similar to controls. Measurement of proliferative indices in rectal mucosa by the stathmokinetic technique CCPR can discriminate between high and low risk groups for colorectal cancer. PMID:8318409

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  16. Randomised study of Casodex 50 MG monotherapy vs orchidectomy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The Scandinavian Casodex Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tveter, K; Varenhorst, E

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Casodex (ICI 176,334), a new, once-daily, selective antiandrogen, given as 50 mg monotherapy, was compared with orchidectomy in a randomised, multicentre, open study in 376 patients with metastatic prostate cancer. At 3 months, PSA was reduced by 86% in the Casodex group and by 96% ...

  17. From chemoprevention and organ preservation programmes to postoperative management : major achievements and strategies of the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, J; Vermorken, JB; Debruyne, C; Andry, G; Licitra, L; Grandi, C; Langendijk, H; De Mulder, PHM; Lefebvre, JL

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most significant results of the clinical studies conducted in the past two decades by the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group (HNCG). As for phase III trials. the HNCG investigated. besides the efficacy of chemopreventive drugs, the impact of cytostatic agen

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes predict human cancer: a report from the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health (ESCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Bonassi, S; Strömberg, U;

    1998-01-01

    . No association was seen between the SCEs or the MN frequencies and subsequent cancer incidence/mortality. The present study further supports our previous observation on the cancer predictivity of the CA biomarker, which seems to be independent of age at test, gender, and time since test. The risk patterns were...... similar within each national cohort. This result suggests that the frequency of CAs in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a relevant biomarker for cancer risk in humans, reflecting either early biological effects of genotoxic carcinogens or individual cancer susceptibility....

  19. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... receptor (ER) and Progesteron receptor (PR) status. Also mastectomy specimens were included. In 2004 the previous malignancy grading was replaced by the Van Nuys classification, and information on microcalcifications was introduced. The axillary status now included the sentinel node technique only. In 2006...... the pleomorphic subtype of LCIS was added to histological subtypes. The present work reviews the DBCG guidelines and recommendations concerning CIS adding a brief characterization of the Danish CIS population. It also refers to the introduction of modern molecular pathology and distinction between low...

  20. Swedish Lung Cancer Radiation Study Group. Predictive value of age at diagnosis for radiotherapy response in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergqvist, Michael [Dept. of Oncology, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)], e-mail: georg.h@telia.com; Hoye, Even [Dept. of Oncology, Gaevle Hospital, Gaevle (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of age at diagnosis on prognosis in patients treated with curatively intended radiotherapy for NSCLC. Material and methods: This is a joint effort among all the Swedish Oncology Departments that includes all identified patients with a diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer that have been subjected to curatively intended irradiation ({>=}50 Gy) treated during 1990 to 2000. Included patients had a histopathological/cytological diagnosis date as well as a death date or a last follow-up date. The following variables were studied in relation to overall and disease-specific survival: age, gender, histopathology, time period, smoking status, stage and treatment. Results: The median overall survival of all 1146 included patients was 14.7 months, while the five-year overall survival rate was 9.5 %. Younger patients (<55 years), presented with a more advanced clinical stage but had yet a significantly better overall survival compared with patients in the age groups 55-64 years (p = 0.035) and 65-74 years (p = 0.0097) in a multivariate Cox regression analysis. The overall survival of patients aged {>=}75 years was comparable to those aged <55 years. Conclusion: In this large retrospective study we describe that patients younger than 55 years treated with curatively intended radiotherapy for NSCLC have a better overall survival than patients aged 55-64 and 65-74 years and that younger patients seem to benefit more from the addition of surgery and/or chemotherapy to radiotherapy. Due to the exploratory nature of the study, these results should be confirmed in future prospective trials.

  1. EGFR testing and clinical management of advanced NSCLC: a Galician Lung Cancer Group study (GGCP 048-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Vázquez,1 Joaquín Casal,2 Francisco Javier Afonso Afonso,3 José Luis Fírvida,4 Lucía Santomé,5 Francisco Barón,6 Martín Lázaro,7 Carolina Pena,7 Margarita Amenedo,8 Ihab Abdulkader,9 Carmen González-Arenas,10 Laura Fachal,11 Ana Vega11 On behalf of the Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP1Medical Oncology Department, Lucus Augusti University Hospital, Lugo, 2Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Pontevedra, 3Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Ferrol, Ferrol, 4Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Ourense, Ourense, 5Medical Oncology Department Povisa Hospital, Vigo, 6Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 7Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Complex of Pontevedra, Pontevedra, 8Medical Oncology Department, Oncology Center of Galicia, A Coruña, 9Anatomical Pathology Department, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 10AstraZeneca, Madrid, 11Galician Public Foundation of Genomic Medicine-SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Purpose: This study aimed to assess the incidence of mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients in the Galician region of Spain and the clinical management and outcome of patients carrying EGFR mutations. Patients and methods: All newly diagnosed advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients were screened for EGFR mutations in matched tumor samples (tissue or cytology specimens and serum samples. Results: Of 198 patients screened for EGFR mutations in tumor samples, 184 had evaluable data and, of these, 25 (13.6% had EGFR mutations (84% sensitizing mutations. EGFR mutation was found in serum in 14 (8.1% patients (of 174 evaluable. Compared to matched tumor tissue, serum EGFR mutation testing specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 52

  2. Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Gene Polymorphism in Shanghai population:Occupational and Non-occupational Bladder Cancer Patient Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING-WEN MA; GUO-FANG LIN; JI-GANG CHEN; CUI-QING XIANG; WEI-CHAO GUO; KLAUS GOLKA; JIAN-HUA SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are involved in the detoxification of aromatic amines and hydrazine. In order to explore the possible association of NAT2 polymorphism with bladder cancer risk in benzidine exposed or non-exposed Chinese individuals, healthy subjects, subjects with bladder cancer of a former benzidine exposed cohort in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of bladder cancer patients without known occupational exposure to aromatic amines were genotyped for NAT2 gene polymorphism. Methods NAT2 genotyping was performed with a set of RFLP procedures at seven major polymorphic loci of gene coding area: G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A. Results The wild allele NAT2 *4 was the most prevalent allele (59%) in healthy individuals. The alleles NAT2*6A and NAT2*7B were also frequently observed (21% and 17%, respectively). In contrast to Caucasians, the percentage of slow acetylators was lower (12% in Chinese vs. 58% in Caucasians, P<0.001). No relevant differences were observed for homogenous rapid, heterogeneous rapid/slow and homogeneous slow acetylation genotypes between the healthy subjects and both groups of bladder cancer patients. Conclusion The present work did not support the association of slow acetylating genotypes of NAT2 gene with elevated risk of bladder cancer in Chinese whereas it was documented as an important genetically determined risk factor in Caucasians. Different mechanisms might play a role in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer related with aromatic amine exposure in various races or ethnic groups.

  3. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills

  4. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised studies have shown that breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is associated with a prognosis similar to mastectomy alone. This formed the basis for recommending breast conserving surgery combined with radiotherapy as a standard treatment for suited breast cancer...... patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years...

  5. Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 1 is a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Xing Li; Xin-Yu Bi; Hong Zhao; Zhen Huang; Yue Han; Dong-Bin Zhao; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Conflicting results about the association between expression level of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and clinical outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving chemotherapy have been reported.Thus,we searched the available articles and performed the meta-analysis to elucidate the prognostic role of ERCC1 expression in patients with CRC.Methods:A thorough literature search using PubMed (Medline),Embase,Cochrane Library,Web of Science databases,and Chinese Science Citation Database was conducted to obtain the relevant studies.Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the results.Results:A total of 11 studies were finally enrolled in this meta-analysis.Compared with patients with lower ERCC1 expression,patients with higher ERCC1 expression tended to have unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR =2.325,95% CI:1.720-3.143,P < 0.001),progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =1.917,95% CI:1.366-2.691,P < 0.001) and poor response to chemotherapy (OR =0.491,95% CI:0.243-0.990,P =0.047).Subgroup analyses by treatment setting,ethnicity,HR extraction,detection methods,survival analysis,and study design demonstrated that our results were robust.Conclusions:ERCC1 expression may be taken as an effective prognostic factor predicting the response to chemotherapy,OS,and PFS.Further studies with better study design and longer follow-up are warranted in order to gain a deeper understanding of ERCC 1's prognostic value.

  6. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.G. Klinkenbijl (Jean); J. Wils; J. Jeekel (Hans); T. Sahmoud; R. van Pel; M.L. Couvreur; C.H. Veenhof; J.P. Arnaud; D. González González (Dionisio); L.Th. de Wit (Laurens); A. Hennipman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy

  7. Consequences of anorectal cancer atlas implementation in the cooperative group setting: Radiobiologic analysis of a prospective randomized in silico target delineation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to ascertain the subsequent radiobiological impact of using a consensus guideline target volume delineation atlas. Materials and methods: Using a representative case and target volume delineation instructions derived from a proposed IMRT rectal cancer clinical trial, gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical/planning target volumes (CTV/PTV) were contoured by 13 physician observers (Phase 1). The observers were then randomly assigned to follow (atlas) or not-follow (control) a consensus guideline/atlas for anorectal cancers, and instructed to re-contour the same case (Phase 2). Results: The atlas group was found to have increased tumor control probability (TCP) after the atlas intervention for both the CTV (p < 0.0001) and PTV1 (p = 0.0011) with decreasing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for small intestine, while the control group did not. Additionally, the atlas group had reduced variance in TCP for all target volumes and reduced variance in NTCP for the bowel. In Phase 2, the atlas group had increased TCP relative to the control for CTV (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Visual atlas and consensus treatment guideline usage in the development of rectal cancer IMRT treatment plans reduced the inter-observer radiobiological variation, with clinically relevant TCP alteration for CTV and PTV volumes

  8. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  9. A preliminary outcome analysis of the patterns of care study in Japan for esophageal cancer patients with special reference to age: non surgery group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) was imported to Japan from the United States in July 1996. A preliminary outcome analysis of the PCS for esophageal cancer patients in Japan was made with special reference to age, because the elderly population is rapidly increasing in Japan. Patients and Methods: From July 1996 to February 1998, external PCS audits were performed for 37 institutions nationwide and detailed information of 561 esophageal cancer patients treated during the period 1992-1994 was collected by using the fifth PCS data format developed in the United States. This format was provided courtesy of the American College of Radiology. For this study, patients who had not undergone surgery (n = 336) were selected. The patients were classified into three age groups: < 65 years old (n = 119), between 65 and 74 years (n = 93), and 75 years or older (n =123). Cox's proportional hazards model was used for the statistical analysis, with survival, acute/subacute complication and late complication of grade 3 or more based on RTOG criteria, as the endpoints. Results: Significant prognostic factors for the entire non-surgery group were Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (p 0.0007), stage (p = 0.0001), and external irradiation dose (p = 0.0001). For the younger group, KPS (p = 0.0004), stage (p = 0.0197), and utilization of brachytherapy (p = 0.0010) were significant, while for the intermediate age group it was KPS (p = 0.0027), history of pulmonary disease (p = 0.0339), stage (p = 0.0001), and external dose (p = 0.0001), and for the elderly group, stage (p = 0.0001) and external irradiation dose (p = 0.0224) were significant. Significant risk factors for complications for the entire group were stage (p = 0.0411), external dose (p = 0.0163), and stratification of institution (academic vs. nonacademic) (p = 0.0114). Significant risk factors for the younger group were history of pulmonary disease (p = 0.0495) and external dose (p = 0.0037), and the other age

  10. Cancer predictive value of cytogenetic markers used in occupational health surveillance programs. A report from an ongoing study by the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, Lars; Stroemberg, Ulf; Mikoczy, Zoli; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Skerfving, Staffan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Bonassi, Stefano; Lando, Cecilia [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Viale Benedetto XV, I-1016132 Genoa (Italy); Hansteen, Inger-Lise [Department of Occupational Medicine, Telemark Central Hospital, N-3710 Skien (Norway); Montagud, Alicia Huici [Centro Nacional de Condiciones de Trabajo, Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Dulcet 2-10, ES-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Knudsen, Lisbeth [National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersoe Parkalle 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Norppa, Hannu [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksekatu 41 aA, FIN-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Reuterwall, Christina [National Institute of Work Life, S-171 84 Solna (Sweden); Broegger, Anton [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Forni, Alessandra [Istituto di Medicina del Lavoro Clinica del Lavoro `L. Devoto`, Milan (Italy); Hoegstedt, Benkt [Department of Occupational Medicine, Central Hospital, Halmstad (Sweden); Lambert, Bo [Department of Environmental Medicine, Centre for Nutrition and Toxicology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitelman, Felix [Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Nordenson, Ingrid [National Institute of Work Life, Umea (Sweden); Salomaa, Sisko [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-09-20

    The cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral blood lymphocytes: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) are established biomarkers of exposure for mutagens or carcinogens in the work environment. However, it is not clear whether these biomarkers also may serve as biomarkers for genotoxic effects which will result in an enhanced cancer risk. In order to assess this problem, Nordic and Italian cohorts were established, and preliminary results from these two studies indicated a predictive value of CA frequency for cancer risk, whereas no such associations were observed for SCE or MN. A collaborative study between the Nordic and Italian research groups, will enable a more thorough evaluation of the cancer predictivity of the cytogenetic endpoints. We here report on the establishment of a joint data base comprising 5271 subjects, examined 1965-1988 for at least one cytogenetic biomarker. Totally, 3540 subjects had been examined for CA, 2702 for SCE and 1496 for MN. These cohorts have been followed-up with respect to subsequent cancer mortality or cancer incidence, and the expected values have been calculated from rates derived from the general populations in each country. Stratified cohort analyses will be performed with respect to the levels of the cytogenetic biomarkers. The importance of potential effect modifiers such as gender, age at test, and time since test, will be evaluated using Poisson regression models. The remaining two potential effect modifiers, occupational exposures and smoking, will be assessed in a case-referent study within the study base

  11. Assessing risk of breast cancer in an ethnically South-East Asia population (results of a multiple ethnic groups study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Fei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gail and others developed a model (GAIL using age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child, number of previous benign breast biopsy examinations, and number of first-degree-relatives with breast cancer as well as baseline age-specific breast cancer risks for predicting the 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer for Caucasian women. However, the validity of the model for projecting risk in South-East Asian women is uncertain. We evaluated GAIL and attempted to improve its performance for Singapore women of Chinese, Malay and Indian origins. Methods Data from the Singapore Breast Screening Programme (SBSP are used. Motivated by lower breast cancer incidence in many Asian countries, we utilised race-specific invasive breast cancer and other cause mortality rates for Singapore women to produce GAIL-SBSP. By using risk factor information from a nested case-control study within SBSP, alternative models incorporating fewer then additional risk factors were determined. Their accuracy was assessed by comparing the expected cases (E with the observed (O by the ratio (E/O and 95% confidence interval (CI and the respective concordance statistics estimated. Results From 28,883 women, GAIL-SBSP predicted 241.83 cases during the 5-year follow-up while 241 were reported (E/O=1.00, CI=0.88 to 1.14. Except for women who had two or more first-degree-relatives with breast cancer, satisfactory prediction was present in almost all risk categories. This agreement was reflected in Chinese and Malay, but not in Indian women. We also found that a simplified model (S-GAIL-SBSP including only age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child and number of first-degree-relatives performed similarly with associated concordance statistics of 0.5997. Taking account of body mass index and parity did not improve the calibration of S-GAIL-SBSP. Conclusions GAIL can be refined by using national race-specific invasive breast cancer rates and mortality rates

  12. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    and revised guidelines. As for the first meeting, the methodology of evidence-based medicine (EBM) was applied. The results of the discussion were compiled by the writing committee. All participants have agreed to this final update. RESULTS: The first part of the consensus paper describes the clinical...... in 2004 remain valid 3 yr later, refinements in the treatment of early- and advanced-stage testicular cancer have emerged from clinical trials. Despite technical improvements, expert clinical skills will continue to be one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with germ cell cancer...

  13. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    guidelines. As for the first meeting the methodology of evidence-based medicine (EBM) was applied. The results of the discussion were compiled by the writing committee. All participants have agreed to this final update. RESULTS: The second part of the consensus paper includes the treatment of metastasised...... trials. Despite technical improvements, expert clinical skills will continue to be one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with germ cell cancer. In addition, the particular needs of testicular cancer survivors have been acknowledged Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  14. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J.; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; R. Martin

    1996-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 ...

  15. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the...

  16. Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer: part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, P.O.; Damber, J.E.; Hagerman, I.;

    2008-01-01

    To compare parenteral estrogen therapy in the form of high-dose polyestradiol phosphate (PEP; Estradurin) with combined androgen deprivation (CAD) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. The aim of the study was to compare anticancer efficacy and adverse events...

  17. UGT1A1*28 genotype and irinotecan dosage in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kweekel, D.M.; Gelderblom, H.; Straaten, T Van der; Antonini, N.F.; Punt, C.J.A.; Guchelaar, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between UGT1A1(*)28 genotype and (1) response rates, (2) febrile neutropenia and (3) dose intensity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan. UGT1A1(*)28 genotype was determined in 218 patients receiving irinotecan

  18. Proposal of a new staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Analysis of surgical patients from a nationwide survey of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Michiie; Izumi, Namiki; Kadoya, Masumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Ku, Yonson; Kudo, Masatoshi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Nakashima, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the current American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer staging system (seventh edition) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), tumor size was excluded, and periductal invasion was added as a new tumor classification‐defining factor. The objective of the current report was to propose a new staging system for ICC that would be better for stratifying the survival of patients based on data from the nationwide Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan database. METHODS Of 756 patients who underwent surgical resection for ICC between 2000 and 2005, multivariate analyses of the clinicopathologic factors of 419 patients who had complete data sets were performed to elucidate relevant factors for inclusion in a new tumor classification and staging system. RESULTS Overall survival data were best stratified using a cutoff value of 2 cm using a minimal P value approach to discriminate patient survival. The 5‐year survival rate of 15 patients who had ICC measuring ≤2 cm in greatest dimension without lymph node metastasis or vascular invasion was 100%, and this cohort was defined as T1. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for 267 patients with lymph node‐negative and metastasis‐negative (N0M0) disease indicated that the number of tumors, the presence arterial invasion, and the presence major biliary invasion were independent and significant prognostic factors. The proposed new system, which included tumor number, tumor size, arterial invasion, and major biliary invasion for tumor classification, provided good stratification of overall patient survival according to disease stage. Macroscopic periductal invasion was associated with major biliary invasion and an inferior prognosis. CONCLUSIONS The proposed new staging system, which includes a tumor cutoff size of 2 cm and major biliary invasion, may be useful for assigning patients to surgery. Cancer 2016;122:61–70. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley

  19. Evaluation and Management of Hearing Loss in Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Johnnie K; Knight, Kristin R; Yock, Torunn I; Chang, Kay W; Cipkala, Douglas; Grewal, Satkiran S

    2016-07-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is common in childhood cancer survivors exposed to platinum chemotherapy and/or cranial radiation and can severely impact quality of life. Early detection and appropriate management can mitigate academic, speech, language, social, and psychological morbidity resulting from hearing deficits. This review is targeted as a resource for providers involved in aftercare of childhood cancers. The goal is to promote early identification of survivors at-risk for HL, appropriate evaluation and interpretation of diagnostic tests, timely referral to an audiologist when indicated, and to increase knowledge of current therapeutic options. PMID:26928933

  20. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkapongpisit, Maneerat; Giovia, Antonino; Follo, Carlo; Caputo, Giuseppe; Isidoro, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm), type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene), and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups) on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles. Results We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles. Conclusion These data highlight the importance of considering both the physicochemical characteristics (ie, material, size and surface charge on chemical groups) of nanoparticles and the biochemical composition of the cell membrane when choosing the most suitable nanotheranostics for targeting cancer cells. PMID:22904626

  1. Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yesha M.; Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Paiano, Viviana; Olvera, Natalie; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study demonstrated significant differences in lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers from five different ethnic/racial groups. For the same number of cigarettes smoked, and particularly among light smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians had the highest risk for lung cancer, Whites had intermediate risk, while Latinos and Japanese Americans had the lowest risk. We analyzed urine samples from 331–709 participants from each ethnic group in this study for metabolites of phenanthrene, a surrogate for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Consistent with their lung cancer risk and our previous studies of several other carcinogens and toxicants of cigarette smoke, African Americans had significantly (p<0.0001) higher median levels of the two phenanthrene metabolites 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-PheOH, 0.931 pmol/ml) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, 1.13 pmol/ml) than Whites (3-PheOH, 0.697 pmol/ml; PheT, 0.853 pmol/ml) while Japanese-Americans had significantly (p = 0.002) lower levels of 3-PheOH (0.621 pmol/ml) than Whites. PheT levels (0.838 pmol/ml) in Japanese-Americans were not different from those of Whites. These results are mainly consistent with the lung cancer risk of these three groups, but the results for Native Hawaiians and Latinos were more complex. We also carried out a genome wide association study in search of factors that could influence PheT and 3-PheOH levels. Deletion of GSTT1 explained 2.2% of the variability in PheT, while the strongest association, rs5751777 (p = 1.8x10-62) in the GSTT2 gene, explained 7.7% of the variability in PheT. These GWAS results suggested a possible protective effect of lower GSTT1 copy number variants on the diol epoxide pathway, which was an unexpected result. Collectively, the results of this study provide further evidence that different patterns of cigarette smoking are responsible for the higher lung cancer risk of African Americans than of Whites and the

  2. Group sequential monitoring based on the weighted log-rank test statistic with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights in cancer vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are now approved and available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected and is actually observed in drug approval studies. Accordingly, we propose the evaluation of survival endpoints by weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights. We consider group sequential monitoring, which allows early efficacy stopping, and determine a semiparametric information fraction for the Fleming-Harrington family of weights, which is necessary for the error spending function. Moreover, we give a flexible survival model in cancer vaccine studies that considers not only the delayed treatment effect but also the long-term survivors. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we illustrate that when the primary analysis is a weighted log-rank test emphasizing the late differences, the proposed information fraction can be a useful alternative to the surrogate information fraction, which is proportional to the number of events. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Kempel, Mette Moe; Düring, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised studies have shown that breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is associated with a prognosis similar to mastectomy alone. This formed the basis for recommending breast conserving surgery combined with radiotherapy as a standard treatment for suited breast cancer...... patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years of.......0, 19.9, and 6.0% respectively, when analysed in a competing risk setting. The risk of loco-regional recurrences was significantly decreased in patients aged 50 years or more and increased with increasing tumour size. There was a pronounced beneficial effect of adjuvant radiotherapy with those not...

