WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer gaining perspective

  1. A patient-centered perspective on cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad

    2015-04-15

    Survivorship is a complicated notion because people often confuse a process of survivorship with a mythic identity of being a cancer survivor. This confusion may be a distraction to addressing the real-life struggles and challenges experienced by all people diagnosed with cancer. A more expansive perspective of survivorship, one that attends to patients' physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential challenges throughout a continuum of care, would be more in line with what is known empirically about people's experiences with cancer. In an effort to gain a patient-centered perspective on cancer, and one that emphasizes multiple dimensions of cancer survivorship, the author reports findings from a non-scientific social media poll (via Facebook and personal emails) in which survivors and colleagues working in the field of cancer survivorship answered the question: What does cancer survivorship mean to you? The comments are enlightening and useful for guiding the development of a patient-centered, and, thus, more comprehensive, approach to caring for people affected by cancer.

  2. A Patient-Centered Perspective on Cancer Survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Zebrack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Survivorship is a complicated notion because people often confuse a process of survivorship with a mythic identity of being a cancer survivor. This confusion may be a distraction to addressing the real-life struggles and challenges experienced by all people diagnosed with cancer. A more expansive perspective of survivorship, one that attends to patients’ physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential challenges throughout a continuum of care, would be more in line with what is known empirically about people’s experiences with cancer. In an effort to gain a patient-centered perspective on cancer, and one that emphasizes multiple dimensions of cancer survivorship, the author reports findings from a non-scientific social media poll (via Facebook and personal emails in which survivors and colleagues working in the field of cancer survivorship answered the question: What does cancer survivorship mean to you? The comments are enlightening and useful for guiding the development of a patient-centered, and, thus, more comprehensive, approach to caring for people affected by cancer.

  3. Perspectives used for gaining approval of budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Joiner, G L

    1990-01-01

    Nurse executives think about problems using a certain perspective which may influence decisions on budgetary matters. The nurse executives' perspective used in decision-making may influence which budget proposals are developed and approved. A study was performed to determine the perspective used by nurse executives in decision-making on supplementary budget item proposals and whether perspective use influenced approval. Findings showed that use of the system view or dual-domain perspective in a proposal may enhance nurse executives' changes of gaining approval.

  4. Weight gain in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demark-Wahnefried, W; Rimer, B K; Winer, E P

    1997-05-01

    This review of the literature indicates that weight gain is a common observation among women after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Gains in weight range from 0 to 50 lb and are influenced by menopausal status; nodal status; and the type, duration, and intensity of treatment. Weight gain appears to be greater among premenopausal women; among those who are node positive; and among those receiving higher dose, longer duration, and multiagent regimens. Psychosocial research suggests that weight gain has a profoundly negative impact on quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Recent findings also suggest that weight gain during therapy may increase the risk of recurrence and decrease survival. Although weight gain in patients with breast cancer is clinically well appreciated, little research has been conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms of energy imbalance. Changes in rates of metabolism, physical activity, and dietary intake are all plausible mechanisms and call for more research. Further study will provide valuable insight into the problem of weight gain and encourage effective interventions to improve the quality and quantity of life for the woman with breast cancer. Until more is known, however, dietetics practitioners will have to monitor and work individually with patients with breast cancer and use empirical approaches to achieve the important goal of weight management.

  5. Physics of cancer propagation: A game theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cleveland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical paper which examines at a game theoretical perspective the dynamics of cooperators and cheater cells under metabolic stress conditions and high spatial heterogeneity. Although the ultimate aim of this work is to understand the dynamics of cancer tumor evolution under stress, we use a simple bacterial model to gain fundamental insights into the progression of resistance to drugs under high competition and stress conditions.

  6. The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    1997-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several factors that are likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increased physical activity, and reduced consumption of alcohol and possibly red meat. Risks of many types of cancer can already be reduced, and the potential for further reductions is great. In the United States, cancer death rates for all cancers combined are decreasing, if lung cancer (90% of which is due to smoking), is excluded from the analysis. We review the research on causes of cancer and show why much cancer is preventable. The idea that traces of synthetic chemicals, such as DDT, are major contributors to human cancer is not supported by the evidence, yet public concern and resource allocation for reduction of chemical pollution are very high, in part because standard risk assessment uses linear extrapolation from limited data in high-dose animal cancer tests. These tests are done at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and are typically misinterpreted to mean that low doses of synthetic chemicals and industrial pollutants are relevant to human cancer. About half the chemicals tested, whether synthetic or natural, are carcinogenic to rodents at such high doses. Almost all chemicals in the human diet are natural. For example, 99.99% of the pesticides we eat are naturally present in plants to ward off insects and other predators. Half of the natural pesticides that have been tested at the MTD are rodent carcinogens. Cooking food produces large numbers of natural dietary chemicals. Roasted coffee, for example, contains more than 1000 chemicals: of 27 tested, 19 are rodent carcinogens. Increasing evidence supports the idea that the high frequency of positive results in rodent bioassays is due to testing at the MTD, which frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell

  7. Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makari-Judson, Grace; Braun, Barry; Jerry, D Joseph; Mertens, Wilson C

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged. PMID:25114844

  8. The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several factors that are likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increased physical activity, and reduced consumption of alcohol and possibly red meat. Risks of many types of cancer can already be reduced, and the potential for further reductions is great. In the United States, cance...

  9. Men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J James

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men. Screening for prostate cancer is widely accepted; however concerns regarding the harms outweighing the benefits of screening exist. Although patient's play a pivotal role in the decision making process, men may not be aware of the controversies regarding prostate cancer screening. Therefore we aimed to describe men's attitudes, beliefs and experiences of prostate cancer screening.Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to October 2016.Sixty studies involving 3,029 men aged from 18-89 years, who had been screened for prostate cancer by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA or Digital Rectal Examination (DRE and not screened, across eight countries were included. Five themes were identified: Social prompting (trusting professional opinion, motivation from family and friends, proximity and prominence of cancer; gaining decisional confidence (overcoming fears, survival imperative, peace of mind, mental preparation, prioritising wellbeing; preserving masculinity (bodily invasion, losing sexuality, threatening manhood, medical avoidance; avoiding the unknown and uncertainties (taboo of cancer-related death, lacking tangible cause, physiological and symptomatic obscurity, ambiguity of the procedure, confusing controversies; and prohibitive costs.Men are willing to participate in prostate cancer screening to prevent cancer and gain reassurance about their health, particularly when supported or prompted by their social networks or healthcare providers. However, to do so they needed to mentally overcome fears of losing their masculinity and accept the intrusiveness of screening, the ambiguities about the necessity and the potential for substantial costs. Addressing the concerns and priorities of men may facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screening

  10. National proficiency-gain curves for minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, H; Markar, S R; Askari, A; Ni, M; Faiz, O; Hanna, G B

    2016-01-01

    Minimal access surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has short-term benefits but is associated with a proficiency-gain curve. The aim of this study was to define national proficiency-gain curves for minimal access colorectal and oesophagogastric surgery, and to determine the impact on clinical outcomes. All adult patients undergoing minimal access oesophageal, colonic and rectal surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Proficiency-gain curves were created using risk-adjusted cumulative sum analysis. Change points were identified, and bootstrapping was performed with 1000 iterations to identify a confidence level. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality; secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality, reintervention, conversion and length of hospital stay. Some 1696, 15 008 and 16 701 minimal access oesophageal, rectal and colonic cancer resections were performed during the study period. The change point in the proficiency-gain curve for 30-day mortality for oesophageal, rectal and colonic surgery was 19 (confidence level 98·4 per cent), 20 (99·2 per cent) and three (99·5 per cent) procedures; the mortality rate fell from 4·0 to 2·0 per cent (relative risk reduction (RRR) 0·50, P = 0·033), from 2·1 to 1·2 per cent (RRR 0·43, P curve for reintervention in oesophageal, rectal and colonic resection was 19 (98·1 per cent), 32 (99·5 per cent) and 26 (99·2 per cent) procedures respectively. There were also significant proficiency-gain curves for 90-day mortality, conversion and length of stay. The introduction of minimal access gastrointestinal cancer surgery has been associated with a proficiency-gain curve for mortality and major morbidity at a national level. Unnecessary patient harm should be avoided by appropriate training and monitoring of new surgical techniques. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Weight Gain After Breast Cancer Diagnosis and All-Cause Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Michael B.; Sanft, Tara B.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Harrigan, Maura; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are associated with breast cancer mortality. However, the relationship between postdiagnosis weight gain and mortality is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer–specific, all-cause mortality and recurrence outcomes. Methods: Electronic databases identified articles up through December 2014, including: PubMed (1966-present), EMBASE (1974-present), CINAHL (1982-present), and Web of Science. Language and publication status were unrestricted. Cohort studies and clinical trials measuring weight change after diagnosis and all-cause/breast cancer–specific mortality or recurrence were considered. Participants were women age 18 years or older with stage I-IIIC breast cancer. Fixed effects analysis summarized the association between weight gain (≥5.0% body weight) and all-cause mortality; all tests were two-sided. Results: Twelve studies (n = 23 832) were included. Weight gain (≥5.0%) compared with maintenance (breast cancer–specific mortality (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.38, P = .05). Conclusions: Weight gain after diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with higher all-cause mortality rates compared with maintaining body weight. Adverse effects are greater for weight gains of 10.0% or higher. PMID:26424778

  12. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Molecular perspectives in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, C; Groussin, L

    2015-02-01

    Progress in understanding the molecular genetics of thyroid cancer in the last 20 years has accelerated recently with the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies known as Next-Generation Sequencing. Besides classical molecular abnormalities involving the MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) and PI3K (PhosphoInositide 3-Kinase) pathways that play a key role in follicular-derived thyroid tumorigenesis, new molecular abnormalities have been discovered. The major advances in recent years have been the discovery of new somatic driver gene point mutations (such as RASAL1 [RAS protein activator Like 1] mutations in follicular cancer) and/or mutations that have prognostic value (such as TERT [Telomerase reverse transcriptase] promoter mutations); new chromosomal rearrangements, usually having close connection with exposure to ionizing radiation (such as ALK [Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase] rearrangements); and deregulation of some gene or microRNA expression representing a molecular signature. Progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer offers new perspectives for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant status of a thyroid nodule, to refine prognosis and offer new perspectives of targeted therapy for radioiodine-refractory cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of Weight Gain During Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy and Association of Such Weight Gain With Recurrence in Long-term Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Akshara; Sinha, Arup K; Valle-Goffin, Janeiro; Shen, Yu; Tripathy, Debu; Barcenas, Carlos H

    2018-02-01

    Weight gain is a negative prognostic factor in breast cancer (BC) patients. The risk factors for weight gain during adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) and the extent to which such weight gain is associated with disease recurrence remain unclear. We retrospectively identified a cohort of women with a diagnosis of stage I-III, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative BC from January 1997 to August 2008, who had received initial treatment at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, had completed 5 years of ET, and had remained free of locoregional or distant relapse or contralateral BC for ≥ 5 years after diagnosis. The weight change at the end of 5 years of ET was measured as the percentage of the change in weight from the start of ET, with a weight gain of > 5% considered clinically significant. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the determinants of such weight gain and the risk of recurrence after 5 years. Of 1282 long-term BC survivors, 432 (33.7%) had a weight gain of > 5% after 5 years of ET. Women who were premenopausal at diagnosis were 1.40 times more likely than women who were postmenopausal at diagnosis to have a weight gain of > 5%. Asian women had the lowest risk of gaining weight. The recurrence risks of patients who had gained weight and those who had not were not significantly different. Premenopausal BC patients had an increased risk of weight gain after 5 years of ET; however, BC patients with a weight gain of > 5% did not have an increased risk of disease recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives on music therapy in adult cancer care: a hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Anne; Fossum, Bjöörn

    2009-07-01

    To explore perspectives on music therapy as a nursing intervention in adult cancer care and to expand and integrate knowledge and understanding about music therapy as an adjunctive intervention in adult cancer nursing care. Published nursing articles. Medical and nursing journals have reported on research related to music and its effect as a nursing intervention. However, this research often lacks a musical context (i.e., knowledge and understanding from a musical perspective). Music therapy is not a consistent concept. Perspectives on the meanings of music therapy vary according to knowledge and scientific orientation. The perspective may influence the character and methodology of the music therapy intervention as well as the understanding of its results. To fully develop music therapy as an adjunct intervention in adult cancer care, interdisciplinary cooperation between nurses and music therapists should be supported on clinical and educational levels.

  16. Can weight gain be prevented in women receiving treatment for breast cancer? A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Z O; Reeves, M M

    2017-11-01

    Obesity and weight gain have been associated with poor disease-specific and health-related outcomes in women with breast cancer. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of weight gain prevention interventions among women with breast cancer. Completed and ongoing trials evaluating a behaviourally based dietary intervention with or without physical activity and with a focus on weight gain prevention during treatment for breast cancer were reviewed. Weight change and body composition data were extracted. Within-group weight change of ±1 kg and between-group (intervention versus control) weight difference of ≥2 kg were defined as successful weight gain prevention. Five completed trials (seven intervention arms) and five ongoing trials were identified. Completed trials exclusively recruited premenopausal or premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Within-group weight gain was prevented in two intervention arms, two arms achieved weight loss and three arms reported weight gain. Of the five comparisons with control groups, two reported significant differences in weight change between groups. Ongoing trials will provide further evidence on longer-term outcomes, cost-effectiveness and blood markers. This small but growing number of studies provides preliminary and promising evidence that weight gain can be prevented in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Gain of chromosomal region 20q and loss of 18 discriminates between Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Jönsson, Göran; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X, FCCTX, represent the two predominant colorectal cancer syndromes. Whereas Lynch syndrome is clinically and genetically well defined, the genetic cause of FCCTX is unknown and genomic differences between Lynch syndrome and FCCTX tumours...... are largely unknown. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridisation to 23 colorectal cancers from FCCTX with comparison to 23 Lynch syndrome tumours and to 45 sporadic colorectal cancers. FCCTX tumours showed genomic complexity with frequent gains on chromosomes 20q, 19 and 17 and losses of 18, 8p...... and 15. Gain of genetic material in two separate regions encompassing, 20q12-13.12 and 20q13.2-13.32, was identified in 65% of the FCCTX tumours. Gain of material on chromosome 20q and loss on chromosome 18 significantly discriminated colorectal cancers associated with FCCTX from Lynch syndrome, which...

  18. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  19. Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Daniel J.; Wu, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. PMID:22829794

  20. A gain-of-function mutation in DHT synthesis in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Li, Rui; Kuri, Barbara; Lotan, Yair; Roehrborn, Claus G; Liu, Jiayan; Vessella, Robert; Nelson, Peter S; Kapur, Payal; Guo, Xiaofeng; Mirzaei, Hamid; Auchus, Richard J; Sharifi, Nima

    2013-08-29

    Growth of prostate cancer cells is dependent upon androgen stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR). Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent androgen, is usually synthesized in the prostate from testosterone secreted by the testis. Following chemical or surgical castration, prostate cancers usually shrink owing to testosterone deprivation. However, tumors often recur, forming castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Here, we show that CRPC sometimes expresses a gain-of-stability mutation that leads to a gain-of-function in 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1), which catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in conversion of the adrenal-derived steroid dehydroepiandrosterone to DHT. The mutation (N367T) does not affect catalytic function, but it renders the enzyme resistant to ubiquitination and degradation, leading to profound accumulation. Whereas dehydroepiandrosterone conversion to DHT is usually very limited, expression of 367T accelerates this conversion and provides the DHT necessary to activate the AR. We suggest that 3βHSD1 is a valid target for the treatment of CRPC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Future Time Perspective Impacts Gain-Related but Not Loss-Related Intertemporal Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Tan, Yuxin; Gong, Xianmin; Yin, Shufei; Qiu, Fangshu; Hu, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) modulates individuals' temporal orientation in selecting their motivations and goals, which widely influences their cognitions and behaviors. However, it remains unclear how FTP exactly affects intertemporal choice. To clarify the effect of FTP on intertemporal choice, 90 college students ( M age = 21.70, SD = 1.23) were randomly assigned to the limited FTP condition (16 males, 29 females) and the open-ended FTP condition (17 males, 28 females). In the limited FTP condition, participants were instructed to imagine their states of being 70 years old, whereas in the open-ended FTP condition, they were instructed to describe their current states. All participants then completed a series of intertemporal choice tasks, in which they chose from gain- and loss-related choices occurring at various time points. Results showed that the participants who received the future-imagining manipulation had more limited FTP compared with those who did not receive the manipulation, which confirmed the validity of the FTP manipulation. A 2 (FTP: limited vs. open-ended) × 2 (type of choice: gain vs. loss) repeated measures ANOVA on discount rate revealed a significant interaction between these two factors. The participants in the limited FTP condition had higher discount rates on gain-related choices but showed no difference on loss-related choices compared with the participants under the open-ended FTP condition. The results suggest that limited FTP could lower individuals' future orientation (i.e., willingness to delay an outcome) on gain-related, but not on loss-related, intertemporal decision-making.

  2. Gain versus loss framing in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases: the moderating effect of individual time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Villagran, Melinda M; Kreps, Gary L; McHorney, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the joint effect of message framing and time perspective in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases. Based on previous framing and time perspective research, it was hypothesized that the gain frame would show an advantage over the loss frame among future-oriented patients; for present-oriented patients, it was hypothesized that the framing effect would be relatively indistinct. In total, 1,108 currently nonadherent patients with chronic disease participated in an experiment where they were randomly assigned to either gain- or loss-framed messages addressing key beliefs underlying their nonadherence or a no-message control condition. Intention and attitude regarding future adherence as well as message perceptions were measured after message presentation. Results of this study generally supported the hypotheses. Message topics-whether the messages addressed patients' perceived need for medications or concerns about side effects-did not moderate the effect of framing or the interaction between framing and time perspective. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  4. Patient perspectives on breast cancer treatment side effects and the prospective surveillance model for physical rehabilitation for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Jill M; Harris, Susan R; Levangie, Pamela K; Pearl, Marcia; Guglielmino, Janine; Kraus, Valerie; Rowden, Diana

    2012-04-15

    Women's experience of breast cancer is complex, affecting all aspects of life during and after treatment. Patients' perspectives about common impairments and functional limitations secondary to breast cancer treatment, including upper extremity motion restriction, lymphedema, fatigue, weight gain, pain, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, are addressed. Women often report being uninformed regarding these side effects and surprised that they do not always disappear after treatment, but remain part of their lives. Breast cancer patients express strong, unmet needs for education, information, and intervention for these side effects. Evidence suggests that rehabilitation and exercise are effective in preventing and managing many physical side effects of breast cancer treatment. Nevertheless, few women are referred to rehabilitation during or after treatment, and fewer receive baseline assessments of impairment and function to facilitate early detection of impairment and functional limitations. The prospective surveillance model of rehabilitation will serve the needs of women with breast cancer by providing education and information about treatment side effects, reducing the incidence and burden of side effects through early identification and treatment, and enhancing access to timely rehabilitation. Integration of exercise as a component of the model benefits patients at every phase of survivorship, by addressing individual concerns about exercise during and after treatment and highlighting the important contribution of exercise to overall health and survival. The prospective surveillance model of rehabilitation can meet the evident and often expressed needs of survivors for information, guidance, and intervention--thus addressing, and potentially improving, overall quality of life for individuals diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  5. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  6. Role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer from the metabolite perspective: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Gao, Jianlan; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Shanshan; Wen, Caixia

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignant tumors. Recent research has shown that colorectal cancer is a dysbacteriosis-induced disease; however, the role of intestinal bacteria in colorectal cancer is unclear. This review explores the role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. In total, 57 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on floral metabolites in colorectal cancer from three metabolic perspectives – including carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism – was analyzed. An association network regarding the role of intestinal flora from a metabolic perspective was constructed by analyzing the previous literature to provide direction and insight for further research on intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. PMID:29440929

  7. Metabolic Mediators of the Association Between Adult Weight Gain and Colorectal Cancer: Data From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Pischon, Tobias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gunter, Marc J; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Bradbury, Kathryn; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Evidence indicates that gaining weight in adult life is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer; however, biological mechanisms that may explain this association remain unclear. We evaluated the mediation effect of 20 different biomarkers on the relationship between adult weight gain

  8. Breast Cancer Genetic Counseling: A Surgeon’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Marie Agnese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As surgeons who care for patients with breast cancer, the possibility of a cancer diagnosis being related to a hereditary predisposition is always a consideration. Not only are we as surgeons always trying to identify these patients and families, but also we are often asked about a potential hereditary component by the patients and their family members. It is therefore critical that we accurately assess patients to determine who may benefit from genetic testing. Importantly, the potential benefit for identifying a hereditary breast cancer extends beyond the patient to other family members and the risk may not be only for the development of breast cancers, but for other cancers as well. As a surgeon with additional training in clinical cancer genetics, I have perhaps a unique perspective on the issue and feel that a review of some of the more practical considerations is important.

  9. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A

    1999-09-01

    Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.

  10. Dependence of therapeutic gain factor on stage of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, J.; Solomon, J.G.R.; Koteshwer Rao, K.; Supe, S.S.; Prasad, G.N.S.

    1998-01-01

    To achieve therapeutic gain, unconventional dose per fraction has been employed in radiotherapy, in addition to the conventional dose per fraction of 2 Gy. Dose fractionation factor (DFF) and therapeutic gain factor (TGF) have been utilised to test the efficiency of such unconventional fractionation schedules. In this study, isoeffective dose for 100% tumour regression and mucosal and skin reactions were estimated. CRE, TDF and ERD values for tumour and normal tissue reactions were evaluated. DEF and TGF values have been determined on the basis of dose, CRE, TDF and ERD, in order to understand the influence of these bioeffect models and stage of cancer on TGF associated with differing fractionation schedules. There was a noticeable difference in TGF values determined on the basis of four criteria, which is in agreement with radiobiological phenomenon, that tissues with different α/β values differ in their responsiveness. (author)

  11. Family caregiving challenges in advanced colorectal cancer: patient and caregiver perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Adams, Rebecca N; Helft, Paul R; O'Neil, Bert H; Shahda, Safi; Rattray, Nicholas A; Champion, Victoria L

    2016-05-01

    Family caregivers of advanced colorectal cancer patients may be at increased risk for psychological distress. Yet their key challenges in coping with the patient's illness are not well understood. Soliciting both patient and caregiver perspectives on these challenges would broaden our understanding of the caregiving experience. Thus, the purpose of this research was to identify caregivers' key challenges in coping with their family member's advanced colorectal cancer from the perspective of patients and caregivers. Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 advanced colorectal cancer patients and 23 primary family caregivers. Interview data were analyzed via thematic analysis. In nearly all cases, patient and caregiver reports of the caregiver's key challenge were discrepant. Across patient and caregiver reports, caregivers' key challenges included processing emotions surrounding the patient's initial diagnosis or recurrence and addressing the patient's practical and emotional needs. Other challenges included coping with continual uncertainty regarding the patient's potential functional decline and prognosis and observing the patient suffer from various physical symptoms. Findings suggest that eliciting the perspectives of both patients and caregivers regarding caregivers' challenges provides a more comprehensive understanding of their experience. Results also point to the need to assist caregivers with the emotional and practical aspects of caregiving.

  12. Health/Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Healthy Weight Gain and Physical Activity in Pregnant, Urban First Nations Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine health/service providers' perspectives of barriers to healthy weight gain and physical activity for urban, pregnant First Nations women in Ottawa, Canada. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, we explored 15 health/service providers' perspectives on the complex barriers their clients face. By using a postcolonial feminist lens and a social determinants of health framework, we identified three social determinants of health that the health/service providers believed to have the greatest influence on their clients' weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy: poverty, education, and colonialism. Our findings are then contextualized within existing Statistics Canada and the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study data. We found that health/service providers are in a position to challenge colonial relations of power. We conclude by urging health/service providers, researchers, and policymakers alike to take into consideration the ways in which these social determinants of health and their often synergistic effects affect urban First Nations women during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  14. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israels, T.; Chirambo, C.; Caron, H.; de Kraker, J.; Molyneux, E.; Reis, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Methods: Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible

  15. Clarifying perspectives: Ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-06-01

    Childhood cancer care involves many ethical concerns. Deciding on treatment levels and providing care that infringes on the child's growing autonomy are known ethical concerns that involve the whole professional team around the child's care. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of participating in ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care. Data collection by observations, individual interviews, and individual encounters. Data analysis were conducted following grounded theory methodology. Healthcare professionals working at a publicly funded children's hospital in Sweden participated in ethics case reflection sessions in which ethical issues concerning clinical cases were reflected on. The children's and their parents' integrity was preserved through measures taken to protect patient identity during ethics case reflection sessions. The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Consolidating care by clarifying perspectives emerged. Consolidating care entails striving for common care goals and creating a shared view of care and the ethical concern in the specific case. The inter-professional perspectives on the ethical aspects of care are clarified by the participants' articulated views on the case. Different approaches for deliberating ethics are used during the sessions including raising values and making sense, leading to unifying interactions. The findings indicate that ethical concerns could be eased by implementing ethics case reflection sessions. Conflicting perspectives can be turned into unifying interactions in the healthcare professional team with the common aim to achieve good pediatric care. Ethics case reflection sessions is valuable as it permits the discussion of values in healthcare-related issues in childhood cancer care. Clarifying perspectives, on the ethical concerns, enables healthcare professionals to reflect on the most reasonable and ethically defensible care for the child

  16. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bütof, Rebecca; Baumann, Michael; Dubrovska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  17. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  18. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israëls, Trijn; Chirambo, Chawanangwa; Caron, Huib; de Kraker, Jan; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Reis, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible causes of abandonment, a

  19. New Perspectives in the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahlberg, Rolf; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Thuss-Patience, Peter

    2017-01-01

    available in non-Asia countries until recently. In Japan, S-1 in combination with cisplatin is the recommended first-line treatment in patients with gastric cancer. In Europe, the first trials with S-1 were disappointing due to high unacceptable incidences of adverse events. Pharmacokinetic studies showed...... differences in Asian and Caucasian patients; therefore, a new non-Asian study program was initiated, which led to the pivotal phase 3 trial First-Line Advanced Gastric Cancer Study (FLAGS). In FLAGS, 1,053 patients with advanced gastric cancer from 24 non-Asian countries were enrolled. S-1 plus cisplatin...... safety profile. This led to the approval of S-1 in combination with cisplatin in gastric cancer in Europe in 2011. This article reviews the mode of action of S-1, pivotal study results from an EU point of view, and future perspectives....

  20. Sociodemographic and economic factors are associated with weight gain between before and after cancer diagnosis: results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Partula, Valentin; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-08-15

    While many cancer patients are affected by weight loss, others tend to gain weight, which may impact prognosis and risk of recurrence and of second cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis and socio-demographic, economic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain. 1051 incident cases of first primary cancer were diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. Weight was prospectively collected every 6 months since subjects' inclusion (i.e. an average of 2y before diagnosis). Mean weights before and after cancer diagnosis were compared with paired Student's t-test. Factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain (≥5% of initial weight) were investigated by age and sex-adjusted logistic regression. Weight loss was observed in men (-3.54±4.39kg in those who lost weight, p=0.0002) and in colorectal cancer patients (-3.94±4.40kg, p=0.001). Weight gain was observed in breast and skin cancers (2.83±3.21kg, p=0.04, and 2.96±2.75kg, p=0.04 respectively). Women (OR=1.75[1.06-2.87],p=0.03), younger patients (2.44[1.51-3.70],pgain weight. In breast cancer patients, induced menopause was associated with weight gain (OR=4.12[1.76-9.67]), but no association was detected for tumor characteristics or treatments. This large prospective cohort provided original results on weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis, highlighting different weight trajectories. Socio-demographic and economic factors appeared to influence the risk of weight gain, illustrating social inequalities in health.

  1. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant anastrozol in post-menopausal women with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Andre Deeke; Sasse, Emma Chen

    2009-01-01

    Carry out an economic analysis of the incorporation of anastrozole as adjuvant hormone therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer in a Brazilian setting. The cost-effectiveness estimate comparing anastrozole to tamoxifen was made from the perspectives of the patient, private health insurance, and government. A Markov model was designed based on data from ATAC trial after 100 months follow-up in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 postmenopausal women in Brazil, using outcomes projections for a 25-year period. Resource utilization and associated costs were obtained from preselected sources and specialists' opinions. Treatment costs varied according to the perspective used. The incremental benefit was inserted in the model to obtain the cost of quality-adjusted life-year gained (QALY). Benefit extrapolations for a 25-year time line showed an estimate of 0.29 QALY gained with anastrozole compared to tamoxifen. The cost-effectiveness ratio per QALY gained depended on which perspective was used. There was an increment of R$ 32.403,00/QALY in the public health system/government, R$ 32.230,00/QALY for private health system, and R$ 55.270,00/QALY for patients. The benefit from adjuvant anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer is associated to major differences in cost-effectiveness ratio and varies with the different perspectives. According to current WHO parameters, the increment is considered acceptable under public and private health system perspectives, but not from that of the patient.

  2. The influence of time perspective on cervical cancer screening among Latinas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Fernandez, Maria E

    2014-12-01

    To develop effective interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas, we should understand the role of cultural factors, such as time perspective, in the decision to be screened. We examined the relation between present time orientation, future time orientation, and self-reported cervical cancer screening among Latinas. A group of 206 Latinas completed a survey measuring factors associated with screening. Logistic regression analyses revealed that future time orientation was significantly associated with self-reported screening. Understanding the influence of time orientation on cervical cancer screening will assist us in developing interventions that effectively target time perspective and screening. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Overtreatment of young adults with colon cancer: more intense treatments with unmatched survival gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneuertz, Peter J; Chang, George J; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Eng, Cathy; Vilar, Eduardo; Skibber, John M; Feig, Barry W; Cormier, Janice N; You, Y Nancy

    2015-05-01

    Colon cancer is increasing among adults younger than 50 years. However, the prognosis of young-onset colon cancer remains poorly defined given significant age-related demographic, disease, and treatment differences. To define stage-specific treatments and prognosis of colon cancer diagnosed in young adults (ages 18-49 years) vs older adults (ages 65-75 years) outside of the clinical trial setting while accounting for real-world age-related variations in patient, tumor, and treatment factors. A nationwide cohort study was conducted among US hospitals accredited by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer. Participants were 13 102 patients diagnosed as having young-onset colon adenocarcinoma aged 18 to 49 years and 37 007 patients diagnosed as having later-onset colon adenocarcinoma aged 65 to 75 years treated between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2005, and reported to the National Cancer Data Base. Patients who underwent surgical resection and postoperative systemic chemotherapy of curative intent. The primary end point was stage-specific relative survival, an objective measure of survival among patients with cancer, adjusting for baseline mortality rates and independent of the data on cause of death. The secondary end point was stage-specific likelihood of receiving postoperative systemic chemotherapy. Most young-onset colon cancer was initially seen at advanced stages (61.8% had stage III or IV). After adjusting for patient-related and tumor-related factors, young patients were more likely to receive systemic chemotherapy, particularly multiagent regimens, at all stages relative to those with later-onset disease. These odds ratios were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.21-3.77) for stage I, 3.93 (95% CI, 3.58-4.31) for stage II, 2.42 (95% CI, 2.18-2.68) for stage III, and 2.74 (95% CI, 2.44-3.07) for stage IV. The significantly more intense treatments received by younger patients were unmatched by any survival gain, which was nil for stage II (relative risk, 0

  4. Can taking the perspective of an expert debias human decisions? The case for risky and delayed gains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBialek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In several reported previously studies, participants increased their normative correctness after being instructed to think hypothetically, specifically taking the perspective of an expert or researcher (Beatty & Thompson 2012, Morsanyi & Handley 2012. The goal of this paper was to investigate how this manipulation affects risky or delayed payoffs. In two studies, participants (n=193 were tested online (in exchange for money using the adjusting procedure. Individuals produced certain/immediate equivalents for risky/delayed gains. Participants in the control group were solving the problem from their own perspective, while participants in the experimental group were asked to imagine what would a reliable and honest advisor advise them to do.Study 1 showed that when taking the perspective of an expert, participants in experimental group became more risk aversive compared to participants in the control group. Additionally, their certain equivalents diverged from the Expected Value (EV to a greater extent. The results obtained from the experimental group in Study 2 suggest that participants became less impulsive, which means they tried to inhibit their preferences. This favors the explanation, which suggests that the perspective shift forced individuals to override their intuitions with the social norms. Individuals expect to be blamed for impatience or risk taking thus expected an expert to advise them to be more patient and risk aversive.

  5. Can taking the perspective of an expert debias human decisions? The case of risky and delayed gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    In several previously reported studies, participants increased their normative correctness after being instructed to think hypothetically, specifically taking the perspective of an expert or researcher (Beatty and Thompson, 2012; Morsanyi and Handley, 2012). The goal of this paper was to investigate how this manipulation affects risky or delayed payoffs. In two studies, participants (n = 193) were tested online (in exchange for money) using the adjusting procedure. Individuals produced certain/immediate equivalents for risky/delayed gains. Participants in the control group were solving the problem from their own perspective, while participants in the experimental group were asked to imagine "what would a reliable and honest advisor advise them to do." Study 1 showed that when taking the perspective of an expert, participants in experimental group became more risk aversive compared to participants in the control group. Additionally, their certain equivalents diverged from the expected value to a greater extent. The results obtained from the experimental group in Study 2 suggest that participants became less impulsive, which means they tried to inhibit their preferences. This favors the explanation, which suggests that the perspective shift forced individuals to override their intuitions with the social norms. Individuals expect to be blamed for impatience or risk taking thus expected an expert to advise them to be more patient and risk aversive.

  6. Cooperation and conflict in cancer: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Featherston

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary approaches to carcinogenesis have gained prominence in the literature and enhanced our understanding of cancer. However, an appreciation of neoplasia in the context of evolutionary transitions, particularly the transition from independent genes to a fullyintegrated genome, is largely absent. In the gene–genome evolutionary transition, mobile genetic elements (MGEs can be studied as the extant exemplars of selfish autonomous lowerlevel units that cooperated to form a higher-level, functionally integrated genome. Here,we discuss levels of selection in cancer cells. In particular, we examine the tension between gene and genome units of selection by examining the expression profiles of MGE domains in an array of human cancers. Overall, across diverse cancers, there is an aberrant expression of several families of mobile elements, including the most common MGE in the human genome, retrotransposon LINE 1. These results indicate an alternative life-history strategy for MGEs in the cancers studied. Whether the aberrant expression is the cause or effect oftumourigenesis is unknown, although some evidence suggests that dysregulation of MGEs can play a role in cancer origin and progression. These data are interpreted in combination with phylostratigraphic reports correlating the origin of cancer genes with multicellularity and other potential increases in complexity in cancer cell populations. Cooperation and conflict between individuals at the gene, genome and cell level provide an evolutionary medicineperspective of cancer that enhances our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment.

  7. Dissecting the roles of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer from molecular perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jieping; Wang, Gongxian; Sun, Ting

    2017-05-01

    Androgen receptor plays a pivotal role in prostate cancer progression, and androgen deprivation therapy to intercept androgen receptor signal pathway is an indispensable treatment for most advanced prostate cancer patients to delay cancer progression. However, the emerging of castration-resistant prostate cancer reminds us the alteration of androgen receptor, which includes androgen receptor mutation, the formation of androgen receptor variants, and androgen receptor distribution in cancer cells. In this review, we introduce the process of androgen receptor and also its variants' formation, translocation, and function alteration by protein modification or interaction with other pathways. We dissect the roles of androgen receptor in prostate cancer from molecular perspective to provide clues for battling prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  8. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  9. Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives on Cancer Stigma in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adyya; Dhillon, Preet K; Govil, Jyotsna; Bumb, Dipika; Dey, Subhojit; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. A large proportion of cancer deaths are preventable through early detection but there are a range of social, emotional, cultural and financial dimensions that hinder the effectiveness of cancer prevention and treatment efforts. Cancer stigma is one such barrier and is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health awareness and promotion, and hence, disease prevention and control. The impact and extent of stigma on the cancer early detection and care continuum is poorly understood in India. To evaluate cancer awareness and stigma from multiple stakeholder perspectives in North India, including men and women from the general population, health care professionals and educators, and cancer survivors. A qualitative study was conducted with in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) among 39 individuals over a period of 3 months in 2014. Three groups of participants were chosen purposively - 1) men and women who attended cancer screening camps held by the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi; 2) health care providers and 3) cancer survivors. Most participants were unaware of what cancers are in general, their causes and ways of prevention. Attitudes of families towards cancer patients were observed to be positive and caring. Nevertheless, stigma and its impact emerged as a cross cutting theme across all groups. Cost of treatment, lack of awarenes and beliefs in alternate medicines were identified as some of the major barriers to seeking care. This study suggests a need for spreading awareness, knowledge about cancers and assessing associated impact among the people. Also Future research is recommended to help eradicate stigma from the society and reduce cancer-related stigma in the Indian context.

  10. Time perspective in hereditary cancer: psychometric properties of a short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community and clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan; Mahmut, Mehmet; Meiser, Bettina

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a 25-item short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community sample (N = 276) and in individuals with a strong family history of cancer, considering genetic testing for cancer risk (N = 338). In the community sample, individuals with high past-negative or present-fatalistic scores had higher levels of distress, as measured by depression, anxiety, and aggression. Similarly, in the patient sample, past-negative time perspective was positively correlated with distress, uncertainty, and postdecision regret when making a decision about genetic testing. Past-negative-oriented individuals were also more likely to be undecided about, or against, genetic testing. Hedonism was associated with being less likely to read the educational materials they received at their clinic, and fatalism was associated with having lower knowledge levels about genetic testing. The assessment of time perspective in individuals at increased risk of cancer can provide valuable clinical insights. However, further investigation of the psychometric properties of the short form of this scale is warranted, as it did not meet the currently accepted criteria for psychometric validation studies.

  11. Dealing with fear - from the perspective of adolescent girls with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Sörlie, Venke; Kihlgren, Annica

    2012-07-01

    Previously fears in adolescents with cancer has been identified in relation to medical procedures, death, altered appearance and as having an overall influence on life, but to our knowledge young people's perspectives on dealing with fear have not been previously investigated. To examine adolescents' perspectives on dealing with cancer related fear. Six girls participated in qualitative interviews focussing on their fear and and how they dealt with it. Data were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results revealed two perspectives. First, the adolescents' own personal battle with fear. Second, they reported that they were not alone with their fear, as they shared it with significant others. An environment characterized by emotional presence helped them to deal with their fear, as well as prevented it from occurring. There is a need for staff and parents to be vigilant to the adolescents' need to feel cared for and allow them the opportunity to deal with their own fear, as at times they want to manage in their own way. Young patients have resources to cope with their fears and therefore should not be viewed as victims, but as young people with a great amount of competence, who benefit from a supportive environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syse, A.; Syse, A.; Geller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from non modifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  13. African and Afro-Caribbean men's experiences of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie

    It is well documented that prostate cancer presents a significant health problem for middle-aged and elderly men in the UK, with further evidence suggesting that the disease is more prevalent in men of African and Afro-Caribbean (AAC) ethnicity. There is also evidence that these men are diagnosed much later and that the disease is more aggressive than in Caucasian men. To explore AAC men's experiences of prostate cancer and their understanding of its associated risks. The purpose was to gain an insight from these men's perspectives and ascertain whether a more focused health promotion strategy, and specific UK-based research, was needed in this area. A purposive sample of seven AAC men was recruited from a hospital trust's patient list after gaining approval from a research ethics committee. In-depth face-to-face interviews were carried out and the transcripts analysed thematically. The four main themes that emerged were: disease-prompted awareness, checking up as a necessary evil, defining and constructing factors influencing prostate cancer screening uptake, and appraising perceived myths about prostate cancer through personal beliefs. Among this group of AAC men, socioeconomic status, such as education and professional background, were factors that influenced their level of awareness of prostate cancer and prompted their decisions to seek help. However, it is evident from these men's perspectives that a more specific health education strategy that promotes early detection and management, targeting AAC men, would help in demystifying prostate cancer and encourage them to seek help earlier. Further research studies and health education in prominent social outlets are recommended in increasing AAC men's awareness of prostate cancer and its associated risks.

  14. Nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations for cancer therapy - Strategies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui Xue; Wong, Ho Lun; Xue, Hui Yi; Eoh, June Young; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-10-28

    Nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations has shown increasing significance in cancer therapy due to its promise in providing superior therapeutic benefits to the current drug combination therapy used in clinical practice. In this article, we will examine the rationale, principles, and advantages of applying nanocarriers to improve anticancer drug combination therapy, review the use of nanocarriers for delivery of a variety of combinations of different classes of anticancer agents including small molecule drugs and biologics, and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the nanocarrier-based combination therapy. The goal of this review is to provide better understanding of this increasingly important new paradigm of cancer treatment and key considerations for rational design of nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient perspectives on delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancer: a qualitative analysis of free-text data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonage, Rachel K; Hiscock, Julia; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Neal, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    Earlier cancer diagnosis is crucial in improving cancer survival. The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 4 (ICBP4) is a quantitative survey study that explores the reasons for delays in diagnosis and treatment of breast, colorectal, lung, and ovarian cancer. To further understand the associated diagnostic processes, it is also important to explore the patient perspectives expressed in the free-text comments. To use the free-text data provided by patients completing the ICBP4 survey to augment the understanding of patients' perspectives of their diagnostic journey. Qualitative analysis of the free-text data collected in Wales between October 2013 and December 2014 as part of the ICBP4 survey. Newly-diagnosed patients with either breast, ovarian, colorectal, or lung cancer were identified from registry data and then invited by their GPs to participate in the survey. A thematic framework was used to analyse the free-text comments provided at the end of the ICBP4 survey. Of the 905 patients who returned a questionnaire, 530 included comments. The free-text data provided information about patients' perspectives of the diagnostic journey. Analysis identified factors that acted as either barriers or facilitators at different stages of the diagnostic process. Some factors, such as screening, doctor-patient familiarity, and private treatment, acted as both barriers and facilitators depending on the context. Factors identified in this study help to explain how existing models of cancer diagnosis (for example, the Pathways to Treatment Model) work in practice. It is important that clinicians are aware of how these factors may interact with individual clinical cases and either facilitate, or act as a barrier to, subsequent cancer diagnosis. Understanding and implementing this knowledge into clinical practice may result in quicker cancer diagnoses. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  16. Links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaron, Charlène; Marqueste, Tanguy; Eisinger, François; Cappiello, Maria-Antonietta; Therme, Pierre; Cury, François

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment. One hundred forty-three patients participated in survey by questionnaire. Intention to practice physical activity, time perspective using Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and personality with the Big Five Inventory were measured. Structural equation models using Lisrel were developed to examine hypothetical links between the variables. The adjusted model evidenced an excellent fit (comparative fit index = 0.92; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.076; P = .014). Results showed that intention to practice exercise was positively linked with openness to experience and negatively with present fatalist time perspective. Moreover, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found to be linked with future time perspective, which was positively related with intention to practice physical activity. The present exploratory study with patients suffering from cancer underlined the importance of considering jointly time perspective dimensions and personality factors for health behavior recommendations. Based on our results, we propose some reflections on practice to help nurses and physicians increase patient's motivation to be physically active. Taking into account patients' personality and time perspective, we would be able to propose specific awareness messages and offer short interventions to have an impact on patients' motivation to practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chinese peoples' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening: a New Zealand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Genevieve; McCool, Judith

    2011-03-25

    A national cancer screening programme requires a level of perceived acceptability of the procedure among the target population groups to be successful (that is, achieve a high uptake rate). In this study we explored Chinese immigrants' attitudes and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening. A grounded theory methodology was used explore the determinants of colorectal cancer screening. In depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and subsequently analysed to develop an appreciation of the perspectives on colorectal cancer screening among Chinese people living in New Zealand. Findings indicated a high degree of perceived acceptability for the concept of a national colorectal cancer screening programme. Chinese participants valued health care and preventive health measures were highly prioritised. However, colorectal cancer suffered from the 'poor cousin' syndrome whereby other more highly publicised cancers, such breast cancer, or skin cancer, were perceived to be more relevant and serious, thus marginalising the perceived priority of colorectal cancer screening. Overall, participants paid close attention to their bodies' balance and were proactive in seeking medical advice. Patient practitioner interaction was also found to be influential in the patient's decision to seek screening. The results of the study suggest that the introduction of a colorectal cancer screening programme in New Zealand would benefit from close attention to cultural determinants of screening uptake to provide an equitable service and outcome. Chinese patients who are eligible for participating in the colorectal cancer screening would benefit from access to appropriately detailed and culturally relevant information on the risks, benefit and procedures associated with colorectal cancer screening.

