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Sample records for cancer frequency intensity

  1. Low Intensity and Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Selectively Impair Breast Cancer Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Crocetti, Sara; Beyer, Christian; Schade, Grit; Egli, Marcel; Fr?hlich, J?rg; Franco-Obreg?n, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A common drawback of many anticancer therapies is non-specificity in action of killing. We investigated the potential of ultra-low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to kill breast cancer cells. Our criteria to accept this technology as a potentially valid therapeutic approach were: 1) cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells and; 2) that the designed fields proved innocuous to healthy cell classes that would be exposed to the PEMFs during clinical treatmen...

  2. Low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields selectively impair breast cancer cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Crocetti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A common drawback of many anticancer therapies is non-specificity in action of killing. We investigated the potential of ultra-low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs to kill breast cancer cells. Our criteria to accept this technology as a potentially valid therapeutic approach were: 1 cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells and; 2 that the designed fields proved innocuous to healthy cell classes that would be exposed to the PEMFs during clinical treatment. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells and their normal counterparts, MCF10 cells, were exposed to PEMFs and cytotoxic indices measured in order to design PEMF paradigms that best kill breast cancer cells. The PEMF parameters tested were: 1 frequencies ranging from 20 to 50 Hz; 2 intensities ranging from 2 mT to 5 mT and; 3 exposure durations ranging from 30 to 90 minutes per day for up to three days to determine the optimum parameters for selective cancer cell killing. RESULTS: We observed a discrete window of vulnerability of MCF7 cells to PEMFs of 20 Hz frequency, 3 mT magnitude and exposure duration of 60 minutes per day. The cell damage accrued in response to PEMFs increased with time and gained significance after three days of consecutive daily exposure. By contrast, the PEMFs parameters determined to be most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cells were not damaging to normal MCF-10 cells. CONCLUSION: Based on our data it appears that PEMF-based anticancer strategies may represent a new therapeutic approach to treat breast cancer without affecting normal tissues in a manner that is non-invasive and can be potentially combined with existing anti-cancer treatments.

  3. Low Intensity and Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Selectively Impair Breast Cancer Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Sara; Beyer, Christian; Schade, Grit; Egli, Marcel; Fröhlich, Jürg; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A common drawback of many anticancer therapies is non-specificity in action of killing. We investigated the potential of ultra-low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to kill breast cancer cells. Our criteria to accept this technology as a potentially valid therapeutic approach were: 1) cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells and; 2) that the designed fields proved innocuous to healthy cell classes that would be exposed to the PEMFs during clinical treatment. Methods MCF7 breast cancer cells and their normal counterparts, MCF10 cells, were exposed to PEMFs and cytotoxic indices measured in order to design PEMF paradigms that best kill breast cancer cells. The PEMF parameters tested were: 1) frequencies ranging from 20 to 50 Hz; 2) intensities ranging from 2 mT to 5 mT and; 3) exposure durations ranging from 30 to 90 minutes per day for up to three days to determine the optimum parameters for selective cancer cell killing. Results We observed a discrete window of vulnerability of MCF7 cells to PEMFs of 20 Hz frequency, 3 mT magnitude and exposure duration of 60 minutes per day. The cell damage accrued in response to PEMFs increased with time and gained significance after three days of consecutive daily exposure. By contrast, the PEMFs parameters determined to be most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cells were not damaging to normal MCF-10 cells. Conclusion Based on our data it appears that PEMF-based anticancer strategies may represent a new therapeutic approach to treat breast cancer without affecting normal tissues in a manner that is non-invasive and can be potentially combined with existing anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24039828

  4. Efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a cross-over randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Roser; Tejero, Marta; Ferrer, Montse; Muniesa, Josep Maria; Duarte, Esther; Cunillera, Oriol; Escalada, Ferran

    2012-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy and manual lymphatic drainage in the treatment of chronic upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Cross-over single-blind random clinical trial. Rehabilitation service. Thirty-six women with chronic upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Patients were randomized to undergo 10 sessions of manual lymphatic drainage followed by 10 sessions of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy or to undergo first low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy followed by manual lymphatic drainage. There was a month of washout time between treatments. Each patient was examined just before and after each treatment. Researchers and outcome assessors were blinded for assigned treatment. Outcomes were lymphoedema volume, pain, heaviness and tightness, and health-related quality of life measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Questionnaire for Breast Cancer version 4 (FACT-B+4). Carry-over, period and treatment effects were analysed. Treatment effect was assessed using paired t-test. Thirty patients finalized treatment. Comparing the changes in low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy with manual lymphatic drainage changes, there were no significant differences. Low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy did not reduce lymphoedema volume (mean of change = 19.77 mL, P = 0.36), but significant reductions were observed in pain, heaviness and tightness (mean of change = 13.1, 16.2 and 6.4 mm, respectively), and FACT-B+4 summaries improved significantly (Trial Outcome Index mean of change = 5.4, P = 0.015). Manual lymphatic drainage showed no significant changes in any of the outcomes Although there are no significant differences between treatment changes, the observed trend towards a better health-related quality of life is remarkable in low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy.

  5. The transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of variable frequency intensity has a longer-lasting analgesic action than the burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in cancer pain

    OpenAIRE

    Schleder, Juliana Carvalho; Verner, Fernanda Aparecida; Mauda, Loriane; Mazzo, Débora Melo; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain is one of the most frequent symptoms in cancer, and physical therapy offers non-invasive methods such as the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the relief of symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with variable intensity frequency in cancer pain. METHODS: This study was conducted with 53 patients of the H...

  6. Late swallowing dysfunction and dysphagia after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer: frequency, intensity and correlation with dose and volume parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Lambertsen, Karin; Grau, Cai

    2007-01-01

    function after radiotherapy and examine its correlation with irradiated volume and dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All recurrence free patients treated for pharynx cancer with radical radiotherapy at our institution, between 1998 and 2002, were invited to participate, 35 (55% of eligible) agreed. Patients were......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia and swallowing problems are common in pharynx cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Dysfunction of the upper aerodigestive tract may lead to reduced quality of life, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. The aim of the current study was to describe swallowing...

  7. Late swallowing dysfunction and dysphagia after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer: Frequency, intensity and correlation with dose and volume parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Lambertsen, Karin; Grau, Cai

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dysphagia and swallowing problems are common in pharynx cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Dysfunction of the upper aerodigestive tract may lead to reduced quality of life, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. The aim of the current study was to describe swallowing function after radiotherapy and examine its correlation with irradiated volume and dose. Patients and methods: All recurrence free patients treated for pharynx cancer with radical radiotherapy at our institution, between 1998 and 2002, were invited to participate, 35 (55% of eligible) agreed. Patients were examined with EORTC quality of life questionnaires and functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Organs at risk were delineated on planning CT scans, available for 25 patients. Results: Eighty-three percent of patients had some degree of dysphagia. Reduced sensitivity was observed in 94%, residues in 88%, penetration in 59% and aspiration in 18% of patients. Several significant correlations were found between both subjective and objective swallowing problems and DVH parameters of the upper aerodigestive tract. Doses less than 60 Gy to the supraglottic region, the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter resulted in a low risk of aspiration. Discussion: Both subjective and objective swallowing problems were frequent and severe after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer. Swallowing dysfunction was correlated with dose and volume parameters of the upper aerodigestive tract

  8. Optimization of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound-mediated microvessel disruption on prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice using an orthogonal experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y U; Bai, Wenkun; Chen, Yini; Lin, Yanduan; Hu, Bing

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to provide a complete exploration of the effect of sound intensity, frequency, duty cycle, microbubble volume and irradiation time on low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound (US)-mediated microvessel disruption, and to identify an optimal combination of the five factors that maximize the blockage effect. An orthogonal experimental design approach was used. Enhanced US imaging and acoustic quantification were performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. In the confirmatory test, in addition to acoustic quantification, the specimens of the tumor were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed using light microscopy. The results revealed that sound intensity, frequency, duty cycle, microbubble volume and irradiation time had a significant effect on the average peak intensity (API). The extent of the impact of the variables on the API was in the following order: Sound intensity; frequency; duty cycle; microbubble volume; and irradiation time. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: Sound intensity, 1.00 W/cm 2 ; frequency, 20 Hz; duty cycle, 40%; microbubble volume, 0.20 ml; and irradiation time, 3 min. In the confirmatory test, the API was 19.97±2.66 immediately subsequent to treatment, and histological examination revealed signs of tumor blood vessel injury in the optimum parameter combination group. In conclusion, the Taguchi L 18 (3) 6 orthogonal array design was successfully applied for determining the optimal parameter combination of API following treatment. Under the optimum orthogonal design condition, a minimum API of 19.97±2.66 subsequent to low-frequency and low-intensity mediated blood perfusion blockage was obtained.

  9. Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationship for Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship provides essential information for the planning, design and evaluation of hydraulic structures, highways, urban drainage works and flood plan management. The objective of this paper is to develop IDF relationship that will enable estimation of intensity of rainfall (I) ...

  10. Bayesian estimation of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, H.

    2015-10-01

    Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are one of the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering. They give an idea of how return levels of extreme rainfall intensities vary with duration over a range of return periods. It is assumed that the annual maximum intensity follows the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Conventional methods of estimating IDF relationships do not provide estimates of uncertainty. We propose a Bayesian framework for handling uncertainties in IDF models. Firstly, we collect annual maximum intensity data over a relevant range of rainfall durations. Secondly, we define an approximate likelihood, the ;independence; likelihood, in which the correlations have been ignored between maximum intensity data of different durations. Finally, we apply Bayesian inference to obtain the adjusted posterior, which accounts for likelihood misspecification. A comparison with earlier methods, without any adjustment amongst others, shows that the adjusted posteriors are considerably wider.

  11. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cellulase dry matter disappearance (CDMD) and herbage nitrogen (N) of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) were evaluated for pastures grown under subtropical conditions for two years, under five combinations of grazing frequency and intensity, each applied in a rotational grazing system. These quality factors were ...

  12. intensity, duration and frequency of rainstorms in lokoja

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shuaibu et al.

    1 and Areola, 2004) This study intends to fill this gap and look at the relationship amongst intensity, duration and frequency of rainstorms in Lokoja. This relationship is commonly determined through the statistical analysis of data from weather. /meteorological stations. This is important because its study (IDF) can be used not ...

  13. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  14. Eating frequency and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Hastert, Theresa A; Patterson, Ruth; Potter, John D; Neuhouser, Marian L; White, Emily

    2013-12-01

    Eating frequency is a modifiable aspect of dietary behavior that may affect risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although most previous case-control studies indicate a positive association, two prospective studies suggest an inverse association between eating frequency and CRC risk, with evidence of effect modification by diet composition. We examined the association between eating frequency and CRC in a large, prospective cohort study, and explored whether this relationship was modified by sex, coffee consumption, or dietary glycemic load. Between 2000 and 2002, 67,912 western Washington residents aged 50-76 reported average daily meal and snack frequency using a mailed questionnaire as part of the vitamins and lifestyle study. Participants were followed for CRC through linkage with SEER through 2008, over which time 409 CRC cases developed. Hazard Ratios and 95 % Confidence Intervals were obtained using Cox regression. In age- and sex-adjusted models higher (5+ times/d) vs. lower (1-2 times/d) eating frequency was associated with a HR of 0.62 (95 % CI 0.43-0.88, Ptrend = 0.001). However, following further adjustment for BMI, race/ethnicity, alcohol, and other known CRC risk factors, the relationship was no longer statistically significant (HR: 0.76; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.14). No effect modification was observed by sex (Pinteraction = 0.45), coffee consumption (Pinteraction = 0.44), or dietary glycemic load (Pinteraction = 0.90). In subgroup analyses by tumor site, higher vs. lower eating frequency was associated with lower risk for colon (HR 0.65 95 % CI 0.39-1.07, Ptrend = 0.04), but not rectal cancers (HR = 1.08 95 % CI 0.54-2.18, Ptrend = 0.94). The weak inverse association observed between eating frequency and CRC is consistent with findings from other prospective studies. Modification of this relationship by diet quality and participant characteristics should be considered in the future studies.

  15. Intensity and frequency stabilization of a laser diode by simultaneously controlling its temperature and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Weiwei; Hu, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Binquan

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope (NMRG) detects the angular velocity of the vehicle utilizing the interaction between the laser beam and the alkali metal atoms along with the noble gas atoms in the alkali vapor cell. In order to reach high precision inertial measurement target, semiconductor laser in NMRG should have good intensity and frequency stability. Generally, laser intensity and frequency are stabilized separately. In this paper, a new method to stabilize laser intensity and frequency simultaneously with double-loop feedback control is presented. Laser intensity is stabilized to the setpoint value by feedback control of laser diode's temperature. Laser frequency is stabilized to the Doppler absorption peak by feedback control of laser diode's current. The feedback control of current is a quick loop, hence the laser frequency stabilize quickly. The feedback control of temperature is a slow loop, hence the laser intensity stabilize slowly. With the feedback control of current and temperature, the laser intensity and frequency are stabilized finally. Additionally, the dependence of laser intensity and frequency on laser diode's current and temperature are analyzed, which contributes to choose suitable operating range for the laser diode. The advantage of our method is that the alkali vapor cell used for stabilizing laser frequency is the same one as the cell used for NMRG to operate, which helps to miniaturize the size of NMRG prototype. In an 8-hour continuous measurement, the long-term stability of laser intensity and frequency increased by two orders of magnitude and one order of magnitude respectively.