  4. The management of cancer-related breakthrough pain: recommendations of a task group of the Science Committee of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew N; Dickman, Andrew; Reid, Colette; Stevens, Anna-Marie; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2009-04-01

    A task group of the Science Committee of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland (APM) was convened to produce some up-to-date, evidence-based, practical, clinical guidelines on the management of cancer-related breakthrough pain in adults. On the basis of a review of the literature, the task group was unable to make recommendations about any individual interventions, but was able to make a series of 12 recommendations about certain generic strategies. However, most of the aforementioned recommendations are based on limited evidence (i.e., case series, expert opinion). The task group also proposed a definition of breakthrough pain, and some diagnostic criteria for breakthrough pain.

  5. Analysis of BMP4 and BMP7 signaling in breast cancer cells unveils time-dependent transcription patterns and highlights a common synexpression group of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martinez Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years, evidence has accumulated of their crucial functions in tumor biology. BMP4 and BMP7, in particular, have been implicated in breast cancer. However, little is known about BMP target genes in the context of tumor. We explored the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 treatment on global gene transcription in seven breast cancer cell lines during a 6-point time series, using a whole-genome oligo microarray. Data analysis included hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes, gene ontology enrichment analyses and model based clustering of temporal data. Results Both ligands had a strong effect on gene expression, although the response to BMP4 treatment was more pronounced. The cellular functions most strongly affected by BMP signaling were regulation of transcription and development. The observed transcriptional response, as well as its functional outcome, followed a temporal sequence, with regulation of gene expression and signal transduction leading to changes in metabolism and cell proliferation. Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct differences in the response of individual cell lines to BMPs, but also highlighted a synexpression group of genes for both ligands. Interestingly, the majority of the genes within these synexpression groups were shared by the two ligands, probably representing the core molecular responses common to BMP4 and BMP7 signaling pathways. Conclusions All in all, we show that BMP signaling has a remarkable effect on gene transcription in breast cancer cells and that the functions affected follow a logical temporal pattern. Our results also uncover components of the common cellular transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP7. Most importantly, this study provides a list of potential novel BMP target

  6. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes predict human cancer independently of exposure to carcinogens. European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, S; Hagmar, L; Strömberg, U;

    2000-01-01

    in the regression model. The risk for high versus low levels of CAs was similar in subjects heavily exposed to carcinogens and in those who had never, to their knowledge, been exposed to any major carcinogenic agent during their lifetime, supporting the idea that chromosome damage itself is involved in the pathway...... to cancer. The results have important ramifications for the understanding of the role played by sporadic chromosome damage for the origin of neoplasia-associated CAs....

  7. High mobility group A1 protein expression reduces the sensitivity of colon and thyroid cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angelo, Daniela; Mussnich, Paula; De Rosa, Roberta; Bianco, Roberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of resistance to conventional drugs and novel biological agents often impair long-term chemotherapy. HMGA gene overexpression is often associated with antineoplastic drug resistance and reduced survival. Inhibition of HMGA expression in thyroid cancer cells reduces levels of ATM protein, the main cellular sensor of DNA damage, and enhances cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. HMGA1 overexpression promotes chemoresistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcino...

  8. Humoral leukocyte adherence inhibition (H-LAI) test in screening of high risk group for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In screening 150 ore miners a positive humoral immune response to the lung tumor antigen was found in 30 serum samples. Repeated testing of the positive sera (after 1-3 years) was only possible in 15 cases. The reaction of 12 serum samples again was positive, while 2 persons died of lung cancer. The results obtained in these follow-up investigations are discussed. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs

  9. Cancer of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will die of this disease. Who Gets This Cancer? Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is ... Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed among men aged ...

  10. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkapongpisit M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maneerat Ekkapongpisit,1 Antonino Giovia,1 Carlo Follo,1 Giuseppe Caputo,2,3 Ciro Isidoro11Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “A Avogadro”, Novara, 2Dipartimento di Chimica dell’Università di Torino, Torino, 3Cyanine Technology SpA, Torino, ItalyBackground and methods: Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm, type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene, and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles.Results: We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles.Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of considering both the

  11. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection, and pneumo......BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus blood stored > or = 21...

  12. [A comparative study between low-dose and high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of advanced and recurrent breast cancer--in relation to dose, serum concentration and response. Osaka Breast Cancer Research Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, J; Yayoi, E; Takatsuka, Y; Aikawa, T; Maeura, Y; Kobayashi, T; Miyauchi, K; Kotsuma, Y

    1997-05-01

    A prospective randomized study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of MPA in the treatment of breast cancer by comparing low dose (600 mg/day) with high dose (1,200 mg/day) of MPA. In 35 evaluable cases, the response rate to treatment was 40.0% (8/20) with low dose MPA and 26.7% (4/15) with high dose MPA. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The serum MPA concentration measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was 23.2 +/- 17.6 ng/ml in the low-dose group and 89.5 +/- 56.7 ng/ml in the high-dose group. Intrapatient variability in serum MPA concentration was relatively stable, but interpatient variability was large. No correlation was found between the response rate and serum MPA concentration. The above results indicate that a low dose of MPA (600 mg/day) is a useful treatment with high effectiveness and safety in advanced and recurrent breast cancer patients. Though no exact data on the optimal serum concentration could not be obtained, it was obvious that a successful response cannot be expected from a serum MPA concentration of less than 17 ng/ml, which was the average serum concentration in NC and PD patients of the low-dose group. PMID:9170519

  13. Empowering Processes and Outcomes of Participation in Online Support Groups for Patients With Breast Cancer, Arthritis, or Fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van Cornelia F.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Shaw, Bret R.; Seydel, Erwin R.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the rise of online support groups it has been presumed that there is an empowering effect from patients' participating in these groups, despite a lack of evidence to back up this assumption. In this study we explored if, and in which ways, patients feel empowered by participation. Additio

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a potential biomarker in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: preliminary results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group Study-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group...... and clear cell mRCC participating in an ongoing prospective randomized phase II trial comprising interleukin-2-based immunotherapy and bevacizumab were included in this preliminary analysis. All patients had a follow-up time of at least 2 years. Interpretation of DCE-CT (max slope method) was...

  15. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Map individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results: We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same...... extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the F-st value) closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant...

  16. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trialFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in peer support program and control group passed a routine educational program during 3 months. The authors administered SF-36 for evaluating the quality of life pre-and post intervention. Also, patient′s adherence was assessed by means of a simple checklist. Results: Two groups were similar with respect of age, age of onset of the disease, duration of having breast cancer, marital status, type of the treatment receiving now, and type of the received surgery. In the control group, there were statistically significant improvements in body pain, role-physical, role-emotional and social functioning. In experimental group, role-physical, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health showed significant improvement. Vitality score and mental health score in experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both with p < 0.001. Also, it was shown that adherence was in high levels in both groups and no significant difference was seen after the study was done. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, supporting the patients with breast cancer by forming peer groups or by means of educational sessions could improve their life qualities.

  17. Constitution of a group of Czech and French uranium miners in order to estimate lung cancer risk linked to low chronic exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Bohemian and French uranium miners are characterized by a long duration of exposure to radon and its decay products, in comparison to most of the other groups of miners, studied in the recent international joint analysis by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. This analysis has confirmed the linearly increasing risk of lung cancer by cumulative radon exposure, describing the different factors that may influence this dose-response relationship. One of the main factors presently discussed is the influence of the exposure-rate effect: in other words, has the same cumulated exposure spread over 10 years the same risk of lung cancer as if it is cumulated in 2 years? The implication of an inverse exposure-rate effect for low chronic exposures as well as some methodological approaches will be discussed and tested by using the data of the Czech and French cohorts. These two cohorts present annual exposures varying by a factor of 5 to 10, French exposure rates being close or even less than 0.1 Working Level during the last 20 years. The project is integrated in a larger European project on uranium miners, co-ordinated by IPSN. (author)

  18. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... days (odds ratio, 2.5 versus no transfusion) to be independent variables predicting infectious complications. CONCLUSION: Blood storage time may, along with other risk factors, play a significant role in blood transfusion-associated development of postoperative infectious complications....

  19. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  20. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European HapMap individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the Fst value closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant as judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans caused either by genetic drift overruling selection against the susceptibility variant or a positive selection for the same haplotype. The data does not allow us to distinguish between these two scenarios. The analysis suggests that the region is not involved in cancer risk in Africans and that the susceptibility variants may be more finely mapped in Asian populations.

  1. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  2. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P<0.0001). Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear. PMID:26053186

  3. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungshim L Park

    Full Text Available The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA, respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P < 0.0001. Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear.

  4. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  5. A comparative assessment of the prevalence of cancer among the employee group in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the effects of the low-doses from ionizing radiation has been the subject of considerable interest in the scientific community. The deleterious health effects caused by the relatively high doses of radiation led to the belief that radiation was harmful at all doses. Afterwards, the concept of the threshold dose explained that negative health effects were observed only at certain dose levels. Furthermore, it has been suggested that low doses of ionizing radiation might have beneficial effects on organisms leading to an hermetic effect of these low doses. The specific objectives of the study were to compute the morbidity (prevalence) of cancer among the radiation occupational workers and their families and to compare with suitable controls and to study prevalence of congenital anomalies among the offspring of the employees of the nuclear power plants in India and to determine, if any, their causal relation with radiation exposure

  6. The effect of debulking surgery after induction chemotherapy on the prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.L. van der Burg (Maria); M. van Lent; M. Buyse; A. Kobierska; N. Colombo; G. Favalli; A.J. Lacave; M. Nardi; J. Renard; S. Pecorelli (Sergio)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Although the value of primary cytoreductive surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer is beyond doubt, the value of debulking surgery after induction chemotherapy has not yet been defined. In this randomized study we investigated the effect on surviv

  7. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: outcome of recursive partitioning analysis group 1 patients

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    Onal Cem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI has been demonstrated to reduce or delay the incidence of brain metastases (BM in locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC patients with various prognostic groups. With this current cohort we planned to evaluate the potential usefulness of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI specifically in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA Group 1, which is the most favorable group of LA-NSCLC patients. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2008, 62 patients in RPA group 1 were treated with sequential chemoradiotherapy and PCI for stage IIIB NSCLC. The induction chemotherapy consisted of 3 courses of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 and docetaxel (80 mg/m2; each course was given every 21 days. Thoracic radiotherapy (TRT was given at a dose of 60 Gy using 3-D conformal planning. All patients received a total dose of 30 Gy PCI (2 Gy/fr, 5 days a week, beginning on the first day of the TRT. Then, all patients received 3 further courses of the same chemotherapy protocol. Results Six (9.7% patients developed brain metastases during their clinical course. Only one (2% patient developed brain metastasis as the site of first treatment failure. Median brain metastasis-free survival, overall survival, and progression free survival were 16.6, 16.7, and 13.0 months, respectively. By univariate analysis, rates of BM were significantly higher in patients younger than 60 years of age (p = 0.03. Multivariate analysis showed no significant difference in BM-free survival according to gender, age, histology, and initial T- and N-stage. Conclusion The current finding of almost equal bone metastasis free survival and overall survival in patients with LA-NSCLC in RPA group 1 suggests a longer survival for patients who receive PCI, and thereby have a reduced risk of BM.

  8. Standardized evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer: results of the ring studies of the international immuno-oncology biomarker working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkert, Carsten; Wienert, Stephan; Poterie, Audrey; Loibl, Sibylle; Budczies, Jan; Badve, Sunil; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Bane, Anita; Bedri, Shahinaz; Brock, Jane; Chmielik, Ewa; Christgen, Matthias; Colpaert, Cecile; Demaria, Sandra; Van den Eynden, Gert; Floris, Giuseppe; Fox, Stephen B; Gao, Dongxia; Ingold Heppner, Barbara; Kim, S Rim; Kos, Zuzana; Kreipe, Hans H; Lakhani, Sunil R; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Rimm, David L; Schnitt, Stuart J; Sinn, Bruno V; Sinn, Peter; Sirtaine, Nicolas; O'Toole, Sandra A; Viale, Giuseppe; Van de Vijver, Koen; de Wind, Roland; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Klauschen, Frederick; Untch, Michael; Fasching, Peter A; Reimer, Toralf; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Michiels, Stefan; Loi, Sherene; Salgado, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Multiple independent studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are prognostic in breast cancer with potential relevance for response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Although many groups are currently evaluating TIL, there is no standardized system for diagnostic applications. This study reports the results of two ring studies investigating TIL conducted by the International Working Group on Immuno-oncology Biomarkers. The study aim was to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for evaluation of TIL by different pathologists. A total of 120 slides were evaluated by a large group of pathologists with a web-based system in ring study 1 and a more advanced software-system in ring study 2 that included an integrated feedback with standardized reference images. The predefined aim for successful ring studies 1 and 2 was an ICC above 0.7 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI)). In ring study 1 the prespecified endpoint was not reached (ICC: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.78). On the basis of an analysis of sources of variation, we developed a more advanced digital image evaluation system for ring study 2, which improved the ICC to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92). The Fleiss' kappa value for <60 vs ≥60% TIL improved from 0.45 (ring study 1) to 0.63 in RS2 and the mean concordance improved from 88 to 92%. This large international standardization project shows that reproducible evaluation of TIL is feasible in breast cancer. This opens the way for standardized reporting of tumor immunological parameters in clinical studies and diagnostic practice. The software-guided image evaluation approach used in ring study 2 may be of value as a tool for evaluation of TIL in clinical trials and diagnostic practice. The experience gained from this approach might be applicable to the standardization of other diagnostic parameters in histopathology. PMID:27363491

  9. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  10. Older Age Predicts Decreased Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Death for Men Treated With Radiation Therapy: Meta-Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray’s regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Results: Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age (≤70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p 70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p < 0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p < 0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p < 0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. Conclusions: These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.

  11. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Guidelines for the Delineation of the Clinical Target Volume in the Postoperative Treatment of Pancreatic Head Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines to be used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0848, a Phase III randomized trial evaluating the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resected head of pancreas cancer. Methods and Materials: A consensus committee of six radiation oncologists with expertise in gastrointestinal radiotherapy developed stepwise contouring guidelines and an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) in the postoperative treatment of pancreas cancer, based on identifiable regions of interest and margin expansions. Areas at risk for subclinical disease to be included in the CTV were defined, including nodal regions, anastomoses, and the preoperative primary tumor location. Regions of interest that could be reproducibly contoured on postoperative imaging after a pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified. Standardized expansion margins to encompass areas at risk were developed after multiple iterations to determine the optimal margin expansions. Results: New contouring recommendations based on CT anatomy were established. Written guidelines for the delineation of the postoperative CTV and normal tissues, as well as a Web-based atlas, were developed. Conclusions: The postoperative abdomen has been a difficult area for effective radiotherapy. These new guidelines will help physicians create fields that better encompass areas at risk and minimize dose to normal tissues.

  12. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Guidelines for the Delineation of the Clinical Target Volume in the Postoperative Treatment of Pancreatic Head Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ben-Josef, Edgar [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Bosch, Walter R. [Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical College, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines to be used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0848, a Phase III randomized trial evaluating the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resected head of pancreas cancer. Methods and Materials: A consensus committee of six radiation oncologists with expertise in gastrointestinal radiotherapy developed stepwise contouring guidelines and an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) in the postoperative treatment of pancreas cancer, based on identifiable regions of interest and margin expansions. Areas at risk for subclinical disease to be included in the CTV were defined, including nodal regions, anastomoses, and the preoperative primary tumor location. Regions of interest that could be reproducibly contoured on postoperative imaging after a pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified. Standardized expansion margins to encompass areas at risk were developed after multiple iterations to determine the optimal margin expansions. Results: New contouring recommendations based on CT anatomy were established. Written guidelines for the delineation of the postoperative CTV and normal tissues, as well as a Web-based atlas, were developed. Conclusions: The postoperative abdomen has been a difficult area for effective radiotherapy. These new guidelines will help physicians create fields that better encompass areas at risk and minimize dose to normal tissues.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance for detecting and monitoring lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. Preliminary results of the florence nightingale breast study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan Iyigun, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Cetin; Agacayak, Filiz; Elbüken, Filiz; Bozdogan, Atilla; Ilgun, Serkan; Guler Uysal, Fusun; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the follow-up of patients with lymphedema in Turkey and its benefits in the diagnosis of stage 0, 1, and 2 lymphedema in patients who are under treatment for breast cancer. Thirty-seven female patients with breast cancer who underwent surgical procedures in our Breast Health Centre were followed up for lymphedema using bioimpedance, and clinical measurements were taken for a minimum period of 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patients who had been monitored regularly between November, 2011, and September, 2013, were enrolled to the study. In total, 8 patients developed lymphedema with an overall rate of 21.6%. Among the 8 patients who developed lymphedema, 4 had Stage 2, 1 had Stage 1, and 3 had Stage 0 lymphedema. Stage 0 lymphedema could not be detected with clinical measurements. During the patients' 1-year follow-up period using measurements of bioimpedance, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the occurrence of lymphedema and the disease characteristics. including the number of the extracted and remaining lymph nodes and the region of radiotherapy (p=0.042, p=0.024, p=0.040). Bioimpedance analysis seems to be a practical and reliable method for the early diagnosis of lymphedema. It is believed that regular monitoring of patients in the high-risk group using bioimpedance analyses increases the ability to treat lymphedema.