  18. Risk Profile in a Sample of Patients with Breast Cancer from the Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina IRIMIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer represents a major public health and economical burden in developed countries and has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, matching its effect in industrialized nations. Although there have been recent declines in breast cancer mortality rates in some European Union countries, breast cancer remains of key importance to public health in Europe. Now days there is increasing recognition of the causative role of lifestyle factors, as smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, or lake of physical activity. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in a sample of patients diagnosed with the disease, and to outline a risk profile liable to be changed in the intention of reducing the global risk. Risk factors have been investigated in 65 patients diagnosed with breast cancer using a questionnaire for breast cancer risk factors evaluation. The high risk profile was identified as taking shape for urban environment, modulated by the impact of overweight-obesity, smoking, reproductive factors and environmental exposure to different chemical substances. From the public health perspective, the control of overweight and obesity comes out in the foreground of preventive activities. Public health approaches emphasize on inexpensive, practical methods and in this perspective the approach of obesity should focus on the alteration of environmental context, promoting healthy eating and increased physical activity which could have a positive, independent impact on breast cancer risk

  19. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  20. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  1. [A Survey of the Factors of Influence and Interventional Strategies for Breast Cancer Survivors' Transition Care Across Multiple Theoretical Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Huan; Lee, Tzu-I; Sheu, Shuh-Jen

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer significantly threatens the life of women, while the adverse effects of cancer treatment degrade quality of life and psychological well-being. The quality of transitional care following the completion of treatment significantly affects the ability of breast cancer patients to transition successfully into survivorship. This paper introduces multiple theoretical perspectives and provides an overview of the tenets of each in order to identify the positions of breast cancer survivors and to highlight the factors and strategies that influence their transitional care. The theoretical perspectives that are introduced include the social-ecological model, transition theory, and the strengths perspective. In order to improve the holistic care of women with breast cancer, factors relevant to transition are categorized into the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. Furthermore, empirical interventions, which are based on the respective advantages of the various levels of the social-ecological model, are proposed in order to conform to the sociocultural context and clinical practices. Healthcare providers should leverage the strengths and resources at each level to develop feasible strategies and to provide quality of care in order to assist breast cancer patients to transition successfully from treatment to survivorship and to holistically improve their subsequent quality of life and function.

  2. Communicating cancer treatment information using the Web: utilizing the patient's perspective in website development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, W.; Damman, O.C.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Haasbeek, C.J.A.; Slotman, B.J.; Senan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Online cancer information can support patients in making treatment decisions. However, such information may not be adequately tailored to the patient's perspective, particularly if healthcare professionals do not sufficiently engage patient groups when developing online information. We

  3. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  4. Participation of the family in hospital-based palliative cancer care: perspective of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available The objective was to understand the perspective of nurses about the participation of the family in palliative cancer care and to analyze the nursing care strategies to meet their needs. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the National Cancer Institute between January and March 2013, with 17 nurses. Elements of the Roy Adaptation Model were used for the interpretation of the data. Two categoriesemergedfrom the thematic analysis: perspective of nurses about the presence and valuation of family in the hospital; and appointing strategies to encourage family participation in care and meet their needs. This participation is essentialand represents a training opportunity for the purpose of homecare. Nurses create strategies to encourage it and seek to meet the needs. The results contribute to promote the family adaptation and integrity, in order to balance the dependent and independent behaviors, aimingfor quality of life and comfort. Further studies are neededdue to the challenges of the specialty.

  5. Clinical utility of letrozole in the treatment of breast cancer: a Chinese perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He DX

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong-xu He,1 Xin Ma2 1National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The incidence rate of breast cancers in People’s Republic of China has increased in the last decade, and many cases are responsive to hormone therapies. The third-generation aromatase inhibitor letrozole inhibits estrogen production, and is more efficacious than the estrogen receptor inhibitor tamoxifen. In recent years, letrozole has been widely used to treat postmenopausal breast cancers in People’s Republic of China. Also, metastatic, premenopausal, and male breast cancers have been effectively treated by a combination of letrozole with cytotoxic, radiation, or other therapies. In this review, we provide a perspective and summary of recent advances in the use of letrozole for breast cancer in Chinese patients. Keywords: breast cancer, Chinese, letrozole

  6. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional “one test-one drug” assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  7. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoli; Yang, Zhaohai; Eshleman, James R; Netto, George J; Lin, Ming-Tseh

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional "one test-one drug" assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  8. [Cancer Education for Children from the Perspective of International Cooperation for Cancer in Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie

    2015-08-01

    When considering how Japan can propose cancer prevention strategies for other countries in Asia and what would be the best format for such strategies, involvement in cancer education has the potential to make a significant contribution to cancer control measures in Asia. Such involvement would be effective not only from the perspective of promoting future research collaborations for cancer but also because many countries in Asia are coming to a turning point in their social structures as population growth declines and societies start to age. Cancer involves various stages, from prevention, early detection, early treatment, and treatment with advanced methods to prognosis and follow-up, and prevention of recurrence. In all of these stages, the daily lives of patients and the clinical environment are intricately interlinked on the same level. In addition, decisions on when and how to allocate medical resources that support the various cancer stages affect the health and quality of life of patients. Progress in prevention and early detection can reduce the consumption of medical resources. However, the tendency is to rely on self-help efforts and individual awareness in these areas. It is therefore thought to be necessary to re-appraise prevention and early detection in the context of a framework that aims to bring people together in a way that encourages mutual and public assistance. It would be ideal if children, who represent the future, could acquire awareness about such matters from an existing body of knowledge that has been formed through ongoing interpersonal interactions that have been nurtured through community and blood relationships. It is necessary to consider what cancer education means for individuals and society, and how it can change the way people go about their daily lives, particularly in the context of the changing social structure of Asia.

  9. The relatives' perspective on advanced cancer care in Denmark. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna T; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten A

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve advanced cancer care, evaluations are necessary. An important element of such evaluations is the perspective of the patient's relatives who have the role of being caregivers as well as co-users of the health care system. The aims were to investigate the scale structure of the ...

  10. Understanding the impact of socioeconomic differences in breast cancer survival in England and Wales: avoidable deaths and potential gain in expectation of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M J; Andersson, T M-L; Møller, H; Lambert, P C

    2015-02-01

    Socioeconomic differences in cancer patient survival are known to exist for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Standard metrics tend not to place great emphasis on evaluating the actual impact of these differences. We used two alternative, but related, methods of reporting the impact of socioeconomic differences for breast cancer patients in England and Wales. We calculated the average gain in life years for each patient should socioeconomic differences in relative survival be removed and show how this is related to the number of all-cause deaths that could be postponed by removing socioeconomic differences in cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that deprivation differences for women with breast cancer exist and result in women from more deprived areas losing a larger proportion of their life due to a diagnosis of cancer. We also estimate that on average 1.1 years could be gained for a 60 year old breast cancer patient in the most deprived group by improving their relative survival to match the least deprived group. However, our results also show that deprivation differences in general survival have a large impact on life expectancy; showing that over two-thirds of the gap in differential life expectancy is explained by differences in other-cause survival. Socioeconomic differences in relative survival have an impact on life expectancy for patients and result in higher early mortality for more deprived patients. However, differences in general survival across socioeconomic groups explain a larger proportion of the deprivation gap in life expectancy for breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Survivorship Care Plan Information Needs: Perspectives of Safety-Net Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J; Napoles, Tessa M; Banks, Priscilla J; Orenstein, Fern S; Luce, Judith A; Joseph, Galen

    2016-01-01

    Despite the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) 2005 recommendation, few care organizations have instituted standard survivorship care plans (SCPs). Low health literacy and low English proficiency are important factors to consider in SCP development. Our study aimed to identify information needs and survivorship care plan preferences of low literacy, multi-lingual patients to support the transition from oncology to primary care and ongoing learning in survivorship. We conducted focus groups in five languages with African American, Latina, Russian, Filipina, White, and Chinese medically underserved breast cancer patients. Topics explored included the transition to primary care, access to information, knowledge of treatment history, and perspectives on SCPs. Analysis of focus group data identified three themes: 1) the need for information and education on the transition between "active treatment" and "survivorship"; 2) information needed (and often not obtained) from providers; and 3) perspectives on SCP content and delivery. Our data point to the need to develop a process as well as written information for medically underserved breast cancer patients. An SCP document will not replace direct communication with providers about treatment, symptom management and transition, a communication that is missing in participating safety-net patients' experiences of cancer care. Women turned to peer support and community-based organizations in the absence of information from providers. "Clear and effective" communication of survivorship care for safety-net patients requires dedicated staff trained to address wide-ranging information needs and uncertainties.

  12. Perspective on Cancer Therapeutics Utilizing Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yeong Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are available for cancer screening, and the methods are performed depending on the origin site of cancer. Among these methods, biopsy followed by medical imaging is the most common. After cancer progression is determined, an optimal treatment—such as surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy—is selected. A new assay has been developed that detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs. Tracking changes in CTCs may reveal important tumoral sensitivity information or resistance patterns to specific regimens and prompt changes in therapy on a personalized basis. Characterization of CTCs at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels is important for gaining insight for clinical applications. A small number of CTCs can be analyzed to obtain genome information such as the progression of cancer including metastasis, even in a single cluster. Although many clinical studies, particularly CTC enumeration and detection of specific oncogene expression, have increased the success rate of diagnosis and predicting prognosis, there is no consensus regarding the technical approaches and various aspects of the methodology, making it difficult to standardize optimal methods for CTC analysis. However, ongoing technological advances are currently being achieved and large-scale clinical studies are being conducted. Applying CTC analysis in the clinic would be very useful for advancing diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and therapeutics.

  13. Friendship relations from the perspective of children with experience of cancer treatment: a focus group study with a salutogenic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einberg, Eva-Lena; Svedberg, Petra; Enskär, Karin; Nygren, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    Friendships are significant to child development and health but diseases such as cancer can interrupt the contact with friends. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of friendship from the perspective of children undergoing cancer treatment, in order to build knowledge that can be used in a health promotion intervention for these children. Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups, where a mixture of informative and creative techniques were used. The focus group discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three generic categories, "Common interests and experiences," "Mutual empathic actions." and "Mutual trust and understanding," incorporating seven subcategories. Based on children's descriptions from a salutogenic perspective, friendship emerged as An equal and mutual commitment that evolves over time and with interactions face-to-face and digitally, a child perspective on friendship should be central to the development of health promotion interventions designed to support friendship relations of children treated for cancer. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  14. [Perspectives of the stomach cancer treatment: the introduction of molecular targeted therapy and the hope for cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2013-03-25

    The overall survival of patients with gastric cancer has increased markedly in Korea, even higher than those of developed nations in Western world. It is due to the virtue of Korean National Cancer Screening Program and nowadays more than half of patients are diagnosed at the early stage of gastric cancer. However, for patients with unresectable gastric cancer, the outcomes of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens stay at a median survival of 9-11 months. The knowledge of cancer biology and the data from gene expression profiling has explosively expanded. Alternations in the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases pathways including Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatydyl inositol 3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/MET), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) were proved to be critical in cancer cell survival and biological agents targeting those altered receptor tyrosine kinases, their ligands and downstream effector molecules are developed for anti-cancer purpose. Until now, only trastuzumab succeeded to significantly increase overall survival of patients with HER2 overexpressing gastric cancer. Other agents including bevacizumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, and lapatinib failed to achieve the efficacy in survival gain over standard chemotherapy. Insights about the variations between regions, races, and individuals call for the effort to find reliable predictive biomarkers for drug efficacy and to design finely stratified clinical trials. Compared to current treatment paradigms, it is hoped that molecularly targeted treatment along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy will lead to significant gains in survival.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you received. Video Series This video series offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor. The ... Three cancer patients and their doctor share their perspectives on how to discuss cancer prognosis (the likely course of the disease). Learn key points ...

  16. Clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy: current overview and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Kui; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C; Zhang, Haiyuan; Huang, Canhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease that is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for more effective management of cancer. Importantly, protein profiling using clinical proteomic strategies, with spectacular sensitivity and precision, offer excellent promise for the identification of potential biomarkers that would direct the development of targeted therapeutic anticancer drugs for precision medicine. In particular, clinical sample sources, including tumor tissues and body fluids (blood, feces, urine and saliva), have been widely investigated using modern high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with bioinformatic analysis, to pursue the possibilities of precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy. Discussed in this review are the current advantages and limitations of clinical proteomics, the available strategies of clinical proteomics for the management of precision medicine, as well as the challenges and future perspectives of clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  17. Administrators' perspectives on end-of-life care for cancer patients in Japanese long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Hiroki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Akizuki, Nobuya; Akiyama, Miki; Shirahige, Yutaka; Eguchi, Kenji

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify administrators' perspectives on availability of recommended strategies for end-of-life (EOL) care for cancer patients at long-term care (LTC) facilities in Japan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with administrators at Japanese LTC facilities. Participants were surveyed about their facilities, reasons for hospitalization of cancer patients, and their perspectives on availability of and strategies for EOL care. The 97 responses were divided into medical facility (n = 24) and non-medical facility (n = 73) groups according to physician availability. The most frequent reasons for hospitalization were a sudden change in patient's condition (49.4%), lack of around-the-clock care (43.0%), and inability to palliate symptoms (41.0%). About 50% of administrators believed their facilities could provide EOL care if supported by palliative care experts. There was no significant difference between facility types (P = 0.635). Most administrators (81.2%) regarded unstable cancer patients as difficult to care for. However, many (68.4%) regarded opioids given orally as easy to administer, but regarded continuous subcutaneous infusion/central venous nutrition as difficult. Almost all administrators believed the most useful strategy was transferring patients to hospitals at the request of patients or family members (96.9%), followed by consultation with palliative care experts (88.5%). Although LTC facilities in Japan currently do not provide adequate EOL care for cancer patients, improvement might be possible with support by palliative care teams. Appropriate models are necessary for achieving a good death for cancer patients. Interventions based on these models are necessary for EOL care for cancer patients in LTC facilities.

  18. Need for information, honesty and respect: patient perspectives on health care professionals communication about cancer and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ussher, Jane M.; Parton, Chloe; Perz, Janette

    2018-01-01

    Background Individuals affected by cancer report a need for information about fertility from health care professionals (HCPs), in order to inform decision making and alleviate anxiety. However, there is evidence that many health professionals do not engage in such discussions. Method A mixed method design was used to examine the construction and subjective experience of communication with health professionals about fertility in the context of cancer, from the perspective of patients. A survey...

  19. Quality of life in children surviving cancer: a personality and multi-informant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip; Koot, Hans M; Benoit, Yves

    2004-12-01

    To describe quality of life (QoL) of children surviving cancer in relation to their personality, using self- and maternal reports and examining differences with healthy referents. Sixty-seven children who survived childhood cancer were compared with eighty-one healthy children on QoL and personality characteristics. Children who survived cancer reported higher QoL than healthy children, whereas there were no differences for personality. Two main effects emerged for informant with children rating themselves as less neurotic and more conscientious than their mothers. The correspondence between mothers and children was substantially higher for survivors for QoL and personality ratings. QoL and trait measures share substantial variance, and personality traits significantly predict QoL. Parental personality ratings explained child QoL beyond children's personality ratings. Personality traits contribute to quality of life, indicating that personality significantly influences child's quality of life beyond the experience of a negative life event such as surviving cancer and its treatment. From a diagnostic perspective, parental trait ratings are informative in addition to children's ratings of personality to understand children's QoL.

  20. Radiotherapy of brain metastases of a breast cancer: present strategies, technological innovations and biological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargari, C.; Vedrine, L.; Bauduceau, O.; Jacob, J.; Fayolle, M.; Chargari, C.; Campana, F.; Pierga, J.Y.; Idrissi, H.R.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose an overview of strategies which are presently used for the treatment of brain metastases related to a breast cancer. They outline the perspectives and recent developments of encephalic irradiation with new technologies allowing an increased conformation to be obtained, and also in terms of radiosensitization and radioprotection experiences. Short communication

  1. Cancer care coordinators in stage III colon cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tony; Collinson, Lucie; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Foster, Rachel; Dennett, Elizabeth; Sarfati, Diana

    2015-08-05

    There is momentum internationally to improve coordination of complex care pathways. Robust evaluations of such interventions are scarce. This paper evaluates the cost-utility of cancer care coordinators for stage III colon cancer patients, who generally require surgery followed by chemotherapy. We compared a hospital-based nurse cancer care coordinator (CCC) with 'business-as-usual' (no dedicated coordination service) in stage III colon cancer patients in New Zealand. A discrete event microsimulation model was constructed to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs from a health system perspective. We used New Zealand data on colon cancer incidence, survival, and mortality as baseline input parameters for the model. We specified intervention input parameters using available literature and expert estimates. For example, that a CCC would improve the coverage of chemotherapy by 33% (ranging from 9 to 65%), reduce the time to surgery by 20% (3 to 48%), reduce the time to chemotherapy by 20% (3 to 48%), and reduce patient anxiety (reduction in disability weight of 33%, ranging from 0 to 55%). Much of the direct cost of a nurse CCC was balanced by savings in business-as-usual care coordination. Much of the health gain was through increased coverage of chemotherapy with a CCC (especially older patients), and reduced time to chemotherapy. Compared to 'business-as-usual', the cost per QALY of the CCC programme was $NZ 18,900 (≈ $US 15,600; 95% UI: $NZ 13,400 to 24,600). By age, the CCC intervention was more cost-effective for colon cancer patients costs, meaning the cost-effectiveness was roughly comparable between ethnic groups. Such a nurse-led CCC intervention in New Zealand has acceptable cost-effectiveness for stage III colon cancer, meaning it probably merits funding. Each CCC programme will differ in its likely health gains and costs, making generalisation from this evaluation to other CCC interventions difficult. However, this evaluation suggests

  2. Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayasiri MBKC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.

  3. Oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of cancer patients during oncology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Bruno E; Treharne, Gareth J; Knight, Robert G; Conner, Tamlin S; Perez, David

    2017-09-01

    This study explored oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of diverse cancer patients during oncology treatment. Six themes were identified using thematic analysis. Healthcare professionals highlighted the importance of their sensitivity, respect and emotional tact during appointments in order to effectively identify and meet the needs of oncology patients. Participants also emphasised the importance of building rapport that recognises patients as people. Patients' acceptance of treatment-related distress and uncertainty was described as required for uptake of available psychosocial supportive services. We offer some practical implications that may help improve cancer patients' experiences during oncology treatment.

  4. Breast cancer genetic counseling among Dutch patients from Turkish and Moroccan descent : participation determinants and perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J E; van Dulmen, A M; Velthuizen, M E; van Riel, E; Ausems, M G E M

    2017-01-01

    Lower participation rates in cancer genetic counseling are observed among different ethnic minorities. The goal of our study is to gain insight into determinants of Turkish and Moroccan patients' participation in breast cancer genetic counseling and DNA testing, from the point of view of healthcare

  5. Breast cancer genetic counseling among Dutch patients from Turkish and Moroccan descent: participation determinants, and perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.E.; Dulmen, S. van; Veldhuizen, M.E. van; Riel, E. van; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lower participation rates in cancer genetic counseling are observed among different ethnic minorities. The goal of our study is to gain insight into determinants of Turkish and Moroccan patients’ participation in breast cancer genetic counseling and DNA testing, from the point of view of

  6. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-08-05

    The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment; keeping the environment positive and comfortable; maintaining

  7. TROVE: A User-friendly Tool for Visualizing and Analyzing Cancer Hallmarks in Signaling Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Huey Eng; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Zheng, Jie

    2017-09-22

    Cancer hallmarks, a concept that seeks to explain the complexity of cancer initiation and development, provide a new perspective of studying cancer signaling which could lead to a greater understanding of this complex disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is currently a lack of tools that support such hallmark-based study of the cancer signaling network, thereby impeding the gain of knowledge in this area. We present TROVE, a user-friendly software that facilitates hallmark annotation, visualization and analysis in cancer signaling networks. In particular, TROVE facilitates hallmark analysis specific to particular cancer types. Available under the Eclipse Public License from: https://sites.google.com/site/cosbyntu/softwares/trove and https://github.com/trove2017/Trove. hechua@ntu.edu.sg or assourav@ntu.edu.sg. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Electronic Health Record Phenotypes for Precision Medicine: Perspectives and Caveats From Treatment of Breast Cancer at a Single Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfang; Maxwell, Kara N.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Precision medicine is at the forefront of biomedical research. Cancer registries provide rich perspectives and electronic health records (EHRs) are commonly utilized to gather additional clinical data elements needed for translational research. However, manual annotation is resource‐intense and not readily scalable. Informatics‐based phenotyping presents an ideal solution, but perspectives obtained can be impacted by both data source and algorithm selection. We derived breast cancer (BC) receptor status phenotypes from structured and unstructured EHR data using rule‐based algorithms, including natural language processing (NLP). Overall, the use of NLP increased BC receptor status coverage by 39.2% from 69.1% with structured medication information alone. Using all available EHR data, estrogen receptor‐positive BC cases were ascertained with high precision (P = 0.976) and recall (R = 0.987) compared with gold standard chart‐reviewed patients. However, status negation (R = 0.591) decreased 40.2% when relying on structured medications alone. Using multiple EHR data types (and thorough understanding of the perspectives offered) are necessary to derive robust EHR‐based precision medicine phenotypes. PMID:29084368

  9. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Patient perspectives on quality of life after penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Gitte Lee; Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian

    2013-07-01

    Penile cancer (PC) is a rare, but ominous disease. In 50-60% of squamous cell carcinomas of the penis, human papilloma virus infection, particularly with types 16 and 18, is part of the pathogenesis. Depending on cancer invasiveness, PC is treated with local resection of the glans and partial or total penectomy. This quality of life (QoL) study aimed at obtaining in-depth knowledge about patients' experiences with PC. A literature study was carried out to identify relevant topics for a semi-structured interview. Qualitative interviews with four former PC patients were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a medical anthropological approach. The analysis focused on the ways patients frame their disease experiences and relate the physical, sexual and emotional disease impact. Varying degrees of amputation affected the participants' sexual capabilities. Still, three participants (aged 66-72 years) said that their partner relationships were not negatively affected by the disease. In contrast, the impact on sexual function and self-esteem had been devastating to the fourth participant (aged 44 years) who was single and worried about the disease impeding his chance of finding love in life. For all participants, having had a potentially fatal disease put the physical disease impact into perspective. PC may greatly impact the psycho-sexual QoL of PC patients, particularly at a younger age and depending on their partnership status. Disease impact appears to be related to age, overall life situation and the cancer experience. The study was funded by an unrestricted research grant from Sanofi Pasteur MSD. not relevant.

  11. Financial Toxicity of Cancer Drugs: Possible Remedies from an Ethical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckmann, Georg; In der Schmitten, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Spiraling costs of cancer treatments have become a major concern for the payers in the health care system and for individual patients suffering from the cancer drugs' financial toxicity. This article discusses possible solutions from an ethical perspective. First, it gives some orientation about what constitutes a fair price for innovative anticancer agents. While a definitive answer remains difficult, there are good reasons to enter into price negotiations with the pharmaceutical companies to align the price with the R&D costs and the added value of the product. Information about the drug's cost-effectiveness should be available, a fixed threshold, however, seems ethically problematic. Rather, a 'signal cost-effectiveness threshold' should indicate when the drug price requires special justification. Further strategies include an improved benefit assessment after market authorization by independent publicly financed studies, which will provide a valid basis for price negotiations and clinical decision-making at the micro level. Last but not least, cancer treatments should be tailored not only to the biology of the tumor but also to the preferences of the patient. Primarily mandated by the respect for autonomy, promoting patient-centered care has the potential to improve quality of care and enable a wise use of scarce health care resources.

  12. The impact of healthcare costs in the last year of life and in all life years gained on the cost-effectiveness of cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); J.J. Polder (Johan); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); L.M. Berkers (Louise Maria); W.J. Meerding (Willem Jan); M. Rebolj (Matejka); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt is under debate whether healthcare costs related to death and in life years gained (LysG) due to life saving interventions should be included in economic evaluations. We estimated the impact of including these costs on cost-effectiveness of cancer screening. We obtained health

  13. Gain-of-function Prolactin Receptor Variants Are Not Associated With Breast Cancer and Multiple Fibroadenoma Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhtoura, Zeina; Laki, Fatima; Bernadet, Marie; Cherifi, Ibtissem; Chiche, Aurélie; Pigat, Natascha; Bernichtein, Sophie; Courtillot, Carine; Boutillon, Florence; Bièche, Ivan; Vacher, Sophie; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Bissery, Anne; Grouthier, Virginie; Camparo, Philippe; Foretz, Marc; Do Cruzeiro, Marcio; Pierre, Rémi; Rakotozafy, Fabienne; Tichet, Jean; Tejedor, Isabelle; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Goffin, Vincent; Touraine, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    In a cohort of 95 women with multiple breast fibroadenomas (MFAs), we recently identified patients harboring germline heterozygous variants of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) exhibiting constitutive activity (PRLR I146L and PRLR I176V ). This study sought to better delineate the potential role of PRLR gain-of-function variants in benign and malignant mammary tumorigenesis. This was an observational study and transgenic mouse model analysis. The study took place at the Department of Endocrinology, Reproductive Disorders and Rare Gynecologic Diseases, Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, and Inserm Unit 1151, Paris. We generated a second MFA cohort (n = 71) as well as a group of control subjects (n = 496) and a cohort of women with breast cancer (n = 119). We also generated two transgenic mouse models carrying the coding sequences of human PRLR I146L or PRLR WT . We aimed to determine the prevalence of PRLR variants in these three populations and to uncover any association of the latter with specific tumor pattern, especially in patients with breast cancer. This study did not highlight a higher prevalence of PRLR variants in the MFA group and in the breast cancer group compared with control subjects. Transgenic mice expressing PRLR I146L exhibited very mild histological mammary phenotype but tumors were never observed. PRLR I146L and PRLR I176V variants are not associated with breast cancer or MFA risk. However, one cannot exclude that low but sustained PRLR signaling may facilitate or contribute to pathological development driven by oncogenic pathways. Long-term patient follow-up should help to address this issue.

  14. Breast cancer genetic counseling among Dutch patients from Turkish and Moroccan descent: participation determinants, and perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals.

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, J.E.; Dulmen, S. van; Veldhuizen, M.E. van; Riel, E. van; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lower participation rates in cancer genetic counseling are observed among different ethnic minorities. The goal of our study is to gain insight into determinants of Turkish and Moroccan patients’ participation in breast cancer genetic counseling and DNA testing, from the point of view of healthcare professionals and patients. Questionnaire-based telephone interviews about awareness, perceptions, and reasons for (non-) participation in cancer genetic counseling were conducted with 78 ...

  15. Breast cancer patients' perspectives on and use of complementary and alternative medicine: a study by the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, John A; Reilly, Colleen; Perkins, Cheryl; Child, Wendy L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among breast cancer patients. A review of the existing survey literature on CAM use for breast cancer was conducted with a series of eight focus groups (N = 67) to further examine the perspectives of breast cancer patients on CAM. The rates of CAM use varied from 17 to 75%, with a mean of 45%. Vitamins and minerals and herbs were the most frequently cited categories. Users tended to be younger, more educated, and more likely to have used CAM prior to their diagnosis. Focus group data indicate that breast cancer patients use a wide array of CAM for a variety of reasons, including symptom management, improving quality of life, and enhancing immune function. Although women rely on a variety of resources for information, they frequently experience frustration owing to the absence or conflicting nature of such information. Communication with conventional providers about CAM is frequently experienced as either unsupportive or not helpful by many patients. The results point to the value of developing better evidence-based informational resources related to CAM and cancer and the need for physicians to become better educated about CAM and how to communicate more effectively with their breast cancer patients about it.

  16. Exogenous near-infrared fluorophores and their applications in cancer diagnosis: biological and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Uselman, Ryan R; Yee, Douglas

    2011-05-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging is a rapidly growing research field which has the potential to be an important imaging modality in cancer diagnosis. Various exogenous NIR fluorophores have been developed for the technique, including small molecule fluorophores and nanoparticles. NIRF imaging has been used in animal models for the detection of cancer overthe last twenty years and has in recent years been used in human clinical trials. This article describes the types and characteristics of exogenous fluorophores available for in vivo fluorescent cancer imaging. The article also discusses the progression of NIRF cancer imaging over recent years and its future challenges, from both a biological and clinical perspective. in The review also looks at its application for lymph node mapping, tumor targeting and characterization, and tumor margin definition for surgical guidance. NIRF imaging is not in routine clinical cancer practice; yet, the authors predict that techniques using NIR fluorophores for tumor margin definition and lymph node mapping will enter clinical practice in the near future. The authors also anticipate that NIRF imaging research will lead to the development of flurophores with 'high brightness' that will overcome the limited penetration of this modality and be better suited for non invasive tumor targeting.

  17. BRCA mutation carrier detection. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the traditional family history approach and the testing of all patients with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise

    2018-01-01

    Background Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Patients and methods A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). Results The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result. Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000–€80 000/LYG). PMID:29682331

  18. BRCA mutation carrier detection. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the traditional family history approach and the testing of all patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise

    2018-01-01

    Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result.Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000-€80 000/LYG).

  19. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Suresh Ghadyalpatil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC, colorectal cancer (CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, esophageal cancer (EC, and pancreatic cancer (PC. Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist , these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes.The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs need focussed

  20. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadyalpatil, Nikhil Suresh; Supriya, Chopra; Prachi, Patil; Ashwin, Dsouza; Avanish, Saklani

    2016-01-01

    GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), esophageal cancer (EC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist, these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes. The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach) to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs) need focussed attention

  1. The breast cancer patient's experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkett, Georgia; Scutter, Sheila; Arbon, Paul; Borg, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have many decisions to make during the course of their treatment. The aims of this paper are to describe the women's experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions for early breast cancer and to explore how women feel about receiving radiation therapy. An in-depth understanding of the women's experience was developed using a qualitative research approach underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women who had completed treatment for early breast cancer. The themes that emerged from the data were: being challenged, getting ready, beyond control, regaining a sense of control and getting through it. This study provides health professionals with an initial understanding of the women's perspective of the experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions for early breast cancer. This study concludes by suggesting that further research needs to be conducted to gain an understanding of how other patients feel about treatment decision making and radiation therapy. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  2. Gain versus loss-framed messaging and colorectal cancer screening among African Americans: A preliminary examination of perceived racism and culturally targeted dual messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James E; Asabigi, Kanzoni; Novak, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of gain versus loss-framed messaging as well as culturally targeted personal prevention messaging on African Americans' receptivity to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. This research also examined mechanistic functions of perceived racism in response to message framing. Community samples of African Americans (N = 132) and White Americans (N = 50) who were non-compliant with recommended CRC screening completed an online education module about CRC, and were either exposed to a gain-framed or loss-framed message about CRC screening. Half of African Americans were exposed to an additional and culturally targeted self-control message about personal prevention of CRC. Theory of planned behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as primary outcomes. The effect of messaging on perceived racism was also measured as an outcome. Consistent with prior research, White Americans were more receptive to CRC screening when exposed to a loss-framed message. However, African Americans were more receptive when exposed to a gain-framed message. The contrary effect of loss-framed messaging on receptivity to screening among African Americans was mediated by an increase in perceived racism. However, including an additional and culturally targeted prevention message mitigated the adverse effect of a loss-framed message. This study identifies an important potential cultural difference in the effect of message framing on illness screening among African Americans, while also suggesting a culturally relevant linking mechanism. This study also suggests the potential for simultaneously presented and culturally targeted messaging to alter the effects of gain and loss-framed messaging on African Americans. What is already known on this subject? African Americans are at an increased risk of both developing and dying from colorectal cancer (CRC). These disparities can be

  3. Factors related to employers' intent to hire, retain and accommodate cancer survivors: the Singapore perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying; Ho, Shirley S; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2014-12-01

    Despite the growing importance of cancer and return-to-work issues in occupational rehabilitation literature in the last decade, academic discussion is largely limited to survivors' perspectives and some exploratory studies from the employer side. This paper applies two classic theoretical models-Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory-and key measures from previous studies to identify explicit relationships that explain employer factors to hire and retain cancer survivors. Data were collected from online surveys with senior management executives and senior human resource specialists from various organizations in Singapore, with a total of 145 responses. The 72-item survey instrument included a series of independent variables: (1) Attitudes toward cancer and cancer survivors; (2) Employers' efficacy; (3) Perceived moral obligation; (4) Employers' experience; (5) Outcome expectations; (6) Employment situation; (7) Social norms; and (8) Incentives, and dependent variables: (a) Employers' intention to hire cancer survivors; and (b) Employers' intention to retain cancer survivors. Regression analyses showed that the top three factors related to employers' intention to retain cancer survivors are perceived moral obligations (β = .39, p employment situation (β = .17, p Employers' efficacy was associated with intention to hire (β = .22, p employer and an employee when it comes to retaining cancer survivors and government incentives for hiring cancer survivors in the workforce. The present study provided an avenue to implement the proposed model-a potential study framework for the management of cancer survivors at work. Findings revealed that different messages should be tailored to employers toward hiring and retention issues and provided useful guidelines for employer education materials.

  4. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdkiattikorn, Panattharin; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Lausoontornsiri, Wirote; Chindavijak, Somjin; Khuhaprema, Thirawud; Tantai, Narisa; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    In Thailand, there has been no economic evaluation study of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer patients after resection. This study aims to evaluate the cost-utility of all chemotherapy regimens currently used in Thailand compared with the adjuvant 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) plus capecitabine as the first-line therapy for metastatic disease in patients with stage III colon cancer after resection. A cost-utility analysis was performed to estimate the relevant lifetime costs and health outcomes of chemotherapy regimens based on a societal perspective using a Markov model. The results suggested that the adjuvant 5-FU/LV plus capecitabine as the first-line therapy for metastatic disease would be the most cost-effective chemotherapy. The adjuvant FOLFOX and FOLFIRI as the first-line treatment for metastatic disease would be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 299,365 Thai baht per QALY gained based on a societal perspective if both prices of FOLFOX and FOLFIRI were decreased by 40%.

  5. Cancer Metabolism: A Modeling Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    suggest that utilization of amino acids and lipids contributes significantly to cancer cell metabolism. Also recent progresses in our understanding of carcinogenesis have revealed that cancer is a complex disease and cannot be understood through simple investigation of genetic mutations of cancerous cells...

  6. Talking about fertility in the context of cancer: health care professional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, J M; Cummings, J; Dryden, A; Perz, J

    2016-01-01

    Health care professionals (HCPs) play a key role in providing information and counselling about the implications of cancer for fertility, however, many patients do not receive such information. The aim of this study was to examine the perspectives and practices of Australian HCPs in relation to discussing fertility with cancer patients. A mixed-methods design, comprising of an online survey of 263 HCPs [41.4% nurses; 25.5% doctors; 31% allied health care professionals (AHP)] and qualitative interviews with 49 HCPs, was utilised. HCPs reported that fertility is an important concern for patients and their partners; however, only 50% of doctors and nurses, and 24% of AHPs reported that they always addressed this issue. The primary barriers to discussing fertility were poor patient prognosis; patient gender or age; time constraints; and absence of appropriate resources and materials. Only a minority of HCPs (29%) had undergone training in discussing fertility with cancer patients. The majority wanted further training or education: including nurses (81.8%), AHPs (80.6%) and doctors (55.4%). HCPs agreed that a number of resources would assist them to raise fertility with their patients, including a list of appropriate referral sources, fact sheets, information booklets, a fertility consultation checklist and on-line resources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. EGFR signaling in colorectal cancer: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saletti P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piercarlo Saletti,1 Francesca Molinari,2 Sara De Dosso,1 Milo Frattini2 1Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, 2Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Locarno, Switzerland Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC remains a formidable health burden worldwide, with up to 50% of patients developing metastases during the course of their disease. This group of CRC patients, characterized by the worst prognosis, has been extensively investigated to improve their life expectancy. Main efforts, focused on the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR, which plays a pivotal role in CRC pathogenesis, have led to the development and introduction in clinical practice of specific targeted therapies (ie, monoclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the scientific community has tried to identify molecular predictors of the efficacy of such therapies. However, it has become clear that EGFR alterations occurring in CRC are difficult to investigate, and therefore their predictive role is unclear. In contrast, the clinical role of two downstream members (KRAS and NRAS has been clearly demonstrated. Currently, EGFR-targeted therapies can be administered only to patients with wild-type KRAS and NRAS genes. Our review addresses the medical management of metastatic CRC. Specifically, we describe in detail the molecular biology of metastatic CRC, focusing on the EGFR signaling pathway, and we discuss the role of current and emerging related biomarkers and therapies in this field. We also summarize the clinical evidence regarding anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and examine potential future perspectives. Keywords: colorectal cancer, EGFR, gene mutations, cetuximab, panitumumab

  8. Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  9. Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  10. Biomarkers Discovery for Colorectal Cancer: A Review on Tumor Endothelial Markers as Perspective Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. The early detection of CRC, during the promotion/progression stages, is an enormous challenge for a successful outcome and remains a fundamental problem in clinical approach. Despite the continuous advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, there is a need for discovery of sensitive and specific, noninvasive biomarkers. Tumor endothelial markers (TEMs are associated with tumor-specific angiogenesis and are potentially useful to discriminate between tumor and normal endothelium. The most promising TEMs for oncogenic signaling in CRC appeared to be the TEM1, TEM5, TEM7, and TEM8. Overexpression of TEMs especially TEM1, TEM7, and TEM8 in colorectal tumor tissue compared to healthy tissue suggests their role in tumor blood vessels formation. Thus TEMs appear to be perspective candidates for early detection, monitoring, and treatment of CRC patients. This review provides an update on recent data on tumor endothelial markers and their possible use as biomarkers for screening, diagnosis, and therapy of colorectal cancer patients.

  11. Biomarkers Discovery for Colorectal Cancer: A Review on Tumor Endothelial Markers as Perspective Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The early detection of CRC, during the promotion/progression stages, is an enormous challenge for a successful outcome and remains a fundamental problem in clinical approach. Despite the continuous advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, there is a need for discovery of sensitive and specific, noninvasive biomarkers. Tumor endothelial markers (TEMs) are associated with tumor-specific angiogenesis and are potentially useful to discriminate between tumor and normal endothelium. The most promising TEMs for oncogenic signaling in CRC appeared to be the TEM1, TEM5, TEM7, and TEM8. Overexpression of TEMs especially TEM1, TEM7, and TEM8 in colorectal tumor tissue compared to healthy tissue suggests their role in tumor blood vessels formation. Thus TEMs appear to be perspective candidates for early detection, monitoring, and treatment of CRC patients. This review provides an update on recent data on tumor endothelial markers and their possible use as biomarkers for screening, diagnosis, and therapy of colorectal cancer patients.

  12. Pertuzumab for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Pandor, Abdullah; Thokala, Praveen; Stevens, John W; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Clowes, Mark; Coleman, Robert; Wyld, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Perjeta ® ; Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost- effectiveness for the neoadjuvant treatment of women with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer when used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. High-risk women included those with locally advanced (including inflammatory) breast cancer and women with high-risk early-stage breast cancer (classified as T2/3 or N1). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the Evidence Review Group and the outcome of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance. The clinical data were mainly taken from a phase II, randomised, open-label, active controlled study (NeoSphere), which reported a significant advantage in terms of pathological complete response rates of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy, compared with trastuzumab alone with chemotherapy (45.8 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.0141). The company did not make any indirect comparisons. A meta-analysis of 12 neoadjuvant studies investigating the relationship between pathological complete response and event-free survival was used to extrapolate the outcomes reported in the NeoSphere study. A cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA) demonstrated the safety of pertuzumab. The company undertook a model-based economic evaluation of neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and docetaxel compared with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel over a lifetime horizon from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. The probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be £20,104 per quality-adjusted life-year gained for pertuzumab

  13. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  14. The Challenges, Emotions, Coping, and Gains of Family Caregivers Caring for Patients With Advanced Cancer in Singapore: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Mabel Q H; Chan, Sally W C

    Caring for a family member with advanced cancer at home is demanding as the ill family member is likely to have complex physical and emotional needs. There is a paucity of studies on the experience of home family caregivers of people with advanced cancer in the Asian region. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of family caregivers caring for a person with advanced cancer at home in Singapore. This was a qualitative study; data were collected by semistructured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. A purposive sample of 19 family caregivers who were taking care of a family member with advanced cancer were recruited from home hospice care services in Singapore. Most of the caregivers were female (n = 14), ranging in age from 21 to 64 years (mean, 46.4 [SD, 10.5] years). Four themes were generated from the data: (1) caregiving challenges, (2) negative emotions, (3) ways of coping, and (4) positive gains of caregiving. This study generated insights into the challenges, emotions, and coping of Asian family caregivers caring for patients with advanced cancer. Such understanding could help in developing appropriate intervention for caregivers to reduce their burden and stress. Caregivers require knowledge on resolving family conflicts and about communicating and enhancing closeness with the ill family member. Support from healthcare professionals is essential even if caregivers have support from family members and friends; nurses can make conscious efforts to show concern for caregivers as well as for patients.