  16. Automatic detection of frequency changes depends on auditory stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, S; Lang, A H; Aaltonen, O; Lertola, K; Kärki, T

    1999-06-01

    A cortical cognitive auditory evoked potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), reflects automatic discrimination and echoic memory functions of the auditory system. For this study, we examined whether this potential is dependent on the stimulus intensity. The MMN potentials were recorded from 10 subjects with normal hearing using a sine tone of 1000 Hz as the standard stimulus and a sine tone of 1141 Hz as the deviant stimulus, with probabilities of 90% and 10%, respectively. The intensities were 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 dB HL for both standard and deviant stimuli in separate blocks. Stimulus intensity had a statistically significant effect on the mean amplitude, rise time parameter, and onset latency of the MMN. Automatic auditory discrimination seems to be dependent on the sound pressure level of the stimuli.

  17. Outcomes of Intensive Care Unit admissions after elective cancer surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M. M. E. M.; Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; Dekker, J. W. T.; de Keizer, N. F.; de Jonge, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postoperative care for major elective cancer surgery is frequently provided on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Objective: To analyze the characteristics and outcome of patients after ICU admission following elective surgery for different cancer diagnoses. Methods: We analyzed all ICU

  18. Microwave generation and frequency conversion using intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzi, J.M.; Doucet, H.J.; Etlicher, B.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the microwave generation and frequency conversion by relativistic electron beams are studied. Using an electron synchrotron maser, the excitation of microwaves by an annular relativistic electron beam propagating through a circular wave guide immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field is analyzed. This theoretical model is somewhat more realistic than the previous one because the guiding centers are not on the wave guide axis. Microwave reflection is observed on a R.E.B. front propagating into a gas filled waveguide. The frequency conversion from the incident X-band e.m. waves and the reflected Ka band observed signal is consistent with the Doppler model for β = 0.7. This value agrees with the average beam front velocity as measured from time-of-flight using two B/sub theta/ probes. The reflection is found to occur during the current rise time. With a low impedance device (2 Ω, 400 keV) a GW X-band emission has been observed using thin anodes and a gas filled waveguide. This emission is probably due to the self-fields of the beam and could be used as a diagnostic

  19. Intense neutron sources for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of small, solid-target, pulsed neutron sources for nuclear weapons applications. The feasibility of using this type of neutron source for cancer treatment is discussed. Plans for fabrication and testing of such a source is briefly described

  20. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, C.; Galli, M.; Meoli, P.; Mariani, L.; Novelli, L.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To analyze the feasibility of high dose assessing acute and late toxicities both rectal and genitourinary in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Between April 2006 and April 2008 90 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with MRT technique in the Department of Radiotherapy. The analysis included 80 patients, 10 of them in treatment. The total dose received was 80 Gy. One patient received 70.2 Gy (because of previous pelvic radiotherapy). Age average: 65 (r 43-85 years). Stage: T1c: 43 p (53.75%), T2: 35 p (43.75%), T3: 1 p (1.25%). Score of Gleason 10 ng/ml and [es

  1. Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Norppa, Hannu; Ceppi, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    for stomach cancer [RR(medium) = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.37-3.70), RR(high) = 3.13 (95% CI = 1.17-8.39)]. Exposure to carcinogens did not modify the effect of CA levels on overall cancer risk. These results reinforce the evidence of a link between CA frequency and cancer risk and provide novel information......Mechanistic evidence linking chromosomal aberration (CA) to early stages of cancer has been recently supported by the results of epidemiological studies that associated CA frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy individuals to future cancer incidence. To overcome the limitations of single...... studies and to evaluate the strength of this association, a pooled analysis was carried out. The pooled database included 11 national cohorts and a total of 22 358 cancer-free individuals who underwent genetic screening with CA for biomonitoring purposes during 1965-2002 and were followed up for cancer...

  2. A numerical and experimental investigation of the performance of sound intensity probes at high frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Cutanda, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    1998-01-01

    The high-frequency performance of a p-p intensity probe with a solid spacer between the two microphones is examined. It is shown theoretically and verified experimentally that with a spacer length that equals the diameter of the microphones, the finite difference error is almost perfectly cancell...... by a cavity resonance. It is concluded that the usable frequency range of sound intensity probes can be doubled with this configuration....

  3. Effect of intensity and frequency of defoliation on aerial growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia karroo trees were defoliated by goats at two intensities and four frequencies; 2, 4, 8 and 12-weekly. Leaf accumulation and carbohydrate reserve levels were compared to a non-defoliated control, and to plants (defoliation controls) which were defoliated for the first time that season each time a frequency treatment ...

  4. Childhood cancer frequency in the center of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaoui, Nabiha; Khouzemi, Mehdi; Landolsi, Hanene; Jaidene, Lilia; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben; Abdelkader, Atef Ben; Beizig, Nadia; Yaacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Hmissa, Sihem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the frequency of childhood cancer in the Center of Tunisia during 1993-2006. The different types of cancer were grouped according to the International Classification for Cancer in Children. The general and specific frequencies by age and by sex were analyzed. A total of 727 new cases of childhood cancer were registered, with a male to-female sex ratio of 1.7/1. Leukemias had the highest frequency (27%) and, of these, lymphoid leukemias were the most prevalent (73.5%). Thereafter, in descending order of frequency, were lymphomas (25.7%), tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, 9.2%), neuroblastomas (7.7%), sarcomas (6.9%), carcinomas (6.3%), bone tumors (5.8%), nephroblastomas (5.5%), and germinal cell tumors (2.6%). The highest frequency of cancer was found at age 10-14 years (34.9%). Leukemias were the most frequent in age groups 1-4 and 5-9 years, whereas, neuroblastomas and lymphomas were the most frequent at age under one year and 10-14 years, respectively. Of those cases of solid tumors, 55.8% were diagnosed as having advanced stages of the disease. Leukemias, lymphomas, and CNS tumors were the principal cancers in the Center of Tunisia. A childhood cancer registry with high-resolution data collection is advocated for in-depth analysis of pediatric malignancies.

  5. Incidence and frequency rates of childhood cancer in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the extent of paediatric malignancy in an African country and to compare these findings wjth paediatric cancer rates in other countries. Design. A retrospective descriptive study which calculated incidence and frequency rates from the data obtained from a 6-year survey of childhood cancer in. Namibia.

  6. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  7. Dependence of low-frequency sonophoresis on ultrasound parameters; distance of the horn and intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, T; Mitragotri, S; Kost, J; Langer, R

    2002-03-20

    Sonophoresis at a frequency of 20 kHz has been shown to enhance transdermal drug delivery, a phenomenon referred to as low-frequency sonophoresis. This study provides an investigation of the dependence of low-frequency sonophoresis on various ultrasound parameters, including the distance of the horn from the skin, intensity, and frequency. We performed in vitro experiments with full thickness pig skin to measure enhancements of skin conductivity and drug permeability. Ultrasound was applied to pretreat the skin using a sonicator operating at a frequency of either 20 or 40 kHz. We also measured pitting of aluminum foil to measure cavitation, which is the principal mechanism of low-frequency sonophoresis. The skin conductivity enhancement was found to be inversely proportional to the distance of the horn from the skin. As the intensity increased, skin conductivity enhancement also increased up to a certain threshold, and then dropped off. The intensities (I(max)) at which maximum enhancement occur are about 14 W/cm2 for 20 kHz and 17 W/cm2 for 40 kHz. These findings may be useful in optimizing low-frequency sonophoresis. Overall, the dependence of transport on ultrasound parameters is similar to that of aluminum foil pitting. These results support the role of cavitation in low-frequency sonophoresis.

  8. The effects of tones on speaking frequency and intensity ranges in Mandarin and Min dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng H.

    2005-05-01

    The differences of speaking frequency and intensity in different tonal dialects has not been widely investigated. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the speaking frequency and speaking intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min and (2) to compare the speaking frequency and intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min to those of American English. The subjects were 80 normal Taiwanese adults divided into two dialect groups, Mandarin and Min. The speaking F0, the highest speaking F0, the lowest speaking F0, the maximum range of speaking F0, and the intensity counterpart were obtained from reading in their native dialects. Statistical analysis revealed that Min speakers had a significantly greater maximum range of speaking intensity and a smaller lowest speaking intensity than Mandarin speakers, which indicated tonal effects by speakers of the Min dialect. Moreover, Mandarin and Min speakers had a greater maximum range of speaking F0 and maximum range of speaking intensity than American English speakers. The data may provide an assessment tool for Mandarin speakers and Min speakers. .

  9. [Application of low-intensity and ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation in modern pediatric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azov, N A; Azova, E A

    2009-01-01

    The use of an Amfit-0,2/10-01 apparatus generating low-intensity ultrahigh frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation improved efficiency of therapy of sick children. This treatment allowed to reduce the frequency of intake of anesthetics in the post-operative period, correct metabolic disorders in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, reduce severity of diabetic nephropathy and polyneuropathy, prevent formation of fresh foci of lipoid necrobiosis. The results of the study indicate that the use of low-intensity UHF electromagnetic radiation may be recommended for more extensive introduction into practical clinical work of pediatric endocrinologists and surgeons.

  10. How does fire intensity and frequency affect miombo woodland tree populations and biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Miombo woodlands are the largest savanna in the world and dominate southern Africa. They are strongly influenced by anthropogenic fires and support the livelihoods of over 100 million people. Managing the fire regime of these flammable systems is difficult, but crucial for sustaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and carbon stocks. Fire intensity is more easily manipulated than fire frequency, because suppression is expensive and ineffective. However, there are important issues relating fire intensity to impacts on woody vegetation that need to be understood to inform management approaches. Such impacts include the links between fire intensity, tree top-kill, resprouting, and regrowth rates. Here we present results from a fire experiment in Mozambican miombo; the results of a 50-year fire experiment in Zimbabwean miombo; and observations of forest structure at a dry-forest site in Mozambique. We synthesize these data with a process-based gap model of stem growth, regeneration, and mortality; this model explicitly considers the effect of different frequencies and intensities of fire. We use the model, tested against the field data, to explore the sensitivity of woodland tree populations and biomass to fire intensity and frequency. The fire experiments show that large (> 5 cm dbh) stems are vulnerable to fire, with top-kill rates of up to 12% in intense fires. In contrast to idealized physical representations of tree mortality, stems of > 10 cm dbh did not gain further protection from fire with increasing dbh. Resprouting was very common and not obviously linked to fire intensity. The modeling showed that miombo tree populations and biomass are very sensitive to fire intensity, offering opportunities for effective management. At any achievable fire return interval (biomass. Model predictions and field experiments show that no tree biomass can be sustained under annual fires.

  11. Frequency and determinants of drug administration errors in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bemt, PMLA; Fijn, R; van der Voort, PHJ; Gossen, AA; Egberts, TCG; Brouwers, JRBJ

    Objective., The study aimed to identify both the frequency and the determinants of drug administration errors in the intensive care unit. Design: Administration errors were detected by using the disguised-observation technique (observation of medication administrations by nurses, without revealing

  12. Probabilistic Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for the October 2015 Flooding in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Samadi, S. Z.; Meadows, M.

    2017-12-01

    The potential for the intensity of extreme rainfall to increase with climate change nonstationarity has emerged as a prevailing issue for the design of engineering infrastructure, underscoring the need to better characterize the statistical assumptions underlying hydrological frequency analysis. The focus of this study is on developing probabilistic rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for the major catchments in South Carolina (SC) where the October 02-05, 2015 floods caused infrastructure damages and several lives to be lost. Continuous to discrete probability distributions including Weibull, the generalized extreme value (GEV), the Generalized Pareto (GP), the Gumbel, the Fréchet, the normal, and the log-normal functions were fitted to the short duration (i.e., 24-hr) intense rainfall. Analysis suggests that the GEV probability distribution provided the most adequate fit to rainfall records. Rainfall frequency analysis indicated return periods above 500 years for urban drainage systems with a maximum return level of approximately 2,744 years, whereas rainfall magnitude was much lower in rural catchments. Further, the return levels (i.e., 2, 20, 50,100, 500, and 1000 years) computed by Monte Carlo method were consistently higher than the NOAA design IDF curves. Given the potential increase in the magnitude of intense rainfall, current IDF curves can substantially underestimate the frequency of extremes, indicating the susceptibility of the storm drainage and flood control structures in SC that were designed under assumptions of a stationary climate.