  14. Genetic determinants of CYP2A6 activity across racial/ethnic groups with different risks of lung cancer and effect on their smoking intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim L; Tiirikainen, Maarit I; Patel, Yesha M; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Le Marchand, Loic; Murphy, Sharon E

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variation in cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) gene is the primary contributor to the intraindividual and interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism and has been found to influence smoking intensity. However, no study has evaluated the relationship between CYP2A6 genetic variants and the CYP2A6 activity ratio (total 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) and their influence on smoking intensity [total nicotine equivalents (TNE)], across five racial/ethnic groups found to have disparate rates of lung cancer. This study genotyped 10 known functional CYP2A6 genetic or copy number variants in 2115 current smokers from the multiethnic cohort study [African Americans (AA) = 350, Native Hawaiians (NH) = 288, Whites = 413, Latinos (LA) = 437 and Japanese Americans (JA) = 627] to conduct such an investigation. Here, we found that LA had the highest CYP2A6 activity followed by Whites, AA, NH and JA, who had the lowest levels. Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity and body mass index, we found that CYP2A6 diplotypes were predictive of TNE levels, particularly in AA and JA (P trend lung cancer. Despite the association between nicotine metabolism (CYP2A6 activity phenotype and diplotypes) and smoking intensity (TNE), CYP2A6 levels did not correlate with the higher TNE levels found in AA nor the lower TNE levels found in LA, suggesting that other factors may influence smoking dose in these populations. Therefore, further study in these populations is recommended. PMID:26818358

  15. Registered nurses' thoughts on blended learning in a postgraduate course in cancer care--content analyses of web surveys and a focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Wadensten, Barbro; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-06-01

    Purpose of the research was to describe registered nurses' (RNs) (n = 53) thoughts on the blended learning format in a 'specialist nursing programme in cancer care'. The study was conducted in autumn 2007 and 2008. A content analysis of answers to open-ended questions in a web-based questionnaire and a focus group interview were carried out. The analysis revealed that the RNs appreciated blended learning. The web lectures facilitated learning and gave RNs access to the education at any time. However, according to the RNs, knowledge is gained through interaction between RNs and teachers, and this aspect needed to be improved. The RNs also thought that the content of the seminars on campus should focus on evidence-based nursing knowledge and practical skills, not just taught as stable facts and procedures. The result from the present study could help to improve the design and content of advanced nursing courses using a blended learning format.

  16. High mobility group A-interacting proteins in cancer: focus on chromobox protein homolog 7, homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 and PATZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fedele

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Mobility Group A (HMGA proteins, a family of DNA architectural factors, by interacting with different proteins play crucial roles in neoplastic transformation of a wide range of tissues. Therefore, the search for HMGA-interacting partners was carried out by several laboratories in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying HMGA-dependent tumorigenesis. Three of the several HMGA-binding proteins are discussed in this review. These are the Chromobox family protein (chromobox protein homolog 7, CBX7, the homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2 and the POZ/domain and Kruppel zinc finger family member, PATZ. All of them play a critical role in tumorigenesis, and may also be independent markers of cancer. Their activities are linked to cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. In this review, we discuss the properties of each protein, including their effect on HMGA1 functions, and propose a model accounting for how their activities might be coordinated.

  17. Protein Kinase A RI-α Predicts for Prostate Cancer Outcome: Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 86-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The RI-α regulatory subunit of protein kinase A type 1 (PKA) is constitutively overexpressed in human cancer cell lines and is associated with active cell growth and neoplastic transformation. This report examined the association between PKA expression and the endpoints of biochemical failure (BF), local failure (LF), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific mortality (CSM), and overall mortality in men treated with radiotherapy, with or without short-term androgen deprivation in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 86-10. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment archival diagnostic tissue samples from 80 patients were stained for PKA by immunohistochemical methods from a parent cohort of 456 cases. PKA intensity was scored manually and by image analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model for overall mortality and Fine and Gray's regression models for CSM, DM, LF and BF were then applied to determine the relationship of PKA expression to the endpoints. Results: The pretreatment characteristics of the missing and determined PKA groups were not significantly different. On univariate analyses, a high PKA staining intensity was associated with BF (image analysis, continuous variable, p = 0.022), LF (image analysis, dichotomized variable, p = 0.011), CSM (manual analysis, p = 0.037; image analysis, continuous, p = 0.014), and DM (manual analysis, p = 0.029). On multivariate analyses, the relationships to BF (image analysis, continuous, p = 0.03), LF (image analysis, dichotomized, p = 0.002), and DM remained significant (manual analysis, p = 0.018). In terms of CSM, a trend toward an association was seen (manual analysis, p = 0.08; image analysis, continuous, p = 0.09). Conclusion: PKA overexpression was significantly related to patient outcome and is a potentially useful biomarker for identifying high-risk prostate cancer patients who might benefit from a PKA knockdown strategy

  18. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  19. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  20. Detection of HPV DNA in esophageal cancer specimens from different regions and ethnic groups: a descriptive study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HPV has been found repeatedly in esophageal carcinoma tissues. However, reported detection rates of HPV DNA in these tumors have varied markedly. Differences in detection methods, sample types, and geographic regions of sample origin have been suggested as potential causes of this discrepancy. HPV L1 DNA and HPV genotypes were evaluated in 435 esophageal carcinoma specimens collected from four geographic regions with different ethnicities including Anyang in north China, Shantou in south China, Xinjiang in west China, and the United States. The HPV L1 fragment was detected using SPF1/GP6+ primers. HPV genotyping was performed using genotype specific PCR. Two hundred and forty four of 435 samples (56.1%) tested positive for HPV L1. Significant differences in detection rate were observed neither among the three areas of China nor between China and the US. HPV6, 16, 18, 26, 45, 56, 57, and 58 were identified in L1 positive samples. HPV16 and 57 were the most common types in all regions, followed by HPV26 and HPV18. HPV infection is common in esophageal carcinoma independent of region and ethnic group of origin. Findings in this study raise the possibility that HPV is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Further investigation with a larger sample size over broader geographic areas may be warranted

  1. Deconstructing therapeutic mechanisms in cancer support groups: do we express more emotion when we tell stories or talk directly to each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Rie; Li, Yong; Gravity, Theo; Piemme, Karen Altree; DiMiceli, Sue; Collie, Kate; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-02-01

    Studies indicate that story-telling and emotional expression may be important therapeutic mechanisms. This study examined how they work together over 1 year of supportive-expressive group therapy (SET). Participants were 41 women randomized to SET. We coded emotional expression and story types (story vs. non-story) at the initial session, 4, 8, and 12 months. Women engaged in more storytelling in their initial than later sessions. In later sessions, women expressed significantly more emotion, specifically compassion and high-arousal positive affect. Direct communication (non-story) allowed more positive but also more defensive expression as women supported and challenged each other. Greater hostility in non-story and greater constrained anger during story were associated with increasing depression. Greater high-arousal positive affect in non-story and greater primary negative affect in story were associated with increasing social network size. These results inform clinicians about cues they might use to improve the effectiveness of cancer support groups.

  2. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  3. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treat

  4. Factors perceived to influence exercise adherence in women with breast cancer participating in an exercise programme during adjuvant chemotherapy: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Karlsen, Bjørg; Allan, Helen T.; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives. To explore factors influencing exercise adherence among women with breast cancer while following an exercise programme. Background. Earlier research shows that women with breast cancer decrease physical activity following the cancer diagnosis and that adhering to exercise interventions can be a challenge. Research is needed to identify motivational factors and barriers for exercise adherence among women during treatment for breast cancer. Design. This was a quali...

  5. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  6. Ki-67 Is an Independent Predictor of Metastasis and Cause-Specific Mortality for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoven, Bret [University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Yan, Yan [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ritter, Mark, E-mail: ritter@humonc.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Khor, Li-Yan [Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hammond, Elizabeth [LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Jones, Christopher [Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, California (United States); Amin, Mahul [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, Ontario (Canada); Zeitzer, Kenneth [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pollack, Alan [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: The association of Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) with overall survival (OS), disease-specific mortality (DSM), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF) was examined in men with favorable- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone or with short-term androgen deprivation (ADT) in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08. Methods and Materials: 468 patients (23.6%) on RTOG 94-08 had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. Ki67-SI was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified manually and by image analysis. Correlative analysis versus clinical outcome was performed using the third quartile (≥Q3) cutpoint. A proportional hazards multivariable analysis (MVA) dichotomized covariates in accordance with trial stratification and randomization criteria. Results: In MVAs adjusted for all treatment covariates, high Ki67-SI (≥Q3) was correlated with increased DSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.48, P=.03), DM (HR 3.5, P=.002), and BF (HR 3.55, P<.0001). MVA revealed similar Ki67-associated hazard ratios in each separate treatment arm for DSM, DM, and BF; these reached significance only for DM in the RT-alone arm and for BF in both arms. Ki67-SI was not a significant predictor of intraprostatic recurrence assessed by repeated biopsy 2 years after treatment. Patients with a high or low Ki67-SI seemed to experience a similar relative benefit from the addition of ADT to radiation. Conclusions: High Ki67-SI independently predicts for increased DSM, DM, and protocol BF in primarily intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with RT with or without ADT on RTOG 94-08 but does not predict for local recurrence or for increased relative benefit from ADT. This and prior studies lend support for the use of Ki67-SI as a stratification factor in future trials.

  7. A Novel Biomarker Panel Examining Response to Gemcitabine with or without Erlotinib for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy in NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Shultz

    Full Text Available NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3 was a randomized control trial that demonstrated improved overall survival (OS in patients receiving erlotinib in addition to gemcitabine for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Prior to therapy, patients had plasma samples drawn for future study. We sought to identify biomarkers within these samples.Using the proximity ligation assay (PLA, a probe panel was built from commercially available antibodies for 35 key proteins selected from a global genetic analysis of pancreatic cancers, and used to quantify protein levels in 20 uL of patient plasma. To determine if any of these proteins levels independently associated with OS, univariate and mulitbaraible Cox models were used. In addition, we examined the associations between biomarker expression and disease stage at diagnosis using Fisher's exact test. The correlation between Erlotinib sensitivity and each biomarkers was assessed using a test of interaction between treatment and biomarker.Of the 569 eligible patients, 480 had samples available for study. Samples were randomly allocated into training (251 and validation sets (229. Among all patients, elevated levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with lower OS, while IL-8, CEA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and mucin-1 were associated with metastatic disease. Patients with elevated levels of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2 expression had improved OS when treated with erlotinib compared to placebo. In conclusion, PLA is a powerful tool for identifying biomarkers from archived, small volume serum samples. These data may be useful to stratify patient outcomes regardless of therapeutic intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00040183.

  8. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  9. 肿瘤患者的短期团体认知行为干预%Short-term group cognitive behavioral intervention in cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑儒君; 符琰; 陈林; 牟倩倩; 刘珊珊; 李俊英; 余春华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨认知行为干预对肿瘤患者的生命质量和心理痛苦的影响.方法 本研究为随机对照研究,计算机随机化分组,试验组和对照组最终分别纳入64例和66例肿瘤患者.对照组只接受常规健康教育;试验组接受每周2次的认知行为干预.所有研究对象在认知行为干预前后接受生命质量的调查及心理痛苦的评估.结果 认知行为干预后试验组的生命质量得分为(71.7±17.5)分,显著高于对照组(63.9±18.3)分,差异有统计学意义,t=2.2,P<0.05;试验组心理痛苦评分为(2.6±0.6)分,显著低于对照组的(3.9±0.7)分,差异有统计学意义,t=11.8,P<0.05,其中试验组在担忧、疼痛、抑郁和睡眠4方面的心理痛苦问题所占比例[ 42.2%(27/64)、29.7%(19/64)、35.9%(23/64)、23.4%(15/64)]显著低于对照组 [ 60.6%(40/66)、47.0%(31/66)、53.0%(35/66)、39.4%(26/66)],差异有统计学意义,X2=4.4、4.1、3.9和4.5,P<0.05.结论 短期团体认知行为干预可缓解肿瘤患者的心理痛苦和躯体疼痛,改善其不良情绪和睡眠状态,最终提高患者的生命质量.%Objective To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral intervention on quality of life and distress of cancer patients. Methods The research was a random control study, and computer randomized grouping, the experimental group and control group contained 64 cases, 66 cases, respectively. The control group only accepted health education, while experimental group accepted cognitive behavioral intervention twice a week. Before and after the research, the patients were investigated with quality of life and distress scale. Results After the study of cognitive behavioral intervention, quality of life of experimental group scored (71.7±17.5) points which showed greater improvement than the control group scored (63.9±18.3) points (t=2.2,P<0.05), the distress score of experimental group was (2.6±0.6) points which was significant lower than the control group scored (3.9 ±0

  10. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  11. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m2 IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m2 IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and

  12. Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotte Sébastien

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone

  13. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: david.schwartz@utsw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, Texas (United States); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yao, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony [American College of Radiology Imaging Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Trotti, Andy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California (United States); Harari, Paul [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Foote, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  14. Assessment of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis in children undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Japanese Childhood Cancer and Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Shimomura, Yasuto; Watanabe, Arata; Taga, Takashi; Kikuta, Atsushi; Matsushita, Takeji; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Chihiro; Horikoshi, Yasuo; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Asami, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) is a challenging complication encountered during modern chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We retrospectively assessed the incidence of ON and its risk factors in a total of 1095 patients enrolled in 3 consecutive Japanese Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group ALL studies (ALL941 [1994 to 2000], n=464; ALL2000 [2000 to 2004], n=305; and ALL2004 [2004 to 2010], n=326). ON was diagnosed in 16 patients, of whom 15 were symptomatic. The cumulative incidence of ON was 0.76% in ALL941, 0.35% in ALL2000, and 3.6% in ALL2004. The incidence of ON in ALL941/2000, in which only prednisolone was administered as a steroid, was significantly lower than that in ALL2004, in which dexamethasone was used as a partial substitute for prednisolone (P<0.01). In ALL2004, sex and age were significantly correlated with the incidence of ON (1.3% in boys vs. 6.7% in girls, P=0.0132; 0.42% for age <10 y vs. 15.6% for age ≥10 y, P<0.0001), suggesting that girls aged 10 years and above are at a greater risk of ON onset. These results indicate that the risk of ON should be considered when administering dexamethasone as part of ALL protocol treatment in girls aged 10 years and above.

  15. Early oesophageal cancer: results of a European multicentre survey. Group Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavina, L

    1995-01-01

    Early oesophageal cancer has been extensively studied in Far-Eastern countries, where its prevalence is high. A multicentre survey was conducted within the Groupe Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage to analyse results of surgical treatment in patients with disease staged as pTis-T1 N0 M0 according to the tumour node metastasis classification. Of 9743 patients with squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma observed since 1980, 4663 underwent resection; 253 (5.4 per cent) of these fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall mortality rate was 9.1 per cent (23 patients), and was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (10.7 versus 6 per cent, P not significant). Pathological examination showed an intraepithelial tumour in 46 patients (18.2 per cent), intramucosal carcinoma in 64 (25.3 per cent) and a submucosal lesion in 143 (56.5 per cent). The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with intraepithelial, intramucosal and submucosal tumours was 92.8, 72.8 and 44.3 per cent respectively. The 5-year survival rate was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (66 versus 52 per cent). No survival advantage was observed after either operation in patients with mucosal tumours. Of 21 patients with recurrent disease, 20 had a submucosal lesion. The 5-year survival rate in patients with submucosal tumour was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (54.2 versus 25.5 per cent).

  16. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated 'help-desk' team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. (author)

  17. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01: Lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment. Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%, technical problems (46% while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support.

  18. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakman, C; Francis, P A; Crown, J;

    2013-01-01

    Background In women with node-positive breast cancer, the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 tested the incorporation of docetaxel (Taxotere) into doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-based chemotherapy, and compared sequential and concurrent docetaxel. At 5 years, there was a trend for improved disease...

  19. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  20. Intakes of Fruit, Vegetables, and Specific Botanical Groups in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Neal D Freedman; Albanes, Demetrius; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against lung cancer, although epidemiologic findings are inconclusive. The authors prospectively examined associations between lung cancer risk and intakes of fruit, vegetables, and botanical subgroups in 472,081 participants aged 50–71 years in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline (1995–1996) with a 124-item dietary questionnaire. A total of 6,035 incident lung cancer cases were...

  1. Sipuleucel-T for the Treatment of Metastatic Hormone-Relapsed Prostate Cancer: A NICE Single Technology Appraisal; An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma L; Davis, Sarah; Thokala, Praveen; Breeze, Penny R; Bryden, Peter; Wong, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Dendreon, the company manufacturing sipuleucel-T, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, metastatic, non-visceral hormone-relapsed prostate cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated, as part of NICE's single technology appraisal process. The comparator was abiraterone acetate (AA) or best supportive care (BSC). The School of Health and Related Research at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company submission (CS), ERG review, and subsequent decision of the NICE Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence of sipuleucel-T based upon the CS. Clinical-effectiveness data relevant to the decision problem were taken from three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of sipuleucel-T and a placebo (PBO) comparator of antigen-presenting cells (APC) being re-infused (APC-PBO) (D9901, D9902A and D9902B), and one RCT (COU-AA-302) of AA plus prednisone vs. PBO plus prednisone. Two trials reported a significant advantage for sipuleucel-T in median overall survival compared with APC-PBO: for trial D9901, an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.47; (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.76) p < 0.002; for D9902B, adjusted HR 0.78 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.98) p = 0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in D9902A, unadjusted HR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.48, 1.28) p = 0.331. Sipuleucel-T and APC-PBO groups did not differ significantly in time to disease progression, in any of the three RCTs. Most adverse events developed within 1 day of the infusion, and resolved within 2 days. The CS included an indirect comparison of sipuleucel-T (D9902B) and AA plus prednisone (COU-AA-302). As trials differed in prior use of chemotherapy, an analysis of only chemotherapy-naïve patients was included

  2. Occupational cancer study on asbestos: Differentiation of high-risk groups. Asbestos research report 2; Berufskrebsstudie Asbest: Beitrag zur Eingrenzung von Hochrisikogruppen. Forschungsbericht Asbest 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woitowitz, H.J. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin; Lange, H.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie; Roedelsperger, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin; Pache, L. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie; Woitowitz, R.H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin; Ulm, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie

    1989-06-01

    3,988 men and women with a history of at least 3 years of occupational asbestos fibre exposure participated in a cohort study. The mortality rates of this group were compared with the mortality figures of the non-occupationally exposed population of the FRG. Subgroup I included, at more than 50%, former employees of companies which produce and use asbestos cement products or asbestos boards, or asbestos press plates. Subgroup II largely recruited former employees of companies which produce or use asbestos textiles or asbestos cement products. For 106 expected deaths from ``malignant neoplasias in total``, subgroup I also showed 106 according to death certificate and 123 according to best available information. For 35 expected deaths from lung cancer, 37 were found according to death certificate and 44 according to best available information. For 25 expected deaths from ``malignant neoplasias in total``, subgroup II showed a statistically significant increase of 42 according to death certificate and 50 deaths according best available information. For 7 expected deaths from lung cancer, there was a statistically significant increase of 14 according to death certificate and 17 according to best available information. Assessment of the tumour risks shows a significant increase of ``lung cancer`` as the cause of death in the production and use of asbestos cement products for cohort members of both subgroups, and in the production and use of frictional coatings for subgroup II. The highest mortality by mesothelioma was found in former employees in the production segments ``asbestos textiles``, ``asbestos cement`` and ``asbestos insulation materials``. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 3988 Maenner und Frauen mit mindestens dreijaehriger Asbestfaserstaub-Gefaehrdung am Arbeitsplatz nahmen an einer Kohortenstudie teil. Es wurden die Sterblichkeitsraten dieser Personengruppen mit Mortalitaetsziffern in der uebrigen Bevoelkerung der BRD verglichen. Untergruppe I bestand zu mehr als 50

  3. “If you can’t treat HPV, why test for it?” Women’s attitudes to the changing face of cervical cancer prevention: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Leary, John

    2014-01-01

    Open Access Research article “If you can’t treat HPV, why test for it?” Women’s attitudes to the changing face of cervical cancer prevention: a focus group study Judith McRae1*, Cara Martin2, John O’Leary3, Linda Sharp1 and On behalf of the Irish Cervical Screening Research Consortium (CERVIVA) * Corresponding author: Judith McRae Author Affiliations 1 National Cancer Registry, Building 6800, Cork Airport Business Park, Kinsale Road, Cork, Irelan...