  15. Co-regulation analysis of closely linked genes identifies a highly recurrent gain on chromosome 17q25.3 in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudo, Raquel; Martínez-A, Carlos; Ortiz, Ángel R; Fernández, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M; Abia, David; Ferrer, Berta; Nayach, Iracema; Benguria, Alberto; Zaballos, Ángel; Rey, Javier del; Miró, Rosa; Campo, Elías

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of prostate cancer (PC) has unveiled new markers of neoplasia and allowed insights into mechanisms underlying this disease. Genomewide analyses have also identified new chromosomal abnormalities associated with PC. The combination of both classes of data for the same sample cohort might provide better criteria for identifying relevant factors involved in neoplasia. Here we describe transcriptional signatures identifying distinct normal and tumoral prostate tissue compartments, and the inference and demonstration of a new, highly recurrent copy number gain on chromosome 17q25.3. We have applied transcriptional profiling to tumoral and non-tumoral prostate samples with relatively homogeneous epithelial representations as well as pure stromal tissue from peripheral prostate and cultured cell lines, followed by quantitative RT-PCR validations and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, we have performed in silico colocalization analysis of co-regulated genes and validation by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The transcriptomic analysis has allowed us to identify signatures corresponding to non-tumoral luminal and tumoral epithelium, basal epithelial cells, and prostate stromal tissue. In addition, in silico analysis of co-regulated expression of physically linked genes has allowed us to predict the occurrence of a copy number gain at chromosomal region 17q25.3. This computational inference was validated by fluorescent in situ hybridization, which showed gains in this region in over 65% of primary and metastatic tumoral samples. Our approach permits to directly link gene copy number variations with transcript co-regulation in association with neoplastic states. Therefore, transcriptomic studies of carefully selected samples can unveil new diagnostic markers and transcriptional signatures highly specific of PC, and lead to the discovery of novel genomic abnormalities that may provide additional insights into the causes and mechanisms

  16. Mutations in Cancer Cause Gain of Cysteine, Histidine, and Tryptophan at the Expense of a Net Loss of Arginine on the Proteome Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic mutations is critical for the transition of a normal cell to become cancerous. Mutations cause amino acid substitutions that change properties of proteins. However, it has not been studied as to what extent the composition and accordingly chemical properties of the cell proteome is altered as a result of the increased mutation load in cancer. Here, we analyzed data on amino acid substitutions caused by mutations in about 2000 protein coding genes from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia that contains information on nucleotide and amino acid alterations in 782 cancer cell lines, and validated the analysis with information on amino acid substitutions for the same set of proteins in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC; v78 in circa 18,000 tumor samples. We found that nonsynonymous single nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed proteome subset ultimately result in a net gain of cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan at the expense of a net loss of arginine. The extraordinary loss of arginine may be attributed to some extent to composition of its codons as well as to the importance of arginine in the functioning of prominent tumor suppressor proteins like p53.

  17. Temporally evolving gain mechanisms of attention in macaque area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Ilaria; Santandrea, Elisa; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive attention and perceptual saliency jointly govern our interaction with the environment. Yet, we still lack a universally accepted account of the interplay between attention and luminance contrast, a fundamental dimension of saliency. We measured the attentional modulation of V4 neurons' contrast response functions (CRFs) in awake, behaving macaque monkeys and applied a new approach that emphasizes the temporal dynamics of cell responses. We found that attention modulates CRFs via different gain mechanisms during subsequent epochs of visually driven activity: an early contrast-gain, strongly dependent on prestimulus activity changes (baseline shift); a time-limited stimulus-dependent multiplicative modulation, reaching its maximal expression around 150 ms after stimulus onset; and a late resurgence of contrast-gain modulation. Attention produced comparable time-dependent attentional gain changes on cells heterogeneously coding contrast, supporting the notion that the same circuits mediate attention mechanisms in V4 regardless of the form of contrast selectivity expressed by the given neuron. Surprisingly, attention was also sometimes capable of inducing radical transformations in the shape of CRFs. These findings offer important insights into the mechanisms that underlie contrast coding and attention in primate visual cortex and a new perspective on their interplay, one in which time becomes a fundamental factor. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We offer an innovative perspective on the interplay between attention and luminance contrast in macaque area V4, one in which time becomes a fundamental factor. We place emphasis on the temporal dynamics of attentional effects, pioneering the notion that attention modulates contrast response functions of V4 neurons via the sequential engagement of distinct gain mechanisms. These findings advance understanding of attentional influences on visual processing and help reconcile divergent results in the literature. Copyright © 2017 the

  18. Strategies to Identify the Lynch Syndrome Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladabaum, Uri; Wang, Grace; Terdiman, Jonathan; Blanco, Amie; Kuppermann, Miriam; Boland, C. Richard; Ford, James; Elkin, Elena; Phillips, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing has been advocated for all persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer to identify families with the Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome that is a paradigm for personalized medicine. Objective To estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify the Lynch syndrome, with attention to sex, age at screening, and differential effects for probands and relatives. Design Markov model that incorporated risk for colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Data Sources Published literature. Target Population All persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and their relatives. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Third-party payer. Intervention Strategies based on clinical criteria, prediction algorithms, tumor testing, or up-front germline mutation testing, followed by tailored screening and risk-reducing surgery. Outcome Measures Life-years, cancer cases and deaths, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results of Base-Case Analysis The benefit of all strategies accrued primarily to relatives with a mutation associated with the Lynch syndrome, particularly women, whose life expectancy could increase by approximately 4 years with hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy and adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. At current rates of germline testing, screening, and prophylactic surgery, the strategies reduced deaths from colorectal cancer by 7% to 42% and deaths from endometrial and ovarian cancer by 1% to 6%. Among tumor-testing strategies, immunohistochemistry followed by BRAF mutation testing was preferred, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36 200 per life-year gained. Results of Sensitivity Analysis The number of relatives tested per proband was a critical determinant of both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, with testing of 3 to 4 relatives required for most strategies to meet a threshold of $50 000 per life-year gained. Immunohistochemistry

  19. Lapatinib in patients with metastatic breast cancer following initial treatment with trastuzumab: an economic analysis from the Brazilian public health care perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Marcio Machado,1 Thomas R Einarson21GlaxoSmithKline Brasil Ltd, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaObjective: To evaluate, from the perspective of the Brazilian public health care system, the cost-effectiveness of lapatinib plus capecitabine (LAP/CAP versus capecitabine alone (CAP or trastuzumab plus capecitabine (TRAST/CAP in the treatment of women with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab.Methods: An economic model was developed to compare costs and clinical outcomes over a 5-year time horizon. Both costs and outcomes were discounted at a 5% rate, in accordance with Brazilian pharmacoeconomic guidelines. Clinical inputs were determined using indirect treatment comparisons. Costs were derived from public reimbursement databases and reported in 2010 Brazilian real (R$1 = USD$0.52. Clinical outcomes included progression-free survival years (PFYs, life-years (LYs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs. The economic outcome was the incremental cost per LY, PFY, or QALY gained. The impact of variations in individual inputs (eg, drug cost, drug effectiveness was examined using one-way sensitivity analyses. Overall model robustness was tested using probabilistic sensitivity analyses, varying the ranges of all input parameters within their standard distributions.Results: Expected cost per patient was R$41,195 for CAP, R$95,256 for LAP/CAP, and R$113,686 for TRAST/CAP. Respective LYs were 1.406, 1.695, and 1.465; PFYs were 0.473, 0.711, and 0.612; and QALYS were 0.769, 0.958, and 0.827. LAP/CAP dominated TRAST/CAP for all outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of LAP/CAP over CAP were R$186,563 for LYs, R$226,403 for PFYs, and R$284,864 for QALYs. Results remained unchanged in one-way sensitivity analyses. In probabilistic analyses, LAP/CAP was dominant over TRAST/CAP in 93.5% of simulations.Conclusion: LAP

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Second-Line Chemotherapy Agents for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Simon W; Wai, Maya; Lau, Jessica E; McNamara, Michael; Earl, Marc; Udeh, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Chemotherapy options for patients who fail first-line treatment are limited. Thus the objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of second-line treatment options for patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer. Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model to compare the cost-effectiveness of six possible second-line treatment options for patients with advanced gastric cancer who have failed previous chemotherapy: irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, ramucirumab, paclitaxel plus ramucirumab, and palliative care. The model was performed from a third-party payer's perspective to compare lifetime costs and health benefits associated with studied second-line therapies. Costs included only relevant direct medical costs. The model assumed chemotherapy cycle lengths of 30 days and a maximum number of 24 cycles. Systematic review of literature was performed to identify clinical data sources and utility and cost data. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. The primary outcome measure for this analysis was the ICER between different therapies, where the incremental cost was divided by the number of QALYs saved. The ICER was compared with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold that was set at $50,000/QALY gained, and an exploratory analysis using $160,000/QALY gained was also used. The model's robustness was tested by using 1-way sensitivity analyses and a 10,000 Monte Carlo simulation probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). Irinotecan had the lowest lifetime cost and was associated with a QALY gain of 0.35 year. Docetaxel, ramucirumab alone, and palliative care were dominated strategies. Paclitaxel and the combination of paclitaxel plus ramucirumab led to higher QALYs gained, at an incremental cost of $86,815 and $1,056,125 per QALY gained, respectively. Based on our prespecified

  1. Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide, the management of which demands a multidisciplinary approach. Conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have gained reasonable success. However, most of these patients experience a severe torment, both mentally and physically. Numerous studies have indicated that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, when used in conjunction with conventional allopathic therapies, can enhance their efficacy and diminish the resulting side effects and complications. Therefore, a deeper understanding of TCM is of immense help to physicians and other health care providers in providing a better care to patients. TCM is proved to be efficacious in terms of suppressing tumor progression, improving immune system function, and increasing the sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapies. Although TCM can be delivered in various dosage forms, pills, decoctions, and injections are the three most commonly used forms in treating liver cancer. While these traditional dosage forms limits the usage of herbal medicines to their full potential novel TCM delivery forms such as nanoparticles can enhance the bioavailability, reduce any associated side effect, achieve targeted delivery, and improve the acceptance of TCM by patients. This review summarizes the current application of TCM in different prescriptions and dosage forms in the treatment of liver cancer, along with their advantages and disadvantages, all of which is believed to contribute to better understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as an essential part in the treatment of liver cancer and the importance of this trend to combine TCM and western medicine in novel dosage forms for a better management of the condition.

  2. Accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  3. Review: Public perspectives on the utilization of human placentas in scientific research and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, R S

    2013-01-01

    Placental tissues are frequently utilized by scientists studying pregnancy and reproduction and in diverse fields including immunology, stem cell research, genetics, cancer research, and tissue engineering, as well as by clinicians in many therapies. Though the utilization of the human placenta in science and medicine has benefitted many people, little is known about public perspectives of this phenomenon. This review addresses placental donation, collection, and utilization in science and medicine, focusing on public perspectives. Cultural values and traditions, ethical paradigms and concerns, public understandings of science and medicine, and political considerations may impact perceptions of the utilization of the placenta in science and medicine, but systematic study is lacking. It is argued that knowledge of public views gained from empirical investigation may underpin the development of collection protocols and research projects that are more responsive to public will, spur more extensive utilization in science and medicine of this unique organ, and/or aid in the realization of the mobilization of knowledge about the placenta for clinical and educational ends. New avenues for research on public perspectives of the placenta are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  5. Inferring Perspective Versus Getting Perspective: Underestimating the Value of Being in Another Person's Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haotian; Majka, Elizabeth A; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed. Predictors were substantially more accurate when they got perspective through simulation, but overestimated the accuracy they had achieved by inferring perspective. Predictors' miscalibrated confidence stemmed from overestimating the information revealed through facial expressions and underestimating the similarity in people's reactions to a given situation. People seem to underappreciate a useful strategy for understanding the minds of others, even after they gain firsthand experience with both strategies.

  6. Neurotransmitters, more than meets the eye--neurotransmitters and their perspectives in cancer development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Jie; Cho, Chi Hin

    2011-09-30

    The neurotransmitter/receptor system has been shown to modulate various aspects of tumor development including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and metastasis. It has been found that tumor tissues can not only synthesize and release a wide range of neurotransmitters but also produce different biological effects via respective receptors. These tissues are also innervated by nerve fibers but the biological significance is unknown. Nevertheless neurotransmitters can produce either stimulatory or inhibitory effect in normal and tumor tissues. These effects are dependent on the types of tissues and the kinds of neurotransmitter as well as the subtypes of corresponding receptors being involved. These findings clearly extend the conventional role of neurotransmitters in nervous system to the actions in oncogenesis. In this regard, intervention or stimulation of these neuronal pathways in different cancer diseases would have significant clinical implications in cancer treatments. Here, we summarize the influences of various well-characterized neurotransmitters and their receptors on tumor growth and further discuss the respective possible strategies and perspectives for cancer therapy in the future. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  8. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  9. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Partike, Nancy S; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the People's Republic of China, both western medicine (WM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation. Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis. WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor-patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused. Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM. Meanwhile, marketing management and guidance to consumers regarding use of dietary supplements in the cancer rehabilitation field are also necessary.

  10. Representation of potential information gain to measure the price of anarchy on ISR activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Peña, Hector J.; Hirsch, Michael; Karwan, Mark; Nagi, Rakesh; Sudit, Moises

    2013-05-01

    One of the main technical challenges facing intelligence analysts today is effectively determining information gaps from huge amounts of collected data. Moreover, getting the right information to/from the right person (e.g., analyst, warfighter on the edge) at the right time in a distributed environment has been elusive to our military forces. Synchronization of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities to maximize the efficient utilization of limited resources (both in quantity and capabilities) has become critically important to increase the accuracy and timeliness of overall information gain. Given this reality, we are interested in quantifying the degradation of solution quality (i.e., information gain) as a centralized system synchronizing ISR activities (from information gap identification to information collection and dissemination) moves to a more decentralized framework. This evaluation extends the concept of price of anarchy, a measure of the inefficiency of a system when agents maximize decisions without coordination, by considering different levels of decentralization. Our initial research representing the potential information gain in geospatial and time discretized spaces is presented. This potential information gain map can represent a consolidation of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield products as input to automated ISR synchronization tools. Using the coordination of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) as an example, we developed a mathematical programming model for multi-perspective optimization in which each UxV develops its own fight plan to support mission objectives based only on its perspective of the environment (i.e., potential information gain map). Information is only exchanged when UxVs are part of the same communication network.

  11. Adult weight gain and colorectal adenomas-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Abar, L; Vieria, A R; Vingeliene, S; Polemiti, E; Stevens, C A T; Greenwood, D C; Chan, D S M; Aune, D; Norat, T

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal adenomas are known as precursors for the majority of colorectal carcinomas. While weight gain during adulthood has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the association is less clear for colorectal adenomas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the evidence on this association. We searched Medline up to September 2016 to identify observational (prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective) studies on weight gain during adulthood and colorectal adenoma occurrence and recurrence. We conducted meta-analysis on high weight gain versus stable weight, linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses to analyze the association. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using a random effects model. For colorectal adenoma occurrence, the summary OR was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.17-1.65; I2: 43%, N = 9 studies, cases = 5507) comparing high (midpoint: 17.4 kg) versus stable weight gain during adulthood and with each 5 kg weight gain the odds increased by 7% (2%-11%; I2: 65%, N = 7 studies). Although there was indication of non-linearity (Pnon-linearity firm conclusions. Even a small amount of adult weight gain was related to a higher odds of colorectal adenoma occurrence. Our findings add to the benefits of weight control in adulthood regarding colorectal adenoma occurrence, which might be relevant for early prevention of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Towards culturally competent paediatric oncology care. A qualitative study from the perspective of care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, J; Lieveld, A; van de Wetering, M; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Y N

    2017-11-01

    In order to gain more insight on the influence of ethnic diversity in paediatric cancer care, the perspectives of care providers were explored. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 12 paediatric oncologists and 13 nurses of two different paediatric oncology wards and were analysed using a framework method. We found that care providers described the contact with Turkish and Moroccan parents as more difficult. They offered two reasons for this: (1) language barriers between care provider and parents hindered the exchange of information; (2) cultural barriers between care provider and parents about sharing the diagnosis and palliative perspective hindered communication. Care providers reported different solutions to deal with these barriers, such as using an interpreter and improving their cultural knowledge about their patients. They, however, were not using interpreters sufficiently and were unaware of the importance of eliciting parents' perspectives. Communication techniques to overcome dilemmas between parents and care providers were not used and care providers were unaware of stereotypes and prejudice. Care providers should be offered insight in cultural barriers they are unaware of. Training in cultural competence might be a possibility to overcome manifest barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Weight Gain and its Correlates among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Kim, RN, PhD, OCN

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Younger women, women who were obese at diagnosis, women with more than 36 months since diagnosis, or women who showed lower diet quality should be considered at high-risk for weight gain. Findings from our study suggest that optimal weight management strategies should be developed using ethnically- or culturally-appropriate approaches.

  14. Integrating family medicine and complementary medicine in cancer care: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Israely, Pesi; Baruch, Erez; Dagash, Jamal

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the case study of a 27 year-old Arab female patient receiving palliative care for advanced breast cancer who was referred to complementary medicine (CM) consultation provided within a conventional oncology department. We explore the impact of the integrative CM practitioners' team of three family physicians and one Chinese medicine practitioner on the patient's well-being and specifically on the alleviation of her debilitating hot flashes and insomnia. This quality of life improvement is also affirmed by comparing the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and Measure Yourself Concerns and Well-being (MYCAW) questionnaires administered at the initial and follow-up assessment sessions. In conclusion, we suggest that family physicians trained in evidence-based complementary medicine are optimal integrators of holistic patient-centered supportive care. The inclusion of trained CM practitioners in a multi-disciplinary integrative team may enhance the bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective, and provide additional practical therapies that improve the quality of life of patients confronting cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disclosure of Adverse Cancer News: The Public's Perspective in a Middle Eastern Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Jamal; El Sayed, Mohamed E; Nauf, Youssef

    2017-09-01

    The disclosure to patients of unfavorable news related to cancer remains a controversial issue in the Middle East. This study investigated the perspective of the public in Saudi Arabia regarding the disclosure of unfavorable cancer-related news. A convenience sample of 103 adult noncancer patients attending a family medicine clinic were asked to respond to 9 closed-ended questions. These questions reflected possible adverse news from the time of diagnosis until the end of life. The primary endpoint was an affirmative response (AR) to =7 questions (AR=7) indicating a preference to be informed of the majority (=78%) of adverse situations. One hundred individuals completed the questionnaire. Of these, 56 (56%) were male, and 44 (44%) were female. The median age was 32 years (18-75 years). Different questions were answered affirmatively by 76-99% of the responders. An AR=7 was reported by 83% of the responders. There was no statistically significant correlation between an AR=7 and age, gender or employment status (Chi-squared P values: 0.731, 0.427, and 0.148, respectively). There was a trend towards an AR=7 among those with higher levels of education compared to those with a lower level of education (88% and 73%, respectively, P=0.055). The results of this study suggest that the majority of Saudi Arabians prefer to be informed of most of the adverse health-related news if diagnosed with cancer. These results should encourage physicians to keep cancer patients informed of their health-related events unless the patient indicates otherwise.

  16. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  17. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of return to work and continuation of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van Egmond, Martine P; Gits, Maxime; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M

    2017-10-01

    Supportive interventions to enhance return to work (RTW) in cancer survivors hardly showed positive effects so far. Behavioral determinants might have to be considered in the development of interventions to achieve sustained employability. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of RTW and continuation of work. In this qualitative study, semi-structured telephone interviews were held with 28 cancer survivors. All participants were at working age, 1-2 years after diagnosis and employed at time of diagnosis. Thematic content analysis was performed. Work turned out to be a meaningful aspect of cancer survivors' life, and most participants reported a positive attitude towards their job. Social support to RTW or to continue working was mainly received from family and friends, but pressure to RTW from the occupational physician was also experienced. Changes in expectations regarding work ability from negative to positive during the treatment process were observed. Those who applied active coping mechanisms felt equipped to deal with difficulties regarding work. Behavioral determinants should be taken into account in the development of future interventions to support cancer survivors' RTW. However, the causal relationship still has to be determined. Implications for rehabilitation Factors influencing occupational motivation among cancer survivors need to be understood in more detail. Previous studies in non-cancer populations have demonstrated that behavioral determinants, such as a positive attitude towards work, high social support and self-efficacy may increase return to work rates or shorten the time to return to work. Addressing behavioral determinants in future development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors is essential in achieving sustained employability.

  18. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israëls, Trijn; Chirambo, Chawanangwa; Caron, Huib; de Kraker, Jan; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Reis, Ria

    2008-11-01

    Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible causes of abandonment, a problem analysis diagram was drawn which helped to develop the questionnaires. Semi-structured interviews (n = 83) and focus group discussions (n = 8) were held with the guardians of 25 Burkitt lymphoma patients and 7 Wilms tumour patients at different phases of therapy in Malawi. Parents in Malawi are very motivated to continue treatment if they think that it will cure their child. Financial costs are important concerns. Not all tasks at home are assumed by other household members. The diagnosis of cancer was unknown before being told about it in hospital and caused fear of recurrence and death. Guardians are reluctant to ask the health personnel questions. They worry that taking frequent blood samples will weaken their child. The side effects of the chemotherapy are seen as a proof of efficacy. It is important to appreciate the guardians' concerns when offering treatment that requires their sustained commitment. It is necessary to provide not only medical treatment, but also travel allowances and adequate nutritional support during long hospital stays to impoverished families. Information should be given proactively. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. "Gaining or losing": The importance of the perspective in primary care health services valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Peña-Longobardo, Luz Mª; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Medina-Palomino, Héctor; Del Cura-González, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Economic theory classifies an intervention as socially beneficial if the total Willingness to Pay (WTP) of those who gain exceeds the total Willingness to accept (WTA) of those who are harmed. This paper examines the differences in health system users' valuation of a health care service in primary care setting based on the WTP and WTA perspectives, discussing the impact of personal and service variables, including risk attitudes, on these disparities. Six hundred and sixty two subjects who asked for care in health centres in the Region of Madrid (Spain) were interviewed, using the contingent valuation method to estimate WTP and WTA. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, health needs, satisfaction with the service and risk attitude and behaviour under risk (measured by self-reported scales and lottery games respectively) were collected. Generalised Linear Models were used to estimate the association between the explanatory variables and the WTA/WTP ratio. We obtained the WTA/WTP ratio for 570 subjects (mean 1.66 CI 95%: 1.53-1.79; median 1, interquartile range 1-2). People with higher education or in high social groups expressed WTA values closest to WTP. The opposite occurred in patients with the greatest health needs or who were born abroad. Self-reported expression of risk aversion appeared also related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. Satisfaction with the service evaluated was the most influential factor in the WTA/WTP ratio. Health need, difficulty in obtaining substitutes and satisfaction with the service could serve for profiling people averse to loss for health care services in primary care setting. Self-reported expression of risk aversion could also be related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. This would mean that these characteristics should be taken into account both in the design and implementation of new healthcare interventions, as in the making decision for disinvestment.

  20. "Gaining or losing": The importance of the perspective in primary care health services valuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martín-Fernández

    Full Text Available Economic theory classifies an intervention as socially beneficial if the total Willingness to Pay (WTP of those who gain exceeds the total Willingness to accept (WTA of those who are harmed. This paper examines the differences in health system users' valuation of a health care service in primary care setting based on the WTP and WTA perspectives, discussing the impact of personal and service variables, including risk attitudes, on these disparities.Six hundred and sixty two subjects who asked for care in health centres in the Region of Madrid (Spain were interviewed, using the contingent valuation method to estimate WTP and WTA. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, health needs, satisfaction with the service and risk attitude and behaviour under risk (measured by self-reported scales and lottery games respectively were collected. Generalised Linear Models were used to estimate the association between the explanatory variables and the WTA/WTP ratio.We obtained the WTA/WTP ratio for 570 subjects (mean 1.66 CI 95%: 1.53-1.79; median 1, interquartile range 1-2. People with higher education or in high social groups expressed WTA values closest to WTP. The opposite occurred in patients with the greatest health needs or who were born abroad. Self-reported expression of risk aversion appeared also related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. Satisfaction with the service evaluated was the most influential factor in the WTA/WTP ratio.Health need, difficulty in obtaining substitutes and satisfaction with the service could serve for profiling people averse to loss for health care services in primary care setting. Self-reported expression of risk aversion could also be related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. This would mean that these characteristics should be taken into account both in the design and implementation of new healthcare interventions, as in the making decision for disinvestment.

  1. Recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of clients undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Jill B; Giuliano, Susan; Meehan, Caitlin; Sander, Beth; Wootten, Rachel; Zimmerman, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Evidence points to the efficacy of physical and occupational therapy intervention for the management of impairments and functional limitations related to the treatment of breast cancer. However, few studies give voice to the women participating in the physical rehabilitation programs intended to ameliorate their deficits. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the experience of physical rehabilitation as well as to identify recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of the client undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments. A phenomenological design was chosen and included a purposive sample of women (n = 10) undergoing physical rehabilitation for impairments related to breast cancer treatment. Data included semistructured interviews and artifact examination. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted at a setting of the participants' choice. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. Data analysis was cyclical and ongoing and involved all six researchers in analyzing and triangulating all pieces of data. Member checks and a peer review were conducted to confirm relevance and validity. Five themes emerged: 1) challenges with obtaining referrals, 2) challenges with patient education, 3) improvements in functional impairments, 4) emotional support, and 5) benefits of a specialized clinic environment. Consideration of the five themes led to four recommendations for physical and occupational therapist practice from the perspective of the client: 1) advocate for presurgical therapy consultations, 2) be competent in the management of all impairments and functional limitations associated with breast cancer treatment, 3) be aware of the emotional support the therapist has the capacity to provide or not provide, and 4) as much as possible, create an inviting, nonclinical environment.

  2. Disinflation in a DSGE Perspective: Sacrifice Ratio or Welfare Gain Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Ascari; Tiziano Ropele

    2009-01-01

    When used to examine disinflation monetary policies, the current workhorse dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of business cycle fluctuations is able to quantitatively account for the main stylized facts in terms of recessionary effects and sacrifice ratio. We complement the transitional analysis of the short-run costs with a rigorous welfare evaluation and show that, despite the long-lasting economic downturn, disinflation entails non-zero overall welfare gains.

  3. Integrating Customer Intimacy Into Radiology to Improve the Patient Perspective: The Case of Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2016-02-01

    The customer intimacy business model has emerged as a key operational approach for health care organizations as they move toward patient-centered care. The question arises how the customer intimacy approach can be implemented in the clinical setting and whether it can help practitioners address problems and improve quality of care. Breast cancer screening and its emphasis on the patient perspective provides an interesting case study for understanding how the customer intimacy approach can be integrated into radiologic practice to improve the patient experience.

  4. Return to work and cancer: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Georgina; Knott, Vikki; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that for many cancer survivors, returning to work has a range of benefits. However, considerable barriers have been identified as influencing the quality of return to work outcomes. This study explored the perspectives of Australian cancer survivors, managers and employee assistance program (EAP) professionals to gain an understanding of the return to work process and factors that affect the experience. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with cancer survivors (n = 15), managers (n = 12), and EAP professionals / psychologists (n = 4) from public and private sectors. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data to identify common and unique themes from the three participant groups. A range of drivers were identified including maintaining normality and regaining identity, which could act positively or negatively depending on survivors' coping ability and self awareness. Analysis revealed communication difficulties in the workplace that impact on emotional and practical support. Negotiating an employee's return is complex, influenced by the level of consultation with the employee and use of an ad hoc or structured process. Direct and indirect ways of supporting employees with cancer were identified, as was the need for colleague and manager support. This study supports previous research findings of the impact of cancer on work, and reveals managers' lack of knowledge on how to respond appropriately. The process of returning to work is complex, influenced by employees' and managers' attitudes, communication skills and coping abilities. Areas for workplace interventions to optimise support for the cancer survivor are described.

  5. MO-FG-BRB-03: Addressing the Cancer Challenge: International Cancer Experts Corps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, N. [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  6. MO-FG-BRB-03: Addressing the Cancer Challenge: International Cancer Experts Corps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  7. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  8. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  9. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  10. New insights in oncology: Epi-genetics and cancer stem cells; Nouvelles perspectives en oncologie: epigenetique et cellules souches cancereuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutovskikh, V.; Partensky, C. [Centre international de recherche sur le cancer, 150, cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon cedex 08 (France)

    2011-12-15

    Cancer is a multi-etiologic, multistage disease with a prevalent genetic component, which happens when a large number of genes, critical for cell growth, death, differentiation, migration, and metabolic plasticity are altered irreversibly, so as to either 'gain' (oncogenes) or 'lose' (tumour suppressors) their function. Recent discoveries have revealed the previously underestimated etiologic importance of multiple epigenetic, that is to say, reversible factors (histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA) involved in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of proteins, indispensable for the control of cancerous phenotype. Stable alterations of epigenetic machinery ('epi-mutations') turn out to play a critical role at different steps of carcinogenesis. In addition, due to substantial recent progress in stem cell biology, the new concept of cancer stem cells has emerged. This, along with newly discovered epigenetic cancer mechanisms, gives rise to a hope to overcome radio- and chemo-resistance and to eradicate otherwise incurable neoplasms. (authors)

  11. Student Discipline Strategies: Practitioner Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    This applied dissertation presented a mixed method design to gain a broader perspective of the perceptions of classroom management practitioners within a particular school district. Many teachers, or practitioners, experience issues with classroom management because of their understanding of strategies they use. Because of the researcher's…

  12. A Strategy To Infuse a Global Perspective into Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sue L. T.; Bourbonniere, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    A four-phase plan for delivering consumer education from a global perspective involves teachers in gaining familiarity with (1) the conventional approach to consumer education; (2) the cultures of globalization, capitalism, and consumerism; (3) the global perspective; and (4) integration of the three to create a global curriculum. (Contains 50…

  13. In vitro three-dimensional cancer metastasis modeling: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei-jing; Zhu Jiang-rui; Fan Qihui; Liu Li-yu; Yuan Wei; Qu Junle

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of most cancer deaths, as opposed to dysregulated cell growth of the primary tumor. Molecular mechanisms of metastasis have been studied for decades and the findings have evolved our understanding of the progression of malignancy. However, most of the molecular mechanisms fail to address the causes of cancer and its evolutionary origin, demonstrating an inability to find a solution for complete cure of cancer. After being a neglected area of tumor biology for quite some time, recently several studies have focused on the impact of the tumor microenvironment on cancer growth. The importance of the tumor microenvironment is gradually gaining attention, particularly from the perspective of biophysics. In vitro three-dimensional (3-D) metastatic models are an indispensable platform for investigating the tumor microenvironment, as they mimic the in vivo tumor tissue. In 3-D metastatic in vitro models, static factors such as the mechanical properties, biochemical factors, as well as dynamic factors such as cell–cell, cell–ECM interactions, and fluid shear stress can be studied quantitatively. With increasing focus on basic cancer research and drug development, the in vitro 3-D models offer unique advantages in fundamental and clinical biomedical studies. (topical review)

  14. Thyroid cancer: an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.; Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Despite the fact that cancer of the thyroid gland is a rare disease it has attracted a lot of attention. It is one of the few disease where radioactive isotopes are used not only for detection but also for treatment of the disease. The Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is the apex of all the departments of nuclear medicines in India. It was established in 1963 in the precincts of the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) which is the primer cancer centre of this country. This book is a collation of the combined experience of the TMH and the RMC. The objectives are two fold, viz. (1) an introspective analysis of our experience and (2) to offer a book of ready reference to anyone dealing with any aspect of thyroid cancer. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome: Assessment of the perspectives of patients with colorectal cancer regarding benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jessica Ezzell; Zepp, Jamilyn M; Gilmore, Mari J; Davis, James V; Esterberg, Elizabeth J; Muessig, Kristin R; Peterson, Susan K; Syngal, Sapna; Acheson, Louise S; Wiesner, Georgia L; Reiss, Jacob A; Goddard, Katrina A B

    2015-09-15

    Universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome, the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), has been recommended among all patients newly diagnosed with CRC. However, there is limited literature regarding patient perspectives of tumor screening for Lynch syndrome among patients with CRC who are not selected for screening based on family history criteria. A total of 145 patients aged 39 to 87 years were administered surveys assessing perceived risk, patient perspectives, and potential benefits of and barriers to tumor screening for Lynch syndrome. Associations between patient-specific and cancer-specific factors and survey responses were analyzed. The majority of participants perceived their risk of developing Lynch syndrome as being low, with 9 participants (6.2%) anticipating an abnormal screening result. However, most participants endorsed the potential benefits of screening for themselves and their families, with 84.8% endorsing ≥6 benefits and 50.3% endorsing all 8 benefits. Participants also endorsed few potential barriers to screening, with 89.4% endorsing ≤4 of 9 potential barriers. A common barrier was worry about the cost of additional testing and surveillance, which was endorsed by 54.5% of participants. The level of distress associated with tumor screening for Lynch syndrome, which was very low, was not associated with age or CRC stage. The results of the current study indicate that patients with CRC overall have a positive attitude toward tumor screening for Lynch syndrome, endorse the benefits of screening, and experience low levels of distress. These findings provide insight into patient attitudes toward tumor screening for Lynch syndrome among unselected patients with CRC to inform educational approaches that assist in patient decision-making and guide the successful implementation of screening programs. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  16. Children’s perspective on learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool...... and other surrounding social contexts. The results are based on 51 focus group interviews from 181 children. The results indicate that, in general, children from all four countries seem to be aware of their own learning. One can conclude that encouraging children to think about what they are doing and why...... they are doing it makes the activities more goal-oriented from the children’s perspective and thus more conscious. Children are able to describe their own perspectives on learning....

  17. Gaining Insights on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment Outcome Using Clinical Data Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaibeh, A Ammar; Kasem, Asem; Ng, Xun Jin; Nair, Hema Latha Krishna; Hirose, Jun; Thiruchelvam, Vinesh

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is attracting a lot of research attention in the medical informatics domain. Hospitals and medical institutes started to use data mining techniques to gain new insights from the massive amounts of data that can be made available through EHRs. Researchers in the medical field have often used descriptive statistics and classical statistical methods to prove assumed medical hypotheses. However, discovering new insights from large amounts of data solely based on experts' observations is difficult. Using data mining techniques and visualizations, practitioners can find hidden knowledge, identify interesting patterns, or formulate new hypotheses to be further investigated. This paper describes a work in progress on using data mining methods to analyze clinical data of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cancer patients. NPC is the fifth most common cancer among Malaysians, and the data analyzed in this study was collected from three states in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, Sabah and Sarawak), and is considered to be the largest up-to-date dataset of its kind. This research is addressing the issue of cancer recurrence after the completion of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. We describe the procedure, problems, and insights gained during the process.

  18. Determinants of Weight Gain in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Chi-Chen

    2008-01-01

    .... Since sex hormones and glucocorticoids regulate body weight and adipose tissue distribution, the authors hypothesize that sex hormones and cortisol play a role in treatment-induced weight gain...

  19. Perspectives on cervical cancer screening among educated Muslim women in Dubai (the UAE): a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Woolhead, Gillian

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the seventh leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with most deaths attributed to late detection of this cancer. The UAE lacks a national CC screening programme. Thus, cervical screening is only performed opportunistically during women's visits to health facilities. CC screening rates in the UAE are as low as 16.9 %, and little is known about the perspectives of the nation's educated Muslim women regarding screening. Consequently, the aim of this study is to explore Muslim women's perspectives towards cervical screening in Dubai to promote strategies for increasing its uptake, thereby leading to a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with CC. Interpretivist and social constructivist epistemological approaches were applied for this qualitative study. Data were obtained through 13 in-depth interviews. Purposive and snowballing methods were used to recruit six South Asian women and seven Emirati women living in Dubai. Thematic content analysis was concurrently applied with comparative analysis to the data. Four themes regarding women's perceptions of CC emerged from the data. First, CC was considered a 'silent disease' that could be detected with early screening. However, it was also associated with extramarital sexual relations, which negatively influenced screening uptake. Second, women's fear, pain and embarrassment, along with cultural influences, deterred them from undergoing screening. Third, a growing mistrust of allopathic medicine and impersonal healthcare promoted a negative view of screening. Last, women became aware of screening mainly when they were pregnant or receiving fertility treatment. The study highlighted a number of important factors relating to cultural, religious and sexual behaviour that shaped educated Muslim women's perspectives on CC screening. Evidently, the current opportunistic approach to screening is flawed. A national awareness programme on CC screening should be

  20. Helminths and Cancers From the Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Larissa L S; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo A; Nahum, Laila A

    2018-01-01

    Helminths include free-living and parasitic Platyhelminthes and Nematoda which infect millions of people worldwide. Some Platyhelminthes species of blood flukes ( Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum , and Schistosoma mansoni ) and liver flukes ( Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini ) are known to be involved in human cancers. Other helminths are likely to be carcinogenic. Our main goals are to summarize the current knowledge of human cancers caused by Platyhelminthes, point out some helminth and human biomarkers identified so far, and highlight the potential contributions of phylogenetics and molecular evolution to cancer research. Human cancers caused by helminth infection include cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and urinary bladder cancer. Chronic inflammation is proposed as a common pathway for cancer initiation and development. Furthermore, different bacteria present in gastric, colorectal, and urogenital microbiomes might be responsible for enlarging inflammatory and fibrotic responses in cancers. Studies have suggested that different biomarkers are involved in helminth infection and human cancer development; although, the detailed mechanisms remain under debate. Different helminth proteins have been studied by different approaches. However, their evolutionary relationships remain unsolved. Here, we illustrate the strengths of homology identification and function prediction of uncharacterized proteins from genome sequencing projects based on an evolutionary framework. Together, these approaches may help identifying new biomarkers for disease diagnostics and intervention measures. This work has potential applications in the field of phylomedicine (evolutionary medicine) and may contribute to parasite and cancer research.

  1. Helminths and Cancers From the Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. S. Scholte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminths include free-living and parasitic Platyhelminthes and Nematoda which infect millions of people worldwide. Some Platyhelminthes species of blood flukes (Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma mansoni and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are known to be involved in human cancers. Other helminths are likely to be carcinogenic. Our main goals are to summarize the current knowledge of human cancers caused by Platyhelminthes, point out some helminth and human biomarkers identified so far, and highlight the potential contributions of phylogenetics and molecular evolution to cancer research. Human cancers caused by helminth infection include cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and urinary bladder cancer. Chronic inflammation is proposed as a common pathway for cancer initiation and development. Furthermore, different bacteria present in gastric, colorectal, and urogenital microbiomes might be responsible for enlarging inflammatory and fibrotic responses in cancers. Studies have suggested that different biomarkers are involved in helminth infection and human cancer development; although, the detailed mechanisms remain under debate. Different helminth proteins have been studied by different approaches. However, their evolutionary relationships remain unsolved. Here, we illustrate the strengths of homology identification and function prediction of uncharacterized proteins from genome sequencing projects based on an evolutionary framework. Together, these approaches may help identifying new biomarkers for disease diagnostics and intervention measures. This work has potential applications in the field of phylomedicine (evolutionary medicine and may contribute to parasite and cancer research.

  2. Perspectives of Patients With Cancer on the Ethics of Rapid-Learning Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Sabolch, Aaron; Jones, Rochelle; Spence, Rebecca; De Vries, Raymond; Grande, David; Bradbury, Angela R

    2017-07-10

    Purpose To inform the evolving implementation of CancerLinQ and other rapid-learning systems for oncology care, we sought to evaluate perspectives of patients with cancer regarding ethical issues. Methods Using the GfK Group online research panel, representative of the US population, we surveyed 875 patients with cancer; 621 (71%) responded. We evaluated perceptions of appropriateness (scored from 1 to 10; 10, very appropriate) using scenarios and compared responses by age, race, and education. We constructed a scaled measure of comfort with secondary use of deidentified medical information and evaluated its correlates in a multivariable model. Results Of the sample, 9% were black and 9% Hispanic; 38% had completed high school or less, and 59% were age ≥ 65 years. Perceptions of appropriateness were highest when consent was obtained and university researchers used data to publish a research study (weighted mean appropriateness, 8.47) and lowest when consent was not obtained and a pharmaceutical company used data for marketing (weighted mean appropriateness, 2.7). Most respondents (72%) thought secondary use of data for research was very important, although those with lower education were less likely to endorse this (62% v 78%; P < .001). Overall, 35% believed it was necessary to obtain consent each time such research was to be performed; this proportion was higher among blacks/Hispanics than others (48% v 33%; P = .02). Comfort with the use of deidentified information from medical records varied by scenario and overall was associated with distrust in the health care system. Conclusion Perceptions of patients with cancer regarding secondary data use depend on the user and the specific use of the data, while also frequently differing by patient sociodemographic factors. Such information is critical to inform ongoing efforts to implement oncology learning systems.

  3. Wealth, Health Expenditure, and Cancer: A National Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, Jad; Semaan, Adele; Rieber, Alyssa

    2016-08-01

    The US health care system is characterized by high health expenditures with penultimate outcomes. This ecological study evaluates the associations between wealth, health expenditure, and cancer outcomes at the state level. We extracted gross domestic product (GDP) and health expenditure per capita from the 2009 Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, respectively. Using data from the NCI, we retrieved colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, and all-cancer age-adjusted rates and computed mortality/incidence (M/I) ratios. We used the Spearman's rank correlation to determine the association between the financial indicators and cancer outcomes, and we constructed geographic distribution maps to describe these associations. GDP per capita significantly correlated with lower M/I ratios for all cancers, breast cancer, and CRC. As for health expenditure per capita, preliminary analysis highlighted a rift between the Northeastern and Southern states, which translated into worse breast and all-cancer outcomes in Southern states. Further analysis showed that higher health expenditure significantly correlated with decreased breast cancer M/I ratio. However, CRC outcomes were not significantly affected by health expenditure, nor were all-cancer outcomes. All cancers, breast cancer, and CRC outcomes significantly correlated with wealth, whereas only breast cancer correlated with higher health expenditure. Future research is needed to evaluate the potential role of policies in optimizing resource allocation in the states' efforts against CRC and minimizing disparities in interstate cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  4. Determinants of Weight Gain in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Chi-Chen

    2008-01-01

    .... The goals of the study are to examine weight gain in relation to treatment-related changes in sex hormone levels, and to genetic polymorphisms in sex hormone pathways, accounting for potential...