  13. ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION OF SKY-WAVE FIELD INTENSITIES IN THE HIGH FREQUENCY BAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    frequencies and distances considered. Succeeding sections show the method of analysis of absorption, the method of analysis of absolute magnitudes, the... method of analysis of day-to-day variations, the proposed field intensity prediction method, and summarizing conclusions. All necessary equations used in the prediction method are represented in nomograms.

  14. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Frequency and Intensity Ratings Are Associated with Factor Structure Differences in Military Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Biehn, Tracey L.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Magruder, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined possible differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the basis of whether frequency or intensity symptom response formats were used to assess PTSD. Participants included 669 veterans recruited from an epidemiological study of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers' primary care clinics in the…

  16. EFFECT RADIANCE INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY BEEF MANURE OF GROWTH, YIELD, QUALITY PATCHOULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Heru Pamungkas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on April 1 to August 1, 2012 in East Temon village yards, Kulonprogro, 200 m above sea level, minimum temperature of 240̊ C and 300 ̊C. Field research was compiled based on Split Plot Design. Main plot is intensity Sunlight treatment, consisting of three level, namely: 80 percent. Sub Plot Watering Frequency is treatment of liquid cow manure, comprising two levels, namely: Frequency of watering three times: patchouli age 1, 2, and 3 months. Frequency of watering four times: patchouli age 1, 2, 3, and 4 months. In each Main Plot, Sub Plot repeated three times and a plot in yard area 3.5 x 2 m2, consisting of 25 patchouli. Parameters: growth, yield, quality of patchouli. Data ANOVA at five percent level of error to determine effect of a single treatment or interaction, followed by DMRT at five percent level. Result: no interaction effect between treatment frequency of liquid cow manure and intensity of sunlight on growth parameters, yield, and quality of patchouli age of five months. Inter-frequency liquid cow manure watering three and four times not significantly different effect. Inter-intensity sunlight 80 percent not significantly.

  17. Is There a Relationship Between Snoring Sound Intensity and Frequency and OSAS Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Hancı, Deniz; Seren, Erdal; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between snoring sounds and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). A total number of 103 snoring patients (60 males and 43 females) were evaluated by means of polysomnographic findings and snoring sound recordings. Snoring sound intensity was assessed using fast Fourier transform (FFT) method by measuring maximal frequency (Fmax) and average snoring sound intensity level (SSIL). Maximal frequency and SSIL are correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), REM AHI, and severity of the OSAS. So, as the severity of the OSAS increased, so did the Fmax and SSIL of the snoring recordings, meaning patients started snoring louder with more frequency. In older patients, in females, in severe OSAS group, and in patients with higher body mass index (BMI), AHI and AHI REM values and SSIL and Fmax values increased. As mean oxygen (O2) saturation and lowest O2 saturation decreased, SSIL and Fmax values increased. Maximal frequency and SSIL analysis of the snoring sound increased in severe OSAS patients. People should be aware of the importance of snoring sounds. In particular, patients with snoring sounds increasing in intensity and of higher frequency should discuss with their physicians the possibility of OSAS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Peri-threshold encoding of stimulus frequency and intensity in the M100 latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufflebeam, S M; Poeppel, D; Rowley, H A; Roberts, T P

    1998-01-05

    Recent work has suggested that, in addition to spatial tonotopy, pitch and timbre information may be encoded in the temporal activity of the auditory cortex. Specifically, the post-stimulus latency of the maximal cortical evoked neuromagnetic field (M100 or N1m) is a function of stimulus frequency. We investigated the additional effect of varying the stimulus intensity on the M100 response. A 37-channel biomagnetometer recorded neuromagnetic fields over the temporal lobe of healthy volunteers in response to monaurally presented tones. The frequency dependence of the M100 latency remained remarkably invariant even at low stimulus intensity. Thus, for peri-threshold stimuli, frequency information appears encoded in the temporal form of the evoked response.

  19. TCIQ: An identification by intensity and frequency of potent testing cues in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermis, William J.

    Everyone experiences some anxiety while taking an examination. High-test-anxious (HTA) and low-test-anxious (LTA) students are described by two characteristic differences: frequency and intensity of anxious responses and attentional direction to testing cues. The purposes of this study were threefold: (1) to report potent testing cues (i.e., 90% response agreement for both intensity and frequency) that were identified by HTA and LTA students; (2) to report differences between HTA and LTA students for frequencies and intensities of responses to testing cues; and (3) to report differences between HTA and LTA students of attentional direction to testing cues. A pool of 396 males and females who were enrolled in physical geology completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A random sample consisting of 93 HTA and 40 LTA subjects completed the Test Cues Identification Questionnaire (TCIQ). The TCIQ consists of 28 disruptive items and 27 helpful items. Subjects responded with both frequency and intensity ratings for all of the 55 items in the TCIQ. Results revealed that 22 items were viewed by subjects as potent testing cues. Empirical evidence obtained did not support previous theoretical reports of differences between HTA and LTA students for either frequency and intensity of anxious responses or attentional direction to the set of disruptive and helpful testing cues. Although test anxiousness did not appear to be associated with those two characteristics differences, a discriminant analysis revealed 24 items in the TCIQ which significantly, 2 (24) = 47.59, p HTA and LTA subjects responses. Apparently, HTA and LTA students differ in their responses to specific disruptive and helpful cues but not in their responses to the set of testing cues as was previously postulated.

  20. Patients with cancer in the intensive monitoring unit. New perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Del Portillo, I; Polo Zarzuela, M; Pujol Varela, I

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in the survival of patients with cancer in intensive care units (ICUs). Advances in medical and surgical treatments and better selection of patients has helped improve the life expectancy of this type of patient. An appropriate and early resuscitation in the ICU, without initial limitations on the life support techniques, has been shown to also decrease the mortality of patients with cancer. At present, we should not deny admission to the ICU based only on the underlying neoplastic disease. However, the mortality rate for patients with cancer in the ICU, especially those with hematologic disease, remains high. In some cases, an ICU admission test (ICU test) is required for at least 3 days to identify patients who can benefit from intensive treatment. We would like to propose a decision algorithm for ICU admission that will help in making decisions in an often complex situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD; Joyce Niland, PhD; Anna ter Veer, MS; Tanios Bekaii-Saab, MD; Lily Lai, MD; Joshua E. Meyer, MD; Steven J. Nurkin, MD, MS; Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH; John M. Skibber, MD, FACS; Al B. Benson, MD; Martin R. Weiser, MD; Christopher H. Crane, MD; Karyn A. Goodman, MD, MS

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been rapidly incorporated into clinical practice because of its technological advantages over 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT). We characterized trends in IMRT utilization in trimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network cancer centers between 2005 and 2011. Methods and materials: Using the prospective National Comprehensive Cancer Network Colorectal Cancer Database, ...

  2. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cancers in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseur, J.; Le Prise, E.; Leseur, J.; Carrie, C.; Beneyton, V.; Bernier, V.; Beneyton, V.; Mahee, M.A.; Supiot, S.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 40-50% of children with cancer will be irradiated during their treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) by linear accelerator or helical tomo-therapy improves dose distribution in target volumes and normal tissue sparing. This technology could be particularly useful for pediatric patients to achieve an optimal dose distribution in complex volumes close to critical structures. The use of I.M.R.T. can increase the volume of tissue receiving low-dose radiation, and consequently carcinogenicity in childhood population with a good overall survival and long period of life expectancy. This review will present the current and potential I.M.R.T. indications for cancers in childhood, and discuss the benefits and problems of this technology aiming to define recommendations in the use of I.M.R.T. and specific doses constraints in Pediatrics. (authors)

  3. Simulated sensitivity of African terrestrial ecosystem photosynthesis to rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kaiyu; Good, Stephen P.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Medvigy, David; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.; Sato, Hisashi; Biasutti, Michela; Chen, Min; Ahlström, Anders; Xu, Xiangtao

    2018-02-01

    There is growing evidence of ongoing changes in the statistics of intra-seasonal rainfall variability over large parts of the world. Changes in annual total rainfall may arise from shifts, either singly or in a combination, of distinctive intra-seasonal characteristics -i.e. rainfall frequency, rainfall intensity, and rainfall seasonality. Understanding how various ecosystems respond to the changes in intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics is critical for predictions of future biome shifts and ecosystem services under climate change, especially for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Here, we use an advanced dynamic vegetation model (SEIB-DGVM) coupled with a stochastic rainfall/weather simulator to answer the following question: how does the productivity of ecosystems respond to a given percentage change in the total seasonal rainfall that is realized by varying only one of the three rainfall characteristics (rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length)? We conducted ensemble simulations for continental Africa for a realistic range of changes (-20% ~ +20%) in total rainfall amount. We find that the simulated ecosystem productivity (measured by gross primary production, GPP) shows distinctive responses to the intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics. Specifically, increase in rainfall frequency can lead to 28% more GPP increase than the same percentage increase in rainfall intensity; in tropical woodlands, GPP sensitivity to changes in rainy season length is ~4 times larger than to the same percentage changes in rainfall frequency or intensity. In contrast, shifts in the simulated biome distribution are much less sensitive to intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics than they are to total rainfall amount. Our results reveal three major distinctive productivity responses to seasonal rainfall variability—‘chronic water stress’, ‘acute water stress’ and ‘minimum water stress’ - which are respectively associated with three broad spatial patterns of

  4. Retrieval of complex χ((2)) parts for quantitative analysis of sum-frequency generation intensity spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias J; Koelsch, Patrick

    2015-10-07

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has become an established technique for in situ surface analysis. While spectral recording procedures and hardware have been optimized, unique data analysis routines have yet to be established. The SFG intensity is related to probing geometries and properties of the system under investigation such as the absolute square of the second-order susceptibility χ((2)) (2). A conventional SFG intensity measurement does not grant access to the complex parts of χ((2)) unless further assumptions have been made. It is therefore difficult, sometimes impossible, to establish a unique fitting solution for SFG intensity spectra. Recently, interferometric phase-sensitive SFG or heterodyne detection methods have been introduced to measure real and imaginary parts of χ((2)) experimentally. Here, we demonstrate that iterative phase-matching between complex spectra retrieved from maximum entropy method analysis and fitting of intensity SFG spectra (iMEMfit) leads to a unique solution for the complex parts of χ((2)) and enables quantitative analysis of SFG intensity spectra. A comparison between complex parts retrieved by iMEMfit applied to intensity spectra and phase sensitive experimental data shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  5. Low-frequency severe-intensity interval training improves cardiorespiratory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shin-Ya; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of severe-intensity interval training at a frequency of once a week on cardiorespiratory function at rest and during exercise. Fourteen young healthy males were randomly assigned to either an interval training group or control group. Cardiorespiratory function was investigated by incremental maximal exercise test and constant work rate submaximal exercise test before and after the intervention period in all subjects. Submaximal exercise test was conducted at two work rates (80% ventilatory threshold (VT) level and 100% VT level plus 50% of the difference between VT and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2)) for 8 min; the same work rates and duration were used before and after training. Left ventricular adaptations were assessed by echocardiography under supine resting conditions before and after training. In the interval training group, seven subjects performed cycle ergometer training once per week for 3 months. The training consisted of three bouts of exercises to volitional fatigue at 80% maximum work rate. Increased V˙O2max (+13%, P = 0.015), VT (+21%, P = 0.001), and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (+18%, P = 0.002) and reduced minute ventilation (-12%, P = 0.032) and blood lactate concentration (-16%, P = 0.025) during high-intensity exercise were observed after the training program compared with baseline. Although not significant, V˙O2 and cycling economy (V˙O2 per work rate) during high-intensity exercise decreased slightly after training. The present results indicate that severe-intensity interval training, even when performed at a low frequency, markedly improves cardiorespiratory function as well as induces cardiac morphological adaptations involving left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiorespiratory metabolic response during submaximal exercise. The present findings may provide new insights for low-frequency, severe-intensity interval training in the field of sports science.

  6. The negative event scale: measuring frequency and intensity of adult hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybery, D J; Neale, Jason; Arentz, Alex; Jones-Ellis, Jenny

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the structure, concurrent validity, and reliability of a hassle measure for middle-aged adults in both event frequency and intensity recordings. The measure included a range of interpersonal day-to-day events and re-examined aspects of the primary appraisal confounding debate between Lazarus and colleagues (Lazarus, Delongis, Folkman, & Gruen, 1985) and Dohrenwend and Shrout (1985). Of the 373 participants, 73% were female, 72% were in paid work, 69% were in permanent relationships and 62% had children. Principal component analyses of separate hassle frequency and intensity scores highlighted components consistent with previous research. There were seven interpersonal and four non-interpersonal subscales associated with negative events with family and friends, work, health, money, and household. The subscales had very good reliability and concurrent validity and there were generally strong correlations (i.e. up .84) between frequency and intensity scores for each subscale. Given some important sampling limitations (e.g. female overrepresentation) the findings show a psychometrically sound hassle scale for adults.