  4. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  5. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  6. Radiotherapy quality assurance review in a multi-center randomized trial of limited-disease small cell lung cancer: the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) trial 0202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the radiotherapy (RT) quality assurance (QA) assessment in Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) 0202, which was the first trial that required on-going RT QA review in the JCOG. JCOG 0202 was a multi-center phase III trial comparing two types of consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for limited-disease small cell lung cancer. RT requirements included a total dose of 45 Gy/30 fx (bis in die, BID/twice a day) without heterogeneity correction; elective nodal irradiation (ENI) of 30 Gy; at least 1 cm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV); and interfraction interval of 6 hours or longer. Dose constraints were defined in regards to the spinal cord and the lung. The QA assessment was classed as per protocol (PP), deviation acceptable (DA), violation unacceptable (VU), and incomplete/not evaluable (I/NE). A total of 283 cases were accrued, of which 204 were fully evaluable, excluding 79 I/NE cases. There were 18 VU in gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage (8% of 238 evaluated); 4 VU and 23 DA in elective nodal irradiation (ENI) (2% and 9% of 243 evaluated, respectively). Some VU were observed in organs at risk (1 VU in the lung and 5 VU in the spinal cord). Overall RT compliance (PP + DA) was 92% (187 of 204 fully evaluable). Comparison between the former and latter halves of the accrued cases revealed that the number of VU and DA had decreased. The results of the RT QA assessment in JCOG 0202 seemed to be acceptable, providing reliable results

  7. Bcl-2 and bax expression and prostate cancer outcome in men treated with radiotherapy in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 86-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bcl-2 and bax are proteins with opposing roles in apoptosis regulation; yet abnormal expression of either has been associated with failure after radiotherapy (RT). In this study we examined bcl-2 and bax expression as predictive markers in men treated with radiotherapy ± androgen deprivation on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10. Experimental Design: Suitable archival diagnostic tissue was obtained from 119 (26%) patients for bcl-2 analysis and 104 (23%) patients for bax analysis. Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship of abnormal bcl-2 and bax expression to the end points of local failure, distant metastasis, cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality. Bcl-2 overexpression was classified as any tumor cell cytoplasmic staining and altered bax expression was classified as greater or lesser cytoplasmic staining intensity of tumor cells as compared with adjacent normal prostate epithelium. Results: The study cohort exhibited bcl-2 overexpression in 26% (n = 30) of cases and abnormal bax expression in 47% (n = 49) of cases. A borderline significant relationship was observed between abnormal bax expression and higher Gleason score (p = 0.08). In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no statistically significant relationship seen between abnormal bcl-2 or bax expression and outcome. Conclusions: Abnormal bcl-2 and bax expression were not related to any of the end points tested. The cohort examined was comprised of patients with locally advanced disease and it is possible that these markers may be of greater value in men with earlier-stage prostate cancer

  8. Comparative study on cancer incidence in neighboring regions of Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia in 1969-1980. Pannonian Tumor Epidemiology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The present collaborative study was performed in four confined, neighboring regions of Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia with different demographic and occupational characteristics of their respective populations, various structures of medical facilities, and cancer registration systems. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates and trends of six major cancer sites (stomach, colorectum and lung in both sexes as well as breast, uterine cervix and uterine body in women) in three 4-year periods (1969-1972, 1973-1976, 1977-1980) were computed and mutually compared in the mentioned regions. Relatively high, different but more or less decreasing incidence rates of stomach, and varying but mainly increasing rates and trends of colorectal cancer were observed, while lung cancer incidence rates and tendencies showed great variations in both sexes. For women, besides continuous increase, the tendencies towards culmination and stabilization were found in regions with the highest incidence rates of breast and uterine body cancer in comparison with the more or less declining rates of uterine cervix cancer over the period studied. The observed different incidence rates and trends of these and obviously of other cancer sites require further investigations using more sophisticated epidemiological methods and approaches.

  9. Living with Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Cancer is regarded as a formidable threat to mankind. Every yem’ in Shanghai, which has a high cancer rate, 15,000 people are diagnosed with the disease and 12,000 die of cancer. Because many people believe that "cancer equals death," a special cancer rehabilitation center has appeared in Shanghai. The center creates an environment where cancer patients can exchange experiences and receive psychological group therapy. In this way those patients

  10. p21-activated kinase group II small compound inhibitor GNE-2861 perturbs estrogen receptor alpha signaling and restores tamoxifen-sensitivity in breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Ting; Zhu, Jian; Li, Zhilun; Lorent, Julie; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Strömblad, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is highly expressed in most breast cancers. Consequently, ERα modulators, such as tamoxifen, are successful in breast cancer treatment, although tamoxifen resistance is commonly observed. While tamoxifen resistance may be caused by altered ERα signaling, the molecular mechanisms regulating ERα signaling and tamoxifen resistance are not entirely clear. Here, we found that PAK4 expression was consistently correlated to poor patient outcome in endocrine treated and ...

  11. Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and specific botanical groups in relation to lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Margaret E; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Neal D; Albanes, Demetrius; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-11-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against lung cancer, although epidemiologic findings are inconclusive. The authors prospectively examined associations between lung cancer risk and intakes of fruit, vegetables, and botanical subgroups in 472,081 participants aged 50-71 years in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline (1995-1996) with a 124-item dietary questionnaire. A total of 6,035 incident lung cancer cases were identified between 1995 and 2003. Total fruit and vegetable intake was unrelated to lung cancer risk in both men and women. Higher consumption of several botanical subgroups, however, was significantly inversely associated with risk, but only in men. For example, the relative risks of lung cancer among men in the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake of rosaceae, convolvulaceae, and umbelliferae were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 0.91), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.96), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively; corresponding relative risks in women were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.12), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.09), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.06). These results provide support for a protective role of specific botanical subgroups of fruits and vegetables in lung cancer prevention in men, although the findings could also be due to residual confounding by smoking or chance.

  12. Study on the Effect of Group Psychotherapy on the Negative Emotion of Breast Cancer Patients.%团体心理治疗对乳腺癌患者负性情绪影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵运江; 许成; 李秀玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨团体心理治疗对乳腺癌患者情绪状况的影响.方法 将82例乳腺癌病人随机分为2组.对照组接受常规化疗,干预组在临床治疗的同时,进行团体心理治疗;采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)评定其情绪状况,观察比较病人在团体心理治疗8周前后SAS和SDS评分结果.结果 干预组患者焦虑、抑郁情绪得到明显改善,前后比较有显著性差异(t=5.31,P<0.01;t=3.66,P<0.01).结论 团体心理治疗可以纠正乳腺癌病人的认知偏差,改善其负性情绪.%Objective To explore the effect of the group psychotherapy on the negative emotion of the breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 82 breast cancer patients were equally randomized into observation group and control group. Both groups received drug therapy and conventional care, and the observation group were given extra group psychotherapy for 8 weeks. The change in depression was evaluated by SAS and SDS. Results Eight weeks after the treatment, the emotion of anxiety and depression of the patients were decreased. SAS scores and SDS scores in both groups had significant differences (t = 5. 31, P<0. 01; t = 3.66, P<0. 01). Conclusion The group psychotherapy is helpful to the comprehensive rehabilitation of breast cancer patients during the somatic treatment. We suggest that group psychotherapy could be used as a supplementary therapy for the breast cancer patients to improve their quality of life.

  13. Immunocapture of CD133-positive cells from human cancer cell lines by using monodisperse magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres containing amino groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based macroporous microspheres with an average particle size of 4.2 μm were prepared using a modified multi-step swelling polymerization method and by introducing amino functionality on their surfaces. Antibody molecules were oxidized on their carbohydrate moieties and bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres via a site-directed procedure. CD133-positive cells could be effectively captured from human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT116, MCF7, and IMR-32) by using magnetic microspheres conjugated to an anti-human CD133 antibody. After further culture, the immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells from IMR-32 proliferated and gradually detached from the magnetic microspheres. Flow-cytometric analysis confirmed the enrichment of CD133-expressing cells by using the antibody-bound magnetic microspheres. Such microspheres suitable for immunocapture are very promising for cancer diagnosis because the CD133-expressing cells in cancer cell lines have been suggested to be cancer stem cells. - Highlights: • Multi-step swelling polymerization produced poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres. • Anti-human CD133 antibodies were bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres. • CD133-positive cells were effectively captured from human cancer cell lines. • Immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells proliferated and were detached from microspheres. • Enrichment of CD133-expressing cells was confirmed by flow-cytometric analysis

  14. Improved outcome in children with advanced stage B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL): results of the United Kingdom Children Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) 9002 protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Atra, A; Imeson, J. D.; Hobson, R.; Gerrard, M; Hann, I M; Eden, O B; Carter, R. L.; Pinkerton, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    From July 1990 to March 1996, 112 children with stage III or IV B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) with up to 70% FAB L3-type blasts (n= 42) in the bone marrow without central nervous system (CNS) disease were treated on the United Kingdom Children Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) 9002 protocol (identical to the French LMB 84). The median age was 8.3 years. There were 81 boys and 31 girls. According to the extent of the primary disease, patients were sub-staged into three groups: IIIA with unre...

  15. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Map individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results: We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same...... response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods: We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European Hap...... judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion: The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans...

  16. A randomised comparison of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150 mg versus placebo as immediate therapy either alone or as adjuvant to standard care for early non-metastatic prostate cancer. First report from the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study No. 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tammela, T L J; Vaage, S;

    2002-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg ('Casodex'(1)) as immediate therapy, either alone or as adjuvant to treatment of curative intent, in patients with early (T1b-T4, any N, M0) prostate cancer.......To assess the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg ('Casodex'(1)) as immediate therapy, either alone or as adjuvant to treatment of curative intent, in patients with early (T1b-T4, any N, M0) prostate cancer....

  17. The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life quality in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and contro...

  18. Screening for EGFR Mutations in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Gefitinib on a Compassionate-Use Program: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Murray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. EGFR is commonly expressed in cancers of the head and neck (H and N, and anti-EGFR agents have demonstrated improvements in outcomes (TTP and OS. The aim of this study was to determine EGFR gene status in H and N cancer patients treated with gefitinib and to correlate mutational status with clinico-pathological data and response. Patients and Methods. Patients with histologically confirmed H and N cancer having failed prior treatment for advanced disease entered this compassionate-use-program. Nineteen patients received gefitinib. EGFR expression was assessed by IHC, gene copy number by FISH, and mutation analysis was conducted for EGFR (18-21, KRAS, BRAF (V600E, and HER-2 exon 20. An additional TKI naive cohort of 73 patients was also screened. Results. Mutations were detected in 6/19 patients (3× EGFR, 1× KRAS, and 2× HER2-exon 20. There were no significant differences in TTP or OS for patients with somatic EGFR mutations. No BRAF mutations were detected. Conclusions. The incidence of EGFR mutations in H and N cancer in this study was 5.3%. No statistically relevant correlations between mutation or gene gain and response or survival were observed. Due to the limited number of patients and low incidence of genetic aberrations in the genes analyzed, additional studies are warranted.

  19. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier;

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related...

  20. Arm morbidity following sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection: a study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Madsen A.; Haugaard, K.; Soerensen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy was implemented in the treatment of early breast cancer with the aim of reducing shoulder and arm morbidity. Relatively few prospective studies have been published where the morbidity was assessed by clinical examination. Very few studies have examined the i...

  1. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  2. Fast Overlapping Group Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) non-overlapping groups of features. The non-overlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation, where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. We have performed empirical evaluations using the breast cancer gene expression data set, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results demonstrate the eff...

  3. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and ...... and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...

  4. A phase II clinical trial of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer of undifferentiated type: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study JCOG1009/1010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kohei; Takashima, Atsuo; Kimura, Aya; Mizusawa, Junki; Hasuike, Noriaki; Ono, Hiroyuki; Terashima, Masanori; Muto, Manabu; Boku, Narikazu; Sasako, Mitsuru; Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    A Phase II clinical trial has been initiated to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for intramucosal (cT1a) gastric cancer of undifferentiated type. Patients with cT1a gastric cancer with undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma are eligible for the study. The tumor size should be 2 cm or less without ulceration. The study will enroll a total of 325 patients from 51 institutions over a 4-year period. The primary endpoint is proportion of 5-year overall survival (% 5-year overall survival) in patients with undifferentiated dominant type. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, % 5-year overall survival without either recurrence or gastrectomy, % en-bloc resection with endoscopic submucosal dissection, % pathological curative resection with endoscopic submucosal dissection, % 5-year overall survival in patients with differentiated dominant type, % 5-year overall survival in patients with pathologically curative resection with endoscopic submucosal dissection and adverse events.

  5. Measurement of plasminogen activator system components in plasma and tumor tissue extracts obtained from patients with breast cancer: an EORTC Receptor and Biomarker Group collaboration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebenchtchikov, N.I.; Maguire, T.M.; Riisbro, R.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; O'Donovan, N.; Schmitt, M.; McGreal, G.; McDermott, E.; O'Higgins, N.; Brunner, N.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Duffy, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The plasminogen activator (PA) system comprises the 2 serine proteases, urokinase PA (uPA) and tissue PA (tPA), the 2 serpin inhibitors, PAI-1 and PAI-2 and the uPA receptor (uPAR; CD87). High levels of uPA, PAI-1, uPA-PAI-1 complex and uPAR in breast cancer tissue are associated with poor prognosis

  6. A Randomized Trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01) Comparing Short Versus Protracted Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy Before Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Armstrong, John G

    2010-08-24

    PURPOSE: To examine the long-term outcomes of a randomized trial comparing short (4 months; Arm 1) and long (8 months; Arm 2) neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1997 and 2001, 276 patients were enrolled and the data from 261 were analyzed. The stratification risk factors were prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng\\/mL, Gleason score >\\/=7, and Stage T3 or more. The intermediate-risk stratum had one factor and the high-risk stratum had two or more. Staging was done from the bone scan and computed tomography findings. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure-free survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 102 months. The overall survival, biochemical failure-free survival. and prostate cancer-specific survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms, overall or at 5 years. The cumulative probability of overall survival at 5 years was 90% (range, 87-92%) in Arm 1 and 83% (range, 80-86%) in Arm 2. The biochemical failure-free survival rate at 5 years was 66% (range, 62-71%) in Arm 1 and 63% (range, 58-67%) in Arm 2. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant difference was found in biochemical failure-free survival between 4 months and 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

  7. 集体心理干预对癌症患者应对方式影响的研究%Effects of Group Psychological Intervention on Coping Style in Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼穗; 齐大亮; 吴捷; 徐晟; 王政

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effect of psychological intervention on coping style in cancer patients, this study divided 90 cancer patients performed before and after measurements into experimental group ( n=46) and control group ( n=44) . The results showed that the experimental group after group psychological intervention scores on the sub-scales of coping was significantly higher; Further analysis revealed that group psychological intervention was no significant difference in gender; But there is a significant age difference where younger group scored on each di-mension of coping style were significantly higher than the elderly group. The results show that psychological in-tervention can effectively improve coping style in cancer patients.%为了探索集体心理干预对癌症患者应对方式的影响,本研究在90名癌症患者中随机选取46人进行干预研究。为考察干预效果,在干预后分别以医学应对方式问卷各维度因子的前测得分为协变量,以医学应对方式问卷各维度因子的后测得分为因变量,进行2(分组:实验组、对照组)×2(性别:男、女)×3(年龄:低龄组、中龄组、高龄组)的三因素协方差分析。结果表明,经过集体心理干预的实验组在应对方式各分量表上的得分要显著高于对照组,集体心理干预在性别和年龄上不存在显著差异。研究结果表明集体心理干预能够有效地改善癌症患者的应对方式。

  8. Vinorelbine as first-line or second-line therapy for advanced breast cancer: a Phase I-II trial by the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjer, S.T.; Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    proven breast cancer and had received a prior epirubicin based regimen either adjuvant or as first line therapy for advanced disease. Vinorelbine was administered intravenously day 1 and 8 in a 3 weeks' schedule. Subsequently 48 additional patients were treated at one dose-level below MTD. RESULTS: Fifty...

  9. Randomised study of sequential versus combination chemotherapy with capecitabine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin in advanced colorectal cancer, an interim safety analysis. A Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) phase III study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Antonini, N.; Douma, J.; Wals, J.; Honkoop, A.H.; Erdkamp, F.L.; Jong, R.S. de; Rodenburg, C.J.; Vreugdenhil, G.R.; Akkermans-Vogelaar, J.M.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results on overall survival in randomised studies of mono- versus combination chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients may have been biased by an imbalance in salvage treatments. This is the first randomised study that evaluates sequential versus combination chemotherapy with

  10. Distribution of ABO blood group and the clinical characteristics in gastric cancer%胃癌患者的ABO血型分布及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐灵均; 张吉翔

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胃癌患者的ABO血型分布及临床特点.方法 选择400例胃癌患者的住院病历资料,分析其ABO血型;比较前后5年患者的ABO血型分布,分析后5年患者的一般情况、首发症状、病理特点.结果 与前5年比较,后5年A型血检出率明显减少(41.5% vs 23.5%,P<0.01),O型血检出率明显增多(27.5% vs 42.5%,P<0.01),B型、AB型血无统计学差异.后5年中,各血型患者的首发症状均以上腹痛、腹胀、纳差、体质量下降为主;B型血低分化腺癌患者明显高于A型血患者(68.1% vs 36.1%,P<0.05),70.7%浸润深度达全层,且66.4%有淋巴结转移;累及周围组织的AB型血患者明显高于B型血患者(61.5%vs 25.5%,P<0.05).结论 前后5年胃癌患者的ABO血型分布发生了变化;提示非遗传因素对胃癌发病的影响逐渐增强,血型可能与肿瘤的生物学行为有关.%Objective To explore the distribution of ABO blood group and the clinical features of the patients with gastric cancer (GC). Methods Inpatient medical records of four hundred cases of the patients with CC were choosed and put into statistical analysis of ABO blood group; To compare the distribution of ABO blood group of the patients before and after five years, at the same time analyzing the clinical data of the patients included the generalconditions, clinical manifestation, pathological features, auxiliary examination, staging, treat ment and so on. Results Compared with the prior five years, the detectable rate of A blood group was greatly decreased in the recent five years (41.5% vs 23.5% , P <0.01) , the detectable rate of 0 blood group was obviously increased in the recent five years (27.5% vs 42.5% , P <0.01), the discrepancy of B blood group and AB blood group were not statistically significant. In the recent five years, initial symptoms in each blood type group were mainly upper abdominal pain or distention, anorexia, marasmus; The rates of poorly

  11. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  12. 大型团体心理干预模式对乳腺癌患者应对方式的影响%Effects of Large Group Psychological Intervention on Coping Style of Patients with Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丕琳; 朱强; 薛翠翠; 苏娅丽; 赵梦; 王林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of large group psychological intervention mode on coping style of patients with breast can-cer. Methods 420 patients with breast cancer participated in the Rukang Salon, a large group psychological intervention, were investigated with the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and self-administrated questionnaire before and after intervention, respectively. Results The score of coping style of the patients significantly improved after the intervention (P<0.01). Conclusion It is effective in the large group psy-chological intervention on coping style of patients with breast cancer, more often in positive coping style and less in negative coping style.%目的:探讨大型团体心理干预模式对乳腺癌患者应对方式的影响。方法对参加大型团体心理干预“汝康沙龙”的乳腺癌患者420例,分别于干预前后采用简易应对方式问卷进行调查。结果与干预前比较,乳腺癌患者应对方式得分明显提高(P<0.01)。结论大型团体心理干预对乳腺癌患者的应对方式具有积极作用,干预后患者能更多运用积极应对方式,减少消极应对方式。

  13. Clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in different age groups%不同年龄段之间乳腺癌患者的临床病理生物学特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐谦; 艾美凤

    2015-01-01

    目的:深入探讨不同年龄段乳腺癌患者的临床病理生物学特点。方法选取我院2012年11月—2014年10月期间收治的60例乳腺癌患者为研究对象,对不同年龄段患者的临床病理生物学特点进行比较和分析。结果青年患者在激素受体阳性率、病理分期为iii期的发生率及淋巴结转移率都要高于其他年龄阶段的患者。结论相比于中老年乳腺癌患者,青年患者普遍具有转移率高、恶性程度高、肿瘤生长快及病期晚的特点,临床上需要给予更高的重视。%Objective:to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in different age groups. Methods:60 patients with breast cancer treated in our hospital from november 2012 to october were selected as the research object, and the clinical and pathological characteristics of different age groups were compared and analyzed. Results:in young patients, the incidence of iii and the rate of lymph node metastasis were higher than those in other age groups. Conclusion:compared to the elderly patients with breast cancer, young patients generally have high transfer rate, high degree of malignancy, tumor growth and the characteristics of the late stage of disease, the clinical need to give more attention.