  5. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  6. Perspectives on barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment for clinical trials among cancer center leaders, investigators, research staff, and referring clinicians: enhancing minority participation in clinical trials (EMPaCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raegan W; Wenzel, Jennifer A; Scarinci, Isabel C; Paterniti, Debora A; Fouad, Mona N; Hurd, Thelma C; Martin, Michelle Y

    2014-04-01

    The study of disparities in minority recruitment to cancer clinical trials has focused primarily on inquiries among minority populations. Yet very little is known about the perceptions of individuals actively involved in minority recruitment to clinical trials within cancer centers. Therefore, the authors assessed the perspectives of cancer center clinical and research personnel on barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment. In total, 91 qualitative interviews were conducted at 5 US cancer centers among 4 stakeholder groups: cancer center leaders, principal investigators, research staff, and referring clinicians. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analyses of response data was focused on identifying prominent themes related to barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment. The perspectives of the 4 stakeholder groups were largely overlapping with some variations based on their unique roles in minority recruitment. Four prominent themes were identified: 1) racial and ethnic minorities are influenced by varying degrees of skepticism related to trial participation, 2) potential minority participants often face multilevel barriers that preclude them from being offered an opportunity to participate in a clinical trial, 3) facilitators at both the institutional and participant level potentially encourage minority recruitment, and 4) variation between internal and external trial referral procedures may limit clinical trial opportunities for racial and ethnic minorities. Multilevel approaches are needed to address barriers and optimize facilitators within cancer centers to enhance minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  7. Communication between physicians and cancer patients about complementary and alternative medicine: exploring patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Katsuya; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Shumay, Dianne M; Tatsumura, Yvonne; Kakai, Hisako

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to communication between physicians and cancer patients regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by exploring the perspectives of patients. In face of the recent popularity of CAM use among cancer patients, the lack of communication is a serious problem. A number of CAM therapies may interfere with conventional treatments and thus impact patients' well-being and chances of survival. In addition, lack of communication is problematic in the health care context because the development of openness and trust between health care providers and clients is contingent upon effective interpersonal communication. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 143 cancer patients to explore their experiences with CAM use. Using a qualitative research method, we examined interview data from 93 CAM users who provided sufficient information about communication issues. As a result, three themes emerged describing barriers to unsuccessful communication as perceived from the patient's point of view: physicians' indifference or opposition toward CAM use, physicians' emphasis on scientific evidence, and patients' anticipation of a negative response from their physician. Increasing education about CAM and regular assessment of CAM use may help physicians to be more aware of their patients' CAM use. As a result, physicians may provide patients with information on risks and benefits of CAM use and refer patients to other services that may address unmet needs. Given a difference in epistemiologic beliefs about cancer and its treatment, the challenge is to find a common ground for an open discussion in which physicians consider that scientific evidence is not all that counts in the life of an individual facing a serious disease. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Resource Loss and Gain, Life Satisfaction, and Health Among Retirees in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Jiménez, Irene; Valero, Encarna; Ovejero, Anastasio

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on retirement transition from the Conservation of Resources (COR) perspective to better understand how aged participants' perceptions of retirement losses and gains significantly explain retirement well-being. In this article, the mediation of social support in the losses-well-being relationship is explored. The study was conducted with a two-wave longitudinal design. Participants at T1 were aged Spanish workers (>64 years) and at T2 were retirees, with a final sample of 275, who had retired during the previous 6 months. Findings supported the assertion that losses better explain well-being than gains. In addition, specific losses revealed a higher explaining power of life satisfaction and health complaints depending on their content. Social support mediated between perceived losses and well-being. This study suggests that both perceived losses and gains associated with retirement and social support during retirement should be taken into account when addressing postretirement well-being.

  9. Communication and integration: a qualitative analysis of perspectives among Middle Eastern oncology healthcare professionals on the integration of complementary medicine in supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Samuels, Noah; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Schiff, Elad; Omran, Suha; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The use of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM ) in Middle Eastern countries is widespread, including among patients with cancer. Perspectives of oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs) in this region regarding the integration of CTM within conventional supportive cancer care were explored. An 11-item questionnaire with an open-ended question asking respondents to comment about the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care was sent to Middle Eastern oncology HCPs, using snowball sampling methodology. The narratives provided were examined using thematic analysis. A total of 339 oncology HCPs completed and returned the study tool (80.3 % response rate ), of which 178 from 15 Middle Eastern countries responded to the open-ended question. The majority of respondents are in favor of the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, though ideas on how this should be implemented varied. Thematic analysis identified multifactorial barriers to integration, which focused on HCPs' perspectives (e.g., a lack of knowledge and training; a skeptical approach to CTM), attitudes of patients and caregivers (e.g., unrealistic expectations regarding the outcomes of CTM treatments) and HCP-patient communication. In order to overcome these barriers, respondents suggested education and training programs for oncology HCPs which would focus on improving patients' quality-of-life-related outcomes. Middle Eastern oncology HCPs support the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, while recognizing the need for education and training in this field. A better understanding of CTM would provide the knowledge and skills which would promote a non-judgmental, evidence-based approach, fostering better communication with patients.

  10. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  11. Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey N; Bae, Sooin; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Koivisto, Christopher; Martin, Chelsea K; Ridolfi, Elisa; Miller, Grace C; Zorko, Sarah M; Plevris, Emilia; Hadjiyannis, Yannis; Perez, Miguel; Nolan, Eric; Kladney, Raleigh; Westendorp, Bart; de Bruin, Alain; Fernandez, Soledad; Rosol, Thomas J; Pohar, Kamal S; Pipas, James M; Leone, Gustavo

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are infrequent, casting doubt on a direct role for E2Fs in driving cancer. In this work, a mutation analysis of human cancer revealed subtle but impactful copy number gains in E2F1 and E2F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a series of loss- and gain-of-function alleles to dial E2F transcriptional output, we have shown that copy number gains in E2f1 or E2f3b resulted in dosage-dependent spontaneous HCC in mice without the involvement of additional organs. Conversely, germ-line loss of E2f1 or E2f3b, but not E2f3a, protected mice against HCC. Combinatorial mapping of chromatin occupancy and transcriptome profiling identified an E2F1- and E2F3B-driven transcriptional program that was associated with development and progression of HCC. These findings demonstrate a direct and cell-autonomous role for E2F activators in human cancer.

  12. Cancer and pregnancy: the clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah; McNeil, Michael; Limmer, Jane; Kuller, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    Although uncommon, the incidence of cancer complicating pregnancy is increasing. Managing these pregnancies creates many diagnostic, therapeutic, and ethical dilemmas for the patient, her family, and the medical care team. Despite concerns for fetal well-being, maternal survival should be the first priority. Although surgery and chemotherapy may be used during pregnancy, radiation is generally contraindicated. For most nongynecologic cancers, termination of pregnancy does not improve maternal outcome. Iatrogenic prematurity is the most common pregnancy complication associated with malignancy in pregnancy because many of these infants are delivered early to facilitate maternal treatment. Overall, maternal cancer survival is generally good and does not differ from that of nonpregnant patients.

  13. Perspectives on the treatment of colorectal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ren; Li, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. With 655000 deaths worldwide per year, it is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Advances in imaging, genetics, molecular diagnostics, surgical techniques and chemotherapy are now making significant gains in our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat this serious disease. This article reviews some of these recent successes and shares a vi...

  14. Cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Wei Wang,1 Zhi-Qi Yang,1 Cong Liu,1 Si-Jia Chen,1 Qian Shen,1 Tian-Rui Zhang,1 Nancy S Partike,2 Zheng-Ping Yuan,3 Jin-Ming Yu1 1School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: In the People’s Republic of China, both western medicine (WM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation.Methods: Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis.Results: WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor–patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused.Conclusion: Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM

  15. Vitamin D and breast cancer: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrozul Haq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem and cause of death worldwide. According to WHO, cancer accounted for 7.6 million deaths in 2008, which is projected to continue rising with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Breast Cancer (BC is the most common cancer in women worldwide and it represents the second leading cause of death among women, after lung cancer. In India, BC is the most common diagnosed malignancy with 75,000 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed every year. The factors associated with BC are genetic mutation, reproductive factors, family history, breast density, increasing age and nutritional risk factors. Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing and dying of BC. Several recent reports have found vitamin D intake is beneficial not only for cancer prevention but also for women recently diagnosed with BC. In India, vitamin D deficiency ranges between 70% and 100%. There is paucity of literature available on association of vitamin D and risk of BC in Indian women. The aim of this review is to present the association of vitamin D deficiency with BC. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a higher incidence of breast cancer in India, interventional possibilities to increase vitamin D status should be done. Revising the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA for vitamin D intake and defining serum 25(OHD cut off levels for the Asian population should be done with a high priority.

  16. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  17. Life cycle thinking in impact assessment—Current practice and LCA gains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidstrup, Morten, E-mail: Bidstrup@plan.aau.dk

    2015-09-15

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which were analysed for analytical appropriateness and application of LCT. Through a focus on the non-technical summary, the conclusion and the use of specific search words, passages containing LCT were searched for in each IA report. These passages were then analysed with a generic framework. The results reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly. Many IAs do consider downstream impacts, but assessments of upstream, distant impacts are generally absent. It is concluded that multiple analytical gains can be attributed to greater application of LCA in IA practice, though some level of LCT already exists. - Highlights: • Life cycle thinking is appropriate across the types and topics of impact assessment. • Yet, life cycle assessment is rarely used for adding such perspective. • Impact assessment practice does apply some degree of life cycle thinking. • However, application of life cycle assessment could bring analytical gains.

  18. Life cycle thinking in impact assessment—Current practice and LCA gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which were analysed for analytical appropriateness and application of LCT. Through a focus on the non-technical summary, the conclusion and the use of specific search words, passages containing LCT were searched for in each IA report. These passages were then analysed with a generic framework. The results reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly. Many IAs do consider downstream impacts, but assessments of upstream, distant impacts are generally absent. It is concluded that multiple analytical gains can be attributed to greater application of LCA in IA practice, though some level of LCT already exists. - Highlights: • Life cycle thinking is appropriate across the types and topics of impact assessment. • Yet, life cycle assessment is rarely used for adding such perspective. • Impact assessment practice does apply some degree of life cycle thinking. • However, application of life cycle assessment could bring analytical gains

  19. Conditional survival of cancer patients: an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimated conditional survival for cancer patients diagnosed at different ages and disease stage provides important information for cancer patients and clinicians in planning follow-up, surveillance and ongoing management. Methods Using population-based cancer registry data for New South Wales Australia, we estimated conditional 5-year relative survival for 11 major cancers diagnosed 1972–2006 by time since diagnosis and age and stage at diagnosis. Results 193,182 cases were included, with the most common cancers being prostate (39,851, female breast (36,585 and colorectal (35,455. Five-year relative survival tended to increase with increasing years already survived and improvement was greatest for cancers with poor prognosis at diagnosis (lung or pancreas and for those with advanced stage or older age at diagnosis. After surviving 10 years, conditional 5-year survival was over 95% for 6 localised, 6 regional, 3 distant and 3 unknown stage cancers. For the remaining patient groups, conditional 5-year survival ranged from 74% (for distant stage bladder cancer to 94% (for 4 cancers at different stages, indicating that they continue to have excess mortality 10–15 years after diagnosis. Conclusion These data provide important information for cancer patients, based on age and stage at diagnosis, as they continue on their cancer journey. This information may also be used by clinicians as a tool to make more evidence-based decisions regarding follow-up, surveillance, or ongoing management according to patients' changing survival expectations over time.

  20. Historical Perspective on Familial Gastric CancerSummary

    OpenAIRE

    C. Richard Boland; Matthew B. Yurgelun

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, typically associated with acquired chronic inflammation in the stomach, related in most instances to infection by Helicobacter pylori. A small percentage of cases occurs in familial clusters, and some of these can be linked to specific germline mutations. This article reviews the historical background to the current understanding of familial gastric cancer, focuses on the entity of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and also reviews the risks for ...

  1. Who is a survivor? Perceptions from individuals who experienced pediatric cancer and their primary support persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Monica L; Fletcher, Paula C

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the lived experiences of individuals who had cancer as children, as well as lived experiences of their current primary support persons. Based on van Manen's "new" interpretive phenomenology, interviews were conducted with ten pediatric cancer survivors and nine of their support persons to gain a more holistic understanding of the pediatric cancer experiences of children and their families. Four themes emerged from the data; however, only the topic of the use of the term "survivor" and identification with the term will be discussed. All participants in the study described their personal definition of the term survivor and what it meant to be a survivor. Additionally, all individuals in the study discussed the concept of being a survivor and if they would consider themselves, or their loved ones, to be "survivors." The results of this study provide health care professionals, family members, and individuals fundraising or advocating for cancer causes with insights on how the term survivor may be interpreted. This study may provide insight to individuals who had cancer as children, in showing that their personal perspective shapes their identity; although "survivor" is common cancer vernacular, individuals can choose not to identify with their illness experiences.

  2. Palbociclib in hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer: A cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, J; Helou, J; Pritchard, K I; Naimark, D M

    2017-11-01

    The addition of palbociclib to letrozole improves progression-free survival in the first-line treatment of hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer (ABC). This study assesses the cost-utility of palbociclib from the Canadian healthcare payer perspective. A probabilistic discrete event simulation (DES) model was developed and parameterised with data from the PALOMA 1 and 2 trials and other sources. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-month (QALM) gained for palbociclib was calculated. A time horizon of 15 years was used in the base case with costs and effectiveness discounted at 5% annually. Time-to- progression and time-to-death were derived from a Weibull and exponential distribution. Expected costs were based on Ontario fees and other sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to account for parameter uncertainty. Compared to letrozole, the addition of palbociclib provided an additional 14.7 QALM at an incremental cost of $161,508. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $10,999/QALM gained. Assuming a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $4167/QALM, the probability of palbociclib to be cost-effective was 0%. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves derived from a probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at a WTP of $11,000/QALM gained, the probability of palbociclib to be cost-effective was 50%. The addition of palbociclib to letrozole is unlikely to be cost-effective for the treatment of ABC from a Canadian healthcare perspective with its current price. While ABC patients derive a meaningful clinical benefit from palbociclib, considerations should be given to increase the WTP threshold and reduce the drug pricing, to render this strategy more affordable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetics in Cancer: A Hematological Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Stahl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, we have known that epigenetic regulation is disrupted in cancer. Recently, an increasing body of data suggests epigenetics might be an intersection of current cancer research trends: next generation sequencing, immunology, metabolomics, and cell aging. The new emphasis on epigenetics is also related to the increasing production of drugs capable of interfering with epigenetic mechanisms and able to trigger clinical responses in even advanced phase patients. In this review, we will use myeloid malignancies as proof of concept examples of how epigenetic mechanisms can trigger or promote oncogenesis. We will also show how epigenetic mechanisms are related to genetic aberrations, and how they affect other systems, like immune response. Finally, we will show how we can try to influence the fate of cancer cells with epigenetic therapy.

  4. Perspective on cancer and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazards from radon and its daughters in the environment and the role they may play in contributing to the general cancer burden. Only in exceptional circumstances can one pick out one mutagen or one carcinogen and scientifically determine what its contribution is o our burden of birth defects and cancer. The risks associated with radon and its daughters are examined in light of this philosophy

  5. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen...

  6. Appraising the relevance of DNA copy number loss and gain in prostate cancer using whole genome DNA sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzica Camacho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of models have been proposed to explain regions of recurrent somatic copy number alteration (SCNA in human cancer. Our study employs Whole Genome DNA Sequence (WGS data from tumor samples (n = 103 to comprehensively assess the role of the Knudson two hit genetic model in SCNA generation in prostate cancer. 64 recurrent regions of loss and gain were detected, of which 28 were novel, including regions of loss with more than 15% frequency at Chr4p15.2-p15.1 (15.53%, Chr6q27 (16.50% and Chr18q12.3 (17.48%. Comprehensive mutation screens of genes, lincRNA encoding sequences, control regions and conserved domains within SCNAs demonstrated that a two-hit genetic model was supported in only a minor proportion of recurrent SCNA losses examined (15/40. We found that recurrent breakpoints and regions of inversion often occur within Knudson model SCNAs, leading to the identification of ZNF292 as a target gene for the deletion at 6q14.3-q15 and NKX3.1 as a two-hit target at 8p21.3-p21.2. The importance of alterations of lincRNA sequences was illustrated by the identification of a novel mutational hotspot at the KCCAT42, FENDRR, CAT1886 and STCAT2 loci at the 16q23.1-q24.3 loss. Our data confirm that the burden of SCNAs is predictive of biochemical recurrence, define nine individual regions that are associated with relapse, and highlight the possible importance of ion channel and G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR pathways in cancer development. We concluded that a two-hit genetic model accounts for about one third of SCNA indicating that mechanisms, such haploinsufficiency and epigenetic inactivation, account for the remaining SCNA losses.

  7. Nanobiotech in big pharma: a business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würmseher, Martin; Firmin, Lea

    2017-03-01

    Since the early 2000s, numerous publications have presented major scientific opportunities that can be achieved through integrating insights from the area of nanotech into biotech (nanobiotech). This paper aims to explore the economic significance that nanobiotech has gained in the established pharmaceutical industry (big pharma). The empirical investigation draws on patent data as well as product revenue data; and to put the results into perspective, the amounts are compared with the established/traditional biotech sector. The results indicate that the new technology still plays only a minor role - at least from a commercial perspective.

  8. New perspectives of curcumin in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wungki; Amin, A.R.M Ruhul; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous natural compounds have been extensively investigated for their potential for cancer prevention over decades. Curcumin, from Curcuma longa, is a highly promising natural compound that can be potentially used for chemoprevention of multiple cancers. Curcumin modulates multiple molecular pathways involved in the lengthy carcinogenesis process to exert its chemopreventive effects through several mechanisms: promoting apoptosis, inhibiting survival signals, scavenging reactive oxidative species (ROS), and reducing the inflammatory cancer microenvironment. Curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent with its low toxicity, affordability, and easy accessibility. Nevertheless, the clinical application of curcumin is currently compromised by its poor bioavailability. Here we review the potential of curcumin in cancer prevention, its molecular targets, and action mechanisms. Finally, we suggest specific recommendations to improve its efficacy and bioavailability for clinical applications. PMID:23466484

  9. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Yuichiro

    2004-01-01

    For many years, thoracic radiotherapy had been regarded as the standard treatment for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, meta-analyses show that cisplatin-containing chemoradiotherapy is significantly superior to radiotherapy alone in terms of survival. Moreover, concurrent chemoradiotherapy yields a significantly increased response rate and enhanced survival duration when compared with the sequential approach. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy yields a 5-year survival rate of approximately 15% for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer is considered to be four cycles of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide combined with early concurrent twice-daily thoracic irradiation (45 Gy). If patients achieve complete remission, prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered. A 5-year survival rate of approximately 25% is expected with the state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Chemoradiotherapy is considered to be a standard treatment for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Several new strategies are currently being investigated to improve the survival of these patients. The incorporation of target-based drugs such as gefitinib is considered to be the most promising strategy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The incorporation of irinotecan is also a promising strategy to improve the survival of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group is conducting clinical trials to develop new treatment strategies for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. (author)

  10. Cancer cell metastasis; perspectives from the focal adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefteris C Zacharia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In almost all cancers, most patients die from metastatic disease and not from the actual primary tumor. That is why addressing the problem of metastasis is of utmost importance for the successful treatment and improved survival of cancer patients. Metastasis is a complex process that ultimately leads to cancer cells spreading from the tumor to distant sites of the body. During this process, cancer cells tend to lose contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM and neighboring cells within the primary tumor, and are thus able to invade surrounding tissues. Hence, ECM, and the ECM-associated adhesion proteins play a critical role in the metastatic process. This review will focus on recent literature regarding interesting and novel molecules at the cell-ECM adhesion sites, namely migfilin, mitogen-inducible gene-2 (Mig-2 and Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1, that are also critically involved in cancer cell metastasis, emphasizing on data from experiments performed in vitro in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines as well as human breast cancer tissue samples.

  11. Challenges in volunteering from cancer care volunteers perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad; Muhammad, Mazanah; Wahat, Nor Wahiza Abdul; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.

  12. Gaining or losing”: The importance of the perspective in primary care health services valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Peña-Longobardo, Luz Mª; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Medina-Palomino, Héctor; del Cura-González, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and objectives Economic theory classifies an intervention as socially beneficial if the total Willingness to Pay (WTP) of those who gain exceeds the total Willingness to accept (WTA) of those who are harmed. This paper examines the differences in health system users’ valuation of a health care service in primary care setting based on the WTP and WTA perspectives, discussing the impact of personal and service variables, including risk attitudes, on these disparities. Method Six hundred and sixty two subjects who asked for care in health centres in the Region of Madrid (Spain) were interviewed, using the contingent valuation method to estimate WTP and WTA. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, health needs, satisfaction with the service and risk attitude and behaviour under risk (measured by self-reported scales and lottery games respectively) were collected. Generalised Linear Models were used to estimate the association between the explanatory variables and the WTA/WTP ratio. Results We obtained the WTA/WTP ratio for 570 subjects (mean 1.66 CI 95%: 1.53–1.79; median 1, interquartile range 1–2). People with higher education or in high social groups expressed WTA values closest to WTP. The opposite occurred in patients with the greatest health needs or who were born abroad. Self-reported expression of risk aversion appeared also related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. Satisfaction with the service evaluated was the most influential factor in the WTA/WTP ratio. Conclusion Health need, difficulty in obtaining substitutes and satisfaction with the service could serve for profiling people averse to loss for health care services in primary care setting. Self-reported expression of risk aversion could also be related to increases in the WTA/WTP ratio. This would mean that these characteristics should be taken into account both in the design and implementation of new healthcare interventions, as in the making decision for disinvestment. PMID:29206847

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichansavakul, Kittaya

    had some limitations because they were conducted from a narrow perspective such as payer and provider point of views. The studies also considered only direct costs in their analysis. In fact, conducting economic evaluations from a narrow perspective and leaving out indirect costs might undermine the true benefit of the interventions for society. A cost-benefit analysis measures all costs and benefits in monetary units. It incorporates both health outcomes gained from individuals and the value gained to society in order to maximize the usage of resources effectively. This thesis conducted a cost-benefit analysis to compare nab-paclitaxel and generic paclitaxel in treating metastatic breast cancer from a societal perspective in the United States. The results showed that nab-paclitaxel is a cost-benefit strategy regardless of the different costs and benefits due to the extra 3 years of living it provides. In all models, when nab-paclitaxel was compared to generic paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel showed cost-benefit to society. However, the results of generic paclitaxel were dependent on the total medical costs. Performing a cost-benefit analysis of nab-paclitaxel from a societal perspective is important to understand the true benefit of interventions. Furthermore, considering both direct and indirect costs, as well as benefits, of this drug is vital because the economic profile of nab-paclitaxel would be improved.

  14. Defining and Measuring Job Vacancies in a Dynamic Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Donker van Heel (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the best definition for job vacancies, what is the best method to measure job vacancies, and what further research is needed to gain a better insight into job vacancies in a dynamic perspective?

  15. Role of PET/CT for precision medicine in lung cancer: perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Bennett S

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management. PET/CT is essential in determining staging and re-staging of disease, detecting recurrent or residual disease, evaluating response to therapy, and providing prognostic information. PET/CT is also critically important in radiation therapy planning by determining the extent of active disease, including an assessment of functional tumor volume. The current approach in tumor imaging is a significant advance over conventional imaging. However, recent advances suggest that therapeutic response criteria in the near future will be based on metabolic characteristics and will include the evaluation of biologic characteristics of tumors to further enhance the effectiveness of precision medicine in lung cancer, producing improved patient outcomes with less morbidity.

  16. The Biology of Cancer Exosomes: Insights and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carolina F; Adem, Bárbara; Silva, Miguel; Melo, Sónia A

    2017-12-01

    Exosomes are a subclass of extracellular vesicles involved in intercellular communication that are released by all cell types, including cancer cells. Cancer exosomes carry malignant information in the form of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that can reprogram recipient cells. Exosomes have emerged as putative biological mediators in cancer contributing to major steps of disease progression. A leading role exists for cancer exosomes in specific aspects of tumor progression: modulation of immune response, tumor microenvironment reprogramming, and metastasis. This review will address the functions attributed to cancer exosomes in these three aspects of cancer biology, highlighting recent advances and potential limitations. Finally, we explore alternative strategies to develop better models to study cancer exosomes biology. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6480-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Need for information, honesty and respect: patient perspectives on health care professionals communication about cancer and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Parton, Chloe; Perz, Janette

    2018-01-05

    Individuals affected by cancer report a need for information about fertility from health care professionals (HCPs), in order to inform decision making and alleviate anxiety. However, there is evidence that many health professionals do not engage in such discussions. A mixed method design was used to examine the construction and subjective experience of communication with health professionals about fertility in the context of cancer, from the perspective of patients. A survey was completed by 693 women and 185 men, across a range of cancer tumour types and age groups, and in-depth one-to-one interviews conducted with a purposively selected subsample of survey respondents, 61 women and 17 men. The chi square test for independence was used to test for group differences between women and men on closed survey items. Thematic analysis was used to examine the open ended survey responses and interviews. Significantly more women (57%, n = 373) than men (46%, n = 80) (X 2 (2517)  = 6.54, p = .011) reported that they had discussed fertility with a HCP since diagnosis of cancer. Satisfaction with the discussion was reported by 65% (n = 242) of women and 69% (n = 54) (ns) of men. This discussion was reported to have been initiated by the patient or their partner in 44% (n = 165) of women and 47% (n = 37) (ns) of men. In the interviews and open ended surveys three themes were identified: Feeling heard and informed about fertility after cancer: Positive experiences of HCP communication; "I was never given full disclosure": HCP silence or reticence about discussing fertility after cancer, including the sub-theme "Their primary concern is getting me cancer free": Constructions of absence of fertility communication by HCPs; and Confusion and lack of compassion: Unsatisfactory information provision about fertility and cancer. Discussion with a HCP about fertility concerns, and satisfaction with the discussion, was associated with reports of lower

  18. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Locasale, Jason W.; Weihua, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain-metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the non-oxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPs) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis, and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients. PMID:25511375

  20. An innovation in curriculum content and delivery of cancer education within undergraduate nurse training in the UK. What impact does this have on the knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Deborah; Anstey, Sally; Kelly, Daniel; Hopkinson, Jane

    2016-04-01

    This was an evaluation of an innovation in curriculum content and delivery within undergraduate nursing education in the UK. Its purpose was to investigate the effect on knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care. The study design was a pre-test post-test survey design with a comparison group. Participants were two cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n(intervention) = 84, n(comparison) = 91). The intervention cohort were exposed to a new 3.5 day programme of cancer education, coproduced with patients, carers and health professionals, which focused on cancer as a life changing long-term condition. The comparison cohort had been exposed to a 2 day programme produced by a lecturer. Following exposure to the new model for the delivery of undergraduate nurse cancer education, the intervention cohort demonstrated good overall knowledge of the impact of cancer, more positive attitudes towards cancer treatment and more confidence in their ability to deliver cancer care. Attitudes were more positive and confidence in ability to support cancer patients at all stages of the cancer journey were greater than in the comparison group. Insights gained into the cancer patient and carer perspectives were highly valued. This study has found that a new model for the delivery of cancer education focusing on survivorship and delivered in partnership with patients, carers and clinicians, may improve knowledge, attitudes and confidence in the delivery of cancer care. Further work is now needed, using a more robust experimental design, to investigate the generalisability of the results to other education programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  2. Improving access to supportive cancer care through an eHealth application: a qualitative needs assessment among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubberding, Sanne; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Te Velde, Elisabeth A; Cuijpers, Pim; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2015-05-01

    To gain insight into cancer survivors' needs towards an eHealth application monitoring quality of life and targeting personalised access to supportive care. Supportive care in cancer addresses survivors' concerns and needs. However, many survivors are not taking advantage of supportive care provided. To enable cancer survivors to benefit, survivors' needs must be identified timely and effectively. An eHealth application could be a solution to meet patients' individual supportive care needs. A qualitative approach. Thirty cancer survivors (15 head and neck and 15 breast cancer survivors) participated. The majority were female (n = 20·67%). The mean age was 60 (SD 8·8) years. Mean time interval since treatment was 13·5 months (SD 10·5). All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. During the interviews, participants were asked about their unmet needs during follow-up care and a potential eHealth application. Data were analyzed independently by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Cancer survivors commented that they felt unprepared for the post-treatment period and that their symptoms often remained unknown to care providers. Survivors also mentioned a suboptimal referral pattern to supportive care services. Mentioned advantages of an eHealth application were as follows: insight into the course of symptoms by monitoring, availability of information among follow-up appointments, receiving personalised advice and tailored supportive care. Cancer survivors identified several unmet needs during follow-up care. Most survivors were positive towards the proposed eHealth application and expressed that it could be a valuable addition to follow-up cancer care. Study results provide care providers with insight into barriers that impede survivors from obtaining optimal supportive care. This study also provides insight into the characteristics needed to design, build and implement an eHealth application targeting personalised access to supportive

  3. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: current perspectives | Chesang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.

  4. "Would a man smell a rose then throw it away?" Jordanian men's perspectives on women's breast cancer and breast health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Hana; Al-Qutob, Raeda; Nyström, Lennarth; Wahlström, Rolf; Berggren, Vanja

    2013-10-25

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy afflicting women, and the most common cancer overall in Jordan. A woman's decision to go for screening is influenced by her social support network. This study aims to explore Jordanian men's individual and contextual perspectives on women's breast cancer and their own role in the breast health of the females within their families. An explorative qualitative design was used to purposively recruit 24 married men aged 27 to 65 years (median 43 years) from four governorates in Jordan. Data in the form of interviews transcriptions was subjected to qualitative content analysis. Three themes were identified: a) Supporting one's wife; b) Marital needs and obligations; c) Constrained by a culture of destiny and shame. The first theme was built on men's feelings of responsibility for the family's health and well-being, their experiences of encouraging their wives to seek health care and their providing counselling and instrumental support. The second theme emerged from men's views about other men's rejection of a wife inflicted by breast cancer, their own perceptions of diminished femininity due to mastectomy and their own concerns about protecting the family from the hereditary risk of breast cancer. The third theme was seen in men's perception of breast cancer as an inevitable act of God that is far away from one's own family, in associating breast cancer with improper behaviour and in their readiness to face the culture of Eib (shame). Jordanian men perceive themselves as having a vital role in supporting, guiding and encouraging their wives to follow breast cancer early detection recommendations. Breast health awareness campaigns could involve husbands to capitalize on family support.

  5. Operational gain : measuring the capture of genetic gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of operational gain is more than the weighted average of the genetic quality of planted hectares, and encompasses tree breeding efficiencies, propagation efficiencies, matching of species and genotype to site, plant use efficiency and early measures of stand density and growth. To test the operational gain ...

  6. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  7. Economic assessment of fidaxomicin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in special populations (patients with cancer, concomitant antibiotic treatment or renal impairment) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Terrés, C; Cobo Reinoso, J; Grau Cerrato, S; Mensa Pueyo, J; Salavert Lletí, M; Toledo, A; Anguita, P; Rubio-Rodríguez, D; Watt, M; Gani, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to assess the cost-utility of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in three specific CDI patient subgroups: those with cancer, treated with concomitant antibiotic therapy or with renal impairment. A Markov model with six health states was developed to assess the cost-utility of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in the patient subgroups over a period of 1 year from initial infection. Cost and outcome data used to parameterise the model were taken from Spanish sources and published literature. The costs were from the Spanish hospital perspective, in Euros (€) and for 2013. For CDI patients with cancer, fidaxomicin was dominant versus vancomycin [gain of 0.016 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and savings of €2,397 per patient]. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained, the probability that fidaxomicin was cost-effective was 96 %. For CDI patients treated with concomitant antibiotic therapy, fidaxomicin was the dominant treatment versus vancomycin (gain of 0.014 QALYs and savings of €1,452 per patient), with a probability that fidaxomicin was cost-effective of 94 %. For CDI patients with renal impairment, fidaxomicin was also dominant versus vancomycin (gain of 0.013 QALYs and savings of €1,432 per patient), with a probability that fidaxomicin was cost-effective of 96 %. Over a 1-year time horizon, when fidaxomicin is compared to vancomycin in CDI patients with cancer, treated with concomitant antibiotic therapy or with renal impairment, the use of fidaxomicin would be expected to result in increased QALYs for patients and reduced overall costs.

  8. Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy Versus GnRH Analogue in the Adjuvant Treatment of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients: Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Breast Cancer Outcome, Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandina, Gabriella; Amadio, Giulia; Marcellusi, Andrea; Azzolini, Elena; Puggina, Anna; Pastorino, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Scambia, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is no available evidence to recommend gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue-based ovarian suppression versus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer, since the two approaches are considered equivalent in terms of oncologic outcome. The role of surgical ovarian ablation has been revitalized based on the advances of minimally invasive surgery, and a better understanding of clinical and molecular basis of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndromes. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic BSO and GnRH analogue administration in patients aged 40-49 years with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. A probabilistic decision tree model was developed to evaluate costs and outcomes of ovarian ablation through laparoscopic BSO, or ovarian suppression through monthly injections of GnRH analogue. Results were expressed as incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Laparoscopic BSO strategy was associated with a lower mean total cost per patient than GnRH treatment, and considering the difference in terms of QALYs, the incremental effectiveness did not demonstrate a notable difference between the two approaches. From the National Health Service perspective, and for a time horizon of 5 years, laparoscopic BSO was the dominant option compared to GnRH treatment; laparoscopic BSO was less expensive than GnRH, €2385 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2044, 2753] vs €7093 (95% CI = 3409, 12,105), respectively, and more effective. Surgical ovarian ablation is more cost-effective than GnRH administration in the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer patients aged 40-49 years, and the advantage of preventing ovarian cancer through laparoscopic BSO should be considered.

  9. Real-world and trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis of bevacizumab in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients: a study of the Southeast Netherlands Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, R J W; Ramaekers, B L T; Lobbezoo, D J A; de Boer, M; Dercksen, M W; van den Berkmortel, F; Smilde, T J; van de Wouw, A J; Peters, F P J; van Riel, J M G; Peters, N A J B; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Joore, M A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our analysis was to assess the real-world cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab in addition to taxane treatment versus taxane monotherapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer compared with the cost-effectiveness based on the efficacy results from a trial. A state transition model was built to estimate costs, life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for both treatments. Two scenarios were examined: a real-world scenario and a trial-based scenario in which transition probabilities were primarily based on a real-world cohort study and the E2100 trial, respectively. In both scenarios, costs and utility parameter estimates were extracted from the real-world cohort study. Moreover, the Dutch health care perspective was adopted. In both the real-world and trial scenarios, bevacizumab-taxane is more expensive (incremental costs of €56,213 and €52,750, respectively) and more effective (incremental QALYs of 0.362 and 0.189, respectively) than taxane monotherapy. In the real-world scenario, bevacizumab-taxane compared to taxane monotherapy led to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €155,261 per QALY gained. In the trial scenario, the ICER amounted to €278,711 per QALY gained. According to the Dutch informal threshold, bevacizumab in addition to taxane treatment was not considered cost-effective for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer both in a real-world and in a trial scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass print media depictions of cancer and heart disease: community versus individualistic perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne; van Amerom, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on a critical discourse content analysis of 40 stories from the 20 highest circulating English-language mass magazines available in Canada and published in Canada or the USA in 2001. It examines the presence or absence of the social determinants perspective in the portrayal of the two most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries: cancer and heart disease. The media analysis documents an absence of reflection of the social determinants viewpoint on these, the most important causes of disease and death. Thus, magazine stories ignore the role of such considerations as income, education level, ethnicity, visible minority or, Aboriginal status, early life experiences, employment and working conditions, food accessibility and quality, housing, social services, social exclusion, or unemployment and employment security in explaining health. Instead, the magazine articles underscore an individualistic approach to disease that assumes that health care is accessible and available to all, and that these diseases are preventable and treatable through individual lifestyle choices in combination with the measures prescribed through conventional medicine. Although cancer and heart disease are framed by a medical discourse, articles tended to emphasise the independence, freedom and power of the individual within the medical care system. The research documents a continuation of the dominance of conventional medicine buttressed by individualism in media stories. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Some of the practical consequences for policy-makers and professionals are noted.

  11. Gaining perspective: the effects of message frame on viewer attention to and recall of osteoporosis prevention print advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Deborah A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-11-01

    This study examined how framed messages affect viewer attention to and cognitive processing of osteoporosis prevention print ads. Attention was measured with eye tracking technology. Cognitive processing was assessed through masked recall. A total of 60 college-aged women viewed 12 gain-framed, 12 loss-framed, and 12 neutral-framed ads. Number of fixations, dwell time, and recall of gain-framed osteoporosis prevention ads were higher than loss-framed or neutral-framed ads, p < .01. Message recall was positively correlated with the number of fixations and dwell time for the gain-framed and neutral-framed messages, p < .01. These findings provide preliminary insight into potential mechanisms underlying message framing effects.

  12. An update on the management of breast cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpuye, V; Grover, S; Hammad, N; PoojaPrabhakar; Simonds, H; Olopade, F; Stefan, D C

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast cancer, similar poor prognostic factors are common to all countries. The five-year overall Survival rate for breast cancer patients does not exceed 60% for any low and middle-income country (LMIC) in Africa. In spite of the gains achieved over the past decade, certain characteristics remain the same such as limited availability of breast conservation therapies, inadequate access to drugs, few oncology specialists and adherence to harmful socio-cultural practices. This review on managing breast cancer in Africa is authored by African oncologists who practice or collaborate in Africa and with hands-on experience with the realities. A search was performed via electronic databases from 1999 to 2016. (PubMed/Medline, African Journals Online) for all literature in English or translated into English, covering the terms "breast cancer in Africa and developing countries". One hundred ninety were deemed appropriate. Breast tumors are diagnosed at earlier ages and later stages than in highincome countries. There is a higher prevalence of triple-negative cancers. The limitations of poor nursing care and surgery, inadequate access to radiotherapy, poor availability of basic and modern systemic therapies translate into lower survival rate. Positive strides in breast cancer management in Africa include increased adaptation of treatment guidelines, improved pathology services including immuno-histochemistry, expansion and upgrading of radiotherapy equipment across the continent in addition to more research opportunities. This review is an update of the management of breast cancer in Africa, taking a look at the epidemiology, pathology, management resources, outcomes, research and limitations in Africa from the perspective of oncologists with local experience.

  13. Adaptive risk management using new risk perspectives – an example from the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerga, Torbjørn; Aven, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses management of risk in the case of large uncertainties and the use of adaptive risk management in such situations. This type of management is based on the acknowledgement that one best decision cannot be made, but rather, a set of alternatives should be dynamically tracked to gain information and knowledge about the effects of different courses of action. In the article, we study a case from the oil and gas industry, the main aim being to gain insights into how adaptive risk management could be implemented when giving due attention to the knowledge and uncertainty aspects of risk. In recent years, several authors have argued for the adoption of some new types of risk perspectives, which highlight uncertainties and knowledge in the way risk is understood and measured — this article uses these perspectives as the basis for the discussion. - Highlights: • Demonstrates a new perspective on adaptive risk management. • The perspective highlights uncertainty and knowledge, not only probability. • Illustrates the perspective on an oil and gas case, which is characterized by deep uncertainties

  14. Enhancing intracellular taxane delivery: current role and perspectives of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Valentina; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Conte, Pierfranco

    2012-02-01

    Docetaxel and paclitaxel are among the most active agents for the treatment of breast cancer. These first-generation taxanes are extremely hydrophobic; therefore, solvents are needed for its parenteral administration. Albumin nanoparticle technology allows for the transportation of such hydrophobic drugs without the need of potentially toxic solvents. Nab-paclitaxel can be administered without premedication, in a shorter infusion time and without the need for a special infusion set. Moreover, this technology allows the selective delivery of larger amounts of anticancer drug to tumors, by exploiting endogenous albumin pathways. An overview of the albumin nanoparticle technology, from a clinical perspective, is reported in this paper. The preclinical and clinical development of nab-paclitaxel is reviewed, in the context of available therapies for advanced breast cancer, with a focus on safety data. Preclinical and clinical data on the prognostic and predictive role of SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) are also reported. Nab-paclitaxel is approved at present for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, after the failure of first-line standard therapy, when anthracyclines are not indicated. Efficacy and safety data, along with a more convenient administration, confirm the potential for nab-paclitaxel to become a reference taxane in breast cancer treatment.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inequity in Cancer Care: A Global Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The strategies of United Nations system organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are based on guiding principles, the attainment of health equality being an important one. Therefore, their strategies focus on the needs of low and middle income countries and of vulnerable and marginalized populations. The IAEA is committed to gender equality. In keeping with the United Nations policies and agreements on both gender equality and gender mainstreaming, the IAEA has the responsibility of integrating gender equality into its programmes, as well as for contributing to worldwide gender equality. In addition, the IAEA strongly emphasizes the attainment of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, of which gender equality is a central tenet. This publication focuses on the issue of inequality (disparity) as it applies to cancer care in general, and access to prevention, screening, palliative and treatment services in particular. The problem of inequality in access to radiation oncology services is addressed in detail. Access to cancer care and radiotherapy services for women and children is specifically considered, reflecting the currently published literature. The report is aimed at radiotherapy professionals, health programme managers and decision makers in the area of cancer control. It was developed to create awareness of the role of socioeconomic inequality in access to cancer care, and to eventually mobilize resources to be equitably allocated to public health programmes in general, and to cancer control and radiotherapy programmes in particular

  17. Specifying the ovarian cancer risk threshold of 'premenopausal risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy' for ovarian cancer prevention: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Legood, Rosa; Antoniou, Antonis C; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Menon, Usha

    2016-09-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is the most effective intervention to prevent ovarian cancer (OC). It is only available to high-risk women with >10% lifetime OC risk. This threshold has not been formally tested for cost-effectiveness. To specify the OC risk thresholds for RRSO being cost-effective for preventing OC in premenopausal women. The costs as well as effects of surgical prevention ('RRSO') were compared over a lifetime with 'no RRSO' using a decision analysis model. RRSO was undertaken in premenopausal women >40 years. The model was evaluated at lifetime OC risk levels: 2%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Costs and outcomes are discounted at 3.5%. Uncertainty in the model was assessed using both deterministic sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). Outcomes included in the analyses were OC, breast cancer (BC) and additional deaths from coronary heart disease. Total costs and effects were estimated in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); incidence of OC and BC; as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Published literature, Nurses Health Study, British National Formulary, Cancer Research UK, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and National Health Service reference costs. The time horizon is lifetime and perspective: payer. Premenopausal RRSO is cost-effective at 4% OC risk (life expectancy gained=42.7 days, ICER=£19 536/QALY) with benefits largely driven by reduction in BC risk. RRSO remains cost-effective at >8.2% OC risk without hormone replacement therapy (ICER=£29 071/QALY, life expectancy gained=21.8 days) or 6%if BC risk reduction=0 (ICER=£27 212/QALY, life expectancy gained=35.3 days). Sensitivity analysis indicated results are not impacted much by costs of surgical prevention or treatment of OC/ BC or cardiovascular disease. However, results were sensitive to RRSO utility scores. Additionally, 37%, 61%, 74%, 84%, 96% and 99.5% simulations on PSA are cost

  18. The value of gynecologic cancer follow-up: evidence-based ignorance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Henrik; Jensen, Mette B; Kilsmark, Jannie

    2010-01-01

    To explore the extent of evidence-based data and cost-utility of follow-up after primary treatment of endometrial and ovarian cancer, addressing perspectives of technology, organization, economics, and patients.......To explore the extent of evidence-based data and cost-utility of follow-up after primary treatment of endometrial and ovarian cancer, addressing perspectives of technology, organization, economics, and patients....