  7. Validation of simulated earthquake ground motions based on evolution of intensity and frequency content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Zhong, Peng; Hartzell, Stephen; Zareian, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Simulated earthquake ground motions can be used in many recent engineering applications that require time series as input excitations. However, applicability and validation of simulations are subjects of debate in the seismological and engineering communities. We propose a validation methodology at the waveform level and directly based on characteristics that are expected to influence most structural and geotechnical response parameters. In particular, three time-dependent validation metrics are used to evaluate the evolving intensity, frequency, and bandwidth of a waveform. These validation metrics capture nonstationarities in intensity and frequency content of waveforms, making them ideal to address nonlinear response of structural systems. A two-component error vector is proposed to quantify the average and shape differences between these validation metrics for a simulated and recorded ground-motion pair. Because these metrics are directly related to the waveform characteristics, they provide easily interpretable feedback to seismologists for modifying their ground-motion simulation models. To further simplify the use and interpretation of these metrics for engineers, it is shown how six scalar key parameters, including duration, intensity, and predominant frequency, can be extracted from the validation metrics. The proposed validation methodology is a step forward in paving the road for utilization of simulated ground motions in engineering practice and is demonstrated using examples of recorded and simulated ground motions from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake.

  8. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Aviram

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucid dreaming (LD is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD, and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187 self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy, stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78 reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming, emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in

  9. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  10. The Relationship Between Family Communication Patterns and Frequency and Intensity of Parent-Adolescent Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    خدیجه جعفرنژاد

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of family communication patterns (conversation and conformity orientation to predict frequency and intensity of parent adolescent conflict. Participants included 189 students (37 girls and 116 boys selected from Birjand high schools. The measures of study include Asadi Younsi Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (2011 and Koerner and Fitzpatrick Revised Version of Family Communication Patterns Instrument (2002. Alpha Cronbach were calculated to examine reliability of the measures. Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were performed for the data analysis. Results indicated: A conversation orientation was a negative predictor of intensity conflict in girls and boys; B conformity orientation was significant and positive predictor of intensity conflict in boys. Thus the importance of education in the field of adolescent behavior and interaction with parents and families to improve the quality of communication skills can be a deterrent in reducing conflicts between parents and Adolescents.

  11. Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Cano-Contreras, A D; Sánchez-Maza, Y J; Espinosa-González, J M; Vázquez-Prieto, M Á; Valdés-de la O, E J; Díaz-Roesch, F; Carrasco-Arroniz, M Á; Cruz-Palacios, A; Grube-Pagola, P; Sumoza-Toledo, A; Vivanco-Cid, H; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Meixueiro-Daza, A; Silva-Cañetas, C S; Carrillo-Toledo, M G; Lagunes-Torres, R; Amieva-Balmori, M; Gómez-Castaño, P C; Reyes-Huerta, J U; Remes-Troche, J M

    2018-02-15

    Cancer is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It has recently been related to viral infections, one of which is human papillomavirus. The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with digestive system cancers. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on patients with gastrointestinal cancer at 2public healthcare institutes in Veracruz. Two tumor samples were taken, one for histologic study and the other for DNA determination of human papillomavirus and its genotypes. Anthropometric variables, risk factors, sexual habits, tumor location, and histologic type of the cancer were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined using the SPSS version 24.0 program. Fifty-three patients were studied. They had gastrointestinal cancer located in: the colon (62.26%), stomach (18.87%), esophagus (7.55%), rectum (7.55%), and small bowel (3.77%). Human papillomavirus was identified in 11.32% of the patients, 66.7% of which corresponded to squamous cell carcinoma and 33.3% to adenocarcinoma. Only genotype 18 was identified. Mean patient age was 61.8±15.2 years, 56.60% of the patients were men, and 43.40% were women. A total of 15.8% of the patients had a family history of cancer and 31.6% had a personal history of the disease, 38.6% were tobacco smokers, and 61.4% consumed alcohol. Regarding sex, 5.3% of the patients said they were homosexual, 3.5% were bisexual, 29.8% engaged in oral sex, and 24.6% in anal sex. Our study showed that human papillomavirus infection was a risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancer, especially of squamous cell origin. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  13. Rainfall Intensity and Frequency Explain Production Basis Risk in Cumulative Rain Index Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus P.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Huffaker, Ray G.

    2017-12-01

    With minimal moral hazard and adverse selection, weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions through swift compensation at affordable premium. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing gives rise to production basis risk as the selected weather indexes do not sufficiently correspond to actual damages. To address this problem, we develop a stochastic yield model, built upon a stochastic soil moisture model driven by marked Poisson rainfall. Our analysis shows that even under similar temperature and rainfall amount yields can differ significantly; this was empirically supported by a 2-year field experiment in which rain-fed maize was grown under very similar total rainfall. Here, the year with more intense, less-frequent rainfall produces a better yield—a rare counter evidence to most climate change projections. Through a stochastic yield model, we demonstrate the crucial roles of rainfall intensity and frequency in determining the yield. Importantly, the model allows us to compute rainfall pattern-related basis risk inherent in cumulative rain index insurance. The model results and a case study herein clearly show that total rainfall is a poor indicator of yield, imposing unnecessary production basis risk on farmers and false-positive payouts on insurers. Incorporating rainfall intensity and frequency in the design of rain index insurance can offer farmers better protection, while maintaining the attractive features of the weather index insurance and thus fulfilling its promise of financial resilience.

  14. Does nonstationarity in rainfall require nonstationary intensity-duration-frequency curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Poulomi; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-12-01

    In Canada, risk of flooding due to heavy rainfall has risen in recent decades; the most notable recent examples include the July 2013 storm in the Greater Toronto region and the May 2017 flood of the Toronto Islands. We investigate nonstationarity and trends in the short-duration precipitation extremes in selected urbanized locations in Southern Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the potential of nonstationary intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which form an input to civil infrastructural design. Despite apparent signals of nonstationarity in precipitation extremes in all locations, the stationary vs. nonstationary models do not exhibit any significant differences in the design storm intensity, especially for short recurrence intervals (up to 10 years). The signatures of nonstationarity in rainfall extremes do not necessarily imply the use of nonstationary IDFs for design considerations. When comparing the proposed IDFs with current design standards, for return periods (10 years or less) typical for urban drainage design, current design standards require an update of up to 7 %, whereas for longer recurrence intervals (50-100 years), ideal for critical civil infrastructural design, updates ranging between ˜ 2 and 44 % are suggested. We further emphasize that the above findings need re-evaluation in the light of climate change projections since the intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation are expected to intensify due to global warming.

  15. An approach toward incorporation of global warming effects into Intensity-Duration-Frequency values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, K.; Easterling, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Rising global temperatures from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations will increase overall atmospheric water vapor concentrations. There is a high level of scientific confidence that this will increase the future intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events, even in regions where overall precipitation may decrease. For control of runoff from extreme rainfall, infrastructure engineering utilizes design values of rainfall known as Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) values. Use of the existing IDF values, which are based solely on historical climate records, is likely to lead to under-design of runoff control structures, and associated increased flood damages. However, future changes in IDF values are uncertain and probably regionally variable. Our paradigm is that changes in IDF values will result from changes in atmospheric capacity (water vapor concentrations) and opportunity (the number and intensity of heavy precipitation-producing storm systems). Relevant storm systems being investigated include extratropical cyclones and their associated fronts, tropical cyclones, and the North American Monsoon system. The overall approach involves developing IDF adjustment factors for changes in these components of the climate system. The adjustment factors have associated uncertainties, primarily from (1) uncertainties in the future pathway of greenhouse gas emissions and (2) variations among climate models in the sensitivity of the climate system to greenhouse gas concentration changes. In addition to meteorological considerations, the lifetime of projects designed using IDF values is an essential consideration because the IDF values may change substantially during that time. The initial results of this project will be discussed.

  16. Bivariate frequency analysis of rainfall intensity and duration for urban stormwater infrastructure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Changhyun; Qin, Xiaosheng; Gan, Thian Yew; Tung, Yeou-Koung; De Michele, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a storm-event based bivariate frequency analysis approach to determine design rainfalls in which, the number, intensity and duration of actual rainstorm events were considered. To derive more realistic design storms, the occurrence probability of an individual rainstorm event was determined from the joint distribution of storm intensity and duration through a copula model. Hourly rainfall data were used at three climate stations respectively located in Singapore, South Korea and Canada. It was found that the proposed approach could give a more realistic description of rainfall characteristics of rainstorm events and design rainfalls. As results, the design rainfall quantities from actual rainstorm events at the three studied sites are consistently lower than those obtained from the conventional rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) method, especially for short-duration storms (such as 1-h). It results from occurrence probabilities of each rainstorm event and a different angle for rainfall frequency analysis, and could offer an alternative way of describing extreme rainfall properties and potentially help improve the hydrologic design of stormwater management facilities in urban areas.

  17. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fredholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30-40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a registry based cohort of women aged 20-69 (n = 22 017 with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992-2005, women aged 20-34 (n = 471, 35-39 (n = 858 and 40-49 (n = 4789 were compared with women aged 50-69 years (n = 15 899. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20-34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20-34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35-39 and 40-49, respectively. The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20-34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1-10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20-34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying compared to their middle

  18. Development of Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves at ungauged sites: risk management under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, San Chuin; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2014-12-01

    The impact of a changing climate is already being felt on several hydrological systems both on a regional and sub-regional scale of the globe. Southeast Asia is one of the regions strongly affected by climate change. With climate change, one of the anticipated impacts is an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall which further increase the region's flood catastrophes, human casualties and economic loss. Optimal mitigation measures can be undertaken only when stormwater systems are designed using rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves derived from a long and good quality rainfall data. Developing IDF curves for the future climate can be even more challenging especially for ungauged sites. The current practice to derive current climate's IDF curves for ungauged sites is, for example, to `borrow' or `interpolate' data from regions of climatologically similar characteristics. Recent measures to derive IDF curves for present climate was performed by extracting rainfall data from a high spatial resolution Regional Climate Model driven by ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. This approach has been demonstrated on an ungauged site (Java, Indonesia) and the results were quite promising. In this paper, the authors extend the application of the approach to other ungauged sites particularly in Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study undoubtedly have significance contribution in terms of local and regional hydrology (Malaysia and Southeast Asian countries). The anticipated impacts of climate change especially increase in rainfall intensity and its frequency appreciates the derivation of future IDF curves in this study. It also provides policy makers better information on the adequacy of storm drainage design, for the current climate at the ungauged sites, and the adequacy of the existing storm drainage to cope with the impacts of climate change.

  19. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-01-01

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment

  20. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansdottir, G; Zoungas, S; Chalmers, J

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease......: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00145925) were studied. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality was compared in groups randomised to intensive or standard glucose control. Information on events during follow-up was obtained from serious adverse event...... reports and death certificates. HRs (95% CI) were calculated for all cancers, all solid cancers, cancer deaths and site-specific cancers. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5 years, 363 and 337 cancer events were reported in the intensive and standard control groups, respectively (incidence 1...

  1. Intensity statistics of very high frequency sound scattered from wind-driven waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of vhf 100-1000 kHz underwater sound with the ocean surface is explored. The bistatic forward scatter of 300 kHz sound is measured in a wind driven wave channel. Fluctuations in arrival amplitude are described by the scintillation index (SI) which is a measure of arrival intensity variance. SI initially increases with wind speed but eventually saturates to a value of 0.5 when the root-mean-square (rms) roughness is 0.5 mm. An adjusted scintillation index (SI*) is suggested that accounts for the multiple arrivals and properly saturates to a value of 1. Fluctuations in arrival time do not saturate and increase proportionately to the dominant surface wave component. Forward scattering is modeled at frequencies ranging from 50 to 2000 kHz using the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral with surface wave realizations derived from wave gauge data. The amplitude and temporal statistics of the simulated scattering agree well with measured data. Intensity saturation occurs at lower wind speeds for higher frequency sound. Both measured and modeled vhf sound is characterized by many surface arrivals at saturation. Doppler shifts associated with wave motion are expected to vary rapidly for vhf sound however further analysis is required.