  14. Comparative antiproliferation of human prostate cancer cells by ethanolic extracts of two groups of Brazilian propolis Antiproliferação comparativa de células prostáticas humanas por extratos etanólicos de dois grupos de própolis brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber Silveira Moraes; Andreas Daugsch; Hongzhen Li; Johng Suk Rhim; Yong Kun Park

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of propolis, group 12, which was collected in the southeastern Brazil and group 13, which was collected in the northeastern Brazil, were examined for antiproliferation of primary malignant tumor (RC-58T/h/SA#4)-derived human prostate cancer cells and human prostate epithelial cells. The strongest inhibition of RC-58T/h/SA#4 cells was observed in propolis group 13 extracts, whereas moderate growth inhibition was observed in human prostate epithelial cells in comparison with group 12...

  15. Brain Metastases in Patients With Germ Cell Tumors: Prognostic Factors and Treatment Options—An Analysis From the Global Germ Cell Cancer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Darren R.; Lorch, Anja; Kramar, Andrew; Albany, Costantine; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Necchi, Andrea; Flechon, Aude; Boyle, Helen; Chung, Peter; Huddart, Robert A.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Tryakin, Alexey; Sava, Teodoro; Winquist, Eric William; De Giorgi, Ugo; Aparicio, Jorge; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Cohn Cedermark, Gabriella; Powles, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define characteristics, treatment response, and outcomes of men with brain metastases (BM) from germ cell tumors (GCT). Patients and Methods Data from 523 men with BM from GCT were collected retrospectively from 46 centers in 13 countries by using standardized questionnaires. Clinical features were correlated with overall survival (OS) as the primary end point. Results BM were present at initial diagnosis in 228 men (group A) and at relapse in 295 men (group B). OS at 3 years (3-year OS) was superior in group A versus group B (48% v 27%; P < .001). Multiple BM and the presence of liver or bone metastasis were independent adverse prognostic factors in both groups; primary mediastinal nonseminoma (group A) and elevations of α-fetoprotein of 100 ng/mL or greater or of human chorionic gonadotropin of 5,000 U/L or greater (group B) were additional independent adverse prognostic factors. Depending on these factors, the 3-year OS ranged from 0% to 70% in group A and from 6% to 52% in group B. In group A, 99% of patients received chemotherapy; multimodality treatment or high-dose chemotherapy was not associated with statistically improved survival in multivariable analysis. In group B, only 54% of patients received chemotherapy; multimodality treatment was associated with improved survival compared with single-modality therapy (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.73; P < .001), as was high-dose compared with conventional-dose chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.70; P = .001). Conclusion Men with BM from GCT have poor OS, particularly if additional risk factors are present. High-dose chemotherapy and multimodality treatment seemed to improve survival probabilities in men with BM at relapse. PMID:26460295

  16. Different impact of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 on survival in male and female patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin and gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Mellemgaard, Anders; Skov, Torsten;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) status was assessed in patients receiving carboplatin and gemcitabine for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the association between the ERCC1 status and the overall survival after the chemotherapy. PATIENTS...... mainly seen in men, where those with ERCC1-negative tumors had a significantly increased survival compared to men with ERCC1-positive tumors (median survival, 11.8 months v 7.9 months; P = .005). Conversely, women who were ERCC1 negative did not have a survival advantage over ERCC1-positive women...

  17. Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in High-Risk Cervical Cancer Patients After Radical Hysterectomy: A Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek Sang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Beom, E-mail: tslee70@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tak [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Joo [Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Man [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Min [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Mo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Tai [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with high-risk cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients after radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, with at least 1 high-risk characteristic, were administered paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, carboplatin area under the curve = 5 every 3 weeks for 3 cycles concomitant with radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment. Results: This prospective study enrolled 71 consecutive patients. Sixty-six patients (93%) completed the planned treatment. The majority of grade 3/4 neutropenia or nonhematologic toxicities were usually self-limited. Diarrhea grades 3/4 were observed in 4 patients (5.6%). One patient developed anaphylactic shock after infusion of paclitaxel. With a median follow-up of 57 months, recurrences occurred in 16 patients. Multivariable analysis indicated that common iliac lymph node involvement is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence (odds ratio 13.48; 95% confidence interval 2.93-62.03). In the intent-to-treat population (n=71), the estimated 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 77.3% and 80.3% respectively. In the per-protocol population (n=62), disease-free survival was 78.9% and overall survival was 83.9%. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel/carboplatin is well tolerated and seems to be effective for patients who undergo radical hysterectomy. Therefore, a prospective, randomized controlled study should be designed to evaluate efficacy of this approach for patients with high-risk cervical cancer.

  18. Prognosis and treatment after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 1985. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleyer, W.A.; Sather, H.; Hammond, G.D.

    1986-07-15

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma constitute 42% to 45% of the cancers in infants, children, and adolescents: In 1985, an estimated 2025 children were newly diagnosed with these two cancers and 900 (43%) of the pediatric cancer deaths in the United States have been projected to be due to these diseases. The single most important obstacle to preventing these deaths is relapse, and prevention of relapse or salvage of the patient who has had a relapse continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. The most important initial step in the treatment of the child whose disease has relapsed is to determine, to the extent possible, the prognosis. In a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a relapse confers an extremely poor prognosis, regardless of site of relapse, tumor histology, or other original prognostic factors, prior therapy, or time to relapse. In the child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, the prognosis depends on multiple factors. The primary therapy is chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy with marrow grafting. Other options exist, including no therapy, or investigational therapy. The therapy selected should be predicated on the prognosis. In the child with an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse off therapy, minimum therapy should be administered, particularly if the relapse occurred without prior cranial irradiation. In the child whose relapse is more than 6 months off therapy, conventional therapy should be considered. Also, a patient with an isolated CNS relapse on therapy after prior cranial irradiation should be given moderate therapy. Bone marrow transplantation or high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous marrow rescue should be reserved in children with a second or subsequent extramedullary relapse, and possibly for those with a first isolated overt testicular relapse on therapy.

  19. Prognosis and treatment after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 1985. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma constitute 42% to 45% of the cancers in infants, children, and adolescents: In 1985, an estimated 2025 children were newly diagnosed with these two cancers and 900 (43%) of the pediatric cancer deaths in the United States have been projected to be due to these diseases. The single most important obstacle to preventing these deaths is relapse, and prevention of relapse or salvage of the patient who has had a relapse continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. The most important initial step in the treatment of the child whose disease has relapsed is to determine, to the extent possible, the prognosis. In a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a relapse confers an extremely poor prognosis, regardless of site of relapse, tumor histology, or other original prognostic factors, prior therapy, or time to relapse. In the child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, the prognosis depends on multiple factors. The primary therapy is chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy with marrow grafting. Other options exist, including no therapy, or investigational therapy. The therapy selected should be predicated on the prognosis. In the child with an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse off therapy, minimum therapy should be administered, particularly if the relapse occurred without prior cranial irradiation. In the child whose relapse is more than 6 months off therapy, conventional therapy should be considered. Also, a patient with an isolated CNS relapse on therapy after prior cranial irradiation should be given moderate therapy. Bone marrow transplantation or high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous marrow rescue should be reserved in children with a second or subsequent extramedullary relapse, and possibly for those with a first isolated overt testicular relapse on therapy

  20. Vinorelbine and gemcitabine vs vinorelbine and carboplatin as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. A phase III randomised controlled trial by the Norwegian Lung Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtten, Ø; Grønberg, B H; Bremnes, R;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but earlier studies have suggested that non-platinum combinations are equally effective and better tolerated. We conducted a national, randomised study to compare...... a non-platinum with a platinum combination. METHODS: Eligible patients had stage IIIB/IV NSCLC and performance status (PS) 0-2. Patients received up to three cycles of vinorelbine 60 mg m(-2) p.o.+gemcitabine 1000 mg m(-2) i.v. day 1 and 8 (VG) or vinorelbine 60 mg m(-2) p.o. day 1 and 8+carboplatin...

  1. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  2. Influence of rehabilitation volunteers participating in group health education on patients with breast cancer%康复志愿者参与的小组健康教育形式对乳腺癌病人的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 杜铠邺; 孙玉巧; 周佳

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨康复志愿者参与的小组健康教育形式对乳腺癌治疗期病人的影响。[方法]将69例乳腺癌术后住院病人分为对照组29例和干预组40例。对照组接受常规健康教育,干预组开展联合康复志愿者共同工作,进行2周1次、连续5次的小组健康讲堂与圆桌座谈相结合的健康教育。干预前后采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)及乳腺癌患者生命质量测定量表(FACT B)对两组病人心理状态、生存质量进行评价。[结果]干预后干预组焦虑及抑郁评分均低于对照组(P<0.05),干预组生命质量总分及各领域得分均高于对照组(P<0.05)。[结论]联合康复志愿者共同工作,提供系统、连续的教育内容,重视病人心理层面、社会层面干预的小组健康教育形式,对改善病人心理状态和生存质量有积极作用。%Objective:To probe into the influence of rehabilitation volunteers participating in group health educa-tion on patients with breast cancer.Methods:A total of 6 9 cases of patients with breast cancer were divided into control group(29 cases)and intervention group(40 cases).The patients in control group received routine health education.The patients in intervention group j ointed rehabilitation volunteers to work together,once two weeks,lasting 5 times of health education with the group health lecture combined with roundtable discussion. Self rating Anxiety Scale(SAS),Self rating Depression Scale(SDS)and breast cancer patients’quality of life scale(FACT B)were used to evaluate the psychological status and quality of life of two groups of patients.Re-sults:After intervention,the scores of anxiety and depression in intervention group were lower than those in control group(P<0.05).The total score of life of quality and the scores in all fields of patients in intervention group were higher than those in control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:It had the positive effect for improving the

  3. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis

  4. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a 60Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.)

  5. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungbong [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Seok, E-mail: ysk@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Joo-Hyun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Weon [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Soon Do [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juree [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Heon [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Mee Sun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis.

  6. The Polycomb group protein RING1B is overexpressed in ductal breast carcinoma and is required to sustain FAK steady state levels in breast cancer epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Almudena; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Corominas, Josep Maria; Gimeno, Ramón; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Morales, Saleta; Lobato, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Farias, Eduardo F.; Mayol, Xavier; Cano, Amparo; Hernández-Muáoz, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of metastasis malignant cells must acquire phenotypic changes to enhance their migratory behavior and their ability to breach the matrix surrounding tumors and blood vessel walls. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression allows the acquisition of these features that, once tumoral cells have escape from the primary tumor, can be reverted. Here we report that the expression of the Polycomb epigenetic repressor Ring1B is enhanced in tumoral cells that invade the stroma in human ductal breast carcinoma and its expression is coincident with that of Fak in these tumors. Ring1B knockdown in breast cancer cell lines revealed that Ring1B is required to sustain Fak expression in basal conditions as well as in Tgfβ-treated cells. Functionally, endogenous Ring1B is required for cell migration and invasion in vitro and for in vivo invasion of the mammary fat pad by tumoral cells. Finally we identify p63 as a target of Ring1B to regulate Fak expression: Ring1B depletion results in enhanced p63 expression, which in turns represses Fak expression. Importantly, Fak downregulation upon Ring1B depletion is dependent on p63 expression. Our findings provide new insights in the biology of the breast carcinoma and open new avenues for breast cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:24742605

  7. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique

  8. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wen Lai

    Full Text Available Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan.The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan.A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8% patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012-2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM (85.4% followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM (14.6%. Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3-68.6 months, there were 3 (1% cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3% case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3% death.The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique in the field of breast cancer.

  9. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  10. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum

  11. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized.This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups.A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups.Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old. PMID:27100427

  12. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  13. Cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  14. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  15. Quality of Life (QOL) Analysis of a Randomized Radiation Dose Escalation Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Study: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0617

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Hu, Chen; Sloan, Jeffrey; Bradley, Jeffrey; Komaki, Ritsuko; Masters, Gregory; Kavadi, Vivek; Narayan, Samir; Michalski, Jeff; Johnson, Douglas W.; Koprowski, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Gaur, Rakesh; Wynn, Raymond B.; Schallenkamp, John; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; MacRae, Robert M; Paulus, Rebecca; Choy, Hak

    2015-01-01

    Importance A recent randomized radiation dose escalation trial in unresectable stage III NSCLC showed a lower survival in the high-dose arm (74Gy vs. 60Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy. Quality of life (QOL), an important secondary endpoint, is presented here. Objective The primary QOL hypothesis predicted a clinically meaningful decline (CMD) in QOL via the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung Cancer Subscale (FACT-LCS) in the high-dose RT-arm at 3 months. Design RTOG 0617 was a randomized phase III study (conducted from Nov 2007 to Nov 2011) in stage III NSCLC using a 2×2 factorial design and stratified by histology, PET staging, performance status and radiation technique (3D-conformal RT [3DCRT] vs. intensity-modulated radiation [IMRT]). Setting 185 institutions in the USA and Canada. Participants Of 424 eligible stage III NSCLC patients randomized, 360 (85%) consented to QOL, of whom 313 (88%) completed baseline QOL assessments. Intervention for Clinical Trials 74Gy vs. 60Gy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin/paclitaxel +/− cetuximab. Main Outcomes and Measures QOL was collected prospectively via FACT-Trial Outcome Index (FACT-TOI), equaling Physical-Well-Being (PWB) + Functional-Well-Being (FWB) + Lung Cancer Subscale (LCS). Data are presented at baseline & 3 and 12 months via minimal clinically meaningful changes of >=2 points for PWB, FWB or LCS or >=5 points for TOI. Results Patient demographics and baseline QOL scores were comparable between the 74Gy and 60Gy arms. Two-hundred-nineteen (72%) of living patients who completed QOL at baseline did so at 3 months and 137 (57%) of living patients did so at 12 months. Significantly more patients on 74Gy arm had clinically meaningful decline in FACT-LCS at 3 months than on the 60Gy arm (45% vs. 30%, p=0.02). At 12 months, fewer patients who received IMRT (vs 3DCRT) had clinically meaningful decline in FACT-LCS (21% vs 46%, p=0.003). Baseline FACT-TOI was associated with overall survival in

  16. Successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hironobu; Yasuda, Takashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Hironori; Oyama, Masato; Kakinoki, Keitaro; Ohara, Tadayuki; Sendo, Hiroyoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Masahiro; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. A 76-year-old female patient was admitted with a diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer at the anterior wall to the lesser curvature of the antrum (cT3N0M0 cStage IIA). Dynamic computed tomography showed the ectopia of the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery. We made a diagnosis of an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly and performed the abovementioned operation. In this anomaly pattern, scrupulous attention is required to remove the suprapancreatic lymph nodes because the portal vein is located immediately dorsal to those lymph nodes and is at increased risk for the injury in this situation. The common hepatic artery is branched from the left gastric artery, and the hepatic perfusion from the superior mesenteric artery is not present in group 26. Planning to preserve the artery will improve safety when it is possible oncologically. There were no postoperative complications, and the patient was discharged 9 days after the operation. To our knowledge, the present case is the first reported case of a laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. Preoperative diagnostic imaging is very important to prevent surgical complications because the reliable identification of vascular anomaly during an operation is very difficult. PMID:27259578

  17. Effects of Group Psychotherapy on Breast Cancer Patients%团体心理干预对乳腺癌康复期患者心理康复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏娅丽; 王丕琳; 陈静; 刘均娥; 朱强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of group psychotherapy on breast cancer patients. Methods 80 outpatients with breast cancer who did not participate in the Rukang Salon (control group) and 100 outpatients participated (intervention group) were surveyed with questionaire. Results The incidence of psychological distress was 36.8% in the control group and 21.1% in the intervention group (#2=5.02, P=0.03). In the intervention group, the efficacy of those without psychological distress (236.86±35.17) was significantly higher than those with psychological distress (214.21±26.52), (t=2.6l, P=0.01). There were significant differences in those 5 factors: group cohesion, universality, interpersonal learning, guide instructions, and hope remodeling. Top 5 factors in scores reported were interpersonal learning, hoping remodeling, group cohesion, guide instructions, and exist consciousness. Conclusion Group psychotherapy can significantly reduce the psychological distress in rehabilitating breast cancer patients. Group cohesion, universality, interpersonal learning, guide instructions, hope remodeling and exist consciousness may play important roles.%目的 探讨团体心理干预对乳腺癌康复期患者心理康复的影响.方法 对80 例门诊复查候诊未参加汝康沙龙活动的乳腺癌康复期患者(对照组)和100 例参加汝康沙龙活动的乳腺癌康复期患者(干预组)进行问卷调查.结果 显著心理痛苦发生率对照组为36.8%,干预组为21.1% (χ2=5.02,P=0.03);干预组心理痛苦阴性组的疗效因子总分(236.86±35.17)明显高于心理痛苦阳性组(214.21±26.52) (t=2.61,P=0.01),其中有显著性差异的因子有5 项:团体凝聚力、普遍性、人际外学习、指示指导、希望重塑.患者报告得分较高的5 项因子为:人际外学习、希望重塑、团体凝聚力、引导指示、存在意识.结论 团体心理干预可以降低乳腺癌康复期患者的心理痛苦,其中团体凝聚力、普遍性

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  20. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for breast cancer patients%团体心理治疗对乳腺癌患者疗效因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建琴; 林丹平; 陈翠娥; 朱建东

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨团体心理治疗对乳腺癌患者的抑郁、焦虑疗效及各团体治疗疗效因子的相对重要性.方法对符合入组标准的62例乳腺癌患者用分层随机分为研究组(31例)和对照组(31例),疗程12周,并用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA),对团体治疗疗效因子进行问卷调查.结果(1)治疗前两组抑郁、焦虑评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);(2)治疗后研究组抑郁、焦虑较治疗前明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P0.05) before treatment. The scores of depression and anxiety were de-creased in study group after treatment compared to those before treatment P<0.05);while the depression and anxiety scores in study group were lower than those in control group after treatment (P<0.05). The questionnaire survey revealed that the interper-sonal learning (paying), group cohesion, instillation of hope, catharsis, awareness of existence in study group were significantly improved after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion The group psychotherapy can al eviate the symptom of depression and anxiety in patients with breast carcinoma.

  1. 集体心理治疗在癌症患者中的应用及效果%Application and effect of group psychotherapy in patients with cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡君娥; 严妍

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨集体心理治疗对癌症患者的效果.方法:将68例癌症患者随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各34例.对照组接受常规放化疗指导;实验组除接受常规放化疗指导外同时参加为期6周、每周2次的支持性集体心理治疗.比较两组患者治疗前后焦虑、抑郁水平及整体生活质量有无差异.结果:经过6周的支持性集体心理治疗后,对照组患者的焦虑、抑郁评分分别为(39.41±11.53)、(41.18±4.78)分,实验组患者的焦虑、抑郁评分分别为(33.82±4.93)、(37.35±7.51)分,实验组低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);对照组患者干预后整体生活质量中躯体功能、角色功能、情绪功能、认知功能、社会功能及总体健康状况各维度评分分别为(71.82±15.98)、(63.85±13.03)、(56.97±10.82)、(76.53±5.00)、(44.06±16.54)、(55.09±12.85)分,实验组分别为(83.68±5.78)、(68.97±8.23)、(68.85±8.44)、(81.27±4.00)、(66.06±6.20)、(66.32±8.53)分,实验组各维度评分均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:支持性集体心理治疗可以缓解癌症患者的焦虑和抑郁,提高整体生活质量,可作为癌症治疗的辅助方法.%Objective: To explore the group psychotherapy effect of cancer patients.Methods: 68 cases with cancer were randomly divided into experiment group and control group, and each 34 cases.The control group accepted conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy guidance; the experiment group were given supportive group psychotherapy for 6 weeks, twice weekly except conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy guidamce.Level of anxiety, depression level and global quality of life of the two groups before and after the treatment were compared.Results: After six weeks the supportive group psychotherapy, scores of anxiety and depression of control group [(39.41 ±11.53), (41.18±4.78) scores]were higher than those of experiment group [(33.82±4.93), (37.35

  2. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  3. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  4. Results of a planned interim toxicity analysis with trimodality therapy, including carboplatin AUC = 4, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, amifostine, and radiation for locally advanced esophageal cancer: preliminary analyses and treatment recommendations from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group

    OpenAIRE

    Jatoi, Aminah; Martenson, James; Mahoney, Michelle R; Lair, Bradley S; Brindle, Jeffrey S; Nichols, Frank; Caron, Normand; Rowland, Kendrith; Tschetter, Loren; Alberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Purpose An aggressive trimodality approach from the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network [carboplatin AUC = 6, days 1 and 22; 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 continuous infusion, days 1–42, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, days 1 and 22; 45 Gy] has resulted in remarkable pathologic response rates but notable toxicity. This trial was designed to mitigate this toxicity by starting with a lower carboplatin dose, AUC = 4, and by adding subcutaneous amifostine. Methods This phase II trial included patients with loc...