  19. A Sport and Exercise Psychology Perspective on Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces psychological perspectives on stress, noting conceptual models that guide sport and exercise psychology. After presenting key aspects of Lazarus' stress model, the paper reviews major lines of research related to stress within sport and exercise psychology. Lazarus suggests more information can be gained by considering emotion along…

  20. Breast cancer genetic counseling among Dutch patients from Turkish and Moroccan descent: participation determinants and perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, J E; van Dulmen, A M; Velthuizen, M E; van Riel, E; Ausems, M G E M

    2017-04-01

    Lower participation rates in cancer genetic counseling are observed among different ethnic minorities. The goal of our study is to gain insight into determinants of Turkish and Moroccan patients' participation in breast cancer genetic counseling and DNA testing, from the point of view of healthcare professionals and patients. Questionnaire-based telephone interviews about awareness, perceptions, and reasons for (non-) participation in cancer genetic counseling were conducted with 78 Dutch breast cancer patients from Turkish and Moroccan descent. The interviews were held in Arabic, Berber, Turkish, or Dutch by bilingual research assistants. Additionally, 14 breast cancer patients participated in one of two focus group meetings, and two focus groups were held with 11 healthcare professionals. SPSS and QSR Nvivo were used to examine the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Half of the total group of patients (N = 78) and 79% of patients eligible for genetic counseling and testing (N = 33) were aware of the possibility of genetic counseling. The most important determinants for nonparticipation in genetic counseling were experienced difficulties in patient-doctor communication, cultural factors (e.g., social norms), limited health literacy, limited knowledge of the family cancer history, and anxiety about cancer. Religious beliefs and knowing personal and family members' breast cancer risks were motives to obtain genetic counseling. Despite the fact that our study showed that Moroccan and Turkish women reported several personal motives to obtain genetic counseling and testing (GCT), patients and healthcare professionals experience significant language and health literacy difficulties, which make it harder to fully access health care such as genetic counseling and testing.

  1. MOS current gain cells with electronically variable gain and constant bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Seevinck, Evert

    1989-01-01

    Two MOS current gain cells are proposed that provide linear amplification of currents supplied by several linear MOS V-I converters. The gain is electronically variable by a voltage or a current and can be made insensitive to temperature and IC processing. The gain cells have a constant

  2. Toward an occupational rehabilitation policy community for cancer survivors in Singapore: a stakeholder perspective from the SME employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying

    2011-03-01

    Cancer and return to work has been extensively studied in the Western context and yet it has not received much academic attention in Asia. This paper aims to review the current Singapore government rehabilitation initiatives in collaboration with the policy community, identify the socio-environmental barriers to implementing the existing programs for cancer survivors, highlights the demand-side of research development and illustrates the viewpoints of small and medium enterprise employers in Singapore from a recent study. Implications and future directions in developing evidence-based rehabilitation policies and initiatives for cancer survivors in Singapore and the Southeast Asian region are also discussed. A review of occupational rehabilitation literature relevant to Singapore looking at legislation, policies, initiatives and services was performed. Current state-of-art research in occupational rehabilitation from an employer perspective was also synthesized. Challenges and barriers of adopting the current rehabilitation initiatives and programs for cancer survivors exist largely due to the lack of centralized effort, clear definitions and understanding between people with disabilities, chronic illness and cancer as well as an evidence-based policy community. In addition, too much emphasis on new hiring than retaining in current services and there are no specific guidelines to help employers deal with issues when retaining employees with health history, such as workplace accommodation, appraisal, discrimination and grievance handling. Palpable blind spots in the current occupational rehabilitation system and policy were highlighted in this paper. Coupled with systemic improvements, continuous government resource support and developing an evidence-based policy community between the government, employers, healthcare professionals, industry and community partners and non-profit organizations, a positive change of the rehabilitation initiatives and services is

  3. New perspectives for radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma: A review of mechanisms involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis; Mecanismes de carcinogenese des cancers du pancreas: quelles pistes pour la radiosensibilisation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, F. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Tenon, Assistance publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 4, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Centre de recherche, institut Curie, campus universitaire, 91898 Orsay cedex (France); Inserm U612, campus universitaire, 91898 Orsay cedex (France); Fernet, M.; Favaudon, V. [Centre de recherche, institut Curie, campus universitaire, 91898 Orsay cedex (France); Inserm U612, campus universitaire, 91898 Orsay cedex (France); Monnier, L.; Touboul, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Tenon, Assistance publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 4, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-08-15

    Pancreatic carcinoma is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The 5-year overall survival is less than 5 %. This very poor prognosis can be explained both by late diagnosis and by treatment resistance, including resistance to radiation therapy. A better understanding of the pancreatic tumorigenesis and knowledge of the most frequent mutations in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (KRAS, p16, TP53, Smad4) open new perspectives for the development of more effective treatments. This review presents the major genetic and molecular alterations in pancreatic cancer that could be targeted to improve radiosensitization. (authors)

  4. Living with Symptoms: A Qualitative Study of Black Adults with Advanced Cancer Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Katherine A; Quest, Tammie E; Vena, Catherine; Sterk, Claire E

    2018-02-01

    Cancer is associated with disease-related and treatment-related symptoms. Little is known about the symptom experience of black individuals with advanced cancer especially those with limited financial resources. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the symptom experience of black adults with advanced cancer living in poverty. This qualitative descriptive study focused on the perspectives of the participants experiencing at least two symptoms related to cancer. A purposive sample of 27 individuals receiving care at a public hospital in a southeastern city participated in the study. Semi-structured audiotaped interviews were conducted by two research interviewers. Content analysis was used to develop themes to describe the symptom experience. Two main themes emerged in terms of the participants' symptom experiences: (1) "living in pain," which included the overwhelming experience of pain, both physical and emotional, and (2) "symptoms associated with functioning in everyday life." Participants frequently used the context of activities in their daily lives to explain symptoms, including the effect of symptoms on the activities of eating, moving and doing, and communicating. People with advanced cancer work to negotiate a high frequency of multiple distressful symptoms of severe-to-moderate severity. Information gained from this study can help guide research in symptom science and provide direction for clinicians working with this minority group. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-generational perspectives on health, cancer, and biomedicine: Northeastern Native American perspectives shaped by mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Weiner, Diane; Samos, Markos; Wampler, Nina S

    2011-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Native Americans, who have-some of the poorest cancer survival rates of any race/ethnicity nationwide. Considering the cancer burden experienced by Native Americans and the lack of research exploring Northeastern tribal communities' cancer experiences, a qualitative investigation of Native Americans' cancer coping strategies and health education needs was undertaken. Data were collected through group (74) and individual (17) interviews with 91 Native Americans from the Northeast. Relationships between intergenerational mistrust, individual mistrust, and utilization of biomedical health care systems for Northeastern Native Americans are presented. Trust is central to the provider-patient relationship and the foundation for developing and maintaining connections to Native American communities. Intergenerational mistrust, shaped by historical and contemporary issues of prejudice and miscommunication, affect cancer health experiences and views. Approaches for reducing mistrust and building relationships between health care providers and Native communities are highlighted.

  6. [Control of cervical cancer in Colombia: the perspective of the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Murillo Moreno, Raúl Hernando; Piñeros Petersen, Marion; Tovar-Murillo, Sandra Lourdes; Cendales Duarte, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Martha Cielo

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the health system stakeholder's perspective on the basics of the political, economic, and sanitary context, as well as the ways in which control activities are being realized in four of Colombia's health departments. This was a qualitative study of four Colombian health departments chosen for their differing cervical cancer mortality rates and their planned disease control efforts (Boyacá, Caldas, Magdalena, and Tolima). Semistructured interviews were conducted of health care managers, insurance coordinators, and public and private health institutions at the departmental and municipals levels. Focus groups comprised of professionals from health insurance companies and health care services providers were convened. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory with open codes related to the roles of health care managers, insurance companies, and heath care services provided. The technical reports were compared to the testimonies of interviewees. Thirty-eight interviews and 14 focus groups (70.9% response rate) were conducted and 12 technical reports reviewed. Cervical cancer is not perceived to be a public health priority. Interest centers on the flow of financial resources within the health system. Findings indicated unsatisfactory communication among the stakeholders and no consensus on the subject. Planning is limited to meeting the status quo. Staffing is inadequate. Cases with positive outcomes are lost to follow-up due to the fragmentation that results from affiliation with different health care systems. The financial situation, normative planning, and the challenges of decentralization affect the skill-building, at-risk coverage, and the control activities needed for effective screening programs. What is needed is an integrated, more efficiently organized program in which all the health system stakeholders participate.

  7. Needs and preferences of patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels-Wynia, H.

    2010-01-01

    What do patients prefer in cancer care and does gender matter? Introduction: To provide patient-centred care for cancer patients it is important to have insight into the patients' specific preferences for health care. To gain such insight we have developed a questionnaire based on cancer patients’

  8. Molecular Dimensions of Gastric Cancer: Translational and Clinical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus–positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine.

  9. Molecular Dimensions of Gastric Cancer: Translational and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine.

  10. Cancer dormancy and criticality from a game theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Kirilin, Vlamimir; Lin, Ke-Chih; Torga, Gonzalo; Qu, Junle; Liu, Liyu; Sturm, James C; Pienta, Kenneth; Austin, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The physics of cancer dormancy, the time between initial cancer treatment and re-emergence after a protracted period, is a puzzle. Cancer cells interact with host cells via complex, non-linear population dynamics, which can lead to very non-intuitive but perhaps deterministic and understandable progression dynamics of cancer and dormancy. We explore here the dynamics of host-cancer cell populations in the presence of (1) payoffs gradients and (2) perturbations due to cell migration. We determine to what extent the time-dependence of the populations can be quantitively understood in spite of the underlying complexity of the individual agents and model the phenomena of dormancy.

  11. Reimbursement of targeted cancer therapies within 3 different European health care systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, Jovan; Dolk, Christiaan; Tolley, Keith; Simoens, Steven; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Targeted cancer therapies (TCTs) are drugs that specifically act on molecular targets within the cancer cell, causing its regression and/or destruction. Although TCTs offer clinically important gains in survival in one of the most challenging therapeutic areas, these gains are followed by

  12. Genomics, Endoscopy, and Control of Gastroesophageal Cancers: A PerspectiveSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Reid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In The Cancer Genome Atlas the goals were to define how to treat advanced cancers with targeted therapy. However, the challenges facing cancer interception for early detection and prevention include length bias in which current screening and surveillance approaches frequently miss rapidly progressing cancers that then present at advanced stages in the clinic with symptoms (underdiagnosis. In contrast, many early detection strategies detect benign conditions that may never progress to cancer during a lifetime, and the patient dies of unrelated causes (overdiagnosis. This challenge to cancer interception is believed to be due to the speed at which the neoplasm evolves, called length bias sampling; rapidly progressing cancers are missed by current early detection strategies. In contrast, slowly or non-progressing cancers or their precursors are selectively detected. This has led to the concept of cancer interception, which can be defined as active interception of a biological process that drives cancer development before the patient presents in the clinic with an advanced, symptomatic cancer. The solutions needed to advance strategies for cancer interception require assessing the rate at which the cancer evolves over time and space. This is an essential challenge that needs to be addressed by robust study designs including normal and non-progressing controls when known to be appropriate. Keywords: Barrett's Esophagus, Biomarkers, Chromosome Aberrations, Esophageal Neoplasms, Gastroesophageal Reflux, Genomic Instability, Genomics, Stomach

  13. Optical gain and gain suppression of quantum-well lasers with valence band mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.; Chuang, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of valence band mixing on the nonlinear gains of quantum-well lasers are studied theoretically. The authors' analysis is based on the multiband effective-mass theory and the density matrix formalism with intraband relaxation taken into account. The gain and the gain-suppression coefficient of a quantum-well laser are calculated from the complex optical susceptibility obtained by the density matrix formulation with the theoretical dipole moments obtained from the multiband effective-mass theory. The calculated gain spectrum shows that there are remarkable differences (both in peak amplitude and spectral shape) between our model with valence band mixing and the conventional parabolic band model. The shape of the gain spectrum calculated by the authors' model becomes more symmetric due to intraband relaxation together with nonparabolic energy dispersions and is closer to the experimental observations when compared with the conventional method using the parabolic band model and the multiband effective-mass calculation without intraband relaxation. Both give quite asymmetric gain spectra. Optical intensity in the GaAs active region is estimated by solving rate equations for the stationary states with nonlinear gain suppression. The authors calculate the mode gain for the resonant mode including the gain suppression, which results in spectral hole burning of the gain spectrum

  14. Common Cancer Myths and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer will shrink or disappear. However, a high-sugar diet may contribute to excess weight gain, and obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer. For more ... sweeteners (sugar substitutes) saccharin (Sweet 'N Low®, Sweet Twin®, NectaSweet®); ...

  15. NY-ESO-1 Based Immunotherapy of Cancer: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 or New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 is a well-known cancer-testis antigen (CTAs with re-expression in numerous cancer types. Its ability to elicit spontaneous humoral and cellular immune responses, together with its restricted expression pattern, have rendered it a good candidate target for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we provide background information on NY-ESO-1 expression and function in normal and cancerous tissues. Furthermore, NY-ESO-1-specific immune responses have been observed in various cancer types; however, their utility as biomarkers are not well determined. Finally, we describe the immune-based therapeutic options targeting NY-ESO-1 that are currently in clinical trial. We will highlight the recent advancements made in NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccines, adoptive T cell therapy, and combinatorial treatment with checkpoint inhibitors and will discuss the current trends for future NY-ESO-1 based immunotherapy. Cancer treatment has been revolutionized over the last few decades with immunotherapy emerging at the forefront. Immune-based interventions have shown promising results, providing a new treatment avenue for durable clinical responses in various cancer types. The majority of successful immunotherapy studies have been reported in liquid cancers, whereas these approaches have met many challenges in solid cancers. Effective immunotherapy in solid cancers is hampered by the complex, dynamic tumor microenvironment that modulates the extent and phenotype of the antitumor immune response. Furthermore, many solid tumor-associated antigens are not private but can be found in normal somatic tissues, resulting in minor to detrimental off-target toxicities. Therefore, there is an ongoing effort to identify tumor-specific antigens to target using various immune-based modalities. CTAs are considered good candidate targets for immunotherapy as they are characterized by a restricted expression in normal somatic tissues

  16. Core damage frequency perspectives based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L.; LaChance, J.L.; Drouin, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1988, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter 88-20 requesting that all licensees perform an individual Plant Examination (IPE) to identify any plant-specific vulnerability to severe accidents and report the results to the Commission. This paper provides perspectives gained from reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals covering 108 nuclear power plant units. Variability both within and among reactor types is examined to provide perspectives regarding plant-specific design and operational features, and modeling assumptions that play a significant role in the estimates of core damage frequencies in the IPEs

  17. Exploratory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Response-Guided Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miquel-Cases

    Full Text Available Guiding response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (guided-NACT allows for an adaptative treatment approach likely to improve breast cancer survival. In this study, our primary aim is to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of guided-NACT using as a case study the first randomized controlled trial that demonstrated effectiveness (GeparTrio trial.As effectiveness was shown in hormone-receptor positive (HR+ early breast cancers (EBC, our decision model compared the health-economic outcomes of treating a cohort of such women with guided-NACT to conventional-NACT using clinical input data from the GeparTrio trial. The expected cost-effectiveness and the uncertainty around this estimate were estimated via probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, from a Dutch societal perspective over a 5-year time-horizon.Our exploratory CEA predicted that guided-NACT as proposed by the GeparTrio, costs additional €110, but results in 0.014 QALYs gained per patient. This scenario of guided-NACT was considered cost-effective at any willingness to pay per additional QALY. At the prevailing Dutch willingness to pay threshold (€80.000/QALY cost-effectiveness was expected with 78% certainty.This exploratory CEA indicated that guided-NACT (as proposed by the GeparTrio trial is likely cost-effective in treating HR+ EBC women. While prospective validation of the GeparTrio findings is advisable from a clinical perspective, early CEAs can be used to prioritize further research from a broader health economic perspective, by identifying which parameters contribute most to current decision uncertainty. Furthermore, their use can be extended to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of alternative guided-NACT scenarios that combine the use of promising imaging techniques together with personalized treatments.

  18. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Racial and ethnic disparities in the impact of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Romieu, Isabelle; John, Esther M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a global concern, affecting both developed and developing countries. Although there are large variations in obesity and breast cancer rates worldwide and across racial/ethnic groups, most studies evaluating the impact of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival have been conducted in non-Hispanic white women in the United States or Europe. Given the known racial/ethnic differences in tumor hormone receptor subtype distribution, obesity prevalence, and risk factor profiles, we reviewed published data for women of African, Hispanic, and Asian ancestry in the United States and their countries of origin. Although the data are limited, current evidence suggests a stronger adverse effect of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival in women of Asian ancestry. For African Americans and Hispanics, the strength of the associations appears to be more comparable to that of non-Hispanic whites, particularly when accounting for subtype and menopausal status. Central obesity seems to have a stronger impact in African-American women than general adiposity as measured by body mass index. International data from countries undergoing economic transition offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of rapid weight gain on breast cancer. Such studies should take into account genetic ancestry, which may help elucidate differences in associations between ethnically admixed populations. Overall, additional large studies that use a variety of adiposity measures are needed, because the current evidence is based on few studies, most with limited statistical power. Future investigations of obesity biomarkers will be useful to understand possible racial/ethnic biological differences underlying the complex association between obesity and breast cancer development and progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Cancer as a Social Dysfunction - Why Cancer Research Needs New Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienta, Kenneth J; Axelrod, Robert

    2018-05-21

    The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example. Importantly, this endeavor will require infusion of ideas from other fields such as physics, computational medicine, complexity science, agent-based modeling, sociology, and ecology all of which have the capacity to drive new insights into cancer biology and clinical medicine. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. "We Were Sad and We Were Angry": A Systematic Review of Parents' Perspectives on Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Susan; Jasperse, Marieke; Green, Vanessa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The social-ecological systems perspective describes bullying as a complex social phenomenon, influenced by numerous social variables within a child's school, home, peer, and community environments. As such, it is important to gain the perspective of a wide range of stakeholders within these environments, in order to truly…

  2. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-11-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006-September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. CSPs' lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients' limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient-provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people's distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs

  3. Capital Gains on the Alienation of Assets Operated in International Traffic Under Double Taxation Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Arango, José Manuel; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the taxation of capital gains on the alienation of assets, particularly vessels, ships and aircrafts operated in international traffic from the perspective of double taxation conventions. Therefore, Article 13 of the OECD Model convention is analyzed from its respective commentaries, the history of the Model and the proposed changes. The research also cover the comparison with the United States Model Convention and the treaty practice. Finally, as an auxiliary source, th...

  4. From struggles to resource gains in interprofessional service networks: Key findings from a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Kira, Mari

    2017-07-01

    In interprofessional service networks, employees cross professional boundaries to collaborate with colleagues and clients with expertise and values different from their own. It can be a struggle to adopt shared work practices and deal with "multivoicedness." At the same time, networks allow members to engage in meaningful service provision, gain a broader understanding of the service provided, and obtain social support. Intertwined network struggles and resource gains have received limited attention in the interprofessional care literature to date. The aim of the study was to investigate the learning potential of the co-existing struggles and resource gains. This article reports findings from two interprofessional networks. Interviews were conducted with 19 employees and thematically analysed. Three types of struggles and six types of resource gains of networking were identified. The struggles relate, first, to the assumptions of networking following similar practices to those in a home organisation; second, to the challenges of dealing with the multivoicedness of networking; and, third, to the experienced gap between the networking ideals and the reality of cooperation. At the same time, the network members experience gains in emotional resources (e.g., stronger sense of meaningfulness at work), cognitive resources (e.g., understanding the customer needs from alternative perspectives), and social resources (e.g., being able to rely on other professionals' competence). Learning potential emerged from the dynamics between coexisting struggles and resource gains.

  5. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health economics of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) for early breast cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anil; Vaidya, Param; Both, Brigitte; Brew-Graves, Chris; Bulsara, Max; Vaidya, Jayant S

    2017-08-17

    The clinical effectiveness of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) has been confirmed in the randomised TARGIT-A (targeted intraoperative radiotherapy-alone) trial to be similar to a several weeks' course of whole-breast external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with early breast cancer. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of TARGIT-IORT to inform policy decisions about its wider implementation. TARGIT-A randomised clinical trial (ISRCTN34086741) which compared TARGIT with traditional EBRT and found similar breast cancer control, particularly when TARGIT was given simultaneously with lumpectomy. Cost-utility analysis using decision analytic modelling by a Markov model. A cost-effectiveness Markov model was developed using TreeAge Pro V.2015. The decision analytic model compared two strategies of radiotherapy for breast cancer in a hypothetical cohort of patients with early breast cancer based on the published health state transition probability data from the TARGIT-A trial. Analysis was performed for UK setting and National Health Service (NHS) healthcare payer's perspective using NHS cost data and treatment outcomes were simulated for both strategies for a time horizon of 10 years. Model health state utilities were drawn from the published literature. Future costs and effects were discounted at the rate of 3.5%. To address uncertainty, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). In the base case analysis, TARGIT-IORT was a highly cost-effective strategy yielding health gain at a lower cost than its comparator EBRT. Discounted TARGIT-IORT and EBRT costs for the time horizon of 10 years were £12 455 and £13 280, respectively. TARGIT-IORT gained 0.18 incremental QALY as the discounted QALYs gained by TARGIT-IORT were 8.15 and by EBRT were 7.97 showing TARGIT-IORT as a dominant strategy over EBRT. Model outputs were robust to one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses

  7. Cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Riviere, Deniece; van Laarhoven, C J H; Besselink, Marc; Abu-Hilal, Mohammed; Davidson, Brian R; Morris, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review compared laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy for people with for cancers of the body and tail of the pancreas and found that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy may reduce the length of hospital stay. We compared the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy versus open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. Model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service. A decision tree model was constructed using probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources. A time horizon of 5 years was used. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the incremental net monetary benefit was positive (£3,708.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -£9,473.62 to £16,115.69) but the 95% CI includes zero, indicating that there is significant uncertainty about the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy versus open distal pancreatectomy. The probability laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was cost-effective compared to open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer was between 70% and 80% at the willingness-to-pay thresholds generally used in England (£20,000 to £30,000 per QALY gained). Results were sensitive to the survival proportions and the operating time. There is considerable uncertainty about whether laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is cost-effective compared to open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer in the NHS setting.

  8. Biomarkers in cancer screening: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhir; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi

    2002-08-01

    The last three decades have witnessed a rapid advancement and diffusion of technology in health services. Technological innovations have given health service providers the means to diagnose and treat an increasing number of illnesses, including cancer. In this effort, research on biomarkers for cancer detection and risk assessment has taken a center stage in our effort to reduce cancer deaths. For the first time, scientists have the technologies to decipher and understand these biomarkers and to apply them to earlier cancer detection. By identifying people at high risk of developing cancer, it would be possible to develop intervention efforts on prevention rather than treatment. Once fully developed and validated, then the regular clinical use of biomarkers in early detection and risk assessment will meet nationally recognized health care needs: detection of cancer at its earliest stage. The dramatic rise in health care costs in the past three decades is partly related to the proliferation of new technologies. More recent analysis indicates that technological change, such as new procedures, products and capabilities, is the primary explanation of the historical increase in expenditure. Biomarkers are the new entrants in this competing environment. Biomarkers are considered as a competing, halfway or add-on technology. Technology such as laboratory tests of biomarkers will cost less compared with computed tomography (CT) scans and other radiographs. However, biomarkers for earlier detection and risk assessment have not achieved the level of confidence required for clinical applications. This paper discusses some issues related to biomarker development, validation and quality assurance. Some data on the trends of diagnostic technologies, proteomics and genomics are presented and discussed in terms of the market share. Eventually, the use of biomarkers in health care could reduce cost by providing noninvasive, sensitive and reliable assays at a fraction of the cost of

  9. Piper betel leaf: a reservoir of potential xenohormetic nutraceuticals with cancer-fighting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-05-01

    Plants contain a much greater diversity of bioactive compounds than any man-made chemical library. Heart-shaped Piper betel leaves are magnificent reservoirs of phenolic compounds with antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. Widely consumed in South Asian countries, the glossy leaf contains a multitude of biophenolics such as hydroxychavicol, eugenol, chavibetol, and piperols. Convincing data underscore the remarkable chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive potential of betel leaves against a variety of cancer types. The leaf constituents modulate an extensive array of signaling molecules such as transcription factors as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to control multiple nodes of various cellular proliferation and death pathways. Herein, we provide an overall perspective on the cancer-fighting benefits of the phenolic phytochemicals in betel leaves and a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms responsive to dose-driven ROS-mediated signaling cascades conscripted by bioactive phenolics to confer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive advantages. Intriguingly, these ROS-triggered responses are contextual and may either elicit a protective xenohormetic antioxidant response to premalignant cells to constitute a chemopreventive effect or generate a curative chemotherapeutic response by pro-oxidatively augmenting the constitutively elevated ROS levels in cancer cells to tip the balance in favor of selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells while sparing normal ones. In conclusion, this review provides an update on how distinct ROS levels exist in normal versus cancer cells and how these levels can be strategically modulated and exploited for therapeutic gains. We emphasize the yet untapped potential of the evergreen vine, betel leaf, for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic management of cancer.

  10. Perspectives of newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients receiving dignity therapy during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Ann Marie; Rhudy, Lori M

    2018-01-01

    Dignity therapy is a psychosocial intervention that has been used primarily at the end of life to improve quality of life and other patient outcomes, but many individuals are unable to complete it due to health decline and death. The purpose of this study was to identify what individuals with advanced pancreatic or lung cancer with limited life expectancy, undergoing active cancer treatment describe during the dignity therapy intervention as important to them when not immediately facing end of life. Twenty patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced cancer participated in a dignity therapy intervention study. Initial interviews were analyzed using descriptive content analysis. Family provided the overall context and background for emerging themes of defining events, accomplishments, and God's plan, which led to lessons learned, and resulted in messages of hope. Interviews were often autobiographical in nature and contained much reminiscence, consistent with dignity therapy's intent. Few participants spoke about their cancer diagnoses during the interview. This study adds unique insight into the use of dignity therapy for those still receiving active cancer treatment, different from work by others in which it was offered only at end of life. As part of supportive care, clinicians need to validate the importance of family to those with advanced cancer and to provide opportunities for patients to share what they have learned throughout life and to impart messages of hope to those closest to them.

  11. Reclaiming life on one's own terms: a grounded theory study of the process of breast cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Deborah Witt; Rosedale, Mary; Haber, Judith

    2012-05-01

    To develop a substantive theory of the process of breast cancer survivorship. Grounded theory. A LISTSERV announcement posted on the SHARE Web site and purposeful recruitment of women known to be diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. 15 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Constant comparative analysis. Breast cancer survivorship. The core variable identified was Reclaiming Life on One's Own Terms. The perceptions and experiences of the participants revealed overall that the diagnosis of breast cancer was a turning point in life and the stimulus for change. That was followed by the recognition of breast cancer as now being a part of life, leading to the necessity of learning to live with breast cancer, and finally, creating a new life after breast cancer. Participants revealed that breast cancer survivorship is a process marked and shaped by time, the perception of support, and coming to terms with the trauma of a cancer diagnosis and the aftermath of treatment. The process of survivorship continues by assuming an active role in self-healing, gaining a new perspective and reconciling paradoxes, creating a new mindset and moving to a new normal, developing a new way of being in the world on one's own terms, and experiencing growth through adversity beyond survivorship. The process of survivorship for women with breast cancer is an evolutionary journey with short- and long-term challenges. This study shows the development of an empirically testable theory of survivorship that describes and predicts women's experiences following breast cancer treatment from the initial phase of recovery and beyond. The theory also informs interventions that not only reduce negative outcomes, but promote ongoing healing, adjustment, and resilience over time.

  12. Evaluation of quality of life in women with breast cancer, with particular emphasis on sexual satisfaction, future perspectives and body image, depending on the method of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik, Agnieszka J; Jabłoński, Marcin Jacek; Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Jach, Robert

    2017-10-29

    Both because of the large number of women undergoing surgery and a high cure rates, psychological rehabilitation of the consequences of breast cancer and side effects of their treatment is a major challenge of modern psychooncology. Aim. The study analyzed the quality of life in women with breast cancer, with particular emphasis on indicators of sexual satisfaction, future perspectives and body image, depending on the method of surgery. The study included 42 women aged 35-70 years, 3 months after surgery due to early breast cancer, treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. The following research tools were used in the study: two EORTC questionnaires: QLQ-C30, BR23, and sexual function questionnaire: PL-FSFI. There was no significant difference in the overall quality of life, depending on the type of surgery. The greatest local complaints were reported by patients after breast conserving surgery (BCT) with axillary lymphadenectomy. A higher level of cognitive functioning but a greater severity of systemic side effects was found in women undergoing mastectomy compared to BCT-patients. Women who underwent surgery of the right breast reported increased problems in sexual functioning (p = 0.034). Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation of the emotional functioning variable with the assessment of future perspectives (p = 0.01) and body image (p = 0.007). The type of surgical technique does not affect the overall quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Problems with memory and attention do not correlate directly with the side effects, and as such require an independent diagnostics. Women undergoing treatment of the dominant-side breast should be the candidates for sexology consultation. There is a risk of disturbances in the body image and in the assessment of future perspectives in patients with emotional disorders observed within 3 months after surgery.

  13. Cancers related to Immunodeficiencies:Update and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life span of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency is increasing due to recent improvements in therapeutic strategies. Whilst, the incidence of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs is 1:10.000 births, that of secondary immunodeficiencies is more common and are associated with post transplantation immune dysfunction or with immunosuppressive medication for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection.After infection, malignancy is the most prevalent cause of death in both children and adults with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs. PIDs more often associated with cancer include common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. This suggests that a protective immune response against both infectious non-self (pathogens and malignant self-challenges (cancer exist. The increased incidence of cancer has been attributed to defective elimination of altered or transformed cells and/or defective immunity towards cancer cells. The concept of abberant immune surveillance occurring in PIDs is supported by evidence in mice and from patients undergoing immunosuppression after transplantation. Here, we discuss the importance of PID defects in the development of malignancies, the current limitations associated with molecular pathogenesis of these diseases and emphasize the need for further knowledge of how specific mutations can modulate the immune system to alter immunosurveillance and thereby play a key role in the etiology of malignancies in PID patients.

  14. Core damage frequency (reactor design) perspectives based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.; Dingman, S.E.; Forester, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides perspectives gained from reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals covering 108 nuclear power plant units. Variability both within and among reactor types is examined to provide perspectives regarding plant-specific design and operational features, and C, modeling assumptions that play a significant role in the estimates of core damage frequencies in the IPEs. Human actions found to be important in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are presented and the events most frequently found important are discussed

  15. Barriers to cancer screening among Orthodox Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Hudson, Janella; Katz, Anne; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Vichich, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-12-01

    The increased risk of genetic cancer mutations for Ashkenazi Jews is well known. However, little is known about the cancer-related health behaviors of a subset of Ashkenazi Jews, Orthodox Jews, who are a very religious and insular group. This study partnered with Rabbinical leadership and community members in an Orthodox Jewish community to investigate barriers to cancer screening in this community. Orthodox Jewish women were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to elicit their perspectives on barriers to cancer screening. A total of five focus groups were conducted, consisting of 3-5 members per group, stratified by age and family history of cancer. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using conventional content analysis. The resulting themes identified as barriers to cancer screening were: preservation of hidden miracles, fate, cost, competing priorities, lack of culturally relevant programming, lack of information, and fear. These results provide a unique perspective on barriers to cancer screening in a high risk but understudied population. Findings from this study may serve to inform culturally appropriate cancer education programs to overcome barriers to screening in this and other similar communities.

  16. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; Lieshout, van R.; Barneveld, van D.; Hofstede, ter J.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective study among 739

  17. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; van Lieshout, R.; van Barneveld, D.; Hofstede, J.M.; Kuiper, J.; Vreugdenhil, A.; van Warmerdam, L.J.C.; Schep, G.; Blaisse, R.J.B.; van Voorthuizen, T.; van Halteren, H.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods: In a retrospective study among 739

  18. Palliative chemotherapy: The perspectives and experiences of south african nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Elizabeth Maree

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the perspectives and experiences of South African nurses caring for patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used and purposive sampling allowed us to select 11 nurses practising in a private ambulatory cancer care center in Port Elizabeth. In-depth interviews, guided by three broad themes were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analyses. Data saturation determined the sample size. Results: Two themes emerged from the data – the patients cling to hope and the positive influence of palliative chemotherapy. The participants believed that patients consenting to palliative chemotherapy were clinging to false hope. They were also of the opinion that family members pressurize patients to consent to treatment. The participants experienced palliative chemotherapy positively, especially when an improvement in the patients' quality of life or pain relief was evident. Fatigue was highlighted as the major side effect, but it did not temper the participants' positive attitudes toward the treatment. Conclusions: Although the participants believed that patients cling to hope and consent to palliative chemotherapy because they hope to be cured, they experienced the treatment as positive. For them, the improvement in pain and quality of life outweighed the side effects the patients experienced. The positive attitude patients upheld while receiving this treatment encouraged them. Nurses should gain more knowledge about the meaning, people living with advanced cancer, attach to hope to prevent them from interpreting patients' hope as denial and false.

  19. The economic value of innovative treatments over the product life cycle: the case of targeted trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Veenstra, David L

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses typically project the expected cost-effectiveness of a new product for a specific indication. This analysis develops a dynamic life-cycle model to conduct a multi-indication evaluation using the case of trastuzumab licensed in the United States for both early-stage and metastatic (or late-stage) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer therapy (early breast cancer [EBC]; metastatic breast cancer [MBC]), approved in 2006 and 1998, respectively. This dynamic model combined information on expected incremental cost-utility ratios for specific indications with an epidemiologically based projection of utilization by indication over the product life cycle-from 1998 to 2016. Net economic value was estimated as the cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained over the life cycle multiplied by a societal valuation of health gains ($/QALY) minus cumulative net direct treatment costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed under a range of assumptions. We projected that the annual number of EBC patients receiving trastuzumab will be more than three times that of MBC by 2016, in part because adjuvant treatment reduces the future incidence of MBC. Over this life cycle, the estimated overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $35,590/QALY with a total of 432,547 discounted QALYs gained. Under sensitivity analyses, the overall ICER varied from $21,000 to $53,000/QALY, and the projected net economic value resulting from trastuzumab treatment ranged from $6.2 billion to $49.5 billion. Average ICERs for multi-indication compounds can increase or decrease over the product life cycle. In this example, the projected overall life-cycle ICER for trastuzumab was less than one half of that in the initial indication. This dynamic perspective-versus the usual static one-highlights the interdependence of drug development decisions and investment incentives, raising important reimbursement policy issues.

  20. Psychological factors impacting transition from paediatric to adult care by childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Nathan, Paul C; Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; D'Agostino, Norma; Amin, Leila; Barr, Ronald D; Greenberg, Mark L; Hodgson, David; Boydell, Katherine; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood cancer survivors require life-long care focused on the specific late effects that may arise from their cancer and its treatment. In many centers, survivors are required to transition from follow-up care in a paediatric cancer center, to care provided in an adult care setting. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological factors involved in this transition to adult care long-term follow-up clinics. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten paediatric survivors still in paediatric care, as well as 28 adult survivors of whom 11 had transitioned successfully to adult care (attended three long-term follow-up (LTFU) appointments consecutively); ten who failed to transition (attended at least one LTFU appointment as an adult, but were inconsistent with subsequent attendance); and seven who had never transitioned (did not attend any LTFU care as an adult). Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and themes. Constant comparison was used to examine relationships within and across codes and categories. Two overall categories and four subthemes were identified: (1) Identification with being a cancer survivor included the subthemes of 'cancer identity' and 'cancer a thing of the past' and; (2) Emotional components included the subthemes of 'fear and anxiety' and 'gratitude and gaining perspective'. The analysis revealed that the same factor could act as either a motivator or a hindrance to successful transition in different survivors (e.g., fear of recurrence of cancer might be a barrier or a facilitator depending on the survivor's life experience). Psychological factors are an important consideration when preparing cancer survivors for transition to adult long-term follow-up care. Identifying and addressing the individual psychological needs of childhood cancer survivors may improve the likelihood of their successful transition to adult care.

  1. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  2. Long noncoding RNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Böttcher, René; Croce, Carlo M; Jenster, Guido; Visakorpi, Tapio; Calin, George A

    2014-06-01

    Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better

  3. Power and Ideology in American Sport. A Critical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H.

    This book offers a critical perspective in examining how the dominant power interests influence sport and its role in society. It provides insights into how government, big business, the mass media, and educational institutions gain and maintain power and wealth while sport participants and spectators look to sport for enjoyment, creative…

  4. A dynamic usage based perspective on L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, M.H.; Schmid, M.S.; Xu, X.

    The goal of this study was to explore the contribution that a dynamic usage based (DUB) perspective can bring to the establishment of objective measures to assess L2 learners' written texts and at the same time to gain insight into the dynamic process of language development. Four hundred and thirty

  5. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4 were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6 that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1. First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  6. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  7. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  8. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The St.Petersburg school of oncogynecology, certain results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhman, Ya.V.; Bishnevskij, A.S.; Maksimov, S.Ya.

    1997-01-01

    Basic results on studies, accomplished at the St.Petersburg school of oncogynecology, relative to the most frequent cases of Timor process localization (uterus cervix cancer, endometritis cancer, ovary cancer). It is shown that results of improved gynecological cancer treatment and decrease in mortality cases may be achieved not because of improving the surgical and radiation methods, the possibilities whereof are to a certain degree exhausted, but due to introduction of screening programs, enabling identification of early preclinical forms of cancer. Computerized and magnetoresonance tomography, USI and mammography are among the most efficient diagnostical methods. The perspectives of chemiohormone therapy and immunotherapy are also noted

  10. Dismantling the present and future threats of testicular cancer: a grounded theory of positive and negative adjustment trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Lauren; Boulton, Mary; Lavender, Verna; Protheroe, Andrew; Brand, Sue; Wanat, Marta; Watson, Eila

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer commonly affects men in the prime of their lives. While survival rates are excellent, little previous research has examined men's experiences of adjustment to survivorship. We aimed to explore this issue in younger testicular cancer survivors. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with testicular cancer survivors over two time points approximately 6 months apart in the year following treatment completion. Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The sample included 18 testicular cancer survivors between 22 and 44 years (mean age 34). A grounded theory was developed, which explained the process of positive adjustment over the first year following the treatment completion in terms of men's ability to dismantle the present and future threats of cancer, involving the key transitions of gaining a sense of perspective and striving to get on with life and restore normality. These were facilitated by six key processes. The processes that explained a negative adjustment trajectory are also presented. These findings contribute to the understanding of the psychosocial impact of testicular cancer on younger men's lives and have implications for the provision of support to testicular cancer survivors. Further investigation into the feasibility of one-on-one peer support interventions is warranted, as well as informal support that respects men's desire for independence. Understanding the processes involved in adjustment highlights ways in which health professionals can offer support to those struggling to adjust through challenging illness beliefs, encouraging emotional disclosure and facilitating peer mentoring.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of different strategies to prevent breast and ovarian cancer in German women with a BRCA 1 or 2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dirk; Danner, Marion; Rhiem, Kerstin; Stollenwerk, Björn; Engel, Christoph; Rasche, Linda; Borsi, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Stock, Stephanie

    2018-04-01

    Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are at increased risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer. This economic modeling study evaluated different preventive interventions for 30-year-old women with a confirmed BRCA (1 or 2) mutation. A Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and benefits [i.e., quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and life years gained (LYG)] associated with prophylactic bilateral mastectomy (BM), prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), BM plus BSO, BM plus BSO at age 40, and intensified surveillance. Relevant input data was obtained from a large German database including 5902 women with BRCA 1 or 2, and from the literature. The analysis was performed from the German Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) perspective. In order to assess the robustness of the results, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. With costs of €29,434 and a gain in QALYs of 17.7 (LYG 19.9), BM plus BSO at age 30 was less expensive and more effective than the other strategies, followed by BM plus BSO at age 40. Women who were offered the surveillance strategy had the highest costs at the lowest gain in QALYs/LYS. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability of cost-saving was 57% for BM plus BSO. At a WTP of 10,000 € per QALY, the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 80%. From the SHI perspective, undergoing BM plus immediate BSO should be recommended to BRCA 1 or 2 mutation carriers due to its favorable comparative cost-effectiveness.

  12. Detective quantum efficiency gains compared with speed gains for hypersensitized astronomical plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    It is reasonable to assume that gains in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are far better criteria for assessing the performance of hypersensitizing techniques than gains in speed. It is shown here that gains in speed can be misleading, for some methods of hypersensitization give plates of increased speed but reduced detective quantum efficiency. (author)

  13. The Hallmarks of Cancer from a Redox Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, Marten; Dansen, Tobias B

    2016-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE: For a healthy cell to turn into a cancer cell and grow out to become a tumor, it needs to undergo a series of complex changes and acquire certain traits, summarized as "The Hallmarks of Cancer." These hallmarks can all be regarded as the result of altered signal transduction cascades

  14. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  15. Trastuzumab in early stage breast cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis for Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyt, Mattias; Huybrechts, Michel; Hulstaert, Frank; Vrijens, France; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    Although trastuzumab is traditionally used in metastatic breast cancer treatment, studies reported on the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab in adjuvant setting for the treatment of early stage breast cancer in HER2+ tumors. We estimated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of reimbursing trastuzumab in this indication from a payer's perspective. We constructed a health economic model. Long-term consequences of preventing patients to progress to metastatic breast cancer and side effects such as congestive heart failure were taken into account. Uncertainty was handled applying probabilistic modeling and through probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In the HERA scenario, applying an arbitrary threshold of euro30000 per life-year gained, early stage breast cancer treatment with trastuzumab is cost-effective for 9 out of 15 analyzed subgroups (according to age and stage). In contrast, treatment according to the FinHer scenario is cost-effective in 14 subgroups. Furthermore, the FinHer regimen is most of the times cost saving with an average incremental cost of euro668, euro-1045, and euro-6869 for respectively stages I, II and III breast cancer patients whereas the HERA regimen is never cost saving due to the higher initial treatment costs. The model shows better cost-effectiveness for the 9-week initial treatment (FinHer) compared to no trastuzumab treatment than for the 1-year post-chemotherapy treatment (HERA). Both from a medical and an economic point of view, the 9-week initial treatment regimen with trastuzumab shows promising results and justifies the initiation of a large comparative trial with a 1-year regimen.