  2. Spatial Variation in Frequency and Intensity of Antibiotic Interactions among Streptomycetes from Prairie Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davelos, Anita L.; Kinkel, Linda L.; Samac, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic interactions are believed to be significant to microbial fitness in soil, yet little is known of the frequency, intensity, and diversity of antibiotic inhibition and resistance among indigenous microbes. To begin to address these issues, we studied the abilities of streptomycete isolates from prairie soil to inhibit growth and display resistance to antibiotics produced by a test collection of 10 streptomycete isolates. Wide variations in antibiotic inhibition and resistance for prairie isolates among three locations and four soil depths within a 1-m2 plot were revealed. Fewer than 10% of 153 prairie isolates inhibited all 10 test isolates, while more than 40% of the isolates did not inhibit any of the test isolates. No field isolate was resistant to all of the test isolates, nor was any isolate susceptible to all of the test isolates. No correlation between inhibition and resistance phenotypes was found, suggesting that inhibition and resistance are under independent selection. The significant spatial variation in the frequency and intensity of antibiotic inhibition implies that the fitness benefits of antibiotic production are not the same among locations in soil. In contrast, the consistency of resistance over space indicates that its significance to fitness across locations is stable or the costs of maintaining resistance in the absence of selection are small or nonexistent. The spatial clustering of antibiotic inhibitory activity suggests a variable matrix of selection pressures and microbial responses across the soil landscape. PMID:14766588

  3. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hofmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour–host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  4. Analysis and comparison model for measuring tropospheric scintillation intensity for Ku-band frequency in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep JS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been based on understanding local propagation signal data distribution characteristics and identifying and predicting the overall impact of significant attenuating factors regarding the propagation path such as impaired propagation for a signal being transmitted. Predicting propagation impairment is important for accurate link budgeting, thereby leading to better communication network system designation. This study has thus used sample data for one year concerning beacon satellite operation in Malaysia from April 2008 to April 2009. Data concerning 12GHz frequency (Ku-band and 40° elevation angle was collected and analysed, obtaining average signal amplitude value, ÷ and also standard deviation ó which is normally measured in dB to obtain long-term scintillation intensity distribution. This analysis showed that scintillation intensity distribution followed Gaussian distribution for long-term data distribution. A prediction model was then selected based on the above; Karasawa,
    ITU-R, Van de Kamp and Otung models were compared to obtain the best prediction model performance for selected data regarding specific meteorological conditions. This study showed that the Karasawa model had the best performance for predicting scintillation intensity for the selected da ta.

  5. Response of Cultured Neuronal Network Activity After High-Intensity Power Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Saito

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity and low frequency (1–100 kHz time-varying electromagnetic fields stimulate the human body through excitation of the nervous system. In power frequency range (50/60 Hz, a frequency-dependent threshold of the external electric field-induced neuronal modulation in cultured neuronal networks was used as one of the biological indicator in international guidelines; however, the threshold of the magnetic field-induced neuronal modulation has not been elucidated. In this study, we exposed rat brain-derived neuronal networks to a high-intensity power frequency magnetic field (hPF-MF, and evaluated the modulation of synchronized bursting activity using a multi-electrode array (MEA-based extracellular recording technique. As a result of short-term hPF-MF exposure (50–400 mT root-mean-square (rms, 50 Hz, sinusoidal wave, 6 s, the synchronized bursting activity was increased in the 400 mT-exposed group. On the other hand, no change was observed in the 50–200 mT-exposed groups. In order to clarify the mechanisms of the 400 mT hPF-MF exposure-induced neuronal response, we evaluated it after blocking inhibitory synapses using bicuculline methiodide (BMI; subsequently, increase in bursting activity was observed with BMI application, and the response of 400 mT hPF-MF exposure disappeared. Therefore, it was suggested that the response of hPF-MF exposure was involved in the inhibitory input. Next, we screened the inhibitory pacemaker-like neuronal activity which showed autonomous 4–10 Hz firing with CNQX and D-AP5 application, and it was confirmed that the activity was reduced after 400 mT hPF-MF exposure. Comparison of these experimental results with estimated values of the induced electric field (E-field in the culture medium revealed that the change in synchronized bursting activity occurred over 0.3 V/m, which was equivalent to the findings of a previous study that used the external electric fields. In addition, the results suggested that

  6. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  7. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  8. High frequency equipment promotes antibacterial effects dependent on intensity and exposure time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietzikoski Lovato EC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evellyn Claudia Wietzikoski Lovato,1 Patrícia Amaral Gurgel Velasquez,1 Cristiana dos Santos Oliveira,1 Camila Baruffi,1 Thais Anghinoni,1 Raquel Costa Machado,1 Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis Lívero,2 Samantha Wietzikoski Sato,1 Lisiane de Almeida Martins1 1Laboratory of Microbiology of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Brazil Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has caused bacteria to develop mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents, limiting treatment options. Therefore, there is a great need for alternative methods to control infections, especially those related to skin. One of the alternative methods is the high frequency equipment (HFE, which is used on skin conditions as an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, and mainly to accelerate cicatricial processes and have a bactericidal effect through the formation of ozone. This research investigated the antibacterial effect of HFE on standard cultures of bacteria.Materials and methods: Dilutions (104 colony forming unit mL−1 were performed for Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus with 24-hour growth bacteria. Then, 1 μL of each dilution was pipetted into suitable medium and the HFE flashing technique was used at intensities of 6, 8 and 10 mA for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 seconds. The control group received no treatment. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and then read.Results: The spark at intensity of 6 mA had no bactericidal effect on the E. aerogenes; however, a significant bacterial growth reduction occurred at intensity of 8 mA after 120 and 180 seconds, and at 10 mA, reduction in bacterial growth could already be verified at 30 seconds and total bacterial growth inhibition occurred in 180 seconds. For S. aureus, there was a strong bacterial growth inhibition at all intensities used; however, at 6 mA, absence of bacterium growth after

  9. Modelling stock order flows with non-homogeneous intensities from high-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.; Korolev, Victor Yu.; Zeifman, Alexander I.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Chertok, Andrey V.; Evstafyev, Artem I.; Korchagin, Alexander Yu.

    2013-10-01

    A micro-scale model is proposed for the evolution of such information system as the limit order book in financial markets. Within this model, the flows of orders (claims) are described by doubly stochastic Poisson processes taking account of the stochastic character of intensities of buy and sell orders that determine the price discovery mechanism. The proposed multiplicative model of stochastic intensities makes it possible to analyze the characteristics of the order flows as well as the instantaneous proportion of the forces of buyers and sellers, that is, the imbalance process, without modelling the external information background. The proposed model gives the opportunity to link the micro-scale (high-frequency) dynamics of the limit order book with the macro-scale models of stock price processes of the form of subordinated Wiener processes by means of limit theorems of probability theory and hence, to use the normal variance-mean mixture models of the corresponding heavy-tailed distributions. The approach can be useful in different areas with similar properties (e.g., in plasma physics).

  10. Intensity - Duration - Frequency Curves for U.S. Cities in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragno, Elisa; AghaKouchak, Amir; Love, Charlotte; Vahedifard, Farshid; Cheng, Linyin; Lima, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Current infrastructure design procedures rely on the use of Intensity - Duration - Frequency (IDF) curves retrieved under the assumption of temporal stationarity, meaning that occurrences of extreme events are expected to be time invariant. However, numerous studies have observed more severe extreme events over time. Hence, the stationarity assumption for extreme analysis may not be appropriate in a warming climate. This issue raises concerns regarding the safety and resilience of infrastructures and natural slopes. Here we employ daily precipitation data from historical and projected (RCP 8.5) CMIP5 runs to investigate IDF curves of 14 urban areas across the United States. We first statistically assess changes in precipitation extremes using an energy-based test for equal distributions. Then, through a Bayesian inference approach for stationary and non-stationary extreme value analysis, we provide updated IDF curves based on future climatic model projections. We show that, based on CMIP5 simulations, U.S cities may experience extreme precipitation events up to 20% more intense and twice as frequently, relative to historical records, despite the expectation of unchanged annual mean precipitation.

  11. Frequency, character, intensity and impact of neuropathic pain in a cohort of spinal cord injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.; Akhtar, N.; Matee, S.; Butt, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine frequency, character, approximate location and intensity of neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury and its impact on the quality of life. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Feb 2009 to Feb 2010. Material and Methods: Through non-probability convenience sampling 87 patients of both genders diagnosed with spinal cord injury based on American Spinal Injury Association criteria and admitted within a year of injury were included. Those in spinal shock, having poor cognition, inability to communicate, concurrent brain injury and history of chronic pain before injury were excluded. The history, localization and characteristics of the pain and interference with life activities were recorded. Neuropathic pain of patients was evaluated with Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale. Visual analogue scale was used to measure the severity of pain. Results: Out of 87 patients (mean age 36.9 years) seventy four were male and 13 were female. Seventy patients (80%) were AIS-A, 6 (7%) were AIS-B and 11 (13%) were AIS-C. Neuropathic pain was present in 57.5% (n=50). Most of the patients localized their pain below the neurological level of injury (78%) and rated pain intensity as moderate pain (54%). Majority (48%) described the pain as burning followed by electric shock like (42%), stabbing (8%) and pricking (2%). 48% patients reported that their quality of life was affected due to pain. 52% required two analgesics of different groups to relieve pain followed by 40% requiring three analgesics and 8% requiring one analgesic. Conclusion: Neuropathic pain is prevalent in people with spinal cord injury and adversely affects life quality. Neuropathic pain is primarily described as a burning sensation of moderate intensity mostly referred to below the neurological level of injury. (author)

  12. Precipitation intensity-duration-frequency curves and their uncertainties for Ghaap plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Tfwala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering infrastructures such as stormwater drains and bridges are commonly designed using the concept of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves, which assume that the occurrence of precipitation patterns and distributions are spatially similar within the drainage area and remain unchanged throughout the lifespan of the infrastructures (stationary. Based on the premise that climate change will alter the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation patterns, inaccuracy in the estimation of IDF curves may occur. As such, prior to developing IDF curves, it is crucial to analyse trends of annual precipitation maxima. The objective of this study was to estimate the precipitation intensities and their uncertainties (lower and upper limits for durations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h and return periods of 2, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years in the Ghaap plateau, Northern Cape Province, South Africa using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution. The annual precipitation maxima were extracted from long-term (1918–2014 precipitation data for four meteorological stations (Postmasburg, Douglas, Kuruman and Groblershoop sourced from the South African Weather Services (SAWS. On average, the estimated extreme precipitation intensities for the plateau ranged from 4.2 mm/h for 6 h storm duration to 55.8 mm/h for 0.125 h at 2 years return period. At 100 year return period, the intensity ranged from 13.3 mm/h for 6 h duration to 175.5 mm/h for the duration of 0.125 h. The lower limit of uncertainty ranged from 11.7% at 2 years return period to 26% at 100 year return period, and from 12.8% to 58.4% for the upper limit for the respective return periods. This methodology can be integrated into policy formulation for the design of stormwater and flood management infrastructures in the Ghaap plateau, where mining is the main economic activity.

  13. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for neoadjuvant treatment of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knab, Brian; Rash, Carla; Farrey, Karl; Jani, Ashesh B.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral role in the treatment of gastric cancer in the postsurgery setting, the inoperable/palliative setting, and, as in the case of the current report, in the setting of neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. Typically, anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA) or 3-field techniques are used. In this report, we explore the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment in a patient whose care was transferred to our institution after 3-field radiotherapy (RT) was given to a dose of 30 Gy at an outside institution. If the 3-field plan were continued to 50 Gy, the volume of irradiated liver receiving greater than 30 Gy would have been unacceptably high. To deliver the final 20 Gy, an opposed parallel AP/PA plan and an IMRT plan were compared to the initial 3-field technique for coverage of the target volume as well as dose to the kidneys, liver, small bowel, and spinal cord. Comparison of the 3 treatment techniques to deliver the final 20 Gy revealed reduced median and maximum dose to the whole kidney with the IMRT plan. For this 20-Gy boost, the volume of irradiated liver was lower for both the IMRT plan and the AP/PA plan vs. the 3-field plan. Comparing the IMRT boost plan to the AP/PA boost-dose range ( 10 Gy) in comparison to the AP/PA plan. The IMRT boost plan also irradiated a smaller volume of the small bowel compared to both the 3-field plan and the AP/PA plan, and also delivered lower dose to the spinal cord in comparison to the AP/PA plan. Comparison of the composite plans revealed reduced dose to the whole kidney using IMRT. The V20 for the whole kidney volume for the composite IMRT plan was 30% compared to approximately 60% for the composite AP/PA plan. Overall, the dose to the liver receiving greater than 30 Gy was lower for the composite IMRT plan and was well below acceptable limits. In conclusion, our study suggests a dosimetric benefit of IMRT over conventional planning, and suggests an important role for

  14. Characteristic frequencies of a non-Maxwellian plasma - A method for localizing the exact frequencies of magnetospheric intense natural waves near fpe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont, G.