  5. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: Evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Meader, N.; Davies, E.;

    2012-01-01

    cancer, the two questions would accurately detect 18 cases, while missing only 1 and correctly reassure 74 with 7 falsely identified. For every 100 people screened in non-palliative settings the BDI-11 would accurately detect 17 cases, missing 2 and correctly re-assure 70, with 11 falsely identified...... had level 2 evidence (2a, 2b and 2c respectively) and given their better acceptability we gave the stem questions a grade B recommendation. For screening, two stem questions had level 1b evidence (with high acceptability) and the BDI-II had level 2c evidence. For every 100 people screened in advanced...

  6. A one-day couple group intervention to enhance sexual recovery for surgically treated men with prostate cancer and their partners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela; He, Chang; Mitchell, Staci; Wood, David P; Hola, Victor; Thelen-Perry, Steve; Montie, James E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the acceptance and effectiveness of a group intervention that provided education about post-prostatectomy sexual recovery and peer support for couples. Couples valued the intervention and retained the information. Partners became accepting of erectile dysfunction and communicated more openly about upsetting topics.

  7. A one-day couple group intervention to enhance sexual recovery for surgically treated men with prostate cancer and their partners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela; He, Chang; Mitchell, Staci; Wood, David P; Hola, Victor; Thelen-Perry, Steve; Montie, James E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the acceptance and effectiveness of a group intervention that provided education about post-prostatectomy sexual recovery and peer support for couples. Couples valued the intervention and retained the information. Partners became accepting of erectile dysfunction and communicated more openly about upsetting topics. PMID:23930447

  8. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    1999-01-01

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma interleukin

  9. Genomic Copy Number Signatures Uncovered a Genetically Distinct Group from Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Moon, Ji Wook; Wang, Xianfu; Kim, Chungyeul; Li, Shibo; Shin, Bong Kyung; Jung, Wonkyung; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Han Kyeom; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have different clinical presentations, morphologies, treatments, and prognoses. Recent studies suggested that fundamental genetic alterations related to carcinogenesis of each tumor type may be different. In this study, we investigated the genomic alterations of 47 primary NSCLC samples (22 ACs and 25 SCCs) as well as the corresponding normal tissue using array comparative genomic hybridization. Frequent copy number alterations (CNAs), which were identified in more than 68% of all of the cases, were evaluated in each subtype (SCC and AC), and a CNA signature was established. Among these CNAs, 37 genes from the SCCs and 15 genes from the ACs were located in a region of gain, and 4 genes from the SCCs and 13 genes from the ACs were located in a region of loss. The most frequent gain was located on 3q26-29 including the gene TP63 in SCCs and 7q11.23 and 7q36.3 in ACs. Moreover, we identified 3 genetically distinct groups (group I [16 SCC] with CNA signature of SCC; group II [7 SCC + 8 AC], which has a genetically distinctive CNA signature from SCC and AC; and group III [2 SCC + 14 AC] with CNA signature of AC) by gene clustering extracted from CNAs, which are associated with a prognosis. The present study contributed to the molecular characterization of AC and SCC of NSCLC and showed a subtype of tumor that has a unique genetic CNA signature. However, further study about the significance of these 3 distinct groups and their usefulness as a diagnostic marker of identified CNAs is necessary.

  10. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system. PMID:27277747

  11. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system.

  12. Dose selection trial of metronomic oral vinorelbine monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer: a hellenic cooperative oncology group clinical translational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metronomic chemotherapy is considered an anti-angiogenic therapy that involves chronic administration of low-dose chemotherapy at regular short intervals. We investigated the optimal metronomic dose of oral vinorelbine when given as monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer. Patients with recurrent metastatic breast (BC), prostate (PC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and adequate organ functions were randomly assigned to 30, 40 or 50 mg vinorelbine, taken orally three times a week. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent or maximum 24 months. Primary endpoint was time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and secondary were progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, changes in blood concentrations of angiogenesis-associated biomarkers and pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Four-month TTF rate did not differ between the three arms: 25.9% (11.1%-46.2% 95% Confidence Interval), 33.3% (15.6%-55.3%) and 18.2% (5.2%-40.3%) for the 30 mg, 40 mg and 50 mg arms (p-value = 0.56). Objective response was seen in 2 patients with NSCLC (treated at 30 and 50 mg respectively), one with BC (at 40 m g) and one with PC (at 50 mg) and lasted from 4 to 100 weeks, with maximum response duration achieved at 50 mg. Adverse events were mild and negligible and did not differ between the three arms. Blood levels of vinorelbine reached steady state from the second week of treatment and mean values for the 30, 40 and 50 mg were respectively 1.8 ng/ml (SD 1.10), 2.2 ng/ml (SD 1.87) and 2.6 ng/ml (SD 0.69). Low pre-treatment blood concentrations of FGF2 and IL8 predicted favorable response to therapy (p values 0.02 and 0.006, respectively), while high levels of TEK gene transcript predicted treatment resistance. Considering the antitumor activity and response duration, the negligible toxicity of the highest dose investigated and the lack of drug accumulation over time, we suggest that 50 mg given three times a week is the

  13. Hot Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  14. Abelian Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, A.P.

    1995-10-15

    This fifth survey of reviews on abelian groups comprises papers reviewed in 1985-1992. Just as in the preceding surveys, the issues concerning finite abelian groups, topological groups, ordered groups, group algebras, modules (with rare exceptions), and topics on logic are not considered. The issues on the lattice of subgroups of an abelian group are included in Section 11. In contrast to the fourth survey, this one does not contain Sections 6 (N-high subgroups), 9 (rings with a given additive group), and 10 (valuated groups); since only a few papers treated these topics, the material discussed earlier in Sections 9, and 10 is now included in Section 11 and the material of the former Section 6 will be found in Sections 1, 7, 8, and 11 of this survey. On the other hand, the fifth survey has three new sections devoted to separable groups (a new Sect. 5), Butler groups (a new Sect. 6), and the endormorphism rings and automorphism groups of abelian groups (a new Sect. 9).

  15. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  16. Polymorphism attribution of cSNPs in cancer-related genes located in loss regions with a high frequency of HCC between HBV and health groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; NI Hong; CHEN Li; CHEN Chengbin; SONG Wenqin

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-related genes harbored in the loss regions containing a high frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were selected.Related information was gathered and the coding single nucleotide polymorphism (cSNP) sequences were obtained from the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database.The appropriate primers and oligonucleotide probes were then designed in accordance with the SNP sites,and subsequently,the gene chips for detecting SNPs were constructed.Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of healthy controls and from patients with HBV infection.The sequences,including the SNPs,were amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and labeled using digoxigenin deoxyuridine tri-phosphate (Dig-dUTP).The labeled products were then hybridized with the SNP chips.Results confirmed that the differences in allele frequencies of three SNPs EGFL3 (rs947345),Caspase9 (rs2308950),and E2F2 (rs3218171) were distinct between HBV-infected patients and controls,suggesting that these SNPs ocuring in high frequency in HBV-infected individuals may be associated with susceptibility to HCC.

  17. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  18. Identifying cancer genes from cancer mutation profiles by cancer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanHui; GUO Zheng; PENG ChunFang; LIU Qing; MA WenCai; WANG Jing; YAO Chen; ZHANG Min; ZHU Jing

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to identify new cancer genes from the data of large scale genome screenings of gene mutations in cancers. Considering the alternations of some essential functions are indispensable for oncogenesis, we define them as cancer functions and select, as their approximations, a group of detailed functions in GO (Gene Ontology) highly enriched with known cancer genes. To evaluate the efficiency of using cancer functions as features to identify cancer genes, we define, in the screened genes, the known protein kinase cancer genes as gold standard positives and the other kinase genes as gold standard negatives. The results show that cancer associated functions are more efficient in identifying cancer genes than the selection pressure feature. Furthermore, combining cancer functions with the number of non-silent mutations can generate more reliable positive predictions. Finally, with precision 0.42, we suggest a list of 46 kinase genes as candidate cancer genes which are annotated to cancer functions and carry at least 3 non-silent mutations.

  19. Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  20. Galaxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Tully, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  1. Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Predominantly Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Phase III Study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Bjerre, Karsten D; Jakobsen, Erik H;

    2011-01-01

    gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 plus docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) on day 8 or to docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)) on day 1, every 21 days. Patients were untreated or had prior (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy or a single anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimen for metastatic breast cancer. The primary end point was...... time to progression (TTP), and secondary end points were overall survival (OS), response rate (RR), and toxicity. Results A total of 170 patients were allocated to GD, and 167 were allocated to docetaxel. Median TTP on GD was 10.3 months versus 8.3 months on docetaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% CI...

  2. The impact of radiation dose and fractionation on the risk factor of radiation pneumonitis on four radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) lung cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the relationship between total dose of radiation delivered, the fractionation scheme used, age, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) on the risk of moderate to severe (≥ Grade 2) radiation pneumonitis in patients treated with radiotherapy alone for lung cancer on four RTOG Trials. Materials and Methods: Between February of 1984 and April of 1989, 1701 patients with clinically localized (I-IIIb) lung cancer were entered on clinical trials employing radiotherapy alone. Twelve hundred and forty-seven patients were entered on RTOG 8311 or 8407 (phase I/II trials) and 454 patients were entered on RTOG 8321 or 8403 (phase III trials). RTOG 8403 and 8321 patients received once-a-day irradiation to 60 Gy. Patients treated on RTOG 8407 were treated with a concomitant boost technique in a non-randomized fashion to 64.8, 69.6, 74.4 or 79.2 Gy. Patients treated on RTOG 8407 were treated with a concomitant boost technique in a non-randomized fashion to 63 Gy or 70.2 Gy. All patients were assessed for the incidence of Grade 2-5, radiation pneumonitis. One hundred and seven (6%) of patients were either ineligible or canceled (n=60), or were excluded because of incomplete data (n=47). The factors evaluated included total dose of radiation, the fractionation scheme, age and pre-treatment KPS. Patients treated to doses ≥ 72 Gy were considered to have received high doses (72.0 - 81.6 Gy), while the remaining patients treated to doses < 72 Gy (57.6 - 71.9 Gy) were considered to have received standard dose radiation. For the this analysis, information regarding field size and baseline pulmonary function was not available. Results: Age, sex, stage distribution, and the percentage of patients with a KPS ≥90 were similar among the patients treated on these four studies. Patients receiving hyperfractionated radiotherapy to doses ≥ 72 Gy experienced a higher incidence of radiation pneumonitis ≥ Grade 2, than patients treated with standard doses < 72

  3. Results of concomitant chemoradiation for cervical cancer using high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy: Study of JROSG (Japan Radiation Oncology Study Group)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Koh-Ichi (Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Medical Univ., School of Medicine, Sapporo (JP)); Sakurai, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki (Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Gunna Univ., School of Medicine, Gunna (JP)) (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to clarify outcome for concurrent chemoradiation (CT-RT) in locally advanced cervix cancer in Japan. This is a non-randomized retrospective analysis of 226 patients treated with definitive CT-RT or radiotherapy alone (RT alone) in nine institutions between 2001 and 2003. External irradiation consisted of whole pelvic irradiation and pelvic side wall boost irradiation, using a central shield during the latter half of the treatment with the anteroposterior parallel opposing technique. The external beam irradiation was performed with 1.8 or 2 Gy per fraction. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR) was performed in all cases. In chemotherapy, platinum based drugs were used alone or in combination with other drugs such as 5FU. Grade of late complications was scaled retrospectively with CTCv2.0. Overall survival rate at 50 months of stage Ib, II and III, IV was 82% and 66% in CR-RT and 81% and 43% in R alone, respectively. Disease-free survival rate at 50 months of stage Ib, II and III, IV was 74% and 59% in CR-RT and 76% and 52% in R alone, respectively. There was no significant difference between CT-RT and RT for overall survival and disease free survival. Univariate analysis suggested that loco-regional control was better with CT-RT, but multivariate analysis could not confirm this finding. Compared to RT alone, CT-RT caused significantly more acute and late complications. Thus, late complication (grade 3-4) free survival rate at 50 month was 69% for CT-RT and 86% for RT alone (p<0.01). The therapeutic window with concomitant radiochemotherapy and HDR brachytherapy may be narrow, necessitating a close control of dose volume parameters and adherence to systems for dose prescription

  4. Excision repair cross complementation group 1 is a chemotherapy-tolerating gene in cisplatin-based treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoufeng; Pan, Hong; Liu, Desen; Mao, Naiquan; Zuo, Chuantian; Li, Li; Xie, Tong; Huang, Dingming; Huang, Yaoyuan; Pan, Qi; Yang, Li; Wu, Junwei

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological functions of excision repair cross complementation goup 1 (ERCC1) in cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and cisplatin response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Firstly, ERCC1 gene was successfully transfected into H1299 cells by gene cloning and transfection techniques. Then, cell proliferation was determined with the cell growth curve and colony-forming assays. Flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to investigate the cell cycle distribution. The ability of cell invasion was estimated by means of Matrigel invasion assays. Response of NSCLC cells to cisplatin was detected utilizing MTT assays, and the intracellular drug concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Expression of the two cell membrane proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), was also evaluated utilizing FCM technique. By contrast, ERCC1 expression in the NSCLC A549 cells was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) through RNAi technique. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on A549 cells was detected by MTT assays. In the present study, the results demonstrated that ERCC1 had no effect on cell proliferation, cell cycle and the ability of invasion, but showed significant impact on cisplatin response of the NSCLC H1299 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-induced suppression of ERCC1 evidently enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin of NSCLC A549 cells. Therefore, it is confirmed that ERCC1 is a chemotherapy-tolerating gene and a promising predictor in tailoring chemotherapy of NSCLC. PMID:25434755

  5. Cancer and environment - collective expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the work of two groups of experts on the impact of the environment on some cancers the incidence of which has increased during the past twenty years. After a first part discussing the general mechanisms of toxicity, the report discusses various aspects (notably classification, incidence and evolution, mortality, known and debated risk factors) for different cancer types: lung cancer, mesothelioma, malignant hemopathies, brain tumours, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer. It also discusses knowledge on the exposure to chemical and physical agents (assessment modalities and exposure data in general environment and in professional environment, exposure to ionizing radiation, to electromagnetic fields and to endocrine disrupters)

  6. Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Tully, R Brent

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10^12 Msun are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosi...

  7. A Phase 2 Trial of Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Paclitaxel Chemotherapy After Surgery in Patients With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: A Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hanbyoul [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Women' s Life Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Byung-Ho [Cancer Biostatistics Branch, Research Institute for National Cancer Control and Evaluation, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Mo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chi-Heum [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hee-Sug [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Beom [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hoon, E-mail: jaehoonkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Women' s Life Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: A phase 2 study was completed by the Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel in patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Pathologic requirements included endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma stages III and IV. Radiation therapy consisted of a total dose of 4500 to 5040 cGy in 5 fractions per week for 6 weeks. Paclitaxel 60 mg/m{sup 2} was administered once weekly for 5 weeks during radiation therapy. Results: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled between January 2006 and March 2008. The median follow-up time was 60.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.0-58.2). All grade 3/4 toxicities were hematologic and usually self-limited. There was no life-threatening toxicity. The cumulative incidence of intrapelvic recurrence sites was 1.9% (1/52), and the cumulative incidence of extrapelvic recurrence sites was 34.6% (18/52). The estimated 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 63.5% (95% CI, 50.4-76.5) and 82.7% (95% CI, 72.4-92.9), respectively. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel is well tolerated and seems to be effective for high-risk endometrioid endometrial cancers. This approach appears reasonable to be tested for efficacy in a prospective, randomized controlled study.

  8. A Phase 2 Trial of Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Paclitaxel Chemotherapy After Surgery in Patients With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: A Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A phase 2 study was completed by the Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel in patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Pathologic requirements included endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma stages III and IV. Radiation therapy consisted of a total dose of 4500 to 5040 cGy in 5 fractions per week for 6 weeks. Paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 was administered once weekly for 5 weeks during radiation therapy. Results: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled between January 2006 and March 2008. The median follow-up time was 60.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.0-58.2). All grade 3/4 toxicities were hematologic and usually self-limited. There was no life-threatening toxicity. The cumulative incidence of intrapelvic recurrence sites was 1.9% (1/52), and the cumulative incidence of extrapelvic recurrence sites was 34.6% (18/52). The estimated 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 63.5% (95% CI, 50.4-76.5) and 82.7% (95% CI, 72.4-92.9), respectively. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel is well tolerated and seems to be effective for high-risk endometrioid endometrial cancers. This approach appears reasonable to be tested for efficacy in a prospective, randomized controlled study

  9. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark: From 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines of The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Hanne M.;

    2008-01-01

    with PWT. The dose to the internal mammary nodes (IMN) was not satisfactory for five of the seven patients for 3F, whereas only two of the seven patients had a minimum dose lower than 95% of the prescribed dose with PWT. Finally, the dose to the contralateral breast was increased when using PWT compared...... to 3F. It was concluded that PWT was an appropriate choice of technique for future radiation treatment of post-mastectomy patients. A working group was formed and guidelines for 3D planning were developed during a series of workshops where radiation oncologists and physicists from all radiotherapy...

  10. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  11. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  12. Breakthrough cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista;

    2013-01-01

    Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....

  13. Dummy Run of Quality Assurance Program in a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Investigating the Role of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoonsun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su Ssan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung-Ja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Chan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Hyun Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA Hospital, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae, E-mail: ybkim3@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. Methods and Materials: All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Results: Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Conclusions: Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN

  14. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  15. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK)

  16. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: vgondi@chicagocancer.org [Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Nell Hodgson Woodfull School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Meyers, Christina A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gore, Elizabeth M. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wolfson, Aaron [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sun, Alexander Y. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern Moncreif Cancer Center, Fort Worth, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  18. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  19. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  20. Hydra groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dison, Will

    2010-01-01

    We give examples of CAT(0), biautomatic, free-by-cyclic, one-relator groups which have finite-rank free subgroups of huge (Ackermannian) distortion. This leads to elementary examples of groups whose Dehn functions are similarly extravagant. This behaviour originates in manifestations of Hercules-versus-the-hydra battles in string-rewriting.

  1. 团体心理护理对乳腺癌术后患者生活质量的影响%Influence of group psychological nursing on the patients's quality of life with breast cancer after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋军英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺癌术后患者的心理健康状况及生活质量,以及团体心理护理对患者心理状态的影响。方法:对46例乳腺癌术后患者进行为期10周的结构化、封闭式团体心理护理,在基线和治疗4周后分别进行QLQ-C30、SAS、SDS、社会支持评定量表和特质应对方式问卷评估。结果:团体心理护理后患者抑郁、焦虑、疲乏、疼痛、气促、食欲丧失、失眠、便秘及腹泻评分显著降低(t=2.907~6.314,P=0.000~0.006)。社会功能、情绪功能、角色功能、积极应对方式及社会支持在小组干预后则显著增强(t=-5.476~-2.237,P=0.000~0.032)。结论:团体心理护理可明显改善乳腺癌术后患者的生存质量、情绪状态、社会支持以及应对方式。%Objective:To explore the mental health status of the postoperative patients with breast cancer and the quality of life, and the influence of group psychological nursing on the psychological state of patients.Methods:46 cases of postoperative patients with breast cancer were treated with structured,enclosed group psychological nursing for 10 weeks.The QLQ-C30,SAS,SDS,the social support rating scale and the questionnaire of idiosyncratic coping style were assessed at the baseline and 4 weeks after treatment respectively.Results:After the group psychological nursing,the scores of depression,anxiety,fatigue,pain,shortness of breath,loss of appetite,insomnia,constipation and diarrhoea decreased significantly in patients(t=2.907~6.314,P=0.000~0.006). The social function,emotional function,role function,positive coping styles and social support were significantly enhanced after the group psychological nursing(t=-5.476~-2.237,P=0.000~0.032).Conclusion:The group psychological nursing can improve the quality of life,emotional state,social support and coping styles of postoperative patients with breast cancer obviously.