  16. Metabolomics in cancer biomarker discovery: current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Emily G; Barbas, Coral

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most devastating human diseases that causes a vast number of mortalities worldwide each year. Cancer research is one of the largest fields in the life sciences and despite many astounding breakthroughs and contributions over the past few decades, there is still a considerable amount to unveil on the function of cancer. It is well known that cancer metabolism differs from that of normal tissue and an important hypothesis published in the 1950s by Otto Warburg proposed that cancer cells rely on anaerobic metabolism as the source for energy, even under physiological oxygen levels. Following this, cancer central carbon metabolism has been researched extensively and beyond respiration, cancer has been found to involve a wide range of metabolic processes, and many more are still to be unveiled. Studying cancer through metabolomics could reveal new biomarkers for cancer that could be useful for its future prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in the life sciences since it is a relatively fast and accurate technique that can be applied with either a particular focus or in a global manner to reveal new knowledge about biological systems. There have been many examples of its application to reveal potential biomarkers in different cancers that have employed a range of different analytical platforms. In this review, approaches in metabolomics that have been employed in cancer biomarker discovery are discussed and some of the most noteworthy research in the field is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanotechnology Strategies To Advance Outcomes in Clinical Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, Christopher M; Bradbury, Michelle S; Lanza, Gregory M; Nel, Andre E; Rao, Jianghong; Wang, Andrew Z; Wiesner, Ulrich B; Yang, Lily; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2018-01-23

    Ongoing research into the application of nanotechnology for cancer treatment and diagnosis has demonstrated its advantages within contemporary oncology as well as its intrinsic limitations. The National Cancer Institute publishes the Cancer Nanotechnology Plan every 5 years since 2005. The most recent iteration helped codify the ongoing basic and translational efforts of the field and displayed its breadth with several evolving areas. From merely a technological perspective, this field has seen tremendous growth and success. However, an incomplete understanding of human cancer biology persists relative to the application of nanoscale materials within contemporary oncology. As such, this review presents several evolving areas in cancer nanotechnology in order to identify key clinical and biological challenges that need to be addressed to improve patient outcomes. From this clinical perspective, a sampling of the nano-enabled solutions attempting to overcome barriers faced by traditional therapeutics and diagnostics in the clinical setting are discussed. Finally, a strategic outlook of the future is discussed to highlight the need for next-generation cancer nanotechnology tools designed to address critical gaps in clinical cancer care.

  18. How Can We Treat Cancer Disease Not Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Woo-Young; Seo, Ji Hae; Lee, Ho-Young

    2017-01-01

    Since molecular biology studies began, researches in biological science have centered on proteins and genes at molecular level of a single cell. Cancer research has also focused on various functions of proteins and genes that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Accordingly, most contemporary anticancer drugs have been developed to target abnormal characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the great advances in the development of anticancer drugs, vast majority of patients with advanced cancer have shown grim prognosis and high rate of relapse. To resolve this problem, we must reevaluate our focuses in current cancer research. Cancer should be considered as a systemic disease because cancer cells undergo a complex interaction with various surrounding cells in cancer tissue and spread to whole body through metastasis under the control of the systemic modulation. Human body relies on the cooperative interaction between various tissues and organs, and each organ performs its specialized function through tissue-specific cell networks. Therefore, investigation of the tumor-specific cell networks can provide novel strategy to overcome the limitation of current cancer research. This review presents the limitations of the current cancer research, emphasizing the necessity of studying tissue-specific cell network which could be a new perspective on treating cancer disease, not cancer cells.

  19. Gaining perspective on own illness - the lived experiences of a patient education programme for women with treated coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring Jacobsson, Lisa; Milberg, Anna; Hjelm, Katarina; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2016-05-01

    To explore the lived experiences of women with coeliac disease after attending a patient education programme, to gain a broader perspective of its influence. Adults, particularly women, with coeliac disease report suffering from poor well-being and reduced quality of life in terms of health. Patient education programmes might support and encourage them in the search for possible improvements in lifestyle and in their approach to the disease. A qualitative phenomenological study. Personal narrative interviews with 14 women suffering from coeliac disease who had participated in an educational programme. Data analysis in accordance with Giorgi was performed. The essential structure of women's lived experiences following their participation in the patient education programme was found to be an interaction with others with the same disease, which left the women feeling individually strengthened. The interaction enabled the participants to acquire a broader view of their life with coeliac disease. As a result, this realigned their sense of self in relation to their own disease. In coping with coeliac disease, it seems that women need interaction with others with the disease to experience togetherness within a group, get the opportunity to compare themselves with others and to exchange knowledge. The interaction appears to result in that women acquire an overview of life with the disease, develop a greater confidence and dare to try new things in life. When designing a patient education programme it seems important to consider the needs of persons to meet others with the same disease, and to ask them about their need for knowledge, rather than simply assuming that health care professionals know what they need. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hallmarks of glycosylation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkley, Jennifer; Elliott, David J

    2016-06-07

    Aberrant glycosylation plays a fundamental role in key pathological steps of tumour development and progression. Glycans have roles in cancer cell signalling, tumour cell dissociation and invasion, cell-matrix interactions, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune modulation. Aberrant glycosylation is often cited as a 'hallmark of cancer' but is notably absent from both the original hallmarks of cancer and from the next generation of emerging hallmarks. This review discusses how glycosylation is clearly an enabling characteristic that is causally associated with the acquisition of all the hallmark capabilities. Rather than aberrant glycosylation being itself a hallmark of cancer, another perspective is that glycans play a role in every recognised cancer hallmark.

  1. Improving access to supportive cancer care through an eHealth application: a qualitative needs assessment among cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubberding, S.; van Uden-Kraan, C.F.; te Velde, E.A.; Cuijpers, P.; Leemans, C.R.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To gain insight into cancer survivors' needs towards an eHealth application monitoring quality of life and targeting personalised access to supportive care. Background: Supportive care in cancer addresses survivors' concerns and needs. However, many survivors are not taking

  2. Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancers from African American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available African American (AA men have a higher incidence and significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than white men, but the biological basis for these differences are poorly understood. Few studies have been carried out to determine whether there are areas of allelic loss or gain in prostate cancers from AA men that are over-represented in or specific to this group. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer in AA men, we have analyzed 20 prostate cancers from AA men with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to detect genomic copy number alterations. We identified 17 regions showing significant loss and 4 regions with significant gains. Most of these regions had been linked to prostate cancer by previous studies of copy number alterations of predominantly white patients. We identified a novel region of loss at 4p16.3, which has been shown to be lost in breast, colon, and bladder cancers. Comparison of our primary tumors with tumors from white patients from a previously published cohort with similar pathological characteristics showed higher frequency of loss of at numerous loci including 6q13-22, 8p21, 13q13-14, and 16q11-24 and gains of 7p21 and 8q24, all of which had higher frequencies in metastatic lesions in this previously published cohort. Thus, the clinically localized cancers from AA men more closely resembled metastatic cancers from white men. This difference may in part explain the more aggressive clinical behavior of prostate cancer in AA men.

  3. Adding Perspective: Predicting Adolescent Sunscreen Use with an Extended Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Schüz, Benjamin; Eid, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Diseases such as skin cancer often have a very long latency period. For adolescents, especially, it may be difficult to grasp that current risk behavior is related to future health outcomes. This study examines the role of health-related time perspective (i.e. the degree to which short-term outcomes are discounted over long-time health benefits) within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). More specifically, based on expectancy*value theory, we tested whether time perspective interacts with self-efficacy, the central variable in this approach. A longitudinal study with three measurement points across one year assessed 156 high school students. Data were analyzed using structural equation models. While time perspective had no direct association with sunscreen use intentions, there was an interaction effect with self-efficacy; the shorter the time perspective, the smaller the association of self-efficacy with intention. Intention in turn predicted planning and sunscreen use at Time 3 (one year later). In order to maximise the impact of early onset measures for skin cancer prevention targeting the motivation for sunscreen use in adolescents, time perspective should be addressed in comprehensive sun protection interventions. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Original Research Risk factors for common cancers among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Age, smoking, and HIV are important risk factors for the 3 commonest cancer types (oesophageal, KS, and cervical) at this teaching .... cancer (95%) patients had no history of smoking or alcohol ..... Africa: a current perspective.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mayor, Paul C; Etter, John L; Cannioto, Rikki A; Ness, Roberta B; Starbuck, Kristen; Edwards, Robert P; Segal, Brahm H; Lele, Sashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Diergaarde, Brenda; Modugno, Francesmary

    2018-02-01

    Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and stage were used to examine the association between the exposure variables and overall and progression-free survival among ovarian cancer cases. We observed an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality and progression for gaining more than 20 pounds between ages 18-30, HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.05-1.76, and HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.66, respectively. Losing weight and gaining it back multiple times was inversely associated with both ovarian cancer risk, OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63-0.97 for 1-4 times and OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99 for 5-9 times, and mortality, HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99 for 10-14 times. Finally, being taller during adolescence and adulthood was associated with increased risk of mortality. Taller stature and weight gain over lifetime were not related to ovarian cancer risk. Our results suggest that height and weight and their change over time may influence ovarian cancer risk and survival. These findings suggest that biological mechanisms underlying these associations may be hormone driven and may play an important role in relation to ovarian carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

  6. New perspectives on targeted therapy in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coward JIG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jermaine IG Coward,1–3 Kathryn Middleton,1 Felicity Murphy1 1Mater Health Services, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Inflammtion and Cancer Therapeutics Group, Mater Research, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5 year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Although changes to the scheduling and administration of chemotherapy have improved outcomes to a degree, a therapeutic ceiling is being reached with this approach, resulting in a number of trials investigating the efficacy of targeted therapies alongside standard treatment algorithms. Furthermore, there is an urge to develop subtype-specific studies in an attempt to improve outcomes, which currently remain poor. This review summarizes the key studies with antiangiogenic agents, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor family targeting, in addition to folate receptor antagonists and insulin growth factor receptor inhibitors. The efficacy of treatment paradigms used in non-ovarian malignancies for type I tumors is also highlighted, in addition to recent advances in appropriate patient stratification for targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer. Keywords: antiangiogenic therapy, high-grade serous, low grade ovarian cancer, PARP inhibition, cancer-related inflammation

  7. Role of tolvaptan in the management of hyponatremia in patients with lung and other cancers: current data and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thajudeen, Bijin; Salahudeen, Abdulla K

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequently observed electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice, and its frequency is almost double in hospitalized cancer patients. As a subset of cancer, hyponatremia is quite common in lung cancer patients, and it is often coupled with the diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. The presence of hyponatremia is consequential in that its presence adversely affects cancer patients’ prognosis and outcomes. Limited data suggest that correcting hyponatremia in lung cancer patients can increase response to anticancer treatment, may help reduce length of hospital stay and cost, and reduce morbidity and mortality. The type of treatment for hyponatremia depends on several factors; the key factors are the duration and severity of neurological symptoms of hyponatremia and the status of extracellular volume. When hyponatremia is caused by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, hypertonic saline is indicated for acute symptomatic cases, whereas fluid restriction is recommended in chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia. The latter allows a slower rate of correction, thus avoiding the dreaded complication of osmotic demyelination syndrome. Fluid restriction is, however, insufficient or impractical, and often the use of pharmacological therapy such as antidiuretic hormone receptor antagonists becomes necessary. Availability of these antagonists as an effective treatment in the management of hyponatremia has been a major breakthrough, and furthermore, its clinical or investigational use in cancer-related hyponatremia may offer a potential opportunity to gain further insights into the prognostic impact of hyponatremia correction on cancer patients’ outcomes. Tolvaptan is a prototype of ADH receptor antagonists that acts at renal tubular levels to increase free water excretion without inducing major systemic electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia or alkalosis. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief review

  8. Perspectives of Nanotechnology in Minimally Invasive Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women in the western world, affects approximately one out of every eight women over their lifetime. In recognition of the high invasiveness of surgical excision and severe side effects of chemical and radiation therapies, increasing efforts are made to seek minimally invasive modalities with fewer side effects. Nanoparticles (<100 nm in size have shown promising capabilities for delivering targeted therapeutic drugs to cancer cells and confining the treatment mainly within tumors. Additionally, some nanoparticles exhibit distinct properties, such as conversion of photonic energy into heat, and these properties enable eradication of cancer cells. In this review, current utilization of nanostructures for cancer therapy, especially in minimally invasive therapy, is summarized with a particular interest in breast cancer.

  9. Influences of finite gain bandwidth on pulse propagation in parabolic fiber amplifiers with distributed gain profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jia-Sheng; Li Pan; Chen Xiao-Dong; Feng Su-Juan; Mao Qing-He

    2012-01-01

    The evolutions of the pulses propagating in decreasing and increasing gain distributed fiber amplifiers with finite gain bandwidths are investigated by simulations with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The results show that the parabolic pulse propagations in both the decreasing and the increasing gain amplifiers are restricted by the finite gain bandwidth. For a given input pulse, by choosing a small initial gain coefficient and gain variation rate, the whole gain for the pulse amplification limited by the gain bandwidth may be higher, which is helpful for the enhancement of the output linearly chirped pulse energy. Compared to the decreasing gain distributed fiber amplifier, the increasing gain distributed amplifier may be more conducive to suppress the pulse spectral broadening and increase the critical amplifier length for achieving a larger output linearly chirped pulse energy

  10. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  11. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.

  12. Discrimination and excessive weight gain during pregnancy among Black and Latina young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrimination and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Black and Latina Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321

  14. Prostate cancer stories in the Canadian print media: representations of illness, disease and masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Michael; Phillips, Melanie; Oliffe, John L

    2009-03-01

    Despite the popularity of print media as an information source for men with prostate cancer, the representation of prostate cancer within this medium remains relatively understudied. This article details the findings from an analysis of prostate cancer articles published in two Canadian national newspapers, The Globe and Mail and the National Post, from January 2001 through to December 2006. The 817 prostate cancer articles published during this period were retrieved and reviewed using manifest and latent analyses. Three article categories, illness perspectives, medical perspectives and supplementary were identified in the manifest analysis. The latent analysis was guided by the connections between masculinities and prostate cancer in the newspapers' stories. Findings indicated a low frequency of articles that substantively discussed prostate cancer and that the descriptive content reproduced hegemonic masculine ideals, such as competition and stoicism. The presentation of a truncated illness trajectory and privileging of the curative aspects of biomedicine also depicted medicalised male bodies. Any discussion on the negative effects of treatment or explicit references to marginalized forms of masculinity was conspicuously absent. These findings support how representations of prostate cancer in Canadian newspapers predominately replicate detrimental ideologies and perspectives of men's health.

  15. Dalteparin versus vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer and renal impairment: a Canadian pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Lesley G Shane,2 Mark Crowther,3 Guillaume Feugere,4 Seth Woodruff2 1Health Economic and Outcomes Research, Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 3McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 4Pfizer Canada, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE and the risk is further elevated after a primary VTE. To reduce the risk of recurrent events, extended prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists (VKA is available for use. However, in a large randomized trial (Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer [CLOT]; Lee et al, extended duration dalteparin reduced the relative risk of recurrent VTE by 52% compared to VKA (p=0.002. A recent subgroup analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment also revealed lower absolute VTE rates with dalteparin (3% vs. 17%; p=0.011. To measure the economic value of dalteparin as an alternative to VKA, a patient-level cost utility analysis was conducted from a Canadian perspective. Methods: Resource use data captured during the CLOT trial were extracted and linked to 2015 Canadian unit cost estimates. Health state utilities were then measured using the Time-Trade-Off technique in 24 randomly selected members of the general Canadian public to estimate the gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Results: For the entire CLOT trial population (n=676, the dalteparin group had significantly higher mean costs compared to the VKA group ($Can5,771 vs. $Can2,569; p<0.001. However, the utility assessment revealed that 21 of 24 respondents (88% selected dalteparin over VKA, with an associated gain of 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10–0.18 QALYs. When the incremental cost of dalteparin was combined with the QALY gain, dalteparin had a cost of $Can23,100 (95% CI: $Can19,200

  16. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system.

  17. WHO HAS TO UNDERGO CANCER GENETIC TESTING? A PERSPECTIVE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rinaldi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing is a medical tool employed to screen changes in genes linked to cancer and other genetic diseases. Genetic tests are available for breast, ovarian, colon, thyroid, and some other cancers and they represent the main tool for early identification of the “risk” subjects. The choice to undergo genetic testing by a healthy or affected cancer patient with family history of the cancer has to be the fruit of a careful and prudent assessment of the advantages and disadvantages discussed during oncogenetic counselling. The latter, in turn, in the case of a patient's positive and informed choice, must constantly affiliate the genetic testing, in order to preserve the prediction and information role of the test as much as possible.

  18. The quest for a culture of learning: a South African schools perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest for a culture of learning: a South African schools perspective. ... at gaining conceptual clarity as to what is meant by a “culture of learning” and exploring ... in the social interaction taking place within classrooms, schools and learning ...

  19. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Zahraa; El Nemr, Shaza; Sinjab, Ansam; Chami, Hassan; Tfayli, Arafat; Kadara, Humam

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic) effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke) consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs), with Lebanon as an exemplar. This "cocktail" of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  20. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Rahal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs, with Lebanon as an exemplar. This “cocktail” of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  1. Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A E; Sullivan, L M; Hafer, L J

    1999-12-01

    Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in

  2. WGC Based Robust and Gain Scheduling PI Controller Design for Condensing Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Onat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the water temperature PI control in condensing domestic boilers. The main challenge of this process under the controller design perspective is the fact that the dynamics of condensing boilers are strongly affected by the demanded water flow rate. First, a robust PI controller based on weighted geometrical center method is designed that stabilizes and achieves good performance for closed-loop system for a wide range of the water flow rate. Then, it is shown that if the water flow rate information is used to update the controller gains, through a technique known as gain scheduled control, the performance can be significantly improved. Important characteristics of these PI design approaches are that the resulting parameters are calculated numerically without using any graphical method or iterative optimization process and that it guarantees the stability of the closed-loop. Significantly, simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed tuning techniques can perform better for set point changes and load disturbance than other available methods in the literature.

  3. Emotions and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: A Multilingual Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that in order to gain a more informed perspective on emotions and HIV/AIDS, crosslinguistic differences in emotion language need to be taken into account, particularly in a multilingual context. The paper reviews four published academic articles with the aim of illustrating how more consideration of the ...

  4. The physics of cancer: The role of epigenetics and chromosome conformation in cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimark, Oleg B.; Nikitiuk, Aleksandr S. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UrB RAS, Perm, 614013 (Russian Federation); Baudement, Marie-Odile; Forné, Thierry [Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier UMR 5535, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, Montpellier cedex 5, 34293 France (France); Lesne, Annick, E-mail: annick.lesne@igmm.cnrs.fr [Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier UMR 5535, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, Montpellier cedex 5, 34293 France (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée UMR 7600, CNRS, UPMC, Sorbonne Universités, 4 place Jussieu, Paris cedex 5, 75252 France (France)

    2016-08-02

    Cancer progression is generally described in terms of accumulated genetic alterations and ensuing changes in cell properties. However, intermediary modifications are involved in the establishment of cancer cell phenotypes, at different levels of nuclear organization: DNA damages and their structural consequences, epigenetic modifications and their impact on chromatin architecture, changes in chromosome 3D organization. We review some of these alterations with a focus on their physical aspects. The challenge is to understand the multiscale interplay between generic physical mechanisms and specific biological factors in cancer cells. We argue that such an interdisciplinary perspective offers a novel viewpoint on cancer progression, early diagnosis and possibly therapeutic targets.

  5. Regional R&D efficiency in Korea from static and dynamic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ungkyu; Asmild, Mette; Kunc, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) efficiency has gained great attention in regional innovation research. This study examines the R&D efficiency patterns of 15 Korean regions for 2005–09. It employs data envelopment analysis to identify the regions' R&D performances relative to the best practices from...... the static perspective, and the Malmquist productivity index to evaluate their changes in performance within a given timeframe, providing a dynamic perspective. The results classify the Korean regions into deteriorating, lagging and improving groups, and indicate that most regions suffer from declining R...

  6. Recent advances in cancer metabolism: a technological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Pyo; Ward, Nathan P; DeNicola, Gina M

    2018-04-16

    Cancer cells are highly dependent on metabolic pathways to sustain both their proliferation and adaption to harsh microenvironments. Thus, understanding the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in tumors can provide critical insights for the development of therapies targeting metabolism. In this review, we will discuss recent advancements in metabolomics and other multidisciplinary techniques that have led to the discovery of novel metabolic pathways and mechanisms in diverse cancer types.

  7. Gaining power and precision by using model-based weights in the analysis of late stage cancer trials with substantial treatment switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Seaman, Shaun; Huang, Xin; White, Ian R

    2016-04-30

    In randomised controlled trials of treatments for late-stage cancer, it is common for control arm patients to receive the experimental treatment around the point of disease progression. This treatment switching can dilute the estimated treatment effect on overall survival and impact the assessment of a treatment's benefit on health economic evaluations. The rank-preserving structural failure time model of Robins and Tsiatis (Comm. Stat., 20:2609-2631) offers a potential solution to this problem and is typically implemented using the logrank test. However, in the presence of substantial switching, this test can have low power because the hazard ratio is not constant over time. Schoenfeld (Biometrika, 68:316-319) showed that when the hazard ratio is not constant, weighted versions of the logrank test become optimal. We present a weighted logrank test statistic for the late stage cancer trial context given the treatment switching pattern and working assumptions about the underlying hazard function in the population. Simulations suggest that the weighted approach can lead to large efficiency gains in either an intention-to-treat or a causal rank-preserving structural failure time model analysis compared with the unweighted approach. Furthermore, violation of the working assumptions used in the derivation of the weights only affects the efficiency of the estimates and does not induce bias or inflate the type I error rate. The weighted logrank test statistic should therefore be considered for use as part of a careful secondary, exploratory analysis of trial data affected by substantial treatment switching. ©2015 The Authors. Statistics inMedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Implication of fractionated dose exposures in therapeutic gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy pursues killing tumor cells while sparing normal cells from the radiation exposure. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a cancer treatment modality that delivers a high dose in a single operation. This high-dose single operation shortens the treatment course, but can increase the risk of normal cell damage. Normal cell damage can be reduced by employing multi-directional exposures for an increasing number of isocenters. In this study, we investigated whether therapeutic benefits would be expected by employing new dose fractionation patterns at a high-dose single operation. The conventional single-dose operation in brain tumor radiosurgery is performed by delivering fractionated uniform doses. According to Figs. 2 and 3, the conventional radiosurgery might have obtained some therapeutic benefit by employing the fractionated uniform-dose exposures instead of a single-dose exposure. We suggest that further therapeutic gain be expected by employing the fractionated radiation exposures in an increasing dose pattern. Until ensuring our suggestion, the significance in gain of cell surviving should be verified for all three dose patterns with both normal and tumor cells. The investigation whether normal and tumor cells show the same responses to the fractionated dose exposures at lower and higher than 15 Gy of total dose is also reserved for future work

  9. Association between cancer literacy and cancer-related behaviour: evidence from Ticino, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Diviani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper details the role of different dimensions of health literacy in the relationship between health literacy and cancer-related health behaviours. In particular, Cancer Literacy is studied as an exemplar of a dimension of health literacy beyond basic reading and writing skills. The link between functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy and cancer-related health behaviours is investigated in a sample of Ticino (Switzerland residents (n=639. Design and methods. Detailed data is collected about respondents’ functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy, cancer information seeking behaviour, engagement in cancer preventive behaviours, participation to cancer screenings, and intention to adhere to current screening recommendations. Results. Results confirm the added value of Cancer Literacy – compared to functional health literacy – in explaining people’s cancer information seeking behaviour, their participation to several cancer screenings and their screening intention, underscoring the need to take into account dimensions of health literacy beyond basic functional skills. Conclusions. From a public health perspective, findings provide further evidence on the importance of adapting informational and educational communication intervention designed to improve cancer prevention and screening to different audiences.

  10. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  11. A Structural Perspective on the Modulation of Protein-Protein Interactions with Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Habibe Cansu; Dogan, Tunca; Tuncbag, Nurcan

    2018-05-31

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are the key components in many cellular processes including signaling pathways, enzymatic reactions and epigenetic regulation. Abnormal interactions of some proteins may be pathogenic and cause various disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Although inhibiting PPIs with small molecules is a challenging task, it gained an increasing interest because of its strong potential for drug discovery and design. The knowledge of the interface as well as the structural and chemical characteristics of the PPIs and their roles in the cellular pathways are necessary for a rational design of small molecules to modulate PPIs. In this study, we review the recent progress in the field and detail the physicochemical properties of PPIs including binding hot spots with a focus on structural methods. Then, we review recent approaches for structural prediction of PPIs. Finally, we revisit the concept of targeting PPIs in a systems biology perspective and we refer to the non-structural approaches, usually employed when the structural information is not present. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Exploring prostate cancer literacy and family cancer awareness in college students: getting ahead of the curve in cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa C; McClain, Jasmyne

    2013-12-01

    Cancer literacy and family cancer experiences have not been widely researched from the perspective of young adults. This study examined health literacy related to prostate cancer and family cancer awareness among a sample of 146 male and female college students. Results supported conventional wisdom that males would be more knowledgeable about the anatomical location of the prostate as compared to females. More notably, across the sample participants had limited knowledge of comprehensive prostate cancer screening but were generally aware of the prostate specific antigen blood test, as well as age and diet as risk factors for prostate cancer. Emerging associations between sexual health history and prostate cancer risk were not widely known by the sample as a whole and perceived availability of prostate health education in college was low. Finally, gender differences in family communication about cancer and racial differences in the number of family members with cancer were observed, which could have implications for perpetuating existing gender and racial gaps in health literacy and cancer awareness. A lifespan approach to cancer education research is suggested to identify ways to promote lifelong learning about cancer, promote prevention behaviors and informed screening in young adulthood, and beyond and better prepare adults to face a family or personal cancer diagnosis should that occur in the future.

  13. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated and Proton Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthan, Anju; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Davies, Diane; Taylor, Douglas C. A.; Pawar, Vivek; Bijlani, Akash; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publicly available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Compared to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost-effective in 75% and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75% and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusion: Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  14. Magnetic resonance in the diagnosing of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perczynski, W.; Walecki, J.; Schier, J.F.; Salamon, Z.

    1994-01-01

    MR has not yet come into widespread use for the staging of rectal cancer. However use of MR imaging in diagnosis of rectal cancer gains clinical acceptance. Use contrast media enables exact staging of rectal cancer. MR multiplaner and noninvasive imaging with excellent spatial and contrast resolution has rising popularity in diagnosis of rectal cancer, especially in cases where it is impossible to insert endorectal US-probe because of stenosis. (author)

  15. MO-FG-BRB-01: Investing to Address the Global Cancer Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, R.

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  16. MO-FG-BRB-01: Investing to Address the Global Cancer Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atun, R. [Harvard University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  17. MO-FG-BRB-04: Panel discussion [Global burden of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyk, J. [Western University (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  18. Breast cancer risk factors and outcome: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo Pathy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The burden of breast cancer had been increasing in Asia. However, little is known regarding the presentation, management and outcome of breast cancer among multi-ethnic Asian women. Asian ethnicities, lifestyles, health beliefs, and even life expectancies are substantially different from those of

  19. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  20. [Breaking Bad News to Cancer Patients: Content, Communication Preferences and Psychological Distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Gorba, Claudia; Oechsle, Karin; Vehling, Sigrun; Koch, Uwe; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Breaking bad news can be a very distressing situation for both patients and physicians. Physician communication behavior should therefore match patients' communication preferences. The aim of this study was to characterize the content of bad news from the patients' perspective. Patients' preferences for communication of bad news as well as the fit to communication behavior displayed by physicians were also investigated. Finally, consequences of a mismatch between patients' preferences and physician communication were investigated in relation to psychological distress in patients. Methods The sample consisted of N=270 cancer patients (mean age=56.8 years, 48% female) with various cancer entities and different stages of disease (n=115 patients with early stage of cancer, n=155 patients with advanced cancer). The content of bad news was assessed with a specifically developed list of questions. The Measure of Patients' Preferences Scale (MPP) was used to assess patients' preferences for communication of bad news. Patients further completed the NCCN Distress Thermometer (cancer specific distress), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS- anxiety and depression) and the Demoralization Scale (DS-Scale) to gain information about psychological distress. Results Patients with early stage breast cancer received bad news M=1.6 times (SD=1.1, range: 1-5), patients with advanced cancers M=2.1 times (SD=1.6, range: 1-12). For 77% of early stage cancer patients and 70% of advanced cancer patients, the subjectively worst consultation was receiving the diagnosis and discussing treatment options. Patients' most important communication preferences were physicians' clinical competence and patient-centered communication, clear and direct communication and asking about patients information preferences. Patients in advanced stages report significantly more (29%) unmet communication needs than patients' in early stages (20%; pbad news without considering patients

  1. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S I; Williams, C K; Ndom, P; Holland, J F

    2012-10-01

    The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (aortic) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes support of research and training;provision of relevant and accurate information on the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer;promotion of public awareness about cancer and reduction of the stigma associated with it.In seeking to achieve its goal of cancer control in Africa, aortic strives to unite the continent and to make a positive impact throughout the region by collaboration with health ministries and global cancer organizations. The organization's key objectives are to further research relating to cancers prevalent in Africa, to support training programs in oncology for health care workers, to deal with the challenges of creating cancer control and prevention programs, and to raise public awareness of cancer in Africa. It also plans to organize symposia, workshops, meetings, and conferences that support its mission.Founded in September 1982, aortic was active only between 1983 (when its inaugural conference was held in the City of Lome, Togo, West Africa) and the late 1980s. The organization subsequently became inactive and moribund. In 2000, a group of expatriate African physicians and scientists joined in an effort with their non-African friends and colleagues to reactivate the dormant organization. Since its reactivation, aortic has succeeded in putting cancer on the public health agenda in many African countries by highlighting Africa's urgent need for cancer control and by holding meetings every two years in various African cities. National and international cancer control organizations worldwide have recognized the challenges facing Africa and have joined in aortic's mission.

  2. Assessing Patient-Centered Communication in Cancer Care: Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Kathleen M.; Gaglio, Bridget; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Alexander, Gwen L.; Stark, Azadeh; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Walsh, Kathleen; Boggs, Jennifer; Lemay, Celeste A.; Firneno, Cassandra; Biggins, Colleen; Blosky, Mary Ann; Arora, Neeraj K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Patient-centered communication is critical to quality cancer care. Effective communication can help patients and family members cope with cancer, make informed decisions, and effectively manage their care; suboptimal communication can contribute to care breakdowns and undermine clinician-patient relationships. The study purpose was to explore stakeholders' views on the feasibility and acceptability of collecting self-reported patient and family perceptions of communication experiences while receiving cancer care. The results were intended to inform the design, development, and implementation of a structured and generalizable patient-level reporting system. Methods: This was a formative, qualitative study that used semistructured interviews with cancer patients, family members, clinicians, and leaders of health care organizations. The constant comparative method was used to identify major themes in the interview transcripts. Results: A total of 106 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic saturation was achieved. All stakeholders recognized the importance of communication and endorsed efforts to improve communication during cancer care. Patients, clinicians, and leaders expressed concerns about the potential consequences of reports of suboptimal communication experiences, such as damage to the clinician-patient relationship, and the need for effective improvement strategies. Patients and family members would report good communication experiences in order to encourage such practices. Practical and logistic issues were identified. Conclusion: Patient reports of their communication experiences during cancer care could increase understanding of the communication process, stimulate improvements, inform interventions, and provide a basis for evaluating changes in communication practices. This qualitative study provides a foundation for the design and pilot testing of such a patient reporting system. PMID:23943884

  3. Anti-tumor activity of metformin: from metabolic and epigenetic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yansheng; Tong, Chong; Liu, Min; Ma, Lixin; Yu, Xiaolan; Li, Shanshan

    2017-01-01

    Metformin has been used to treat type 2 diabetes for over 50 years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that metformin treatment reduces cancer incidence in diabetes patients. Due to its potential as an anti-cancer agent and its low cost, metformin has gained intense research interest. Its traditional anti-cancer mechanisms involve both indirect and direct insulin-dependent pathways. Here, we discussed the anti-tumor mechanism of metformin from the aspects of cell metabolism and epigenetic modifications. The effects of metformin on anti-cancer immunity and apoptosis were also described. Understanding these mechanisms will shed lights on application of metformin in clinical trials and development of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27902459

  4. The population dynamics of cancer: a Darwinian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Berwick, Marianne

    2006-10-01

    Carcinogenesis, at least for some types of cancer, can be interpreted as the consequence of selection of mutated cells similar to what, in the theory of evolution, occurs at the population level. Instead of considering a population of organisms, we can refer to a population of cells belonging to multicellular organisms. Many carcinogens are mutagens, and the observed geographic distribution of cancer is, at least in part, attributable to environmental mutagens. However, the rapid change in risk for some cancers after migration suggests that carcinogenesis involves--in addition to mutations--some late event that most probably consists of the selection of cells already carrying mutations. We review a few examples of such selective pressures: finasteride in prostate cancer, vitamin supplementation in smokers, acquired resistance to chemotherapy, peripheral resistance to insulin, and sunlight and mutations in melanoma. A disease model for such a hypothesis is represented by Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). Mutations can be present at birth, as in the case of PNH, and can have a frequency much higher than the occurrence of the corresponding disease (PNH or lymphocytic leukaemia in children). However, PNH does not require a mutator phenotype, only a mutant phenotype followed by selection. A characteristic feature of cancer, instead, is likely to be the development of the mutator phenotype. We propose a 'Darwinian' model of carcinogenesis. If the model is correct, it suggests that prevention is more complex than avoiding exposure to mutagens. Mutations and genetic instability can be already present at birth. Mutations can be selected in the course of life if they increase survival advantage of the cell under certain environmental circumstances. In addition, gene-environment interactions cannot be interpreted according to a simplified linear model (based on the 'analysis of variance' concept); experimental work suggests that a more comprehensive non

  5. Rapid arc in cancer treatment - a therapeutic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Recently, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has demonstrated the ability to deliver radiation dose precisely and accurately with a shorter delivery time compared to conventional intensity-modulated fixed-field treatment (IMRT). We applied the hypothesis of VMAT technique at our hospital to determine the superior dose coverage for planning target volume (PTV) with adequate sparing of organs-at-risk (OARs). The delivery time and monitor units (MUs) is reduced in comparison with conventional fixed-field IMRT. Rapid Arc (RA) plans had a pre-treatment quality assurance and results were summarised in terms of the Gamma Agreement Index (GAI) scoring criteria of 3% and 3 mm thresholds. A total of 771 patients were treated between July 2011 and August 2013 of which head and neck cancer were 385, prostate cancer 53, brain tumours 112, cervical and endometrial cancer 77, breast cancer 38, rectal and bladder cancer 56, special technique using SBRT 45 (Liver and Lung) and Cranio-spinal irradiation 5 patients using RA single (177 control points) and double arcs (354 control points). The Average treatment time was 4.8 ±0.2 minutes (220 seconds of beam-on). The number of MU per fraction of 2.0 Gy was 522.5 ± 133.62. VMAT can be a valuable clinical tool that can deliver the prescribed dose efficiently in 1.5-3 minutes (single or double arcs) with high target homogeneity and adequate sparing of organs at risk. It would allow to reduce patient lying time on couch and over all beam on time from 4 hours to one hour. The toxicity (Tracheal fistula) observed in two patients of Carcinoma Lung receiving SRT high lights the need for peer review. (author)

  6. Weight change in middle adulthood and breast cancer risk in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Marleen J; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F

    2014-01-01

    .3 years. Annual weight change was categorized using quintiles taking quintile 2 and 3 as the reference category (-0.44 to 0.36 kg/year). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association. 205,723 women were included and 4,663 incident breast cancer cases were......Long-term weight gain (i.e., weight gain since age 20) has been related to higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The effect of weight change in middle adulthood is unclear. We investigated the association between weight change in middle...... diagnosed during a median follow-up of 7.5 years (from second weight assessment onward). High weight gain (Q5: 0.83-4.98 kg/year) was related to a slightly, but significantly higher breast cancer risk (HRQ5_versus_Q2/3 : 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). The association was more pronounced for breast cancer...

  7. Formative Feedback in a Business School: Understanding the Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Nicola J.; Iqbal, Yasser

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by a desire to improve the student experience, this paper reviews primary research carried out into the use of formative feedback within a Business School at a "new" university in the UK. The research adopted a qualitative approach with key objectives to gain staff and student perspectives on the role and practice of feedback…

  8. Weight gain in pregnancy and application of the 2009 IOM guidelines: toward a uniform approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Redman, Leanne M

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to adopt standardized nomenclature as it relates to gestational weight gain (GWG), a more uniform approach to calculate it, and hence quantifying adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. This perspective highlights the varying methods used to estimate GWG and discuss the advantages and limitations of each. While these calculations could be argued to have a minimal impact on data at the population level, on the patient level, incorrectly estimating weight at conception can result in misclassification of preconception body mass index (BMI) and assignment of the IOM guidelines which inherently affect the prospective management of weight gain (and potential outcomes) during the current pregnancy. This study recommends that preconception BMI and total GWG be determined objectively and total GWG be adjusted for length of gestation before assessing adherence to the IOM GWG guidelines. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  10. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  11. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  12. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  13. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Association of Betel Nut with Carcinogenesis: Revisit with a Clinical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Rajeshwar N.; Mehrotra, Ravi; Choudhury, Yashmin; Asotra, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This addictive practice has been shown to have strong etiological correlation with human susceptibility to cancer, particularly oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The PUBMED database was searched to retrieve all relevant published studies in English on BN and BQ, and its association with oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Only complete studies directly dealing with BN/BQ induced carcinogenesis using statistically valid and acceptable sample size were analyzed. Additional relevant information available from other sources was also considered. This systematic review attempts to put in perspective the consequences of this widespread habit of BN/BQ mastication, practiced by approximately 10% of the world population, on oral cancer with a clinical perspective. BN/BQ mastication seems to be significantly associated with susceptibility to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Addition of tobacco to BN has been found to only marginally increase the cancer risk. Despite the widespread usage of BN/BQ and its strong association with human susceptibility to cancer, no serious strategy seems to exist to control this habit. The review, therefore, also looks at various preventive efforts being made by governments and highlights the multifaceted intervention strategies required to mitigate and/or control the habit of BN/BQ mastication. PMID:22912735

  15. Rhus verniciflua Stokes against Advanced Cancer: A Perspective from the Korean Integrative Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woncheol Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active anticancer molecules have been searched from natural products; many drugs were developed from either natural products or their derivatives following the conventional pharmaceutical paradigm of drug discovery. However, the advances in the knowledge of cancer biology have led to personalized medicine using molecular-targeted agents which create new paradigm. Clinical benefit is dependent on individual biomarker and overall survival is prolonged through cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects to cancer cell. Therefore, a different approach is needed from the single lead compound screening model based on cytotoxicity. In our experience, the Rhus verniciflua stoke (RVS extract traditionally used for cancer treatment is beneficial to some advanced cancer patients though it is herbal extract not single compound, and low cytotoxic in vitro. The standardized RVS extract's action mechanisms as well as clinical outcomes are reviewed here. We hope that these preliminary results would stimulate different investigation in natural products from conventional chemicals.

  16. Experiences of ethical issues when caring for children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    The treatment for pediatric cancer is often physically, socially, and psychologically demanding and often gives rise to ethical issues. The purpose of this study was to describe healthcare professionals' experiences of ethical issues and ways to deal with these when caring for children with cancer. A study-specific questionnaire was given to healthcare professionals at a pediatric hospital in Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze answers to open-ended questions. The data were sorted into 2 domains based on the objective of the study. In the next step, the data in each domain were inductively coded, generating categories and subcategories. The main ethical issues included concerns of (1) infringing on autonomy, (2) deciding on treatment levels, and (3) conflicting perspectives that constituted a challenge to collaboration. Professionals desired teamwork and reflection to deal with ethical concerns, and they needed resources for dealing with ethics. Interprofessional consideration needs to be improved. Forums and time for ethics reflections need to be offered to deal with ethical concerns in childhood cancer care. Experiences of ethical concerns and dealing with these in caring for children with cancer evoked strong feelings and moral perplexity among nursing staff. The study raises a challenging question: How can conflicting perspectives, lack of interprofessional consideration, and obstacles related to parents' involvement be "turned around," that is, contribute to a holistic perspective of ethics in cancer care of children?

  17. Evaluating sequelae after head and neck cancer from the patient perspective with the help of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiesner, Uta; Linseisen, Elisabeth; Coenen, Michaela; Rogers, Simon; Harreus, Ulrich; Berghaus, Alexander; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-03-01

    Functioning is recognized increasingly as an important study outcome with head and neck cancer (HNC). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, as adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001, is based on a comprehensive bio-psycho-social view. The objective of this study was to evaluate functioning from the patient perspective and to classify the results using the comprehensive view of the ICF. Patients with HNC were interviewed on their problems in daily life using qualitative methodology. Sampling of patients followed the maximum variation strategy. Sample size was determined by saturation. All individual interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interview texts were divided into meaning units and the concepts contained in the meaning units were linked to the ICF according to established linking rules. The transcribed data were analyzed and linked by a second health professional and the degree of consensus was calculated using kappa statistics. Concordance of identified ICF categories among different tumor locations was also measured with kappa statistics. Until saturation was reached, 18 patients were interviewed: seven patients with oral cancer, five with hypopharyngeal cancer and six with laryngeal cancer. Thousand four hundred and sixty-two (1,462) different concepts were translated into the ICF using 104 different, second-level ICF categories. These ICF categories are presented in detail. From the patient perspective, the ICF components (a) Body functions, (b) Activities and participation and (c) contextual Environmental factors are equally represented, while (d) Body structures show by far the least number of categories. The concordance between different tumor locations rages between 0.53 and 0.58 (confidence interval 0.42-0.70). The degree of consensus in the linking process was 0.58 (confidence interval 0.45-0.73). The ICF classification can display problems with functioning following HNC sufficiently

  18. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  19. The Perspectives of Haematological Cancer Patients on Tissue Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Heidi; Waller, Amy; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Boyes, Allison; Fleming, Jennifer; Marlton, Paula; Harrison, Simon J; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2016-01-01

    A high level of support for tissue banking has been identified amongst both the general public and patients. However, much debate remains about the regulatory framework of tissue banks. This study explored the views of haematological cancer patients regarding tissue banking and how tissue banks should operate. Haematological cancer patients from three outpatient clinics in Australia completed a questionnaire examining their preferences for tissue banking as well as items about their sociodemographic characteristics, disease and treatment history. The majority of participants (95%) reported being willing to allow their leftover tissue to be used for medical research. Three quarters (76%) supported the idea of their medical record being linked to their tissue sample, and 77% preferred a blanket (one-off) consent model for future research use of their tissue sample. Only 57 (27%) participants had been asked to give a tissue sample for research, 98% of whom gave permission. The majority of haematological cancer patients are willing to donate their leftover tissue to a tissue bank and have their medical records linked to tissue samples and prefer a one-off consent process. These novel data from potential donors inform the debate about how tissue banks might operate. Strategic Research Partnership Grant from the Cancer Council NSW to the Newcastle Cancer Control Collaborative (New-3C) and infrastructure funding from the Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI). A.W. is supported by an Australian Research Council DECRA fellowship (DE150101262). T.C.M. was supported by a Leukaemia Foundation of Queensland Post-Doctoral Fellowship. A.B. is supported by National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1073317) and Cancer Institute NSW (13/ECF/1-37) Early Career Fellowships.