    1981-01-01

    Intense natural waves are commonly observed onboard satellites in the outer earth's magnetosphere, inside a narrow frequency range, including the electron plasma and upper hybrid frequencies. In order to progress in the understanding of their emission processes, it is necessary to determine precisely the relationship which exists between their frequencies and the characteristic frequencies of the magnetospheric plasma. For this purpose, it is necessary to take into account the fact that some of these characteristic frequencies, which are provided by active sounding of the plasma, not only depend on the total density, but also on the shape of the distribution function (which has generally been assumed to be Maxwellian). A method providing a fine diagnosis of general non-Maxwellian plasmas is developed. This method of analysis of the experimental data is based on a theoretical study which points out the influence of the shape of the distribution function on the dispersion curves (for wave vectors perpendicular to the static magnetic field)

  15. CHANGES IN FREQUENCY, PERSISTENCE AND INTENSITY OF EXTREME HIGH-TEMPERATURE EVENTS IN THE ROMANIAN PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOTĂ CARMEN-SOFIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent summer heat waves (2003, 2010 had a strong socio-economic impact in different parts of the continent by means of crop shortfalls and forest fires. Sustained hot days became more frequent in the recent decades in many European regions, affecting human health and leading to additional deaths. This signal has been outlined in many studies conducted in Romania, suggesting that the southern region of Romania is particularly subject to large temperature increase. This work investigates the changing annual and seasonal heat waves at regional scale of the Romanian Plain, over period 1961-2014. Daily maximum temperature recorded at six weather stations available from the ECA&D project (European Climate Assessment and Datasets were analyzed. The changes in the seasonal frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves were studied using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test, as recommended by the scientific expert team on climate change detection. The likelyhood of higher maximum temperatures rise, particularly after the mid 1980s, and the changes in the upper tail of the probability density functions of these temperatures, within the extreme domain (beyond the 95% percentile level, explain the persistence and intensity of heat waves. The upward trends are dominant most of the year, and many of the calculated decadal slopes were found statistically significant (relative to the 5% level, proving an ongoing and strong warming all over the region. Our findings are in good agreement with several recent studies carried out at European and national scale and pledge for further scientific analyses i.e. heat stress impact on public health and agriculture.

  16. Design study of a radio-frequency quadrupole for high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Kim, Eun-San; Choi, Bong-Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) heavy-ion accelerator has been designed for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea. The RAON will produce heavy-ion beams from 660-MeV-proton to 200-MeV/u-uranium with continuous wave (CW) power of 400 kW to support research in various scientific fields. Its system consists of an ECR ion source, LEBTs with 10 keV/u, CW RFQ accelerator with 81.25 MHz and 500 keV/u, a MEBT system, and a SC linac. In detail, the driver linac system consists of a Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) section with 81.25 MHz and a Half Wave Resonator (HWR) section with 162.5 MHz, Linac-1, and a Spoke Cavity section with 325 MHz, Linac-2. These linacs have been designed to optimize the beam parameters to meet the required design goals. At the same time, a light-heavy ion accelerator with high-intensity beam, such as proton, deuteron, and helium beams, is required for experiments. In this paper, we present the design study of the high intensity RFQ for a deuteron beam with energies from 30 keV/u to 1.5 MeV/u and currents in the mA range. This system is composed of an Penning Ionization Gauge ion source, short LEBT with a RF deflector, and shared SC Linac. In order to increase acceleration efficiency in a short length with low cost, the 2nd harmonic of 162.5 MHz is applied as the operation frequency in the D+ RFQ design. The D+ RFQ is designed with 4.97 m, 1.52 bravery factor. Since it operates with 2nd harmonic frequency, the beam should be 50% of the duty factor while the cavity should be operated in CW mode, to protect the downstream linac system. We focus on avoiding emittance growth by the space-charge effect and optimizing the RFQ to achieve a high transmission and low emittance growth. Both the RFQ beam dynamics study and RFQ cavity design study for two and three dimensions will be discussed. Supported by Korea University Future Research Grant

  17. High-intensity Interval Training Frequency: Cardiometabolic Effects and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, Pinelopi S; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Terzis, Gerasimos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2018-02-02

    The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) frequency on cardiometabolic health and quality of life were examined in 35 healthy inactive adults (age: 31.7±2.6 yrs, VO 2 peak: 32.7±7.4 ml·: kg -1 ·: min -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and two training groups, which performed 10×60-s cycling at ~83% of peak power, two (HIIT-2) or three times per week (HIIT-3) for eight weeks. Compared with CON, both training regimes resulted in similar improvements in VO 2 peak (HIIT-2: 10.8%, p=0.048, HIIT-3: 13.6%, p=0.017), waist circumference (HIIT-2: -1.4 cm, p=0.048, HIIT-3: -2.4 cm, p=0.028), thigh cross-sectional area (HIIT-2: 11.4 cm 2 , p=0.001, HIIT-3: 9.3 cm 2 , p=0.001) and the physical health component of quality of life (HIIT-2: 8.4, p=0.001, HIIT-3: 12.2, p=0.001). However, HIIT-3 conferred additional health-related benefits by reducing total body and trunk fat percentage (pHIIT only twice per week is effective in promoting cardiometabolic health-related adaptations and quality of life in inactive adults. However, higher HIIT frequency is required for an effect on fat deposits, cholesterol and mental component of well-being. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Influence of the AC field intensity and frequency on composition and growth mechanism of Au-Pd alloy nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaixiu; Yu, Gang; Chang, Fangfang; Tang, Lili; Hu, Bonian

    2013-10-01

    Au-Pd alloy nanowires with controllable morphology and composition are useful sensing materials for chemical and biological sensors. This report describes the preparation of such Au-Pd alloy nanowires from an aqueous solution by alternating current (AC) varied-frequency method, focusing on determining the dependence of the composition and morphology of the alloy nanowires on the electric field intensity and frequency. An electric field varied from 0.1 V x m(-1) to 0.4 x 10(6)V x m(-1) at 300 Hz frequency was used for the nucleation, followed by variation of the frequency between 1 and 20 MHz for the growth of the nanowires. The results showed that the Pd content in the alloy nanowires increased with the field intensity and frequency. The nanowire morphology with a less branching and better alignment was obtained at the increased frequency. XRD results showed that the phase structure of the alloy nanowires was face-centered cubic lattice. The nanowire compositions were shown controllable by changing the AC field intensity, frequency, as well as the metal ion ratio in the solution. The growth of the nanowires was shown to obey the Maxwell-Wanger (M-W) law.

  19. EMOST: elimination of chronic constipation and diarrhea by low-frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókkon, István; Erdőfi-Szabó, Attila; Till, Attila; Lukács, Tünde; Erdőfi-Nagy, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported about the effectiveness of the EMOST (Electro-Magnetic-Own-Signal-Treatment) treatments in reduction of phantom limb pain as well as improvement of the quality of sleep and mood in subjects under clinical circumstances. We also presented the successful application of EMOST for mental stress management of humans under catastrophic conditions. Our some years experience indicated that the efficiency of EMOST is much greater in children than in adult subjects. In addition, in children much less treatment is needed for recovery compared to adult subjects, as well as the duration of the treatment is shorter. It is possible that this particular success is due to the large plasticity of the central and the autonomic nervous system in young patients. Thus, our research pays special attention regarding the EMOST effectiveness in the field of chronic childhood diseases. Here we report about results of routine alternative treatments carried out at Biolabor Biophysics and Laboratory Services Ltd. by EMOST device regarding to the elimination of chronic constipation and persistent diarrhea in the case of two children. We also briefly present two important possible biological mechanisms such as redox processes and the bidirectional communication between skin cells and the nervous system regarding the efficiency of low-frequency and low-intensity electromagnetic fields (LFI-EMF) treatments.

  20. Pancreatic cancer: Incidence, clinical profile, and frequency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hana T. Al-Majed

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. Diabetes has been postulated to be both a risk factor and a consequence of pancreatic cancer, but the degree of risk ...

  1. Extremely low frequency electric fields and cancer: assessing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Leeka; Renew, David; Sias, Glenn; Swanson, John

    2010-02-01

    Much of the research and reviews on extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) have focused on magnetic rather than electric fields. Some have considered such focus to be inappropriate and have argued that electric fields should be part of both epidemiologic and laboratory work. This paper fills the gap by systematically and critically reviewing electric-fields literature and by comparing overall strength of evidence for electric versus magnetic fields. The review of possible mechanisms does not provide any specific basis for focusing on electric fields. While laboratory studies of electric fields are few, they do not indicate that electric fields should be the exposure of interest. The existing epidemiology on residential electric-field exposures and appliance use does not support the conclusion of adverse health effects from electric-field exposure. Workers in close proximity to high-voltage transmission lines or substation equipment can be exposed to high electric fields. While there are sporadic reports of increase in cancer in some occupational studies, these are inconsistent and fraught with methodologic problems. Overall, there seems little basis to suppose there might be a risk for electric fields, and, in contrast to magnetic fields, and with a possible exception of occupational epidemiology, there seems little basis for continued research into electric fields. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. HIGH INTENSITY PHYSICAL TRAINING EXERCISE PROGRAM IN IMPROVING BREAST CANCER RELATED FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intsar S. Wake

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a prevalent disease that requires intense and prolonged treatments. Because of improved detection and treatment options, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased, greatly increasing the number of survivors who are living with the disease and its side effects. Fatigue is one of the most common debilitating symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. It is a persistent feeling of exhaustion and decreased physical and mental capacity unrelieved by rest or sleep. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the effect of high intensity physical training exercise program in improving breast cancer related fatigue. Methods: Forty six patients suffering from breast cancer related fatigue, were randomly divided into two groups of equal number. Exercise group (E; received high intensity physical training program while Control group (C received usual medical care and kept their habitual activity. The intensity of fatigue and quality of life score were measured at the beginning and after eight weeks of treatment. Results: Results of the study showed that there was significant reduction of fatigue after eight weeks in exercise (E group more than control group with the percentage of improvement was 53%, 2% respectively. As regard to QOL measurements, there was significant increase of QOL score after treatment in exercise (E group more than control group with the percentage of improvement was 43%, 3% respectively. Conclusion: High intensity physical exercise program may have beneficial effects in reduction of fatigue intensity and thereby improving quality of life in breast cancer patient.

  3. What are the ethical aspects surrounding intensive care unit admission in patients with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Large, Audrey; Meunier-Beillard, Nicolas; Gélinotte, Stéphanie; Declercq, Pierre-Louis; Ecarnot, Fiona; Dargent, Auguste; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Improvements in living conditions and increasing life expectancy have combined to result in ever older patients being admitted to hospital. In parallel, the increasing incidence of cancer, along with the improved efficacy of anti-cancer therapies has led to greater needs for intensive care among cancer patients. The objectives underpinning the management of cancer patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are to achieve a return to a clinical status that would allow the patient to be either, transferred back to the original unit, or discharged from the hospital with an acceptable quality of life, and where warranted, pursuit of cancer therapy. The relevance of ICU admission should be assessed systematically for patients with active cancer. The decision needs to be made taking into account the expected benefit for the patient, the life-support therapies that are possible with discussion about a care project, and also considering the future quality of life and the short and long-term prognosis. Anticipating the question of potential ICU admission should help protect the patient against both inappropriate refusal of intensive care, and inappropriate admission to the ICU that might only lead to unreasonable therapeutic obstinacy. The intensive care physician has a major role to play in helping the cancer patient to develop an appropriate and flexible healthcare project. Anticipating the question of ICU admission in advance, as well as a close alliance between the oncologist and the intensive care physician are the two keys to the success of a healthcare project focused on the patient.

  4. Next-Generation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Hydrologic Design in Snow-Dominated Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hongxiang [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington United States; Sun, Ning [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington United States; Wigmosta, Mark [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington United States; Distinguished Faculty Fellow, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle Washington United States; Skaggs, Richard [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington United States; Hou, Zhangshuan [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington United States; Leung, Ruby [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington United States

    2018-02-01

    There is a renewed focus on the design of infrastructure resilient to extreme hydrometeorological events. While precipitation-based intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are commonly used as part of infrastructure design, a large percentage of peak runoff events in snow-dominated regions are caused by snowmelt, particularly during rain-on-snow (ROS) events. In these regions, precipitation-based IDF curves may lead to substantial over-/under-estimation of design basis events and subsequent over-/under-design of infrastructure. To overcome this deficiency, we proposed next-generation IDF (NG-IDF) curves, which characterize the actual water reaching the land surface. We compared NG-IDF curves to standard precipitation-based IDF curves for estimates of extreme events at 376 Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations across the western United States that each had at least 30 years of high-quality records. We found standard precipitation-based IDF curves at 45% of the stations were subject to under-design, many with significant under-estimation of 100-year extreme events, for which the precipitation-based IDF curves can underestimate water potentially available for runoff by as much as 125% due to snowmelt and ROS events. The regions with the greatest potential for under-design were in the Pacific Northwest, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Middle and Southern Rockies. We also found the potential for over-design at 20% of the stations, primarily in the Middle Rockies and Arizona mountains. These results demonstrate the need to consider snow processes in the development of IDF curves, and they suggest use of the more robust NG-IDF curves for hydrologic design in snow-dominated environments.

  5. Low intensity radiation in diapazone of high frequency as factor of the survival modification of differentiated plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordiya, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of low intensity electromagnetic emission in high frequency range (EMI HF) and ionizing radiation on survival of the differential cells of high plant water Elodea canadensis is investigated. It was established, that EMI HF is radioprotective modification of the radiation injury of plant cell

  6. Comparison of intensity discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the envelope and audio-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.

    In the audio-frequency domain, the envelope apparently plays an important role in detection of intensity increments and in comodulation masking release (CMR). The current study addressed the question whether the second-order envelope ("venelope") contributes similarly for comparable experiments i...

  7. Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on the growth of MNP-treated HT29 colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulou, K.; Makridis, A.; Maniotis, N.; Karypidou, N.; Myrovali, E.; Samaras, T.; Angelakeris, M.; Chlichlia, K.; Kalogirou, O.