  2. Group Lasso with Overlaps: the Latent Group Lasso approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obozinski, Guillaume; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We study a norm for structured sparsity which leads to sparse linear predictors whose supports are unions of prede ned overlapping groups of variables. We call the obtained formulation latent group Lasso, since it is based on applying the usual group Lasso penalty on a set of latent variables. A detailed analysis of the norm and its properties is presented and we characterize conditions under which the set of groups associated with latent variables are correctly identi ed. We motivate and discuss the delicate choice of weights associated to each group, and illustrate this approach on simulated data and on the problem of breast cancer prognosis from gene expression data.

  3. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m2) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m2) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade ≥4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade ≥3 dyspnea, or Grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade ≥3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine

  4. Diet and cancer in Northeast Brazil: evaluation of eating habits and food group consumption in relation to breast cancer Dieta e câncer no Nordeste do Brasil: avaliação da relação entre alimentação e consumo de grupos de alimentos e câncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Leite de Lima

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based case-control study was performed from August 2002 to November 2003 in Northeast Brazil. Eighty-nine women were recruited with histologically confirmed breast cancer (age 30-80 years, matched for age with 94 controls. Food consumption of cases and controls was evaluated by foods and food groups, categorized in consumption tertiles. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were obtained through unconditional logistic regression. Intake of fruits and juices, beans, and dairy products showed a strong association with reduced risk of breast cancer. Consumption of red and fried meat was positively associated with risk of breast cancer (red meat - OR = 4.30; 95%CI: 1.74-10.67; p for trend = 0.00. No association was observed in vegetable and sausage meat groups and breast cancer. Red and fried meat may be risk factors, and intake of fruit, beans, and dairy products may protect against breast cancer.Realizou-se um estudo do tipo caso-controle de base hospitalar no Município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Participaram 183 indivíduos (89 casos e 94 controles na faixa etária entre 30 e 80 anos, com pareamento por idade. O consumo alimentar de casos e controles foi avaliado por alimentos e grupos de alimentos categorizados em tercis de consumo. A estimativa dos valores da odds ratio (OR e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95% foi realizada por regressão logística múltipla não-condicional. O consumo de frutas e sucos, feijão e leite e derivados apresentou uma forte associação com a redução no risco de câncer de mama. O consumo de carnes vermelhas e de carnes fritas esteve positivamente associado ao risco de câncer de mama (carne vermelha - OR = 4.30; IC95%: 1,74-10,67; p = 0,00. Não foi observada associação entre o consumo dos grupos de vegetais e embutidos com o câncer de mama. Carne vermelha e carnes fritas podem ser fatores de risco, e o consumo de frutas, feijão e leite e derivados pode atuar como

  5. Frequencies of poor metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2C19 in esophagus cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer and bladder cancer in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Xing Shi; Shu-Qing Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) gene polymorphism and cancer susceptibility by genotyping of CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (PMs) in cancer patients.METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five cases of esophagus cancer, 148 cases of stomach cancer, 212 cases of lung cancer, 112 cases of bladder cancer and 372 controls were genotyped by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) for CYP2C19 PMs. The frequencies of PMs in cancer groups and control group were compared.RESULTS: The frequencies of PMs of CYP2C19 were 34.1%(46/135) in the group of esophagus cancer patients, 31.8%(47/148) in the stomach cancer patients, 34.4%(73/212) in the group of lung cancer patients, only 4.5% (5/112) in the bladder cancer patients and 14.0%(52/372) in control group.There were statistical differences between the cancer groups and control group (esophagus cancer, x2=25.65, P<0.005,OR=3.18, 95% CI=2.005-5.042; stomach cancer, x2=21.70,P<0.005, OR=2.86, 95%CI=1.820-4.501; lung cancer,x2=33.58, P<0.005, OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.503-6.906; bladder cancer, x2=7.50, P<0.01, OR=0.288, 95%CI=0.112-0.740).CONCLUSION: CYP2C19 PMs have a high incidence of esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and lung cancer, conversely they have a low incidence of bladder cancer. It suggests that CYP2C19 may participate in the activation of procarcinogen of esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and lung cancer, but may involve in the detoxification of carcinogens of bladder cancer.

  6. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized Trial From the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A two-arm, double-blind, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma who were undergoing external beam radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream daily. The primary study endpoint was the provider-assessed maximal grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints included provider-assessed Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse event monitoring. The patient-reported outcome measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and a quality-of-life self-assessment. An assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled between September 21, 2007, and December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary endpoint showed no difference in the mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs. 1.3 for placebo; p = .18). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity was greater in the placebo group (p = .04), primarily from pruritus. For the patient-reported outcome measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for the MMF group showed less itching (p = .008), less irritation (p = .01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (p = .02), and less annoyance with skin problems (p = .04). The group's maximal Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (p = .02) and less itching (p = .002). Conclusion: Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy might experience reduced acute skin toxicity compared with patients receiving placebo.

  7. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase 3 Double-Blind, Randomized Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A 2-arm, double-blinded, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma receiving external beam radiotherapy to breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to daily apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream. Primary study end point was provider-assessed maximum grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 radiation dermatitis. Secondary end points included provider-assessed CTCAE grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse-event monitoring. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and quality of life self-assessment. Assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results In total, 176 patients were enrolled from September 21, 2007 through December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary end point showed no difference in mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs 1.3 for placebo; P=.18). CTCAE toxicity was greater in placebo group (P=.04), primarily from pruritus. For PRO measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for MMF group showed less itching (P=.008), less irritation (P=.01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (P=.02), and less annoyance with skin problems (P=.04); the group's maximum Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (P=.02) and less itching (P=.002). Conclusion Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy may experience reduced acute skin toxicity in comparison to placebo. PMID:20800381

  8. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  9. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  10. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  11. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  12. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Mengele, K.; Schueren, E. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Brunner, N.; Laabs, J.; Malik, A.; Harbeck, N.

    2007-01-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk asses

  13. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  14. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  15. Correlation analysis and prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hyu; Lee, Choong Kun; Jo, Kwan Hyeong; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jong Tae; Lee, Jeong Won; Yun, Mi Jin; Cho, Arthur [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between [{sup 18}]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression and to evaluate the prognostic effect of these two factors in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients with resectable NSCLC who underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan for cancer staging and ERCC-1 expression analysis between January 2008 to December 2011. All patients were then followed-up for survival analysis. Semiquantitative evaluation of ERCC-1 was performed with the H-scoring system and was correlated with maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of NSCLC. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate for FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression predicting overall survival. In 212 patients (139 male, median age 68 ± 9.11), 112 patients had ERCC-positive tumors and 100 patients had ERCC-negative tumors. There was no significant difference in SUV{sub max} between ERCC-1-positive tumors (8.02 ±5.40) and ERCC-1-negative tumors (7.57 ± 6.56, p = 0.584). All patients were followed-up for a median of 40.5 months (95 % confidence interval [CI], 38.5–42.2 months). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for all patients showed that both ERCC-1 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95 % CI, 1.20–6.47) and FDG uptake (HR, 4.50; 95 % CI, 2.07–9.77) independently predicted overall survival. We have found no statistical correlation between FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression in NSCLC. However, both higher FDG uptake and positive ERCC-1 expression are independent predictive markers of prognosis, suggesting that both should be obtained during patient workup.

  16. Economic analysis of a phase III clinical trial evaluating the addition of total androgen suppression to radiation versus radiation alone for locally advanced prostate cancer (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 86-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding hormone therapy to radiation for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, using a Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov Model. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10 randomized patients to receive radiation therapy (RT) alone or RT plus total androgen suppression (RTHormones) 2 months before and during RT for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer. A Markov model was designed with Data Pro (TreeAge Software, Williamstown, MA). The analysis took a payer's perspective. Transition probabilities from one state of health (i.e., with no disease progression or with hormone-responsive metastatic disease) to another were calculated from published rates pertaining to RTOG 86-10. Patients remained in one state of health for 1 year. Utility values for each health state and treatment were obtained from the literature. Distributions were sampled at random from the treatment utilities according to a second-order Monte Carlo simulation technique. Results: The mean expected cost for the RT-only treatments was $29,240 (range, $29,138-$29,403). The mean effectiveness for the RT-only treatment was 5.48 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (range, 5.47-5.50). The mean expected cost for RTHormones was $31,286 (range, $31,058-$31,555). The mean effectiveness was 6.43 QALYs (range, 6.42-6.44). Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed RTHormones to be within the range of cost-effectiveness at $2,153/QALY. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis resulted in a >80% probability that RTHormones is cost-effective. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that adding hormonal treatment to RT improves health outcomes at a cost that is within the acceptable cost-effectiveness range

  17. Correlation analysis and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG PET and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between [18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC-1) expression and to evaluate the prognostic effect of these two factors in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients with resectable NSCLC who underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan for cancer staging and ERCC-1 expression analysis between January 2008 to December 2011. All patients were then followed-up for survival analysis. Semiquantitative evaluation of ERCC-1 was performed with the H-scoring system and was correlated with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of NSCLC. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate for FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression predicting overall survival. In 212 patients (139 male, median age 68 ± 9.11), 112 patients had ERCC-positive tumors and 100 patients had ERCC-negative tumors. There was no significant difference in SUVmax between ERCC-1-positive tumors (8.02 ±5.40) and ERCC-1-negative tumors (7.57 ± 6.56, p = 0.584). All patients were followed-up for a median of 40.5 months (95 % confidence interval [CI], 38.5–42.2 months). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for all patients showed that both ERCC-1 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95 % CI, 1.20–6.47) and FDG uptake (HR, 4.50; 95 % CI, 2.07–9.77) independently predicted overall survival. We have found no statistical correlation between FDG uptake and ERCC-1 expression in NSCLC. However, both higher FDG uptake and positive ERCC-1 expression are independent predictive markers of prognosis, suggesting that both should be obtained during patient workup

  18. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered

  19. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: charlottedai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  20. Expressions of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Phosphorylase, Class Ⅲ β-tubulin, and Excision Repair Cross-complementing Group 1 Predict Response in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients Receiving Capecitabine Plus Paclitaxel or Cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Lu; Jing Gao; Xi-cheng Wang; Lin Shen

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the role of class Ⅲ β-tubulin (TUBB3),thymidylate synthase (TS),thymidine phosphorylase (TP),and excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) in clinical outcome of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving capecitabine plus paclitaxel or cisplatin.Methods:The clinical data and tumor specimens from 57 advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel (cohort 1,n=36) and capecitabine plus cisplatin (cohort 2,n=21) were retrospectively collected,and TUBB3,TS,TP,and ERCC1 expressions were detected by real-time quantitative PCR.The associations between expressions of biomarkers and response or survival were analyzed statistically.Results:The median age of 57 patients was 57 years (range:27-75 years) with 38 males and 19 females.Of all patients,the response rates of patients with high TP,low TP and high TS,low TS expressions were 57.1%,27.6% (P=0.024),and 55.2%,28.6% (P=0.042),respectively.Among cohort 1,the response rates and median overall survivals of patients with low and high TUBB3 expressions were 61.1% vs.33.3% (P=0.095) and 13.8 months vs.6.6 months (P=0.019),respectively; the response rate (87.5%) of patients with low TUBB3 and high TP expressions was higher than that (14.3%) of patients with high TUBB3 and low TP expressions (P=0.01).Among cohort 2,the response rates of patients with low ERCC1 and high ERCC1 expressions were 45.5% and 20.0% respectively (P=0.361).Conclusion:TUBB3,TS and TP expressions could predict the response of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving capecitabine-based and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy.These results will be further confirmed in future large samples.

  1. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  2. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  3. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  4. Group Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  5. Tectaria group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Polypodiaceae subfam. Dryopteridoideae section A, auct.: C. Chr. in Verdoorn, Man. Pteridol. (1938) 543, p.p. Aspidiaceae tribe Aspidieae auct.: Ching, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 250, excl. Lomariopsis and related genera. — Aspidiaceae, group of Ctenitis Copel., Gen. Fil. (1947) 153. Aspidiaceae auct.: Pi

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  8. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In his review 'Genesis of Unified Gauge Theories' at the symposium in Honour of Abdus Salam (June, page 23), Tom Kibble of Imperial College, London, looked back to the physics events around Salam from 1959-67. He described how, in the early 1960s, people were pushing to enlarge the symmetry of strong interactions beyond the SU(2) of isospin and incorporate the additional strangeness quantum number. Kibble wrote - 'Salam had students working on every conceivable symmetry group. One of these was Yuval Ne'eman, who had the good fortune and/or prescience to work on SU(3). From that work, and of course from the independent work of Murray Gell- Mann, stemmed the Eightfold Way, with its triumphant vindication in the discovery of the omega-minus in 1964.' Yuval Ne'eman writes - 'I was the Defence Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in London and was admitted by Salam as a part-time graduate student when I arrived in 1958. I started research after resigning from the Embassy in May 1960. Salam suggested a problem: provide vector mesons with mass - the problem which was eventually solved by Higgs, Guralnik, Kibble,.... (as described by Kibble in his article). I explained to Salam that I had become interested in symmetry. Nobody at Imperial College at the time, other than Salam himself, was doing anything in groups, and attention further afield was focused on the rotation - SO(N) - groups. Reacting to my own half-baked schemes, Salam told me to forget about the rotation groups he taught us, and study group theory in depth, directing me to Eugene Dynkin's classification of Lie subalgebras, about which he had heard from Morton Hamermesh. I found Dynkin incomprehensible without first learning about Lie algebras from Henri Cartan's thesis, which luckily had been reproduced by Dynkin in his 1946 thesis, using his diagram method. From a copy of a translation of Dynkin's thesis which I found in the British Museum Library, I

  9. Gemcitabine plus best supportive care (BSC) vs BSC in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer--a randomized trial with quality of life as the primary outcome. UK NSCLC Gemcitabine Group. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H; Hopwood, P; Stephens, R J; Thatcher, N; Cottier, B; Nicholson, M; Milroy, R; Maughan, T S; Falk, S J; Bond, M G; Burt, P A; Connolly, C K; McIllmurray, M B; Carmichael, J

    2000-08-01

    Three hundred patients with symptomatic, locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC not requiring immediate radiotherapy were enrolled into this randomized multicentre trial comparing gemcitabine + BSC vs BSC alone. Patients allocated gemcitabine received 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle, for a maximum of six cycles. The main aim of this trial was to compare patient assessment of a predefined subset of commonly reported symptoms (SS14) from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 scales. The primary end-points were defined as (1) the percentage change in mean SS14 score between baseline and 2 months and (2) the proportion of patients with a marked (> or = 25%) improvement in SS14 score between baseline and 2 months sustained for > or =4 weeks. The secondary objectives were to compare treatments with respect to overall survival, and multidimensional QL parameters. The treatment groups were balanced with regard to age, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and disease stage (40% had metastatic disease). The percentage change in mean SS14 score from baseline to 2 months was a 10% decrease (i.e. improvement) for gemcitabine plus BSC and a 1% increase (i.e. deterioration) for BSC alone (P = 0.113, two-sample t-test). A sustained (> or = 4 weeks) improvement (> or =25%) on SS14 was recorded in a significantly higher proportion of gemcitabine + BSC patients (22%) than in BSC alone patients (9%) (P = 0.0014, Pearson's chi-squared test). The QLQ-C30 and L13 subscales showed greater improvement in the gemcitabine plus BSC arm (in 11 domains) than in the BSC arm (one symptom item). There was greater deterioration in the BSC alone arm (six domains/items) than in the gemcitabine + BSC arm (three QL domains). Tumour response occurred in 19% (95% CI 13-27) of gemcitabine patients. There was no difference in overall survival: median 5.7 months (95% CI 4.6-7.6) for gemcitabine + BSC patients and 5.9 months (95% CI 5.0-7.9) (log-rank, P = 0.84) for BSC patients, and 1 -year

  10. Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  11. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time time was, the higher was the risk for GC (Ptrend time and post-dinner walk on GC risk was detected (AOR = 1.862, 95% CIs = 1.584-3.885, synergy index [SI] = 2.654, 95% CIs = 2.27-3.912). Participants with dinner-to-bed time times likely to suffer from GC (AOR = 7.401, 95% CIs = 4.523-13.16) than those with dinner-to-bed time ≥4 hours who took such walk. The risk of GC due to dinner-to-bed time time 55 years old.

  12. P-glycoprotein inhibition using valspodar (PSC-833) does not improve outcomes for patients younger than age 60 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19808.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolitz, Jonathan E; George, Stephen L; Marcucci, Guido; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L; Allen, Steven L; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Shea, Thomas C; Stock, Wendy; Baer, Maria R; Hars, Vera; Maharry, Kati; Hoke, Eva; Vardiman, James W; Bloomfield, Clara D; Larson, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Cancer and Leukemia Group B 19808 (CALGB 19808) is the only randomized trial of a second-generation P-glycoprotein (Pgp) modulator in untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) younger than age 60 years. We randomly assigned 302 patients to receive induction chemotherapy regimens consisting of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C; A), daunorubicin (D), and etoposide (E), without (ADE) or with (ADEP) PSC-833 (P). The incidence of complete remission was 75% with both regimens. Reversible grade 3 and 4 liver and mucosal toxicities were significantly more common with ADEP. Therapy-related mortality was 7% and did not differ by induction arm. Excess cardiotoxicity was not seen with high doses of D in ADE. The median disease-free survival was 1.34 years in the ADE arm and 1.09 years in the ADEP arm (P = .74, log-rank test); the median overall survival was 1.86 years in the ADE arm and 1.69 years in the ADEP arm (P = .82). There was no evidence of a treatment difference within any identifiable patient subgroup. Inhibition of Pgp-mediated drug efflux by PSC-833 did not improve clinical outcomes in younger patients with untreated AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00006363.

  13. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  16. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10, 2016 TESARO, Inc., an oncology-focused biopharmaceutical company, and ENGOT, the European Network for Gynecological Oncological Trial groups, today announced the presentation ... Read More NOCC Launches NOCC CancerConnect Community Social Media Network for Women with Ovarian Cancer September ...

  17. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  18. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  19. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zhang, Zhe [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T.; DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Song, Daniel Y., E-mail: dsong2@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  20. Liuweidihuang Pill symptoms of breast cancer after chemotherapy group%六味地黄丸加减对乳腺癌化疗后自觉症状群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章慧

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究六味地黄丸加减对乳腺癌化疗后自觉症状群的影响.方法:采用药物对60例病例的进行为期2月的干预,研究其治疗中医证候改善率,以及治疗前后症状改善程度比较.结果:①治疗后中医证候改善情况为:临床痊愈3例(5%),显效35例(58%),有效20(33%)例,无效4(7%)例.②治疗前后腰膝酸软、潮热、盗汗、眩晕、耳鸣、心烦、失眠等症状比较差异具有显著性(P<0.05或P<0.01).治疗后口燥咽干症状改善比较差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:六味地黄丸加减方可以有效改善乳腺癌化疗后自觉症状群.%Objective To study the Liuweidihuang Pill after chemotherapy for breast cancer cluster of symptoms. Methods 60 cases of drugs on the conduct of a period of 2 months of intervention study to improve the rate of TCM treatment, and the like to improve the level of comparison before and after treatment. Results ① The TCM treatment to improve the situation as follows: clinical cure in 3 cases (5%), effective in 35 cases (58%), effective 20 (33%) cases, no 4 (7%) cases. ②Hip knee Limp before and after treatment, hot flashes, night sweats, dizziness, tinnitus, irritability, insomnia and other symptoms were significant differences (P 0.05). Conclusion Liuweidihuang Pill can improve symptoms of breast cancer after chemotherapy group.