  20. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of tolvaptan in the management of hyponatremia in patients with lung and other cancers: current data and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thajudeen B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bijin Thajudeen,1 Abdulla K Salahudeen1,2 1Department of Nephrology, Banner University of Arizona Medical Center, 2Department of Nephrology, Southern Arizona Veterans Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Hyponatremia is the most frequently observed electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice, and its frequency is almost double in hospitalized cancer patients. As a subset of cancer, hyponatremia is quite common in lung cancer patients, and it is often coupled with the diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. The presence of hyponatremia is consequential in that its presence adversely affects cancer patients’ prognosis and outcomes. Limited data suggest that correcting hyponatremia in lung cancer patients can increase response to anticancer treatment, may help reduce length of hospital stay and cost, and reduce morbidity and mortality. The type of treatment for hyponatremia depends on several factors; the key factors are the duration and severity of neurological symptoms of hyponatremia and the status of extracellular volume. When hyponatremia is caused by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, hypertonic saline is indicated for acute symptomatic cases, whereas fluid restriction is recommended in chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia. The latter allows a slower rate of correction, thus avoiding the dreaded complication of osmotic demyelination syndrome. Fluid restriction is, however, insufficient or impractical, and often the use of pharmacological therapy such as antidiuretic hormone receptor antagonists becomes necessary. Availability of these antagonists as an effective treatment in the management of hyponatremia has been a major breakthrough, and furthermore, its clinical or investigational use in cancer-related hyponatremia may offer a potential opportunity to gain further insights into the prognostic impact of hyponatremia correction on cancer patients’ outcomes. Tolvaptan is a prototype of

  2. Cancer pain management and the opioid crisis in America: How to preserve hard-earned gains in improving the quality of cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paice, Judith A

    2018-06-15

    Cancer pain remains a feared consequence of the disease and its treatment. Although prevalent, cancer pain can usually be managed through the skillful application of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Unfortunately, access to these therapies has been hampered by interventions designed to contain another serious public health problem: the opioid misuse epidemic. This epidemic and the unintended consequences of efforts to control this outbreak are leading to significant barriers to the provision of cancer pain relief. Oncologists and other professionals treating those with cancer pain will require new knowledge and tools to provide safe and effective pain control while preventing additional cases of substance use disorders (SUDs), helping patients in recovery to maintain sobriety, and guiding those not yet in recovery to seek treatment. How do these 2 serious epidemics intersect and affect oncology practice? First, oncology professionals will need to adopt practices to prevent SUDs by assessing risk and providing safe pain care. Second, oncology practices are likely to see an increased number of patients with a current or past SUD, including opioid misuse. Few guidelines exist for the direct management of pain when opioids may be indicated in these individuals. Third, modified prescribing practices along with the education of patients and families are warranted to prevent the exposure of these medications to unintended persons. Finally, advocacy on behalf of those with cancer pain is imperative to avoid losing access to essential therapies, including opioids, for those who might benefit. Cancer 2018;124:2491-7. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  3. Polyphenol nanoformulations for cancer therapy: experimental evidence and clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davatgaran-Taghipour Y

    2017-04-01

    bioavailability. Different types of formulations have been designed for the improvement of bioavailability of these compounds, nanonization being one of the most notable approaches among them. This study aimed to review current data on the nanoformulations of natural polyphenols as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents and to discuss their molecular anticancer mechanisms of action. Nanoformulations of natural polyphenols as bioactive agents, including resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, chrysin, baicalein, luteolin, honokiol, silibinin, and coumarin derivatives, in a dose-dependent manner, result in better efficacy for the prevention and treatment of cancer. The impact of nanoformulation methods for these natural agents on tumor cells has gained wider attention due to improvement in targeted therapy and bioavailability, as well as enhancement of stability. Today, several nanoformulations are designed for delivery of polyphenolic compounds, including nanosuspensions, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, gold nanoparticles, and polymeric nanoparticles, which have resulted in better antineoplastic activity, higher intracellular concentration of polyphenols, slow and sustained release of the drugs, and improvement of proapoptotic activity against tumor cells. To conclude, natural polyphenols demonstrate remarkable anticancer potential in pharmacotherapy; however, the obstacles in terms of their bioavailability in and toxicity to normal cells, as well as targeted drug delivery to malignant cells, can be overcome using nanoformulation-based technologies, which optimize the bioefficacy of these natural drugs. Keywords: natural products, flavonoid, anthocyanin, tumor, malignancy

  4. Long Non-Coding RNA in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Glavač

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and are emerging as new players in tumorigenesis due to their various functions in transcriptional, posttranscriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. LncRNAs are deregulated in a number of cancers, demonstrating both oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles, thus suggesting their aberrant expression may be a substantial contributor in cancer development. In this review, we will summarize their emerging role in human cancer and discuss their perspectives in diagnostics as potential biomarkers.

  5. Identification of genomic copy number variations associated with specific clinical features of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagradišnik, Boris; Krgović, Danijela; Herodež, Špela Stangler; Zagorac, Andreja; Ćižmarević, Bogdan; Vokač, Nadja Kokalj

    2018-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNSs) of large genomic regions are an important mechanism implicated in the development of head and neck cancer, however, for most changes their exact role is not well understood. The aim of this study was to find possible associations between gains/losses of genomic regions and clinically distinct subgroups of head and neck cancer patients. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was performed on DNA samples in 64 patients with cancer in oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx. Overlapping genomic regions created from gains and losses were used for statistical analysis. Following regions were overrepresented: in tumors with stage I or II a gain of 2.98 Mb on 6p21.2-p11 and a gain of 7.4 Mb on 8q11.1-q11.23; in tumors with grade I histology a gain of 1.1 Mb on 8q24.13, a loss of a large part of p arm of chromosome 3, a loss of a 1.24 Mb on 6q14.3, and a loss of terminal 32 Mb region of 8p23.3; in cases with affected lymph nodes a gain of 0.75 Mb on 3q24, and a gain of 0.9 Mb on 3q26.32-q26.33; in cases with unaffected lymph nodes a gain of 1.1 Mb on 8q23.3, in patients not treated with surgery a gain of 12.2 Mb on 7q21.3-q22.3 and a gain of 0.33 Mb on 20q11.22. Our study identified several genomic regions of interest which appear to be associated with various clinically distinct subgroups of head and neck cancer. They represent a potentially important source of biomarkers useful for the clinical management of head and neck cancer. In particular, the PIK3CA and AGTR1 genes could be singled out to predict the lymph node involvement.

  6. Gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved proteins in the human lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modification of lysine residues of specific proteins by ubiquitin modulates the degradation, localization, and activity of these target proteins. Here, we identified gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved regions of human proteins that occurred during human evolution. Results We analyzed human ubiquitylation site data and multiple alignments of orthologous mammalian proteins including those from humans, primates, other placental mammals, opossum, and platypus. In our analysis, we identified 281 ubiquitylation sites in 252 proteins that first appeared along the human lineage during primate evolution: one protein had four novel sites; four proteins had three sites each; 18 proteins had two sites each; and the remaining 229 proteins had one site each. PML, which is involved in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration, acquired three sites, two of which have been reported to be involved in the degradation of PML. Thirteen human proteins, including ERCC2 (also known as XPD and NBR1, gained human-specific ubiquitylated lysines after the human-chimpanzee divergence. ERCC2 has a Lys/Gln polymorphism, the derived (major allele of which confers enhanced DNA repair capacity and reduced cancer risk compared with the ancestral (minor allele. NBR1 and eight other proteins that are involved in the human autophagy protein interaction network gained a novel ubiquitylation site. Conclusions The gain of novel ubiquitylation sites could be involved in the evolution of protein degradation and other regulatory networks. Although gains of ubiquitylation sites do not necessarily equate to adaptive evolution, they are useful candidates for molecular functional analyses to identify novel advantageous genetic modifications and innovative phenotypes acquired during human evolution.

  7. An integrative discourse perspective on positive leadership in public health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Ville; Salmi, Ilkka

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study aims to take a discursive view on positive leadership (PL). A positive approach has gained momentum in recent years as appropriate leadership practices are implemented in organizations. Despite the turn toward discursive approaches in organization studies, there is insufficient evidence supporting PL as a socially constructed experience. Design/methodology/approach The present study addresses an integrative discourse perspective for capturing the PL concept as a social process within the public health-care context. Findings Four meanings of PL are highlighted: role-taking, servicing, balancing and deciphering. Research limitations/implications The meanings shift the emphasis of certain PL definitions to a contextual interpretation. For scholars, the perspective demonstrates a multidimensional process approach in the desired organizational context as a counterbalance to one unanimously agreed-upon PL definition. Practical implications For leaders, an integrative discourse perspective offers tools for comprehending PL as a process: how to identify, negotiate and reconcile various PL meanings. Originality/value An integrative discourse perspective provides a novel perspective capturing the PL concept within the public health-care field.

  8. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  9. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals

  11. WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY:A GENDERED PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Vyas-Doorgapersad

    2017-01-01

    There are a very few studies available to gain insight into the impact ofyoga andalternative therapies1on stress management, conflict resolution and workproductivity. In previous studies the focus fell on the gendered perspective,exploring the impact of spiritual modalities on the physical and mental wellness ofmale and female employees.Spiritual practices such as yogaandother alternativetherapies have been found to be significant to enhance work productivity, hence bepart o...

  12. MO-FG-BRB-00: The Global Cancer Challenge: What Can We Do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  13. MO-FG-BRB-00: The Global Cancer Challenge: What Can We Do?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  14. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  15. Stated and Revealed Preferences for Funding New High-Cost Cancer Drugs: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Patients, the Public and Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Tatjana E; Harris, Anthony H; Mahal, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    The growing focus on patient-centred care has encouraged the inclusion of patient and public input into payer drug reimbursement decisions. Yet, little is known about patient/public priorities for funding high-cost medicines, and how they compare to payer priorities applied in public funding decisions for new cancer drugs. The aim was to identify and compare the funding preferences of cancer patients and the general public against the criteria used by payers making cancer drug funding decisions. A thorough review of the empirical, peer-reviewed English literature was conducted. Information sources were PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Business Source Complete, and EconLit. Eligible studies (1) assessed the cancer drug funding preferences of patients, the general public or payers, (2) had pre-defined measures of funding preference, and (3) had outcomes with attributes or measures of 'value'. The quality of included studies was evaluated using a health technology assessment-based assessment tool, followed by extraction of general study characteristics and funding preferences, which were categorized using an established WHO-based framework. Twenty-five preference studies were retrieved (11 quantitative, seven qualitative, seven mixed-methods). Most studies were published from 2005 onward, with the oldest dating back to 1997. Two studies evaluated both patient and public perspectives, giving 27 total funding perspectives (41 % payer, 33 % public, 26 % patients). Of 41 identified funding criteria, payers consider the most (35), the general public considers fewer (23), and patients consider the fewest (12). We identify four unique patient criteria: financial protection, access to medical information, autonomy in treatment decision making, and the 'value of hope'. Sixteen countries/jurisdictions were represented. Our results suggest that (1) payers prioritize efficiency (health gains per dollar), while citizens (patients and the general public) prioritize

  16. Perspectives of Integrative Cancer Genomics in Next Generation Sequencing Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Mee Kwon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The explosive development of genomics technologies including microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS has provided comprehensive maps of cancer genomes, including the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs, DNA copy numbers, sequence variations, and epigenetic changes. These genome-wide profiles of the genetic aberrations could reveal the candidates for diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers as well as mechanistic insights into tumor development and progression. Recent efforts to establish the huge cancer genome compendium and integrative omics analyses, so-called "integromics", have extended our understanding on the cancer genome, showing its daunting complexity and heterogeneity. However, the challenges of the structured integration, sharing, and interpretation of the big omics data still remain to be resolved. Here, we review several issues raised in cancer omics data analysis, including NGS, focusing particularly on the study design and analysis strategies. This might be helpful to understand the current trends and strategies of the rapidly evolving cancer genomics research.

  17. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  18. Barriers to exercise: perspectives from multiethnic cancer survivors in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Siew Yim; Chew, Shin-Lin; Lee, Shing-Yee

    2011-01-01

    Many cancer survivors are still not active enough to reap the benefits of physical activity. This study aimed to explore the correlation between perceived barriers and participation in exercise among multi- ethnic Malaysian women with breast cancer. A cross-sectional study using a pre-post questionnaire and a media-clip as a cancer control strategy was conducted on a random sample of women with breast cancer. The tools were structured questionnaires to collect socio-medical demographic and physical activity data (e.g. barriers, exercise self-efficacy). A statistically significant relationship between level of physical activity before and after diagnosis of breast cancer (n=51, χ2=70.14, pexercise after diagnosis, r(49)=0.73, pexercise participation. Lack of time is the main barrier amongst those survivors who are predominantly 40-50 year old housewives juggling with household chores, childcare and/or job commitments. Public health messages stressing that short bouts of exercise or some exercise are better than no exercise needs to be emphasised consistently.

  19. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  20. Triple-negative breast cancer: new perspectives for targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomao F

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1 Anselmo Papa,2 Eleonora Zaccarelli,2 Luigi Rossi,2 Davide Caruso,2 Marina Minozzi,2 Patrizia Vici,3 Luigi Frati,4 Silverio Tomao21Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Policlinico “Umberto I”, Rome, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Oncology Unit, Istituto Chirurgico Ortopedico Traumatologico, Latina, 3Division of Medical Oncology B, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Molecular Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Policlinico “Umberto I”, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing a large number of entities showing different morphological features and having clinical behaviors. It has became apparent that this diversity may be justified by distinct patterns of genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic aberrations. The identification of gene-expression microarray-based characteristics has led to the identification of at least five breast cancer subgroups: luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and basal-like. Triple-negative breast cancer is a complex disease diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, and it is characterized by malignant cells not expressing estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors at all, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Along with this knowledge, recent data show that triple-negative breast cancer has specific molecular features that could be possible targets for new biological targeted drugs. The aim of this article is to explore the use of new drugs in this particular setting, which is still associated with poor prognosis and high risk of distant recurrence and death.Keywords: basal-like breast cancer, estrogen–progesterone receptors, gene-expression microarray, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, chemotherapy, target therapy

  1. Current perspectives on indications and limitations of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Women have a 7 percent natural lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, which is the leading cause of death in women aged 40 to 50 years. Most data suggest that the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better the chance for cure. Women with ''minimal breast cancer'' have an actuarial 20-year survival rate of 93.2 percent. The majority of these breast cancers are diagnosed by mammography. The radiation doses from this technique have been dramatically decreased over the last ten years to about 0.1 to 0.6 rads per study. The two largest breast cancer screening studies, the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York and the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, have shown conclusively that women over 50 years old can benefit from annual mammography and that certain groups can benefit from mammography at close intervals before the age of 50 years. This article describes the development of mammography and outlines current perspectives on its indications and limitations

  2. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high......15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains....../losses and gene expression profiles show strong similarity between cancers in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction with frequent upregulation of CDK6 and EGFR, whereas gastric cancer displays distinct genetic changes. These data suggest that molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies can...

  3. Efficiency of clinical and combined diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, I.E.

    1986-01-01

    Problems on clinical, instrumental, laboratory diagnosis of mammary glands cancer are described. Efficiency of clinical examination, mammography, cytological examination, ultrasonic, radioisotopic diagnosis, some biochemical tests are estimated. The conclusion concerning advisability of complex diagnosis of mammary glands cancer especially its early forms is made. Perspectivity of application of polyamine test in diagnosis of primary cancer of the mammary gland is mark to estimate efficiency of its treatment

  4. Management of Locally Advanced Cancer Cervix an Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J K; Chauhan, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer has a major impact on the lives of Indian women with an estimated 122, 844 new cases of cervical cancer in the year 2012. About 80% of these cases present in a locally advanced stage leading to high morbidity and mortality. Because of lack of public awareness and infrastructure for screening and early detection in developing countries, this late presentation is likely to continue in the coming years. Radiation therapy has been the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced cancer cervix. Many clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown a significant improvement in overall and progression-free survival with decreased local and distant recurrences with the use of concurrent chemotherapy with radiation. Most of these trials have been done in women from developed countries where the patient and disease profile are entirely different from ours. Recently, few trials from India have also shown promising results in locally advanced cancer cervix with concurrent chemoradiotherapy but toxicities remain a major concern. Further exploration is required for the use of concurrent chemo radiation prior to incorporating it into routine clinical practice.

  5. Trends and Perspective in Industrial Maintenance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    With increased global competition for manufacturing, many companies are seeking ways to gain competitative advanges with respect to cost, service, quality and on-time deliveries. The role that effective maintenance management plays in contributing to overall organizational productivity has received...... increased attention. Trends and perspective in industrial maintenance are presented. The result of benchmarking studies from Scandinavia and United States are also presented and compared. Case studies that examine maintenance methods, knowledge, organization and information systems in three Danish...

  6. The Complexity of the Patient Perspective of Living with Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Vibeke; Riahi, Sam; Delmar, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    data on information related to the context of the patient’s daily life, family life and work life. The example provided in the article illustrates how the qualitative and quantitative information work as a synergy. Together, information gained from participant observations, on the challenge......The patients’ perspective is by nature complex. Investigating the patients’ perspective, which is important for the quality of care for patients living with atrial fibrillation, therefore calls for complex research processes. This article aims to illuminate the complexity of the patients......’ perspective of living with atrial fibrillation by combining qualitative and quantitative data sources and methods. Related to a one-year patient journey of living with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation it is here illustrated how scores from questionnaires can be explored by supporting the scores with qualitative...

  7. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants

  8. Provider perspectives on the utility of a colorectal cancer screening decision aid for facilitating shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroy, Paul C; Mylvaganam, Shamini; Davidson, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Decision aids for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening have been shown to enable patients to identify a preferred screening option, but the extent to which such tools facilitate shared decision making (SDM) from the perspective of the provider is less well established. Our goal was to elicit provider feedback regarding the impact of a CRC screening decision aid on SDM in the primary care setting. Cross-sectional survey. Primary care providers participating in a clinical trial evaluating the impact of a novel CRC screening decision aid on SDM and adherence. Perceptions of the impact of the tool on decision-making and implementation issues. Twenty-nine of 42 (71%) eligible providers responded, including 27 internists and two nurse practitioners. The majority (>60%) felt that use of the tool complimented their usual approach, increased patient knowledge, helped patients identify a preferred screening option, improved the quality of decision making, saved time and increased patients' desire to get screened. Respondents were more neutral is their assessment of whether the tool improved the overall quality of the patient visit or patient satisfaction. Fewer than 50% felt that the tool would be easy to implement into their practices or that it would be widely used by their colleagues. Decision aids for CRC screening can improve the quality and efficiency of SDM from the provider perspective but future use is likely to depend on the extent to which barriers to implementation can be addressed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    AKBULUT, GAMZE

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be presc...

  10. Danish cancer patients’ perspective on health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Mette; Sperling, Cecilie; Jensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Patient’s experiences and patient surveys are increasingly being used for the evaluation of the quality of health care. Patient information is valuable input when we aim to improve healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess Danish cancer patients’ experiences and assessment...... of the health care they have received, in regard to access to diagnostics, coordination and continuity of care, information and communication and involvement of patients and relatives. Questions and the opportunity to comment in free text were distributed to 6,720 newly diagnosed cancer patients in the summer...... 2010. A total of 4,346 patients (64.7 %) returned a questionnaire and were finally included in the study. The results exposed patient experienced problems with regard to easier access to diagnostics, GP’s responsiveness to patients’ worries, better coordination between different healthcare units...

  11. Evaluation of the prognostic role of centromere 17 gain and HER2/topoisomerase II alpha gene status and protein expression in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy: pooled analysis of two Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) phase III trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountzilas, George; Tsolaki, Eleftheria; Televantou, Despina; Timotheadou, Eleni; Koutras, Angelos; Klouvas, George; Samantas, Epaminontas; Pisanidis, Nikolaos; Karanikiotis, Charisios; Sfakianaki, Ioanna; Pavlidis, Nicholas; Dafni, Urania; Gogas, Helen; Linardou, Helena; Kalogeras, Konstantine T; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Bobos, Mattheos; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Batistatou, Anna; Xanthakis, Ioannis; Papadimitriou, Christos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Koletsa, Triantafillia

    2013-01-01

    The HER2 gene has been established as a valid biological marker for the treatment of breast cancer patients with trastuzumab and probably other agents, such as paclitaxel and anthracyclines. The TOP2A gene has been associated with response to anthracyclines. Limited information exists on the relationship of HER2/TOP2A gene status in the presence of centromere 17 (CEP17) gain with outcome of patients treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 1031 patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, enrolled in two consecutive phase III trials, were assessed in a central laboratory by fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2/TOP2A gene amplification and CEP17 gain (CEP17 probe). Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A were defined as a gene/CEP17 ratio of >2.2 and ≥2.0, respectively, or gene copy number higher than 6. Additionally, HER2, TopoIIa, ER/PgR and Ki67 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and patients were classified according to their IHC phenotype. Treatment consisted of epirubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy and radiation, as indicated. HER2 amplification was found in 23.7% of the patients and TOP2A amplification in 10.1%. In total, 41.8% of HER2-amplified tumors demonstrated TOP2A co-amplification. The median (range) of HER2, TOP2A and CEP17 gain was 2.55 (0.70-45.15), 2.20 (0.70-26.15) and 2.00 (0.70-26.55), respectively. Forty percent of the tumors had CEP17 gain (51% of those with HER2 amplification). Adjusting for treatment groups in the Cox model, HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with time to relapse or time to death. HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  12. Hepatocyte Growth Factor from a Clinical Perspective: A Pancreatic Cancer Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwani, Wasia; Allen, Amanda E.; Trevino, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and incidence rates are rising. Both detection and treatment options for pancreatic cancer are limited, providing a less than 5% five-year survival advantage. The need for new biomarkers for early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer demands the efficient translation of bench knowledge to provide clinical benefit. One source of therapeutic resistance is the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, which is characterized by desmoplasia and hypoxia making it less conducive to current therapies. A major factor regulating desmoplasia and subsequently promoting chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the sole ligand for c-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), an epithelial tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of HGF to c-MET leads to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation resulting in the activation of multiple cellular processes that support cancer progression. Inhibiting activation of c-MET in cancer cells, in combination with other approaches for reducing desmoplasia in the tumor microenvironment, might significantly improve the success of chemotherapy. Therefore, HGF makes a potent novel target for developing therapeutic strategies in combination with existing drugs for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of HGF and its promising potential as a chemotherapeutic target for pancreatic cancer

  13. Hepatocyte Growth Factor from a Clinical Perspective: A Pancreatic Cancer Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwani, Wasia [Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500007 (India); Allen, Amanda E.; Trevino, Jose G., E-mail: Jose.Trevino@surgery.ufl.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd, Rm 6175, P.O. Box 100109, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2015-09-03

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and incidence rates are rising. Both detection and treatment options for pancreatic cancer are limited, providing a less than 5% five-year survival advantage. The need for new biomarkers for early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer demands the efficient translation of bench knowledge to provide clinical benefit. One source of therapeutic resistance is the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, which is characterized by desmoplasia and hypoxia making it less conducive to current therapies. A major factor regulating desmoplasia and subsequently promoting chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the sole ligand for c-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), an epithelial tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of HGF to c-MET leads to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation resulting in the activation of multiple cellular processes that support cancer progression. Inhibiting activation of c-MET in cancer cells, in combination with other approaches for reducing desmoplasia in the tumor microenvironment, might significantly improve the success of chemotherapy. Therefore, HGF makes a potent novel target for developing therapeutic strategies in combination with existing drugs for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of HGF and its promising potential as a chemotherapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  14. Hepatocyte Growth Factor from a Clinical Perspective: A Pancreatic Cancer Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasia Rizwani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and incidence rates are rising. Both detection and treatment options for pancreatic cancer are limited, providing a less than 5% five-year survival advantage. The need for new biomarkers for early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer demands the efficient translation of bench knowledge to provide clinical benefit. One source of therapeutic resistance is the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, which is characterized by desmoplasia and hypoxia making it less conducive to current therapies. A major factor regulating desmoplasia and subsequently promoting chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, the sole ligand for c-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition, an epithelial tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of HGF to c-MET leads to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation resulting in the activation of multiple cellular processes that support cancer progression. Inhibiting activation of c-MET in cancer cells, in combination with other approaches for reducing desmoplasia in the tumor microenvironment, might significantly improve the success of chemotherapy. Therefore, HGF makes a potent novel target for developing therapeutic strategies in combination with existing drugs for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of HGF and its promising potential as a chemotherapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  15. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  16. Role of MicroRNA Regulation in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer: Nutritional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiappan, Ravi; Rajarajan, Dheeran

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones. Recent emerging evidence suggests that alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expressions are found in several diseases, including breast cancer and obesity; however, miRNA roles in obesity-linked breast cancer are beginning to unravel. miRNAs are thought to be potential noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients with comorbid conditions of obesity as well as therapeutic targets. Recent studies have evidenced that nutrients and other dietary factors protect against cancer and obesity through modulation of miRNA expressions. Herein, we summarize a comprehensive overview of up-to-date information related to miRNAs and their molecular targets involved in obesity-associated breast cancer. We also address the mechanisms by which dietary factors modulate miRNA expression and its protective roles in obesity-associated breast cancer. It is hoped that this review would provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated breast cancer to reduce the burden of breast cancer. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. VIDEO: Dr. Henry Rodriguez - Proteogenomics in Cancer Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Henry Rodriguez, director of the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at NCI, speaks with ecancer television at WIN 2017 about the translation of the proteins expressed in a patient's tumor into a map for druggable targets. By combining genomic and proteomic information (proteogenomics), leading scientists are gaining new insights into ways to detect and treat cancer due to a more complete and unified understanding of complex biological processes.

  18. Listening to Neglected Voices - American Indian Perspectives on Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2004-01-01

    Forestry agencies must ensure that the views of all citizens in our increasingly diverse society are included in decisionmaking. But gaining clear insights into the perspectives of ethnic and minority communities is often difficult. This article summarizes an analysis of news articles about resource management issues written by American Indians and published in Indian...

  19. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  20. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective.

  1. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective. PMID:29312339

  2. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrendra Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo perspective.

  3. Cancer Care Coordinators to Improve Tamoxifen Persistence in Breast Cancer: How Heterogeneity in Baseline Prognosis Impacts on Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Blakely, Tony

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a cancer care coordinator (CCC) in helping women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) early breast cancer persist with tamoxifen for 5 years. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of a CCC across eight breast cancer subtypes, defined by progesterone receptor (PR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and local/regional spread. These subtypes range from excellent to poorer prognoses. The CCC helped in improving tamoxifen persistence by providing information, checking-in by phone, and "troubleshooting" concerns. We constructed a Markov macrosimulation model to estimate health gain (in quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) and health system costs in New Zealand, compared with no CCC. Participants were modeled until death or till the age of 110 years. Some input parameters (e.g., the impact of a CCC on tamoxifen persistence) had sparse evidence. Therefore, we used estimates with generous uncertainty and conducted sensitivity analyses. The cost-effectiveness of a CCC for regional ER+/PR-/HER2+ breast cancer (worst prognosis) was NZ $23,400 (US $15,800) per QALY gained, compared with NZ $368,500 (US $248,800) for local ER+/PR+/HER2- breast cancer (best prognosis). Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of NZ $45,000 (US $30,400) per QALY, a CCC would be cost-effective only in the four subtypes with the worst prognoses. There is value in investigating cost-effectiveness by different subtypes within a disease. In this example of breast cancer, the poorer the prognosis, the greater the health gains from a CCC and the better the cost-effectiveness. Incorporating heterogeneity in a cost-utility analysis is important and can inform resource allocation decisions. It is also feasible to undertake in practice. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Cost-Utility Analysis of Prostate Cancer Screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andrew; Gericke, Christian; Whitty, Jennifer A; Yaxley, John; Kua, Boon; Coughlin, Geoff; Gianduzzo, Troy

    2017-02-01

    The Göteborg randomised population-based prostate cancer screening trial demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening reduces prostate cancer deaths compared with an age-matched control group. Utilising the prostate cancer detection rates from this study, we investigated the clinical and cost effectiveness of a similar PSA-based screening strategy for an Australian population of men aged 50-69 years. A decision model that incorporated Markov processes was developed from a health system perspective. The base-case scenario compared a population-based screening programme with current opportunistic screening practices. Costs, utility values, treatment patterns and background mortality rates were derived from Australian data. All costs were adjusted to reflect July 2015 Australian dollars (A$). An alternative scenario compared systematic with opportunistic screening but with optimisation of active surveillance (AS) uptake in both groups. A discount rate of 5 % for costs and benefits was utilised. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of variable uncertainty on model outcomes. Our model very closely replicated the number of deaths from both prostate cancer and background mortality in the Göteborg study. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for PSA screening was A$147,528. However, for years of life gained (LYGs), PSA-based screening (A$45,890/LYG) appeared more favourable. Our alternative scenario with optimised AS improved cost utility to A$45,881/QALY, with screening becoming cost effective at a 92 % AS uptake rate. Both modelled scenarios were most sensitive to the utility of patients before and after intervention, and the discount rate used. PSA-based screening is not cost effective compared with Australia's assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of A$50,000/QALY. It appears more cost effective if LYGs are used as the relevant outcome, and is more cost effective than the

  5. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using...... the non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Lubeck, Deborah; Lalla, Deepa; Paton, Virginia; Dueck, Amylou; Perez, Edith A

    2007-08-01

    Adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy provides significant clinical benefit in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess clinical and economic implications of adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy, based upon joint analysis of NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 trials. A Markov model with 4 health states was used to estimate the cost utility for a 50-year-old woman on the basis of trial results through 4 years and estimates of long-term recurrence and death based on a meta-analysis of trials. From 6 years onward, rates of recurrence and death were assumed to be the same in both trastuzumab and chemotherapy-only arms. Incremental costs were estimated for diagnostic and treatment-related costs. Analyses were from payer and societal perspectives, and these analyses were projected to lifetime and 20-year horizons. Over a lifetime, the projected cost of trastuzumab per quality-adjusted life year (QALY; discount rate 3%) gained was 26,417 dollars (range 9,104 dollars-69,340 dollars under multiway sensitivity analysis). Discounted incremental lifetime cost was 44,923 dollars, and projected life expectancy was 3 years longer for patients who received trastuzumab (19.4 years vs 16.4 years). During a 20-year horizon, the projected cost of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy was 34,201 dollars per QALY gained. Key cost-effectiveness drivers were discount rate, trastuzumab price, and probability of metastasis. The cost-effectiveness result was robust to sensitivity analysis. Trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer was projected to be cost effective over a lifetime horizon, achieving a cost-effectiveness ratio below that of many widely accepted oncology treatments. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  7. Pharmacogenetics and breast cancer management: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Joseph; Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Serdjebi, Cindy; Milano, Gérard

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer has benefited from a number of innovative therapeutics over the last decade. Cytotoxics, hormone therapy, targeted therapies and biologics can now be given to ensure optimal management of patients. As life expectancy of breast cancer patients has been significantly stretched and that several lines of treatment are now made available, determining the best drug or drug combinations to be primarily given and the best dosing and scheduling for each patient is critical for ensuring an optimal toxicity/efficacy balance. Defining patient's characteristics at the tumor level (pharmacogenomics) and the constitutional level (pharmacogenetics) is a rising trend in oncology. This review covers the latest strategies based upon the search of relevant biomarkers for efficacy, resistance and toxicity to be undertaken at the bedside to shift towards precision medicine in breast cancer patients. In the expanding era of bioguided medicine, identifying relevant and clinically validated biomarkers from the plethora of published material remains an uneasy task. Sorting the variety of genetic and molecular markers that have been investigated over the last decade on their level of evidence and addressing the issue of drug exposure should help to improve the management of breast cancer therapy.

  8. Company engagement with nongovernmental organizations from a corporate responsibility perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kourula, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Organizations from a Corporate Responsibility Perspective Purpose – This doctoral dissertation examines the relationship between corporations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The key research question of the thesis is the following: Why and how do companies engage with nongovernmental organizations to demonstrate corporate responsibility in different institutional contexts? The most important motives for engaging with NGOs include gaining legitimacy and knowledge, managing risk, impr...

  9. PPARs Signaling and Cancer in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Pazienza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy has gained a strong interest. From a biological point of view, the overall responsibility of PPARs in cancer development and progression is still controversial since several studies report both antiproliferative and tumor-promoting actions for these signaling molecules in human cancer cells and animal models. In this paper, we discuss PPARs functions in the context of different types of gastrointestinal cancer.

  10. Trauma from a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Trauma from widespread collective violence such as genocide and ethnic cleansing has not been discussed from a global perspective. It will be argued that the Western medical model of diagnostic labeling is inadequate for understanding victims of collective violence from around the world. Phenomenology and liberation philosophy will be discussed as alternatives to understanding trauma from collective violence that move beyond the Western medical model of diagnostic labeling. The insights gained from these alternative approaches will contribute to the development of nursing education, research, and practice relevant to the health of victims of collective violence around the globe.

  11. Learning via participation - a user perspective on user involvement in mental health rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Borg, Tove; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to gain insight into the user’s perspective on user involvement in mental health rehabilitation. The study was designed as a field study lasting 15 months in two supported housing schemes. An ethnographic approach by James Spradley was employed, involving participant...

  12. Increasing awareness of gynaecological cancer symptoms: a GP perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ruth E C; Morris, Melanie; Sekhon, Mandeep; Buszewicz, Marta; Walter, Fiona M; Waller, Jo; Simon, Alice E

    2014-06-01

    In the UK there has been an effort, through the National Awareness and Early Diagnosis Initiative (NAEDI), to increase early stage diagnoses and ultimately cancer survival. Encouraging early symptom presentation through awareness-raising activities in primary care is one method to achieve this goal. Understanding GPs' views about this type of activity, however, is crucial prior to implementation. To describe GPs' attitudes to raising public awareness of gynaecological cancers, and their views about the potential impact on primary care services. An online survey with a convenience sample recruited from 1860 UK general practices. An invitation was emailed to GPs via practice managers and included a weblink to a draft education leaflet and an online survey about the impact of sending a leaflet giving information about symptoms associated with gynaecological cancers to all women on GPs' lists. Participants could offer additional free text comments which were coded using content analysis. A total of 621 GPs participated. Most (77%, 477) felt that raising awareness of cancers was important. Only half (50%, 308), however, indicated that they would distribute such a leaflet from their practice. Barriers to implementation included concerns about financial costs; emotional impact on patients; increased demand for appointments and diagnostic services, such as ultrasound. GPs were generally positive about an intervention to improve patients' awareness of gynaecological cancers, but had concerns about increasing rates of presentation. There is a need for research quantifying the benefits of earlier diagnosis against resource costs such as increased consultations, investigations, and referrals. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  13. Comparative cost-effectiveness of stereotactic body radiation therapy versus intensity-modulated and proton radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju eParthan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer.Methods. A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publically available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both a payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results. Compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and proton beam therapy (PT, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost effective in 75%, and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75%, and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusions. Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  14. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  15. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to ... how to discuss cancer prognosis (the likely course of the disease). Learn key points about prognosis and how to talk about it, and gain valuable insight from the ...

  17. Development of Pain Endpoint Models for Use in Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials and Drug Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    US Food and Drug Administration Perspective.” Both manuscripts have been attached to annual report submitted to Department of Defenses in November...follow-up, conduct weekly telephone meetings with site data managers , and conduct monthly telephone meetings with site PIs (Months 23-75) Completed...Measurement in Cancer Clinical Trials: The US Food and Drug Administration Perspective. Cancer, 2014 Mar 1;120(5):761-7. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28470

  18. Cancerous tissue mapping from random lasing emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, R C; Vardeny, Z V

    2010-01-01

    Random lasing emission spectra have been collected from both healthy and cancerous tissues. The two types of tissue with optical gain have different light scattering properties as obtained from an average power Fourier transform of their random lasing emission spectra. The difference in the power Fourier transform leads to a contrast between cancerous and benign tissues, which is utilized for tissue mapping of healthy and cancerous regions of patients

  19. A cost-utility analysis of risk model-guided versus physician's choice antiemetic prophylaxis in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer: a net benefit regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorn, Kednapa; Coyle, Doug; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Vandermeer, Lisa; Mazzarello, Sasha; Wang, Zhou; Dranitsaris, George; Fergusson, Dean; Clemons, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a risk model-guided (RMG) antiemetic prophylaxis strategy compared with the physician's choice (PC) strategy in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. We conducted a cost-utility analysis based on a published randomized controlled trial of 324 patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy at two Canadian cancer centers. Patients were randomized to receive their antiemetic treatments according to either predefined risk scores or the treating physician's preference. Effectiveness was measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Cost and utility data were obtained from the Canadian published literature. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) over a range of willingness-to-pay values. The lower and upper bounds of the 95% CIs were used to characterize the statistical uncertainty for the cost-effectiveness estimates and construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. From the health care system's perspective, the RMG strategy was associated with greater QALYs gained (0.0016, 95% CI 0.0009, 0.0022) and higher cost ($49.19, 95% CI $24.87, $73.08) than the PC strategy, resulting in an ICER of $30,864.28 (95% CI $14,718.98, $62,789.04). At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that RMG prophylaxis is cost-effective was >94%; this probability increased with greater willingness-to-pay values. The risk-guided antiemetic prophylaxis is an economically attractive option for patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. This information supports the implementation of risk prediction models to guide chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in clinical practices.

  20. Laparoscopic vs. open approach for colorectal cancer: evolution over time of minimal invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Toscano, Chiara; Drago, Filippo; Gangi, Santi; Basile, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In the late '80s the successes of the laparoscopic surgery for gallbladder disease laid the foundations on the modern use of this surgical technique in a variety of diseases. In the last 20 years, laparoscopic colorectal surgery had become a popular treatment option for colorectal cancer patients. Many studies emphasized on the benefits stating the significant advantages of the laparoscopic approach compared with the open surgery of reduced blood loss, early return of intestinal motility, lower overall morbidity, and shorter duration of hospital stay, leading to a general agreement on laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to conventional open surgery for colon cancer. The reduced hospital stay may also decrease the cost of the laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer, despite th higher operative spending compared with open surgery. The average reduction in total direct costs is difficult to define due to the increasing cost over time, making challenging the comparisons between studies conducted during a time range of more than 10 years. However, despite the theoretical advantages of laparoscopic surgery, it is still not considered the standard treatment for colorectal cancer patients due to technical limitations or the characteristics of the patients that may affect short and long term outcomes. The laparoscopic approach to colectomy is slowly gaining acceptance for the management of colorectal pathology. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer demonstrates better short-term outcome, oncologic safety, and equivalent long-term outcome of open surgery. For rectal cancer, laparoscopic technique can be more complex depending on the tumor location. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery may translate better care quality for oncological patients and lead to increased cost saving through the introduction of active enhanced recovery programs which are likely cost-effective from the perspective of the hospital health-care providers.

  1. Music's relevance for pediatric cancer patients: a constructivist and mosaic research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa; Dun, Beth

    2011-06-01

    Music is important in most children's lives. To advance efficacious pediatric supportive care, it is necessary to understand young cancer patients' thoughts about music. Concern about inviting unwell children to express opinions has resulted in scant research examining their views. "Mosaic" research examines children's experiences through investigating multiple perspectives which inform a "co-constructed meaning." This study examines pediatric cancer patients' and their parents' perspectives about music and music therapy's role in the children's lives. Children were receiving care at three hospitals with the Paediatric Integrative Cancer Service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Children up to 14 years old with cancer and parents participated. Data included transcripts from semi-structured research interviews and observations of children's music behaviors. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Findings were compared with music therapists' perspectives examined elsewhere. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients, median age 5.7 years, and 28 parents. Data "saturation" was achieved. A substantive grounded theory emerged: Children's adverse cancer experiences are often alleviated by music usages. Broader family, social, and electronic musical interactions also promote children's resilience and "normal" development. Music therapy and associated programs often, but not always, alleviate children's distress. Positive effects may carry over into children's home lives and vicariously support families. Health professionals should consider ways to assist parents who are often using music to support children with cancer. Hospitals can promote pediatric cancer patients' resilience by providing music-based support services, including music therapy, and reducing unwanted stressful sounds.

  2. Young breast cancer patients in the developing world: incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African patients are more likely to be premenopausal at diagnosis and the ... of whether a patient had a mastectomy or breast conserving therapy. Breast conserving treat- ment is an option for treatment of breast cancer in a young patient given the ... family and society as a whole. ... breast cancer, from the perspective of.

  3. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  4. Altered male physiologic function after surgery for prostate cancer: couple perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvey Tsivian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Both the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa and the physiologic outcomes of surgical treatment impact the male’s psychological sphere. However, current research advocates a refocusing of outcomes directed to the PCa “couple”. Herein we acquire insight into perspective and concordance regarding male physiological function from the standpoint of a couple recovering from PCa surgery. Materials and methods: Couples whereby the male partner had undergone primary surgical treatment for PCa were mailed a Retrospective Sexual Survey (RSS packet consisting of male and female partner questionnaires. RSS questions surveyed physiological changes in libido, foreplay, erection and arousal, orgasm and ejaculation in addition to perceived psychological impact. Patients’ and partners’ scores were evaluated to determine the concordance of both individual items as well as domain sums. Results: Twenty-eight couples completed the questionnaires. Only about 40% of men and women were happy with their levels of sexual interest with 82% concordance. Urine loss during orgasm was reported by 43% of men; the majority of participants were bothered by it. Ejaculation changes were observed by 96% of men (concordance 96% with most reporting anejaculation. A change in orgasm experience was noted by 86% of men (and 36% of their female partners, p < 0.0001. Despite the change, the majority of men and women reported being satisfied with their ability to climax. Conclusion: Our results indicate that patients and their female partners may interpret differently the same physiological outcomes of PCa surgery. This information could be useful to better counsel the PCa couple and help patients and partners adjust after surgery.