    2018-04-01

    Recent investigations have attempted to understand and exploit the impact of magnetic field-actuated internalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the proliferation rate of cancer cells. Due to the complexity of the parameters governing magnetic field-exposure though, individual studies to date have raised contradictory results. In our approach we performed a comparative analysis of key parameters related to the cell exposure of cancer cells to magnetic field-actuated MNPs, and to the magnetic field, in order to better understand the factors affecting cellular responses to magnetic field-stimulated MNPs. We used magnetite MNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and studied the proliferation rate of MNPs-treated versus untreated HT29 human colon cancer cells, exposed to either static or alternating low frequency magnetic fields with varying intensity (40-200 mT), frequency (0-8 Hz) and field gradient. All three parameters, field intensity, frequency, and field gradient affected the growth rate of cells, with or without internalized MNPs, as compared to control MNPs-untreated and magnetic field-untreated cells. We observed that the growth inhibitory effects induced by static and rotating magnetic fields were enhanced by pre-treating the cells with MNPs, while the growth promoting effects observed in alternating field-treated cells were weakened by MNPs. Compared to static, rotating magnetic fields of the same intensity induced a similar extend of cell growth inhibition, while alternating fields of varying intensity (70 or 100 mT) and frequency (0, 4 or 8 Hz) induced cell proliferation in a frequency-dependent manner. These results, highlighting the diverse effects of mode, intensity, and frequency of the magnetic field on cell growth, indicate that consistent and reproducible results can be achieved by controlling the complexity of the exposure of biological samples to MNPs and external magnetic fields, through monitoring crucial experimental parameters. We

  8. HIGH INTENSITY PHYSICAL TRAINING EXERCISE PROGRAM IN IMPROVING BREAST CANCER RELATED FATIGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Intsar S. Wake; Asmaa F. Attalla; Abdel Hamid N. Deghidi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is a prevalent disease that requires intense and prolonged treatments. Because of improved detection and treatment options, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased, greatly increasing the number of survivors who are living with the disease and its side effects. Fatigue is one of the most common debilitating symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. It is a persistent feeling of exhaustion and decreased physical and mental capacity unrelieved by rest o...

  9. Frequency and Pattern of Gynecological Cancers in Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate of cervical cancer.[5] In developed countries, endometrial carcinoma is the commonest gynecological cancer; while in. African countries, carcinoma of the cervix has been reported in many series to be the commonest, with most of the patients presenting in late stages of the disease.[2,6-8]. Ovarian cancer is the second ...

  10. Impact of climate change on flood frequency and intensity in the kabul river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid; Dahri, Zakir Hussain; Querner, Erik P.; Khan, Asif; Hofstra, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    Devastating floods adversely affect human life and infrastructure. Various regions of the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas receive intense monsoon rainfall, which, together with snow and glacier melt, produce intense floods. The Kabul river basin originates from the Hindukush Mountains and is

  11. Frequency of breast cancer, lung cancer, and tobacco use articles in women's magazines from 1987 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Kyle J; Wilson, Philip K; Napolitano, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of articles in women's magazines that address breast cancer, lung cancer, and tobacco use from 1987-2003 and to ascertain whether the annual number of articles reflected corresponding cancer mortality rates from breast cancer and lung cancer and the number of female smokers throughout this time period. We reviewed 13 women's magazines published in the United States from 1987-2003 using the search terms breast cancer, lung cancer, smoking, and tobacco. We reviewed the abstracts or entire articles to determine relevance. A total of 1044 articles addressed breast cancer, lung cancer, or tobacco use: 681 articles related to breast cancer, 47 related to lung cancer, and 316 related to tobacco use. The greater number of breast cancer articles compared to lung cancer articles was statistically significant (P value magazines from 1987-2003 despite the increase in lung cancer mortality, a decrease in breast cancer mortality, and an insignificant change in the number of female smokers.

  12. Changes in precipitation frequency and intensity in the vicinity of Taiwan: typhoon versus non-typhoon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Jien-Yi; Chou Chia

    2013-01-01

    The hourly rainfall at 21 ground stations in Taiwan is used to investigate changes in the frequency, intensity, and duration of rainfall, which can be divided into typhoon and non-typhoon rainfall, in the period of 1970–2010. As a whole, the frequency of rainfall shows a decreasing trend for lighter rain and an increasing trend for heavier rain. Also, the typhoon rainfall shows a significant increase for all intensities, while the non-typhoon rainfall exhibits a general trend of decreasing, particularly for lighter rain. In rainfall intensity, both typhoon and non-typhoon rainfall extremes become more intense, with an increased rate much greater than the Clausius–Clapeyron thermal scaling. Moreover, rainfall extremes associated with typhoons have tended to affect Taiwan rainfall for longer in recent decades. The more frequent, intense and long-lasting typhoon rainfall is mainly induced by the slower translation speed of the typhoons over the neighborhood of Taiwan, which could be associated with a weakening of steering flow in the western North Pacific and the northern South China Sea. (letter)

  13. Plasma Temperature Determination of Hydrogen Containing High-Frequency Electrodeless Lamps by Intensity Distribution Measurements of Hydrogen Molecular Band

    OpenAIRE

    Gavare, Zanda; Revalde, Gita; Skudra, Atis

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was the investigation of the possibility to use intensity distribution of the Q-branch lines of the hydrogen Fulcher-α diagonal band (d3Πu−→a3∑g+ electronic transition; Q-branch with v=v′=2) to determine the temperature of hydrogen containing high-frequency electrodeless lamps (HFEDLs). The values of the rotational temperatures have been obtained from the relative intensity distributions for hydrogen-helium and hydrogen-argon HFEDLs depending on the applied curren...

  14. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchetti Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Base Substitutions (SBS that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. Methods We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing, and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT, i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. Results In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST, i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC, healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. Conclusion If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic.

  15. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchetti, Laurent; Kieffer, David; Féderkeil, Rémi; Poch, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Single Base Substitutions (SBS) that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE) and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing), and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT), i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST), i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC), healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic

  16. Outcomes of cancer patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units with severe acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio; Lobo, Suzana Margarete Ajeje; Torelly, André Peretti; Mello, Patricia Veiga de Carvalho; Silva, Ulisses; Teles, José Mário Meira; Silva, Eliézer; Caruso, Pedro; Friedman, Gilberto; Souza, Paulo César Pereira de; Réa-Neto, Alvaro; Vianna, Arthur Oswaldo; Azevedo, José Raimundo; Vale, Erico; Rezegue, Leila; Godoy, Michele; Maia, Marcelo Oliveira; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2010-09-01

    Critically ill cancer patients are at increased risk for acute kidney injury, but studies on these patients are scarce and were all single centered conducted in specialized intensive care units. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes in a prospective cohort of cancer patients admitted to several intensive care units with acute kidney injury. Prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in intensive care units from 28 hospitals in Brazil over a two-month period. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality. Out of all 717 intensive care unit admissions, 87 (12%) had acute kidney injury and 36% of them received renal replacement therapy. Kidney injury developed more frequently in patients with hematological malignancies than in patients with solid tumors (26% vs. 11%, P=0.003). Ischemia/shock (76%) and sepsis (67%) were the main contributing factor for and kidney injury was multifactorial in 79% of the patients. Hospital mortality was 71%. General and renal-specific severity-of-illness scores were inaccurate in predicting outcomes for these patients. In a multivariate analysis, length of hospital stay prior to intensive care unit, acute organ dysfunctions, need for mechanical ventilation and a poor performance status were associated with increased mortality. Moreover, cancer-related characteristics were not associated with outcomes. The present study demonstrates that intensive care units admission and advanced life-support should be considered in selected critically ill cancer patients with kidney injury.

  17. Benefits of adaptive radiation therapy in lung cancer as a function of replanning frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Christian; Weiss, Elisabeth; Siebers, Jeffrey V; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2016-04-01

    To quantify the potential benefit associated with daily replanning in lung cancer in terms of normal tissue dose sparing and to characterize the tradeoff between adaptive benefit and replanning frequency. A set of synthetic images and contours, derived from weekly active breathing control images of 12 patients who underwent radiation therapy treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer, is generated for each fraction of treatment using principal component analysis in a way that preserves temporal anatomical trends (e.g., tumor regression). Daily synthetic images and contours are used to simulate four different treatment scenarios: (1) a "no-adapt" scenario that simulates delivery of an initial plan throughout treatment, (2) a "midadapt" scenario that implements a single replan for fraction 18, (3) a "weekly adapt" scenario that simulates weekly adaptations, and (4) a "full-adapt" scenario that simulates daily replanning. An initial intensity modulated radiation therapy plan is created for each patient and replanning is carried out in an automated fashion by reoptimizing beam apertures and weights. Dose is calculated on each image and accumulated to the first in the series using deformable mappings utilized in synthetic image creation for comparison between simulated treatments. Target coverage was maintained and cord tolerance was not exceeded for any of the adaptive simulations. Average reductions in mean lung dose (MLD) and volume of lung receiving 20 Gy or more (V20lung) were 65 ± 49 cGy (p = 0.000 01) and 1.1% ± 1.2% (p = 0.0006), respectively, for all patients. The largest reduction in MLD for a single patient was 162 cGy, which allowed an isotoxic escalation of the target dose of 1668 cGy. Average reductions in cord max dose, mean esophageal dose (MED), dose received by 66% of the heart (D66heart), and dose received by 33% of the heart (D33heart), were 158 ± 280, 117 ± 121, 37 ± 77, and 99 ± 120 cGy, respectively. Average incremental reductions in MLD for

  18. Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) association with cancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Caerwyn; Town, Godfrey; Whittall, Rebecca; Tooze, Louise; Phillips, Jaymie

    2017-11-01

    The development and use of light and lasers for medical and cosmetic procedures has increased exponentially over the past decade. This review article focuses on the incidence of reported cases of skin cancer post laser or IPL treatment. The existing evidence base of over 25 years of laser and IPL use to date has not raised any concerns regarding its long-term safety with only a few anecdotal cases of melanoma post treatment over two decades of use; therefore, there is no evidence to suggest that there is a credible cancer risk. Although laser and IPL technology has not been known to cause skin cancer, this does not mean that laser and IPL therapies are without long-term risks. Light therapies and lasers to treat existing lesions and CO 2 laser resurfacing can be a preventative measure against BCC and SCC tumour formation by removing photo-damaged keratinocytes and encouraged re-epithelisation from stem cells located deeper in the epidermis. A review of the relevant literature has been performed to address the issue of long-term IPL safety, focussing on DNA damage, oxidative stress induction and the impact of adverse events.

  19. Detection of intensity bursts using Hawkes processes: An application to high-frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaldi, Marcello; Filimonov, Vladimir; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-03-01

    Given a stationary point process, an intensity burst is defined as a short time period during which the number of counts is larger than the typical count rate. It might signal a local nonstationarity or the presence of an external perturbation to the system. In this paper we propose a procedure for the detection of intensity bursts within the Hawkes process framework. By using a model selection scheme we show that our procedure can be used to detect intensity bursts when both their occurrence time and their total number is unknown. Moreover, the initial time of the burst can be determined with a precision given by the typical interevent time. We apply our methodology to the midprice change in foreign exchange (FX) markets showing that these bursts are frequent and that only a relatively small fraction is associated with news arrival. We show lead-lag relations in intensity burst occurrence across different FX rates and we discuss their relation with price jumps.

  20. A pathology frequency study of childhood solid cancer in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: Childhood cancer, a rising problem in Nigeria, has received little or no attention in the past. We describe the pattern and distribution of cancer in children in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, to increase awareness on the diseases and highlight their prevalence. Design: A retrospective, descriptive ...