  1. Prognostic significance of ESR1 gene amplification, mRNA/protein expression and functional profiles in high-risk early breast cancer: a translational study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pentheroudakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discrepant data have been published on the incidence and prognostic significance of ESR1 gene amplification in early breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks were collected from women with early breast cancer participating in two HeCOG adjuvant trials. Messenger RNA was studied by quantitative PCR, ER protein expression was centrally assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC and ESR1 gene copy number by dual fluorescent in situ hybridization probes. RESULTS: In a total of 1010 women with resected node-positive early breast adenocarcinoma, the tumoral ESR1/CEP6 gene ratio was suggestive of deletion in 159 (15.7%, gene gain in 551 (54.6% and amplification in 42 cases (4.2%, with only 30 tumors (3% harboring five or more ESR1 copies. Gene copy number ratio showed a significant, though weak correlation to mRNA and protein expression (Spearman's Rho <0.23, p = 0.01. ESR1 clusters were observed in 9.5% (57 gain, 38 amplification of cases. In contrast to mRNA and protein expression, which were favorable prognosticators, gene copy number changes did not obtain prognostic significance. When ESR1/CEP6 gene ratio was combined with function (as defined by ER protein and mRNA expression in a molecular classifier, the Gene Functional profile, it was functional status that impacted on prognosis. In univariate analysis, patients with functional tumors (positive ER protein expression and gene ratio normal or gain/amplification fared better than those with non-functional tumors with ESR1 gain (HR for relapse or death 0.49-0.64, p = 0.003. Significant interactions were observed between gene gain/amplification and paclitaxel therapy (trend for DFS benefit from paclitaxel only in patients with ESR1 gain/amplification, p = 0.066 and Gene Functional profile with HER2 amplification (Gene Functional profile prognostic only in HER2-normal cases, p = 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 gene deletion and

  2. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  3. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  4. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  5. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  6. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is one of a group of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators , or SERMs. Tamoxifen acts like estrogen on some tissues in the ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations Current Year Budget Annual Plan & Budget Proposal Congressional Justification NCI ... using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about people with the same type of cancer. ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory Boards Budget & Appropriations About the Annual Plan & ... Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... with ovarian cancer in the United States. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  11. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria. Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the incidence of cancer and leukaemia among young people living in the vicinity of Sellafield. Possible radiation effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer development as well as the risk involved by the general population is considered. Recommendations are provided to improve occupational safety and public health

  12. Study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of group and individual internet-based Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in cancer patients: the BeMind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compen, F.R.; Bisseling, E.M.; Lee, M.L. Van der; Adang, E.M.M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based interventions have shown to reduce psychological distress in cancer patients. The accessibility of mindfulness-based interventions for cancer patients could be further improved by providing mindfulness using an individual internet-based format. The aim of this study is

  13. Diet and gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Janković Slavenka M.; Marinković Jelena M.; Maksimović Jadranka M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years), gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, fol...

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  15. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  16. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  17. Mouse models of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunguang Tong; Wancai Yang; H. Phillip Koeffler

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Many mouse models have been developed to evaluate features of colorectal cancer in humans. These can be grouped into genetically-engineered, chemically-induced, and inoculated models. However, none recapitulates all of the characteristics of human colorectal cancer. It is critical to use a specific mouse model to address a particular research question. Here, we review commonly used mouse models for human colorectal cancer.

  18. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperduto, Paul W., E-mail: psperduto@mropa.com [Metro MN CCOP, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wang, Meihua [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Medical School Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Schell, Michael C. [Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Khuntia, Deepak [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Demas, William [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shah, Sunjay A. [Christiana Care Health Services, Inc, CCOP, Newark, Delaware (United States); Nedzi, Lucien A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Perry, Gad [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Suh, John H. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  19. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Photo: AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  2. Trastuzumab Emtansine for Treating HER2-Positive, Unresectable, Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer After Treatment with Trastuzumab and a Taxane: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Stevenson, Matt; Simpson, Emma; Harvey, Rebecca; Stevens, John

    2016-07-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) (Kadcyla(®); Roche) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost-effectiveness for treating human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after treatment with trastuzumab and a taxane. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group (ScHARR-TAG) at the University of Sheffield were the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG) who produced a critical review of the company's submission to NICE. The ERG also independently searched for relevant evidence and modified the submitted decision analytic model to produce a revised estimate of cost-effectiveness and examine the impact of altering some of the key assumptions. The clinical effectiveness data were taken from two randomised controlled trials that reported a significant advantage in progression-free survival (PFS) for T-DM1 over lapatinib in combination with capecitabine (EMILIA trial), and over the treatment of physician's choice (TH3RESA trial). A network meta-analysis suggested T-DM1 was the best treatment in terms of both overall survival and PFS compared with lapatinib in combination with capecitabine; trastuzumab in combination with capecitabine; and capecitabine monotherapy. Adverse event (AE) data were taken from a pooled analysis of additional trials of T-DM1 as a single agent. The most common grade 3 or greater AEs for T-DM1 were thrombocytopenia and hepatotoxicity. Following the clarification process, the manufacturer reported a deterministic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for T-DM1 compared with lapatinib in combination with capecitabine of £167,236, the latter of which was estimated to have an ICER of £49,798 compared with capecitabine monotherapy. The ERG produced similar values of £166,429 and £50,620 respectively. All other comparators were dominated. During the appraisal, the

  3. Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy on the High-Dose Arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 Prostate Cancer Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Jeff M., E-mail: jmichalski@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Emory University School of Nursing, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Winter, Kathryn [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Morton, Gerard C. [Department of Radiation Oncology Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Parliament, Matthew B. [Department of Oncology Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results: Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose–volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions: Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a

  4. Trans-NCI Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacoepidemiology Working Group (PPWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI established the Trans-NCI Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacoepidemiology Working Group to support development of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacogenomics cancer research program.

  5. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  6. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  8. The combination of Ki67, histological grade and estrogen receptor status identifies a low-risk group among 1,854 chemo-naïve women with N0/N1 primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Carina; Bak, Martin; Borgquist, Signe;

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to confirm a previously defined prognostic index, combining a proliferation marker, histological grade, and estrogen receptor (ER) in different subsets of primary N0/N1 chemo-naïve breast cancer patients....

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE BREAST CANCER EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN, LATINA AND CAUCASIAN CANCER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  10. Rationale and design of the Adapted Physical Activity in advanced Pancreatic Cancer patients (APACaP) GERCOR (Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Vergnault, Mathieu; Bonnetain, Franck; Hammel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise during chemotherapy is a promising strategy to reduce fatigue and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It has been shown to be feasible and efficient in various cancers, including advanced-stage cancers. Effects of physical activity have never been explored in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We aim to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention in this setting. Methods This randomized, national, multicenter, interventional study will exami...

  11. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: an analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Patricia E

    2012-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data.

  12. Efficacy Endpoints of Radiation Therapy Group Protocol 0247: A Randomized, Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Radiation Therapy Plus Concurrent Capecitabine and Irinotecan or Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report secondary efficacy endpoints of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0247, primary endpoint analysis of which demonstrated that preoperative radiation therapy (RT) with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin achieved a pathologic complete remission prespecified threshold (21%) to merit further study, whereas RT with capecitabine plus irinotecan did not (10%). Methods and Materials: A randomized, phase 2 trial evaluated preoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) with 2 concurrent chemotherapy regimens: (1) capecitabine (1200 mg/m2/d Monday-Friday) plus irinotecan (50 mg/m2/wk × 4); and (2) capecitabine (1650 mg/m2/d Monday-Friday) plus oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2/wk × 5) for clinical T3 or T4 rectal cancer. Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after chemoradiation, then 4 to 6 weeks later, adjuvant chemotherapy (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2; leucovorin 400 mg/m2; 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m2; 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2) every 2 weeks × 9. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated univariately by the Kaplan-Meier method. Local–regional failure (LRF), distant failure (DF), and second primary failure (SP) were estimated by the cumulative incidence method. No statistical comparisons were made between arms because each was evaluated individually. Results: A total of 104 patients (median age, 57 years) were treated; characteristics were similar for both arms. Median follow-up for RT with capecitabine/irinotecan arm was 3.77 years and for RT with capecitabine/oxaliplatin arm was 3.97 years. Four-year DFS, OS, LRF, DF, and SP estimates for capecitabine/irinotecan arm were 68%, 85%, 16%, 24%, and 2%, respectively. The 4-year DFS, OS, LRF, DF, and SP failure estimates for capecitabine/oxaliplatin arm were 62%, 75%, 18%, 30%, and 6%, respectively. Conclusions: Efficacy results for both arms are similar to other reported studies but suggest that pathologic complete remission is an unsuitable surrogate for traditional survival

  13. Efficacy Endpoints of Radiation Therapy Group Protocol 0247: A Randomized, Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Radiation Therapy Plus Concurrent Capecitabine and Irinotecan or Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Stuart J. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Meropol, Neal J., E-mail: Neal.Meropol@case.edu [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Anne, Pramila Rani [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rashid, Asif [Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Watson, James C. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitchell, Edith P. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pollock, Jondavid [The Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Lee, R. Jeffrey [Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (United States); Haddock, Michael [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Erickson, Beth A. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report secondary efficacy endpoints of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0247, primary endpoint analysis of which demonstrated that preoperative radiation therapy (RT) with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin achieved a pathologic complete remission prespecified threshold (21%) to merit further study, whereas RT with capecitabine plus irinotecan did not (10%). Methods and Materials: A randomized, phase 2 trial evaluated preoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) with 2 concurrent chemotherapy regimens: (1) capecitabine (1200 mg/m{sup 2}/d Monday-Friday) plus irinotecan (50 mg/m{sup 2}/wk × 4); and (2) capecitabine (1650 mg/m{sup 2}/d Monday-Friday) plus oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/wk × 5) for clinical T3 or T4 rectal cancer. Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after chemoradiation, then 4 to 6 weeks later, adjuvant chemotherapy (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m{sup 2}; leucovorin 400 mg/m{sup 2}; 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m{sup 2}; 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m{sup 2}) every 2 weeks × 9. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated univariately by the Kaplan-Meier method. Local–regional failure (LRF), distant failure (DF), and second primary failure (SP) were estimated by the cumulative incidence method. No statistical comparisons were made between arms because each was evaluated individually. Results: A total of 104 patients (median age, 57 years) were treated; characteristics were similar for both arms. Median follow-up for RT with capecitabine/irinotecan arm was 3.77 years and for RT with capecitabine/oxaliplatin arm was 3.97 years. Four-year DFS, OS, LRF, DF, and SP estimates for capecitabine/irinotecan arm were 68%, 85%, 16%, 24%, and 2%, respectively. The 4-year DFS, OS, LRF, DF, and SP failure estimates for capecitabine/oxaliplatin arm were 62%, 75%, 18%, 30%, and 6%, respectively. Conclusions: Efficacy results for both arms are similar to other reported studies but suggest that pathologic complete remission is an

  14. A Phase II Comparative Study of Gross Tumor Volume Definition With or Without PET/CT Fusion in Dosimetric Planning for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515 is a Phase II prospective trial designed to quantify the impact of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) compared with CT alone on radiation treatment plans (RTPs) and to determine the rate of elective nodal failure for PET/CT-derived volumes. Methods: Each enrolled patient underwent definitive radiation therapy for non–small-cell lung cancer (≥60 Gy) and had two RTP datasets generated: gross tumor volume (GTV) derived with CT alone and with PET/CT. Patients received treatment using the PET/CT-derived plan. The primary end point, the impact of PET/CT fusion on treatment plans was measured by differences of the following variables for each patient: GTV, number of involved nodes, nodal station, mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung exceeding 20 Gy (V20), and mean esophageal dose (MED). Regional failure rate was a secondary end point. The nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used with Bonferroni adjustment for an overall significance level of 0.05. Results: RTOG 0515 accrued 52 patients, 47 of whom are evaluable. The follow-up time for all patients is 12.9 months (2.7–22.2). Tumor staging was as follows: II = 6%; IIIA = 40%; and IIIB = 54%. The GTV was statistically significantly smaller for PET/CT-derived volumes (98.7 vs. 86.2 mL; p < 0.0001). MLDs for PET/CT plans were slightly lower (19 vs. 17.8 Gy; p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the number of involved nodes (2.1 vs. 2.4), V20 (32% vs. 30.8%), or MED (28.7 vs. 27.1 Gy). Nodal contours were altered by PET/CT for 51% of patients. One patient (2%) has developed an elective nodal failure. Conclusions: PET/CT-derived tumor volumes were smaller than those derived by CT alone. PET/CT changed nodal GTV contours in 51% of patients. The elective nodal failure rate for GTVs derived by PET/CT is quite low, supporting the RTOG standard of limiting the target volume to the primary tumor and involved nodes.

  15. A cohort study on the evolution of psychosocial problems in older patients with breast or colorectal cancer: comparison with younger cancer patients and older primary care patients without cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deckx, Laura; van Abbema, Doris L.; van den Akker, Marjan; Van Den Broeke, Carine; van Driel, Mieke; Bulens, Paul; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C. G.; Kenis, Cindy; de Jonge, Eric T.; Houben, Bert; Buntinx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Although older cancer survivors commonly report psychosocial problems, the impact of both cancer and ageing on the occurrence of these problems remains largely unknown. The evolution of depression, cognitive functioning, and fatigue was evaluated in a group of older cancer patients in comparison with a group of younger cancer patients and older persons without cancer. Methods Older (≥70 years) and younger cancer patients (50 – 69 years) with breast or colorectal cancer stage I - II...

  16. 乳腺癌康复者自我形象的团体接纳与承诺干预方案构建及其初步验证%Development and preliminary verification of the group acceptance and commitment intervention program on body image of rehabilitative breast cancer survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛翠翠; 刘均娥; 苏娅丽; 王丕琳; 陈双琴; 李智; 马志明

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To develop and preliminarily verify the psychological intervention program on body image of rehabilitative breast cancer survivors. Methods: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and group psychological intervention were taken as main theoretical basis to develop the group acceptance and commitment intervention program on body image of rehabilitative breast cancer survivors. To implement the intervention program, rehabilitative breast cancer survivors were investigated by the Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ). Results:The group acceptance and commitment intervention program on body image of rehabilitative breast cancer survivors was formed and enforceable after preliminary veriifcation. Conclusion:The group acceptance and commitment intervention program on body image of rehabilitative breast cancer survivors can be used to help patients to improve their body images in clinic.%目的:构建乳腺癌康复者自我形象的心理干预方案,并进行初步验证。方法:以接纳与承诺疗法(ACT)和团体心理干预为主要理论基础,初步构建乳腺癌康复者自我形象的团体接纳与承诺干预方案。对乳腺癌康复者进行心理干预,采用乳腺癌患者自我形象问卷、接纳与行动问卷对患者进行测评。结果:形成了乳腺癌康复者自我形象的团体接纳与承诺干预方案,初步验证其具有可实施性。结论:乳腺癌康复者自我形象的团体接纳与承诺干预方案可应用于临床,用以帮助患者提高自我形象。

  17. CHEK2 1100delC and polygenic susceptibility to breast cancer and colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wasielewski (Marijke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractApproximately 15-25% of breast cancers are identified in women with a family history of breast cancer. Yet, germline mutations in the currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes account for only one-third of familial breast cancer cases. In 2002, our research group had identified

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  1. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadyalpatil, Nikhil Suresh; Supriya, Chopra; Prachi, Patil; Ashwin, Dsouza; Avanish, Saklani

    2016-01-01

    GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), esophageal cancer (EC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist, these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes. The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach) to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs) need focussed attention

  2. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  3. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  4. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  5. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  6. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  7. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  8. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  10. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  11. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  12. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  13. 低剂量CT与4肿瘤标记物联合检测对肺癌高危人群筛查的研究%Low-dose spiral CT combined tumor markers for lung cancer screening high-risk groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丰章; 邹南安; 胡含明; 巫启恒; 欧阳良

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价低剂量螺旋CT(low dose spiral computed tomography,LDCT)扫描联合4种肺癌肿瘤标记物(人多效蛋白PTN、神经元特异烯醇化酶NSE、细胞角质蛋白Cyfra21-1及癌胚抗原CEA)检测对肺癌高危人群早期肺癌筛查的阳性率及特异性。方法分析及统计2011年-2013年进行LDCT扫描及肿瘤标志物联合筛查肺癌高危人群体的检查结果,并与常规早期肺癌筛查研究结果进行比较分析。结果 LDCT与常规剂量CT扫描肺部阳性检出率及病变影像学表现基本一致,无统计学差异(P>0.05),而辐射剂量明显下降,是常规剂量的6.38%(P0.05),and radiation dose decreased obviously,it was regular doses of 6.38%(P<0.05);Four types of lung cancer tumor markers combined de-tection sensitivity about 95%,specificity about 80% of lung cancer,was of great significance for early diagnosis of lung cancer,4 kinds of this experimental lung cancer tumor markers positive rate was 1.58%(6 cases),ultimately determine the early lung cancer was 1.05%(4 cases),LDCT to detect lesions positive rate was 12.1%in this group (46 cases),of which 8 cases of imaging diagnosis of early lung cancer (2.11%),and finally only 4 cases (1.05%) diagnosed with lung cancer early,imaging in the diagnosis of false positives. To participate in this study,a total of 759 people,of whom LDCT and tumor markers combined test group(379,female:379 people,average age 54.3 years,7 patients with copd;male:203,the average age of 57.6 years,26 patients with copd screening lung were 12.1%(46 people with lung CT positive performance,6 people joint inspection tumor markers were positive,4 cases were diagnosed with lung cancer). Conclusion LDCT two inspection methods and lung cancer tumor markers have complementary ad-vantages,early lung cancer detection rate was 1.05%,avoid single check false positive events,joint detection more conducive to early detection and qualitative diagnosis of early lung cancer.

  14. Cancer and Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家增

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since 1865, Aremand Trousseau first reported on the association between cancer and thrombosis. For many years, it has been recognized that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common occurrence in patients with malignant disease. Compared to other groups of patients with VTE the cancer population is unique because the pathogenesis of thrombosis differs, the frequency of VTE is greater and the clinical management required is more complex.

  15. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  16. High-dose 5-fluorouracil plus low dose methotrexate plus or minus low-dose PALA in advanced colorectal cancer : a randomised phase II-III trial of the EORTC Gastrointestinal Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, J; Blijham, GH; Wagener, T; De Greve, J; Jansen, RLH; Kok, TC; Nortier, JWR; Bleiberg, H; Couvreur, ML; Genicot, B; Baron, B

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid (PALA) can enhance the activity of low-dose methotrexate (LD-MTX) modulated infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. 198 patients were randomised either to (i) 5-FU 60 mg/kg as a

  17. Histone methyltransferases in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Mareike; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is perceived as a heterogeneous group of diseases that is characterized by aberrant patterns of gene expression. In the last decade, an increasing amount of data has pointed to a key role for epigenetic alterations in human cancer. In this review, we focus on a subclass of epigenetic...... regulators, namely histone methyltransferases (HMTs). Several HMTs have been linked to different types of cancer; however, in most cases we only have limited knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the HMTs contribute to disease development. We summarize the current knowledge regarding some...

  18. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  19. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  20. Treatment for Cancer Patients with Oral Mucositis: Assessment Based on the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer in International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) in 2013 and Proposal of Possible Novel Treatment with a Japanese Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Kanako; Ueno, Takao; Yatsuoka, Wakako; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    The cancer patients who received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant and terminal care often have a wide range of stomatitis, which induces severe pain and limits fundamental life behaviors such as "eating, drinking and talking". In addition, oral mucositis frequently leads to systemic infection through opportunistic microorganisms, which causes extension of hospitalization. Severe oral mucositis often causes cancer patients to partially or completely discontinue/modify cancer therapy regimen, which adversely affects the curative effects of cancer. Therefore, the control of oral mucositis is important and indispensable for improvement of quality of life and prognosis. In this review, we introduce recent trends of the oral mucositis management in cancer patients, according to the following sentences; 1) pathophysiological mechanisms of oral mucositis, 2) assessment, 3) risk factors, 4) prevention and treatment, and 5) development of novel therapy for oral mucositis.