  5. Benefits of Higher Education in Mid-Life: A Life Course Agency Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits of higher education in mid-life from the perspective of life course agency. Studies concerning the benefits of degree-oriented higher education have been mainly conducted using survey questionnaires and quantitative methods. In order to gain a more comprehensive picture, this qualitative…

  6. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  7. Endometrial cancer : from a molecular genetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Smid-Koopman (Ellen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe first observations indicative of a role of genetic factors in carcinogenesis were made as early as 1912, when Rous demonstrated that a filterable agent (i.e. virus) could induce cancer in chicken (Rous 1965). In 1914, Boveri postulated a "genetic" theory on carcinogenesis by

  8. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  9. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Gamze

    2011-07-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer.

  10. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocially influenced cancer: diverse early-life stress experiences and links to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Linda A; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-11-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page 1398 in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to the identification of risk factors and sensitive developmental windows, enabling improved prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. ©2010 AACR.

  12. OLDER PEOPLE AND SPORT, LOOKING BEYOND THE HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva VONCK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some important theoretical questions on the relationship between sports and older people, beyond the health perspective. Sport has been attributed numerous social functions and meanings. Also policymakers have experimented with the use of sport for social purposes. However, both research and poli cy initiatives are in general cons idered from a functional and instrumental point of view. Especially considering older people sport is mainly approached from a health perspective. A combination of insights from gerontology and sport sciences should help us gain a better view on how sport can contribute to the social integration of older people. This paper offers an extensive literature review focusing on formulating opportunities for further research about sport participation among older people.

  13. Study of gain-coupled distributed feedback laser based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Qin, Li; Chen, Yongyi; Jia, Peng; Chen, Chao; Cheng, LiWen; Chen, Hong; Liang, Lei; Zeng, Yugang; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Hao; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-03-01

    Single-longitudinal-mode, gain-coupled distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings are achieved. Periodic surface metal p-contacts with insulated grooves realize gain-coupled mechanism. To enhance gain contrast in the quantum wells without the introduction of effective index-coupled effect, groove length and depth were well designed. Our devices provided a single longitudinal mode with the maximum CW output power up to 48.8 mW/facet at 971.31 nm at 250 mA without facet coating, 3dB linewidth (39 dB). Optical bistable characteristic was observed with a threshold current difference. Experimentally, devices with different cavity lengths were contrasted on power-current and spectrum characteristics. Due to easy fabrication technique and stable performance, it provides a method of fabricating practical gain-coupled distributed feedback lasers for commercial applications.

  14. Papillary Thyroid Cancer: The Good and Bad of the "Good Cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Reese W; Bushman, Norah M; Orne, Jason; Balentine, Courtney J; Wendt, Elizabeth; Saucke, Megan; Pitt, Susan C; Macdonald, Cameron L; Connor, Nadine P; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2017-07-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is often described as the "good cancer" because of its treatability and relatively favorable survival rates. This study sought to characterize the thoughts of papillary thyroid cancer patients as they relate to having the "good cancer." This qualitative study included 31 papillary thyroid cancer patients enrolled in an ongoing randomized trial. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants at the preoperative visit and two weeks, six weeks, six months, and one year after thyroidectomy. Grounded theory was used, inductively coding the first 113 interview transcripts with NVivo 11. The concept of thyroid cancer as "good cancer" emerged unprompted from 94% (n = 29) of participants, mostly concentrated around the time of diagnosis. Patients encountered this perception from healthcare providers, Internet research, friends, and preconceived ideas about other cancers. While patients generally appreciated optimism, this perspective also generated negative feelings. It eased the diagnosis of cancer but created confusion when individual experiences varied from expectations. Despite initially feeling reassured, participants described feeling the "good cancer" characterization invalidated their fears of having cancer. Thyroid cancer patients expressed that they did not want to hear that it's "only thyroid cancer" and that it's "no big deal," because "cancer is cancer," and it is significant. Patients with papillary thyroid cancer commonly confront the perception that their malignancy is "good," but the favorable prognosis and treatability of the disease do not comprehensively represent their cancer fight. The "good cancer" perception is at the root of many mixed and confusing emotions. Clinicians emphasize optimistic outcomes, hoping to comfort, but they might inadvertently invalidate the impact thyroid cancer has on patients' lives.

  15. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  16. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  17. Cancer Support Needs for African American Breast Cancer Survivors and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell

    2016-03-01

    Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races.

  18. WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY: A GENDERED PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas-Doorgapersad, Shikha

    2017-01-01

    There are a very few studies available to gain insight into the impact of yoga and alternative therapies1 on stress management, conflict resolution and work productivity. In previous studies the focus fell on the gendered perspective, exploring the impact of spiritual modalities on the physical and mental wellness of male and female employees. Spiritual practices such as yoga and other alternative therapies have been found to be significant to enhance work productivity, hence be part of organ...

  19. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Heidenreich, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  20. Connecting internal communication and organizational engagement. An employee-centered perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Garcia, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Connections between organizational engagement and internal communication have gained much interest in recent years, due to existing evidence suggesting that employees who engage with their organization affect organization’s effectiveness and that, in turn, internal communication can influence organizational engagement. However, there is little evidence about such connection seen from an employee perspective and therefore, this study sought to explore linkages between employee organizational e...

  1. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J; Daykin, J; Holder, R; Sheppard, M C; Franklyn, J A

    2001-08-01

    Patients frequently express concern that treating hyperthyroidism will lead to excessive weight gain. This study aimed to determine the extent of, and risk factors for, weight gain in an unselected group of hyperthyroid patients. We investigated 162 consecutive hyperthyroid patients followed for at least 6 months. Height, weight, clinical features, biochemistry and management were recorded at each clinic visit. Documented weight gain was 5.42 +/- 0.46 kg (mean +/- SE) and increase in BMI was 8.49 +/- 0.71%, over a mean 24.2 +/- 1.6 months. Pre-existing obesity, Graves' disease causing hyperthyroidism, weight loss before presentation and length of follow-up each independently predicted weight gain. Patients treated with thionamides or radioiodine gained a similar amount of weight (thionamides, n = 87, 5.16 +/- 0.63 kg vs. radioiodine, n = 62, 4.75 +/- 0.57 kg, P = 0.645), but patients who underwent thyroidectomy (n = 13) gained more weight (10.27 +/- 2.56 kg vs. others, P = 0.007). Development of hypothyroidism (even transiently) was associated with weight gain (never hypothyroid, n = 102, 4.57 +/- 0.52 kg, transiently hypothyroid, n = 29, 5.37 +/- 0.85 kg, on T4, n = 31, 8.06 +/- 1.42 kg, P = 0.014). This difference remained after correcting for length of follow-up. In the whole cohort, weight increased by 3.95 +/- 0.40 kg at 1 year (n = 144) to 9.91 +/- 1.62 kg after 4 years (n = 27) (P = 0.008), representing a mean weight gain of 3.66 +/- 0.44 kg/year. We have demonstrated marked weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pre-existing obesity, a diagnosis of Graves' disease and prior weight loss independently predicted weight gain and weight continued to rise with time. Patients who became hypothyroid, despite T4 replacement, gained most weight.

  2. 'Closing the Loop' in an Architectural Perspective on Strategic Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Galvin, Peter; Bach, Norbert

    This paper elaborates important systemic interrelationships between firms' strategic choices of product architectures and organization architectures, and between firms' architectural choices and the industry structures and competitive/cooperative dynamics that emerge in an industry. We formalize...... a "Reverse Mirroring Hypothesis" suggesting that organizational architectures desired by firms influence their choices of product architectures. We embed firms' strategic architectural decisions in a co‐evolutionary model linking product market evolution, firms' architectural choices, and industry evolution....... We invoke both transaction costs and capabilities perspectives to suggest how firms' assessments of their relative potential for capturing gains from specialization versus gains from trade influence their strategic architectural choices. We develop concepts of architectural commonality, architectural...

  3. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    AKBULUT, GAMZE

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer. PMID:22977559

  4. Translational and functional oncogenomics. From cancer-oriented genomic screenings to new diagnostic tools and improved cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medico, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    We present here an experimental pipeline for the systematic identification and functional characterization of genes with high potential diagnostic and therapeutic value in human cancer. Complementary competences and resources have been brought together in the TRANSFOG Consortium to reach the following integrated research objectives: 1) execution of cancer-oriented genomic screenings on tumor tissues and experimental models and merging of the results to generate a prioritized panel of candidate genes involved in cancer progression and metastasis; 2) setup of systems for high-throughput delivery of full-length cDNAs, for gain-of-function analysis of the prioritized candidate genes; 3) collection of vectors and oligonucleotides for systematic, RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of the candidate genes; 4) adaptation of existing cell-based and model organism assays to a systematic analysis of gain and loss of function of the candidate genes, for identification and preliminary validation of novel potential therapeutic targets; 5) proteomic analysis of signal transduction and protein-protein interaction for better dissection of aberrant cancer signaling pathways; 6) validation of the diagnostic potential of the identified cancer genes towards the clinical use of diagnostic molecular signatures; 7) generation of a shared informatics platform for data handling and gene functional annotation. The results of the first three years of activity of the TRANSFOG Consortium are also briefly presented and discussed.

  5. Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartuma Katarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Methods Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Results Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Conclusions Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.

  6. Alcohol and cancer: a position statement from Cancer Council Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Margaret H; Pratt, Iain S; Chapman, Kathryn; Griffin, Hayley J; Croager, Emma J; Olver, Ian N; Sinclair, Craig; Slevin, Terry J

    2011-05-02

    The Cancer Council Australia (CCA) Alcohol Working Group has prepared a position statement on alcohol use and cancer. The statement has been reviewed by external experts and endorsed by the CCA Board. Alcohol use is a cause of cancer. Any level of alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing an alcohol-related cancer; the level of risk increases in line with the level of consumption. It is estimated that 5070 cases of cancer (or 5% of all cancers) are attributable to long-term chronic use of alcohol each year in Australia. Together, smoking and alcohol have a synergistic effect on cancer risk, meaning the combined effects of use are significantly greater than the sum of individual risks. Alcohol use may contribute to weight (fat) gain, and greater body fatness is a convincing cause of cancers of the oesophagus, pancreas, bowel, endometrium, kidney and breast (in postmenopausal women). The existing evidence does not justify the promotion of alcohol use to prevent coronary heart disease, as the previously reported role of alcohol in reducing heart disease risk in light-to-moderate drinkers appears to have been overestimated. CCA recommends that to reduce their risk of cancer, people limit their consumption of alcohol, or better still avoid alcohol altogether. For individuals who choose to drink alcohol, CCA recommends that they drink only within the National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for alcohol consumption.

  7. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  8. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive wires. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the passive view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g. putting in a contact lens to highly forceful (emergency reactions. Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation.

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Korean Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Edward

    2002-01-01

    ... profiles as objective measures of breast cancer phenotypes. The study is being conducted using samples from Korean women because this likely represents a relatively homogeneous population from genetic and cultural perspectives...

  10. Nab-paclitaxel, docetaxel, or solvent-based paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer: a cost-utility analysis from a Chinese health care perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Bo Yu,2 Jennifer King,3 Satyin Kaura,3 Adams Zhang3 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA Background: Paclitaxel and docetaxel are commonly used for metastatic breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China. To improve the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel, an albumin-bound formulation (nab is now available in the People's Republic of China (Abraxane®. To provide health economic data for the key stakeholders, a cost-utility analysis comparing nab-paclitaxel to docetaxel, both as alternatives to paclitaxel, was conducted. Methods: A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes Phase III trials comparing nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m2 every [q] 3 weeks or branded docetaxel (100 mg/m2 q 3 weeks, to solvent-based branded paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 q 3 weeks was undertaken to provide safety and clinical data. Resource use data for the delivery of anticancer therapy and for the treatment of grade 3/4 toxicity was collected from a time and motion study conducted in three Chinese cancer centers and from a survey of clinicians. Using the Time Trade-Off technique, health utility estimates were derived from interviewing 28 breast cancer patients from one cancer center in the People's Republic of China. All costs were reported in 2014 US dollars. Results: Nab-paclitaxel had the most favorable safety profile, characterized with the lowest incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, anemia, and stomatitis. When the median number of cycles delivered from the clinical trials was applied, nab-paclitaxel had a cost per course of $19,752 compared with $8,940 and $13,741 for paclitaxel and docetaxel, respectively. As an alternative to paclitaxel, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained with nab-paclitaxel suggested better value than with docetaxel ($57,900 vs $130,600. Conclusion: Nab

  11. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  12. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  13. Current Status and Perspectives of Hyperthermia in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nagata, Yasushi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Sakamoto, Masashi; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy undertaken over the past decades in Japan have been reviewed. Originally developed heating devices were mostly used for these trials, which include RF (radiofrequency) capacitive heating devices, a microwave heating device with a lens applicator, an RF intracavitary heating device, an RF current interstitial heating device, and ferromagnetic implant heating device. Non-randomized trials for various cancers, demonstrated higher response rate in thermoradiotherapy than in radiotherapy alone. Randomized trials undertaken for esophageal cancers also demonstrated improved local response with the combined use of hyperthermia. Furthermore, the complications associated with treatment were not generally serious. These clinical results indicate the benefit of combined treatment of hyperthermia and radiotherapy for various malignancies. On the other hand, the presently available heating devices are not satisfactory from the clinical viewpoints. With the advancement of heating and thermometry technologies, hyperthermia will be more widely and safely used in the treatment of cancers.

  14. [Prostate cancer. Part 1: Review of cell kinetics over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L

    2016-02-01

    Using tritium-labeled thymidine histoautoradiography, the AgNOR staining technique and Ki67-MIB-1 immunohistochemistry to study cell kinetics, prostate cancer can be subdivided into slowly, moderately and rapidly proliferating tumors. These are important supplementary methods and prerequisites for a grading as low, intermediate and high-grade in addition to classical histology and cytology. Cytometry of DNA can confirm the cell kinetics of prostate cancer by detection of a predominance of diploid or aneuploid cell nuclei but should only be evaluated together with histological investigations. All histology-based analyses of cell kinetics encompass the classical highly and poorly differentiated glandular and cribriform patterns as well as solid undifferentiated structures and the various subcategories. The malignancy grading of prostate cancer can result from the summation of histological grading and cell kinetic analyses, as long as the named investigations are included. The future perspectives of individualized therapy options, including active surveillance in early low-grade and also for high-grade prostate cancer and new antihormonal treatment in advanced disease, may increasingly rely on tissue biomarkers and advanced technologies for whole genome analysis including next generation sequencing.

  15. PRX1 knockdown potentiates vitamin K3 toxicity in cancer cells: a potential new therapeutic perspective for an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tiantian; Hatem, Elie; Vernis, Laurence; Lei, Ming; Huang, Meng-Er

    2015-12-21

    significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2, which was partially responsible for vitK3-induced ROS accumulation and consequent cell death. Our data suggest that PRX1 inactivation could represent an interesting strategy to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to vitK3, providing a potential new therapeutic perspective for this old molecule. Conceptually, a combination of drugs that modulate intracellular redox states and drugs that operate through the generation of ROS could be a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

  16. Health Care Providers' Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators to Cervical Cancer Screening in Vietnamese American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Truong, Connie Kim Yen; Hassouneh, Dena; Lee-Lin, Frances; Hsiao, Chiao-Yun; Le, Tuong Vy; Tang, Joannie; Vu, Margret; Truong, Anthony My

    2017-12-01

    Vietnamese American women (VAW) are diagnosed and die at twice the rate than White non-Hispanic American women (16.8/100,000 vs. 8.1/100,000 and 4.4/100,000 vs. 2.4/100,000, respectively). Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer (CC) screening among VAW, the participation rates are persistently low (69% to 81%). The purpose of this study was to explore health care providers' (HCPs) perspectives on barriers and facilitators to CC screening in VAW. This qualitative descriptive pilot study, used open-ended semistructured interviews with 10 HCPs. The HCPs had two to 23 years treating VAW. Major barriers and facilitators identified by the HCPs were as follows: VAW's decision making about CC screening; sexual health divide; language discordance, relying on interpreters; breaking suspicion; VAW's exposure to health sources of CC screening; sustainable trust; and motivated health care practices. HCPs perceived the reasons for VAW not being screened or delaying CC screening were due to their lack of knowledge, cultural barriers, language, and issues related to trust.

  17. Shifting the balance of mitochondrial apoptosis: therapeutic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Signaling via the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis represents one of the critical signal transduction cascades that control the regulation of cell death. This pathway is typically altered in human cancers, thereby providing a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins as well as cell survival signaling cascades such as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are involved in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, further insights into the molecular mechanisms that form the basis for the control of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis will likely open new perspectives to bypass evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance in human cancers.

  18. Shifting the balance of mitochondrial apoptosis: therapeutic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulda, Simone, E-mail: simone.fulda@kgu.de [Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-10-08

    Signaling via the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis represents one of the critical signal transduction cascades that control the regulation of cell death. This pathway is typically altered in human cancers, thereby providing a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins as well as cell survival signaling cascades such as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are involved in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, further insights into the molecular mechanisms that form the basis for the control of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis will likely open new perspectives to bypass evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance in human cancers.

  19. Shifting the balance of mitochondrial apoptosis: therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFulda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via the intrinsic (mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis represents one of the critical signal transduction cascades that control the regulation of cell death. This pathway is typically altered in human cancers, thereby providing a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins as well as cell survival signaling cascades such as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are involved in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, further insights into the molecular mechanisms that form the basis for the control of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis will likely open new perspectives to bypass evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance in human cancers.

  20. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains......We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high......-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p...

  1. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  2. Economic evaluation of monoclonal antibody in the management of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezat SW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine the cost of colorectal cancer (CRC management and compare the cost effectiveness of cetuximab and bevacizumab in the management of CRC. Method: This economic evaluation study from a societal perspective involves collecting resource utilization data based on the clinical pathway of colorectal cancer management. The cost calculated includes drugs, human resources, administrative, investigations as well as capital cost. Patient’s cost was also calculated based on an interview with colorectal cancer patients. Effectiveness estimates for monoclonal antibody (cetuximab and bevacizumab treatment were modeled from study respondents based on references from other studies. Results: Cost of treating a case of colorectal cancer in stage I is RM13,623 (RM12,467-RM14,777, stage II RM19,753 (RM16,734-RM23,520, stage III RM24,972 (RM20,291-RM29,654 and stage IV RM27, 163 (RM23, 192-RM31,133. Cost of CRC management increase with the increasing stage of the disease (Kruskal Wallis, X2=106, p<0.001. Based on estimates of 2671 new cases of CRC, the incremental cost of cetuximab is RM20, 556 480 and bevacizumab is RM7,557,953 at 50% stage III and IV as compared to the conventional chemotherapy. The incremental cost per quality adjusted life years gained for cetuximab is RM38,869 and RM14,290 for bevacizumab. Although both types of monoclonal antibody are considered cost effective (based on WHO guidelines of less than three times of GDP, bevacizumab is considered more cost effective than cetuximab. Cost effectiveness was sensitive to the percentage of late stages of CRC. Conclusions: Cost of treating late stage of CRC is high and bevacizumab are more cost effective compared to cetuximab in the management of the late stage of CRC.

  3. Patient-centred outcomes research: perspectives of patient stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Gallo, Joseph J; Wittink, Marsha; Schwartz, J Sanford; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-11-01

    To elicit patient stakeholders' experience and perspectives about patient-centred care. Qualitative. A large urban healthcare system. Four patient stakeholders who are prostate cancer survivors. Experience and perspectives of patient stakeholders regarding patient-centred care and treatment decisions. Our patient stakeholders represented a diverse socio-demographic group. The patient stakeholders identified engagement and dialogue with physicians as crucial elements of patient-centred care model. The degree of patient-centred care was observed to be dependent on the situations. High severity conditions warranted a higher level of patient involvement, compared to mild conditions. They agreed that patient-centred care should not mean that patients can demand inappropriate treatments. An important attribute of patient-centred outcomes research model is the involvement of stakeholders. However, we have limited knowledge about the experience of patient stakeholders in patient-centred outcomes research. Our study indicates that patient stakeholders offer a unique perspective as researchers and policy-makers aim to precisely define patient-centred research and care.

  4. Challenges and future perspectives of T cell immunotherapy in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P; Malhotra, Anshu; Mishra, Manoj K; Shanker, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Since the formulation of the tumour immunosurveillance theory, considerable focus has been on enhancing the effectiveness of host antitumour immunity, particularly with respect to T cells. A cancer evades or alters the host immune response by various ways to ensure its development and survival. These include modifications of the immune cell metabolism and T cell signaling. An inhibitory cytokine milieu in the tumour microenvironment also leads to immune suppression and tumour progression within a host. This review traces the development in the field and attempts to summarize the hurdles that the approach of adoptive T cell immunotherapy against cancer faces, and discusses the conditions that must be improved to allow effective eradication of cancer. PMID:26096822

  5. Optimal weight gain in triplet pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Erfani, Hadi; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Spiel, Melissa; Ravangard, Sam F; Shaman, Majid; Allaf, M Baraa; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2017-08-01

    To identify appropriate weight gain in triplet gestations, which may aid in reducing the risk of perinatal morbidity within this high-risk cohort. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all non-anomalous triplet pregnancies between 23 and 40 weeks' gestation resulting in live births at five tertiary-care medical centers between 1991 and 2011. Subjects were divided by pre-pregnancy BMI into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups, and then stratified by low (gain (≥1.5 lbs/week). Primary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia. We included 116 mothers and 348 corresponding neonates for final analysis. The incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery less than 32 weeks' gestation was 37% and 41%, respectively. The incidence of preeclampsia increased with weight gain per week, but was not statistically different from subjects who gained less weight. We found no statistical correlation between weight gain per week and preterm delivery. We found no association between preeclampsia or preterm delivery and increasing weight gain in triplet pregnancies. The association with increased risk for preeclampsia was predominantly due to BMI effect. Based on the current study, recommendations for optimal weight gain in mothers with triplet gestations could not be defined.

  6. Quantifying the Cumulative Impact of Differences in Care on Prostate Cancer Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fesinmeyer, Megan

    2007-01-01

    ... of the disparity in prostate cancer outcomes. This work involves first examining how care patterns are correlated throughout all phases of cancer care within racial groups in order to gain a fuller understanding of how racial differences across...

  7. Humble beginnings: Current trends, state perspectives, and hallmarks of humility

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Lyubomirsky, S

    2013-01-01

    After decades of neglect, research in humility is finally turning a corner. Within the past few years, investigators have articulated two promising strategies to overcome methodological concerns - namely, using personality judgments and designing humility "stress tests" to elicit humility-relevant behavior. We also highlight an alternative perspective of humility that has not yet gained much attention: the investigation of humility as a state, which helps to understand what humility actually ...

  8. Managing LLRW from decommissioning of nuclear facilities - a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donders, R E [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Hardy, D G [Frontenac Consulting Services, Deep River, ON (Canada); De, P L [Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office, Gloucester, ON (Canada)

    1994-03-01

    In Canada, considerable experience has been gained recently in decommissioning nuclear facilities and managing the resulting waste. This experience has raised important issues from both the decommissioning and waste management perspectives. This paper focuses on the waste management aspects of decommissioning. Past experience is reviewed, preliminary estimates of waste volumes and characteristics are provided, and the major technical and regulatory issues are discussed. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Overview on Patient Centricity in Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarunas Narbutas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of treatment in cancer care partially depends on how patients' perspectives are taken into account, as preferences of health care professionals and patients may differ. Objectives of this exploratory research were (I to identify patient preferences and values (PPVs in cancer care as indicated by patient organizations (POs, (II to determine how these PPVs are captured in cancer care guidelines and (III to review how guidelines take into account these PPVs. Based on a survey developed and completed by 19 POs, a literature review was conducted to analyse how patient perspectives are incorporated in oncology treatment guidelines. Based on survey results traditional health technology assessment value propositions of oncology care, such as extended life, treatment-free remission and pain reduction, were also highly rated by POs. However, the heterogeneity of cancer PPVs were clearly reflected in the survey results. PPVs in cancer care guidelines were mostly limited to those micro-level aspects that are strictly related to health care provision, such as side-effects and comorbidities. Patient experience, emotional support and convenience of care were relatively neglected fields in the reviewed guidelines. Patient engagement was rarely presented in the guideline development phase. POs believe that patients should be encouraged to take an active role in their own care due to the heterogeneity of cancer patients and PPVs. Even if patient-centricity is a leading paradigm in cancer policy, based on our research it is not yet standard practice to include patients or POs at all appropriate levels of decision-making processes that are related to their health and well-being. Patient engagement should be an integral part of cancer care decision-making. This complexity must be reflected throughout policy making, avoiding a population level “one-size-fits-all” solution.

  10. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  11. A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Villanti

    Full Text Available A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50-64 at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program.The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses.The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50-64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical recommendations.

  12. CCR 20th Anniversary Commentary: Prospects and Challenges of Therapeutic Nanoparticles in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Shin, Dong M

    2015-10-15

    In their review article published in the March 1, 2008, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Cho and colleagues presented the strong potential of nanotechnology in cancer. This commentary discusses the latest advances in nanotechnology, which provide novel approaches for cancer diagnosis, imaging, drug delivery, and personalized therapy; highlights the perspectives for therapeutic nanoparticles; and describes the advantages and challenges of their multifunctionalities. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. RNA-based ovarian cancer research from 'a gene to systems biomedicine' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Esra; Kori, Medi; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2017-08-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from a gynecologic malignancy, and treatment of this disease is harder than any other type of female reproductive cancer. Improvements in the diagnosis and development of novel and effective treatment strategies for complex pathophysiologies, such as ovarian cancer, require a better understanding of disease emergence and mechanisms of progression through systems medicine approaches. RNA-level analyses generate new information that can help in understanding the mechanisms behind disease pathogenesis, to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets and in new drug discovery. Whole RNA sequencing and coding and non-coding RNA expression array datasets have shed light on the mechanisms underlying disease progression and have identified mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs involved in ovarian cancer progression. In addition, the results from these analyses indicate that various signalling pathways and biological processes are associated with ovarian cancer. Here, we present a comprehensive literature review on RNA-based ovarian cancer research and highlight the benefits of integrative approaches within the systems biomedicine concept for future ovarian cancer research. We invite the ovarian cancer and systems biomedicine research fields to join forces to achieve the interdisciplinary caliber and rigor required to find real-life solutions to common, devastating, and complex diseases such as ovarian cancer. CAF: cancer-associated fibroblasts; COG: Cluster of Orthologous Groups; DEA: disease enrichment analysis; EOC: epithelial ovarian carcinoma; ESCC: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; GSI: gamma secretase inhibitor; GO: Gene Ontology; GSEA: gene set enrichment analyzes; HAS: Hungarian Academy of Sciences; lncRNAs: long non-coding RNAs; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases; NGS: next-generation sequencing; ncRNAs: non-coding RNAs; OvC: ovarian cancer; PI3K

  14. Weight History, Smoking, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk among French-Canadian Women Non-Carriers of More Frequent BRCA1/2 Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnee Bissonauth

    2009-01-01

    Comparing cases to controls, breast cancer risk was higher among subjects who reached their maximum body mass index (BMI at an older age (>50 years (OR=2.83; 95% CI: 2.34–2.91. A positive association was noted between breast cancer risk and weight gain of >34 lbs compared to weight gain of ≤15 lbs, since the age of 20 (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.10–2.58. Weight gain of >24 lbs compared to weight gain of ≤9 lbs, since the age of 30 also resulted in the same relationship (OR=1.96; 95% CI: 1.46–3.06. Similarly, since the age of 40, weight gain of >12 lbs compared to weight gain of ≤1 lb was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR=1.91; 95% CI: 1.53–2.66. Women who smoked >9 pack-years of cigarettes had a 59% higher breast cancer risk (P=.05. Subjects who engaged in >24.8 metabolic-equivalent- (MET- hours per week compared to ≤10.7 MET-hours per week of moderate physical activity had a 52% (P=.01 decreased risk and total physical activity between 16.2 and 33.2 MET-hours per week compared to ≤16.2 MET-hours per week, resulted in a 43% (P=.05 lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, weight history did affect breast cancer risk. Moreover, smoking appeared to raise the risk, whereas moderate physical activity had a protective effect.

  15. Qualitative descriptive study exploring schizophrenia and the everyday effect of medication-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyk, Amanda Digel; Baker, Cynthia

    2012-08-01

    Weight gain and obesity are serious side effects of the medications used to manage psychotic disorders and successful, long-term weight loss interventions are not yet available. One reason for this may be that current interventions are designed without consideration of the patient's perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of weight and lifestyle from the perspective of people with schizophrenia. A qualitative, constructivist research design was used and conversational interviews were conducted with 18 purposefully recruited participants from an outpatient clinic at a psychiatric hospital in Eastern Ontario. Data were analysed according to the method of constant comparison and three central themes emerged: a life altering diagnosis, weight management as complex, and today's experiences shape tomorrow's outcomes. Weight management was seen as difficult yet important to the participants. The findings of this study provide insight into the views and opinions of the participants regarding weight and lifestyle and may be used to support the design of tailored heath initiatives for persons with mental illness. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  16. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Developing the Fourth Evaluation Dimension: A Protocol for Evaluation of Video From the Patient's Perspective During Major Incident Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, J J Mark; Leenen, Luke P H

    2017-10-01

    Presently used evaluation techniques rely on 3 traditional dimensions: reports from observers, registration system data, and observational cameras. Some of these techniques are observer-dependent and are not reproducible for a second review. This proof-of-concept study aimed to test the feasibility of extending evaluation to a fourth dimension, the patient's perspective. Footage was obtained during a large, full-scale hospital trauma drill. Two mock victims were equipped with point-of-view cameras filming from the patient's head. Based on the Major Incident Hospital's first experience during the drill, a protocol was developed for a prospective, standardized method to evaluate a hospital's major incident response from the patient's perspective. The protocol was then tested in a second drill for its feasibility. New insights were gained after review of the footage. The traditional observer missed some of the evaluation points, which were seen on the point-of-view cameras. The information gained from the patient's perspective proved to be implementable into the designed protocol. Use of point-of-view camera recordings from a mock patient's perspective is a valuable addition to traditional evaluation of trauma drills and trauma care. Protocols should be designed to optimize and objectify judgement of such footage. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:594-599).

  18. FROM BEHAVIORAL FINANCE TO ECCLESIASTES FINANCE: THE PAIN OF GAIN AND THE GLORY OF AN INVESTMENT LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic and practitioner’s literature has a plethora of evidence that active investment management is futile economically and underperforming financially, - more preponderant for large, blue chips. For smaller capitalization companies, purchased at discount there is an attractive, sustainable return promise, a long-term outperformance. We introduce a terminology that encapsulates this capitulation against this apparently overwhelming forces of tangible underperformance of active investment, inefficient asset allocation and high risk - low return portfolios, the era of Ecclesiastes Finance. Investors loathe to make decisions for fear of loss and discount all negative subtle announcement of the fragility of our gains and futility of our investment arrogance. And ignoring them can lead investors to make less fortunate financial decisions that can affect portfolio for decades. Investing with an Ecclesiastes attitude - the fragility of human condition in context of financial affairs - temporary gains and losses are less significant when framed in a larger perspective.

  19. Best Practices in Cancer Nanotechnology – Perspective from NCI Nanotechnology Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, William C.; Torchilin, Vladimir; Patri, Anil; Hrkach, Jeff; Stern, Stephen; Lee, Robert; Nel, Andre; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Historically, treatment of patients with cancer using chemotherapeutic agents has been associated with debilitating and systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, on the other hand, can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance from the body, and be administered without toxic solvents. They hold immense potential in addressing all of these issues which has hampered further development of chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, such drug delivery systems will lead to cancer therapeutic modalities which are not only less toxic to the patient but also significantly more efficacious. In addition to established therapeutic modes of action, nanomaterials are opening up entirely new modalities of cancer therapy, such as photodynamic and hyperthermia treatments. Furthermore, nanoparticle carriers are also capable of addressing several drug delivery problems which could not be effectively solved in the past and include overcoming formulation issues, multi-drug-resistance phenomenon and penetrating cellular barriers that may limit device accessibility to intended targets such as the blood-brain-barrier. The challenges in optimizing design of nanoparticles tailored to specific tumor indications still remain; however, it is clear that nanoscale devices carry a significant promise towards new ways of diagnosing and treating cancer. This review focuses on future prospects of using nanotechnology in cancer applications and discusses practices and methodologies used in the development and translation of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. PMID:22669131

  20. Protease Addiction and Synthetic Lethality in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freije, José M. P.; Fraile, Julia M.; López-Otín, Carlos, E-mail: jmpf@uniovi.es [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Universitario de Oncología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-09-05

    The “oncogene addiction” concept refers to the dependence of cancer cells on the function of the oncogenes responsible for their transformed phenotype, while the term “non-oncogene addiction” has been introduced to define the exacerbated necessity of the normal function of non-mutated genes. In this Perspective, we focus on the importance of proteolytic enzymes to maintain the viability of cancer cells and hypothesize that most, if not all, tumors present “addiction” to a number of proteolytic activities, which in turn may represent valuable targets of anti-cancer therapies, even without being mutated or over-expressed by the malignant cells.

  1. Protease Addiction and Synthetic Lethality in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freije, José M. P.; Fraile, Julia M.; López-Otín, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The “oncogene addiction” concept refers to the dependence of cancer cells on the function of the oncogenes responsible for their transformed phenotype, while the term “non-oncogene addiction” has been introduced to define the exacerbated necessity of the normal function of non-mutated genes. In this Perspective, we focus on the importance of proteolytic enzymes to maintain the viability of cancer cells and hypothesize that most, if not all, tumors present “addiction” to a number of proteolytic activities, which in turn may represent valuable targets of anti-cancer therapies, even without being mutated or over-expressed by the malignant cells.

  2. The role of glycosylation in breast cancer metastasis and cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eKölbl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGlycosylation and its correlation to the formation of remote metastasis in breast cancer had been an important scientific topic in the last 25 years. With the development of new analytical techniques new insights were gained on the mechanisms underlying metastasis formation and the role of aberrant glycosylation within. Mucin-1 and Galectin were recognized as key players in glycosylation. Interestingly, aberrant carbohydrate structures seem to support the development of brain metastasis in breast cancer patients, as changes in glycosylation structures facilitate an overcoming of blood-brain barrier. Changes in the gene expression of glycosyltransferases are the leading cause for a modification of carbohydrate chains, so that also altered gene expression plays a role for glycosylation. In consequence, glycosylation and changes within can be useful for cancer diagnosis, determination of tumour stage and prognosis, but can as well be targets for therapeutic strategies. Thus, further research on this topic would worth wile for cancer combating.

  3. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  4. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Cao M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available María González-Cao,1 Niki Karachaliou,1 Santiago Viteri,1 Daniela Morales-Espinosa,1 Cristina Teixidó,2 Jesús Sánchez Ruiz,3 Miquel Ángel Molina-Vila,2 Mariacarmela Santarpia,4 Rafael Rosell1,2,5,61Translational Cancer Research Unit, Instituto Oncológico Dr Rosell, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pangaea Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro Nacional de Investigación Oncología (CNIO, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Human Pathology Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 5Cancer Biology and Precision Medicine Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Institute and Hospital, Campus Can Ruti, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 6Fundación Molecular Oncology Research, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Increased understanding of tumor immunology has led to the development of effective immunotherapy treatments. One of the most important advances in this field has been due to pharmacological design of antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are currently in advanced phases of clinical development for several tumors, including lung cancer. Results from Phase I–III trials with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in non-small-cell lung cancer have demonstrated response rates of around 20% (range, 16%–50%. More importantly, responses are long-lasting (median duration of response, 18 months and fast (50% of responses are detected at time of first tumor evaluation with very low grade 3–4 toxicity (less than 5%. Recently, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, supported by data from a Phase Ib trial. Another anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, has also been approved for lung cancer based on survival advantage demonstrated in recently released data from a Phase III trial in squamous cell lung cancer.Keywords: immunotherapy, immunoncology

  5. NKG2D and its ligands in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Payal; Wu, Jennifer D

    2018-04-01

    NKG2D is an activating immune receptor expressed by NK and effector T cells. Induced expression of NKG2D ligand on tumor cell surface during oncogenic insults renders cancer cells susceptible to immune destruction. In advanced human cancers, tumor cells shed NKG2D ligand to produce an immune soluble form as a means of immune evasion. Soluble NKG2D ligands have been associated with poor clinical prognosis in cancer patients. Harnessing NKG2D pathway is considered a viable avenue in cancer immunotherapy over recent years. In this review, we will discuss the progress and perspectives. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  7. Cost drivers for breast, lung, and colorectal cancer care in a commercially insured population over a 6-month episode: an economic analysis from a health plan perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Bhuvana; Lin, Yu Shen; Castel, Liana D

    2017-10-01

    In the absence of clinical data, accurate identification of cost drivers is needed for economic comparison in an alternate payment model. From a health plan perspective using claims data in a commercial population, the objective was to identify and quantify the effects of cost drivers in economic models of breast, lung, and colorectal cancer costs over a 6-month episode following initial chemotherapy. This study analyzed claims data from 9,748 Cigna beneficiaries with diagnosis of breast, lung, and colorectal cancer following initial chemotherapy from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015. We used multivariable regression models to quantify the impact of key factors on cost during the initial 6-month cancer care episode. Metastasis, facility provider affiliation, episode risk group (ERG) risk score, and radiation were cost drivers for all three types of cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal). In addition, younger age (p < .0001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 oncogene overexpression (HER2+)-directed therapy (p < .0001) were associated with higher costs in breast cancer. Younger age (p < .0001) and female gender (p < .0001) were also associated with higher costs in colorectal cancer. Metastasis was also associated with 50% more hospital admissions and increased hospital length of stay (p < .001) in all three cancers over the 6-month episode duration. Chemotherapy and supportive drug therapies accounted for the highest proportion (48%) of total medical costs among beneficiaries observed. Value-based reimbursement models in oncology should appropriately account for key cost drivers. Although claims-based methodologies may be further augmented with clinical data, this study recommends adjusting for the factors identified in these models to predict costs in breast, lung, and colorectal cancers.

  8. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  9. Transculturality as a Perspective: Researching Media Cultures Comparatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hepp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on media cultures operates in a "national-territorial" frame. Media cultures are considered as national cultures and other forms of media culture (for example professional journalism cultures, diasporas, celebrity cultures etc. are not investigated in their "deterritorial" character. But it is exactly such deterritorial forms of media culture that are gaining relevance with the ongoing pace of media globalization: they therefore have to be placed in the focus of comparative media and communication research. Starting with this consideration, the article develops a transcultural perspective on researching media cultures. Within this perspective it becomes possible to conduct comparative research on (territorial national media cultures as well as on other (deterritorial forms of present media cultures, as this approach moves the processes of cultural construction and articulation into the focus of analysis. To arrive at a better understanding of this approach, "media cultures" are defined as translocal phenomena in their territorial as well as their deterritorial relations. Based on this, the "semantics" of a transcultural research perspective are outlined, which then makes it possible to formulate practical principles for carrying out comparative qualitative research within this framework. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901267

  10. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  11. The cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality: an economic measure of the cancer burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul A; Sharp, Linda

    2014-03-26

    Most measures of the cancer burden take a public health perspective. Cancer also has a significant economic impact on society. To assess this economic burden, we estimated years of potential productive life lost (YPPLL) and costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland. All cancers combined and the 10 sites accounting for most deaths in men and in women were considered. To compute YPPLL, deaths in 5-year age-bands between 15 and 64 years were multiplied by average working-life expectancy. Valuation of costs, using the human capital approach, involved multiplying YPPLL by age-and-gender specific gross wages, and adjusting for unemployment and workforce participation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted around retirement age and wage growth, labour force participation, employment and discount rates, and to explore the impact of including household production and caring costs. Costs were expressed in €2009. Total YPPLL was lower in men than women (men = 10,873; women = 12,119). Premature cancer-related mortality costs were higher in men (men: total cost = €332 million, cost/death = €290,172, cost/YPPLL = €30,558; women: total cost = €177 million, cost/death = €159,959, cost/YPPLL = €14,628). Lung cancer had the highest premature mortality cost (€84.0 million; 16.5% of total costs), followed by cancers of the colorectum (€49.6 million; 9.7%), breast (€49.4 million; 9.7%) and brain & CNS (€42.4 million: 8.3%). The total economic cost of premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland amounted to €509.5 million or 0.3% of gross domestic product. An increase of one year in the retirement age increased the total all-cancer premature mortality cost by 9.9% for men and 5.9% for women. The inclusion of household production and caring costs increased the total cost to €945.7 million. Lost productivity costs due to cancer-related premature mortality are significant. The higher premature mortality cost in males than

  12. Gain-of-function mutant p53 but not p53 deletion promotes head and neck cancer progression in response to oncogenic K-ras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acin, Sergio; Li, Zhongyou; Mejia, Olga; Roop, Dennis R; El-Naggar, Adel K; Caulin, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in p53 occur in over 50% of the human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCHN). The majority of these mutations result in the expression of mutant forms of p53, rather than deletions in the p53 gene. Some p53 mutants are associated with poor prognosis in SCCHN patients. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the poor outcome of cancers carrying p53 mutations are unknown. Here, we generated a mouse model for SCCHN and found that activation of the endogenous p53 gain-of-function mutation p53R172H, but not deletion of p53, cooperates with oncogenic K-ras during SCCHN initiation, accelerates oral tumour growth, and promotes progression to carcinoma. Mechanistically, expression profiling of the tumours that developed in these mice and studies using cell lines derived from these tumours determined that mutant p53 induces the expression of genes involved in mitosis, including cyclin B1 and cyclin A, and accelerates entry in mitosis. Additionally, we discovered that this oncogenic function of mutant p53 was dependent on K-ras because the expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin A decreased, and entry in mitosis was delayed, after suppressing K-ras expression in oral tumour cells that express p53R172H. The presence of double-strand breaks in the tumours suggests that oncogene-dependent DNA damage resulting from K-ras activation promotes the oncogenic function of mutant p53. Accordingly, DNA damage induced by doxorubicin also induced increased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin A in cells that express p53R172H. These findings represent strong in vivo evidence for an oncogenic function of endogenous p53 gain-of-function mutations in SCCHN and provide a mechanistic explanation for the genetic interaction between oncogenic K-ras and mutant p53. PMID:21952947