  1. First Experience Of Application Of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Ablation (Hifu In Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Stativko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article points out that 40 sessions of HIFU prostate ablation have been performed for estimation of clinical efficiency. Average frequency of influences presents 628±164 impulses; average volume of tissues subjected to influence during one procedure is 33,8±16,3 smi (132 % of prostate volume; average operation time constitutes 150 minutes (from 90 to 200 minutes. During the operation no complications have been occurred. In the first days after the session of HIFU there was a peak of PSA increase and then during 1,5-3 months there was decrease to the lowest index. Minimal PSA level was reached in 10-12 weeks after treatment and it constituted from 0,04 till 1,1 ngml depending on the disease state. Reduction of prostate volume occurred in average from the 30th day of postoperative period and lasted for 6 months, reaching in average 50 % from initial volume. Postoperative period varied from 10 till 16 days and constituted in average 12±0,8 days. Thus application of high-intensity focused ultrasonic ablation allows treating successfully various stages of prostate cancer with minimal number of side-effects and makes possible the early estimation of treatment efficiency

  2. Spatial Intensity Duration Frequency Relationships Using Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Chandra; Mujumdar, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, quantification of extreme precipitation is important in the design of storm water drains and other infrastructure. Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) relationships are generally used to obtain design return level for a given duration and return period. Due to lack of availability of extreme precipitation data for sufficiently large number of years, estimating the probability of extreme events is difficult. Typically, a single station data is used to obtain the design return levels for various durations and return periods, which are used in the design of urban infrastructure for the entire city. In an urban setting, the spatial variation of precipitation can be high; the precipitation amounts and patterns often vary within short distances of less than 5 km. Therefore it is crucial to study the uncertainties in the spatial variation of return levels for various durations. In this work, the extreme precipitation is modeled spatially using the Bayesian hierarchical analysis and the spatial variation of return levels is studied. The analysis is carried out with Block Maxima approach for defining the extreme precipitation, using Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for Bangalore city, Karnataka state, India. Daily data for nineteen stations in and around Bangalore city is considered in the study. The analysis is carried out for summer maxima (March - May), monsoon maxima (June - September) and the annual maxima rainfall. In the hierarchical analysis, the statistical model is specified in three layers. The data layer models the block maxima, pooling the extreme precipitation from all the stations. In the process layer, the latent spatial process characterized by geographical and climatological covariates (lat-lon, elevation, mean temperature etc.) which drives the extreme precipitation is modeled and in the prior level, the prior distributions that govern the latent process are modeled. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm (Metropolis Hastings

  3. Exercise motivation: a cross-sectional analysis examining its relationships with frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Philip M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to engage in regular physical activity in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle however a large portion of the population is insufficiently active. Understanding how different types of motivation contribute to exercise behavior is an important first step in identifying ways to increase exercise among individuals. The current study employs self-determination theory as a framework from which to examine how motivation contributes to various characteristics of exercise behavior. Methods Regular exercisers (N = 1079; n = 468 males; n = 612 females completed inventories which assessed the frequency, intensity, and duration with which they exercise, as well as the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire including four additional items assessing integrated regulation. Results Bivariate correlations revealed that all three behavioral indices (frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were more highly correlated with more autonomous than controlling regulations. Regression analyses revealed that integrated and identified regulations predicted exercise frequency for males and females. Integrated regulation was found to be the only predictor of exercise duration across both genders. Finally, introjected regulation predicted exercise intensity for females only. Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise regulations that vary in their degree of internalization can differentially predict characteristics of exercise behavior. Furthermore, in the motivational profile of a regular exerciser, integrated regulation appears to be an important determinant of exercise behavior. These results highlight the importance of assessing integrated regulation in exercise settings where the goal of understanding motivated behavior has important health implications.

  4. Geomagnetic precursors of intensive earthquakes in the 1-0.-2 Hz frequency range of geomagnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogatishvili, Y. M.

    1985-02-01

    During intensive geotectonic processes such as earthquakes, pulsations are observed in the geomagnetic field at a frequency of 0.02 to 1 Hz with anomalously high amplitudes. These pulsations usually apppear as beat phenomena lasting from several minutes to several hours. It has been found that the pulsations are excited only in magnetic compontents of the terrestrial electromagnetic field. The periods and amplitudes of the pulsations are nonlinearly related to the intensity of the earthquakes. Pulsations of this type are not observed when earthquakes do not occur. Additional analysis shows that frequently the pulsations precede intensive earthquakes by 10 to 200 minutes, then drop for about 1 hour, then appear once again during the actual earthquake. Oscillograms of such pulsations are presented. The periods and amplitudes of the geomagnetic pulsations preceding earthquakes are found to be linearly related to the magnitude of the earthquakes. A regression equation relating earthquake magnitude to pulsation characteristics is presented.

  5. Observations of a free-energy source for intense electrostatic waves. [in upper atmosphere near upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.; Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Burek, B. G.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1980-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding intense electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in terms of the theory of multiharmonic cyclotron emission using a classical loss-cone distribution function as a model. Recent observations by Hawkeye 1 and GEOS 1 have verified the existence of loss-cone distributions in association with the intense electrostatic wave events, however, other observations by Hawkeye and ISEE have indicated that loss cones are not always observable during the wave events, and in fact other forms of free energy may also be responsible for the instability. Now, for the first time, a positively sloped feature in the perpendicular distribution function has been uniquely identified with intense electrostatic wave activity. Correspondingly, we suggest that the theory is flexible under substantial modifications of the model distribution function.

  6. Simultaneously suppressing frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator by means of the current-lock technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurs, Michèle; Quetschke, Volker M; Willke, Benno; Danzmann, Karsten; Freitag, Ingo

    2004-09-15

    We show that frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG laser are correlated to a high degree and can be traced to the same underlying cause, namely, power fluctuations of the pump source. Because of this correlation, simultaneous suppression of frequency and intensity noise by 30 dB is achieved by means of a single actuator, the pump power.

  7. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  8. Fatal pneumonitis associated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer: Case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    HU, YAN; LI, JINGJING; SU, XIAOYAN

    2012-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with inverse planning enables us to achieve the desired dose distribution. However, there are many high-risk procedures associated with lung irradiation, including chemotherapy and surgery. We report a case of fatal treatment-related pneumonitis, where the patient had undergone postoperative IMRT for lung cancer. Following completion of ...

  9. Bayesian Inference of Nonstationary Precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Infrastructure Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    comparison of these Bayesian- inferred IDF curves under stationary and nonstationary conditions. BACKGROUND: Probability concepts and related relevant...second edition, texts in statistical science. United Kingdom: Chapman & Hall/CRC. Gelman, A., and D. B. Rubin. 1992. Inference from iterative...ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-2 March 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bayesian Inference of Nonstationary Precipitation Intensity

  10. Intense high-frequency gyrotron-based microwave beams for material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardek, T.W.; Cooke, W.D.; Katz, J.D.; Perry, W.L.; Rees, D.E.

    1997-03-01

    Microwave processing of materials has traditionally utilized frequencies in the 0.915 and 2.45 GHz regions. Microwave power sources are readily available at these frequencies but the relatively long wavelengths can present challenges in uniformly heating materials. An additional difficulty is the poor coupling of ceramic based materials to the microwave energy. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists, working in conjunction with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), have assembled a high-frequency demonstration processing facility utilizing gyrotron based RF sources. The facility is primarily intended to demonstrate the unique features available at frequencies as high as 84 GHz. The authors can readily provide quasi-optical, 37 GHz beams at continuous wave (CW) power levels in the 10 kW range. They have also provided beams at 84 GHz at 10 kW CW power levels. They are presently preparing a facility to demonstrate the sintering of ceramics at 30 GHz. This paper presents an overview of the present demonstration processing facility and describes some of the features they have available now and will have available in the near future.

  11. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power

  12. Intensity of treatment in Swiss cancer patients at the end-of-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bähler C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Bähler,1 Andri Signorell,1 Eva Blozik,1,2 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Insurance Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Purpose: Current evidence on the care-delivering process and the intensity of treatment at the end-of-life of cancer patients is limited and remains unclear. Our objective was to examine the care-delivering processes in health care during the last months of life with real-life data of Swiss cancer patients. Patients and methods: The study population consisted of adult decedents in 2014 who were insured at Helsana Group. Data on the final cause of death were provided additionally by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Of the 10,275 decedents, 2,710 (26.4% died of cancer. Intensity of treatment and health care utilization (including transitions at their end-of-life were examined. Intensity measures included the following: last dose of chemotherapy within 14 days of death, a new chemotherapy regimen starting <30 days before death, more than one hospital admission or spending >14 days in hospital in the last month, death in an acute care hospital, more than one emergency visit and ≥1 intensive care unit admission in the last month of life. Results: In the last 6 months of life, 89.5% of cancer patients had ≥1 transition, with 87.2% being hospitalized. Within 30 days before death, 64.2% of the decedents had ≥1 intensive treatment, whereby 8.9% started a new chemotherapy. In the multinomial logistic regression model, older age, higher density of nursing home beds and home care nurses were associated with a decrease, while living in the Italian- or French-speaking part of Switzerland was associated with an increase in intensive care. Conclusion: Swiss cancer patients insured by Helsana Group experience a considerable number of transitions and intensive treatments at the end-of-life, whereby treatment intensity

  13. Effect of imaging frequency on PTV margins and geographical miss during image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meetakshi; Gamre, Poonam; Kannan, Sadhana; Rokde, Ganesh; Krishnatry, Rahul; Murthy, Vedang

    The relationship between frequency of imaging during image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and planning target volume (PTV) margin remains unclear. This issue is of practical significance given resource and time intensive nature of IGRT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PTV margins with predefined and commonly used less-than-daily IGRT schedules using data obtained from patients treated with daily IGRT for prostate cancer. Daily setup error and 3-dimensional daily alignment data for a total of 108 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with 2700 fractions of daily image guidance on tomotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Five IGRT scenarios were simulated: alternate day, twice weekly, once weekly, first 3 days only, and no image guidance. The daily alignment data were modeled to simulate the 5 predefined scenarios by applying appropriate corrections to determine the PTV margin for each image guidance scenario. The data were also analyzed to predict possible geographical miss in any direction using 2 frequently used PTV margins of 7 and 5 mm for all the scenarios. Decreasing the frequency of image guidance increased the mean systematic error and the standard deviation of the systematic error. With decreased image guidance frequency, an increase in PTV margins was required to achieve adequate coverage of the clinical target volume. With reduction in image guidance from 50% to 12%, a gradual increase in percentage of fractions with predicted geographical miss using an isotropic PTV margin of 7 or 5 mm was seen. With every 15% decrease in imaging, a 5% increased risk of geographical miss was estimated. The use of less-than-daily IGRT requires larger PTV margins for patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. With every 15% reduction, a 5% increased risk of geographical miss was estimated. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Moiroux, Fanny; Poulenard, Jérôme; Develle, Anne-Lise; Bichet, Adeline; Chen, Wentao; Pignol, Cécile; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Gielly, Ludovic; Bajard, Manon; Perrette, Yves; Malet, Emmanuel; Taberlet, Pierre; Arnaud, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called "East Return" events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  15. Low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after brain tumour resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Ito, Hiroshi; Umemori, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    To assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with occupational therapy (OT) in a hemiparetic patient who had undergone brain tumour resection. A 39-year-old right-handed woman underwent brain tumour resection and presented 5 years later with right upper limb hemiparesis. At admission, she was considered to have reached a probable plateau state of motor functional recovery of the affected upper limb in spite of conventional occupational therapy. Low-frequency rTMS with 1 Hz applied to the right primary motor cortex followed by intensive occupational therapy (one-on-one training and self-training) was provided daily during the 15-day hospitalization. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test were conducted serially to evaluate motor function on the affected upper limb. Neither adverse effect nor deterioration of neurological symptoms was recognized during the treatment period. The 15-day combination protocol improved motor function of the right upper limb and further improvement was noted 4 weeks after discharge. The proposed protocol of low-frequency rTMS with intensive occupational therapy is a potentially useful rehabilitative programme for upper limb hemiparesis after brain tumour resection.

  16. Evaluation of frequency of kirsten rat sarcoma gene mutations in Iranian colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Roudbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS gene is a target of genetic alterations which are diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are treated with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies such as cetuximab and panitumumab. KRAS mutations are seen in 35-42% of patients with colorectal cancer. The high frequency of these mutations in colorectal cancer represents their high potential as a biomarker in early diagnosis of cancer. This study was done to evaluate the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in a small population of Iranian patients suffering from colorectal cancer.   Methods: 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with colorectal cancer (CRC, already confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry testing, were received to Payvand Clinical and Specialty Laboratory, Tehran, from across the country in 2015. DNA was extracted from the tissue blocks and its quality was then evaluated. The reverse dot blotting method was used to evaluate KRAS gene mutations. Results: KRAS mutations were found in 42% of the study patients. 30% and 12% of the mutations were found in codon 12 and codon 13, respectively. Moreover, no mutation was found in codon 61. Results also showed that the most frequency of samples examined belonged to male with 68% (average age of 56 years old and then to female with 32% (median age of 54.8 years old. Conclusion: This study was performed to evaluate the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in Iranian colorectal cancer patients. According to the study results, the frequency of KRAS mutations was consistent with that of other countries, reported in previous studies. The high prevalence of these mutations in patients with colorectal cancer indicates the important role of these genes in this group of patients. Thus, the presence of these mutations can be used as a suitable biomarker for evaluation of response to targeted therapies in patients suffering from colorectal cancer.

  17. High frequency of early colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Vleggaar, F. P.; Schipper, M. E. I.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Dijkstra, G.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Oldenburg, B.; Samsom, M.

    Background and aim: To detect precancerous dysplasia or asymptomatic cancer, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease often undergo colonoscopic surveillance based on American or British guidelines. It is recommended that surveillance is initiated after 8-10 years of extensive colitis, or

  18. High frequency of early colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Vleggaar, F. P.; Schipper, M. E. I.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Dijkstra, G.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Oldenburg, B.; Samsom, M.

    2008-01-01

    To detect precancerous dysplasia or asymptomatic cancer, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease often undergo colonoscopic surveillance based on American or British guidelines. It is recommended that surveillance is initiated after 8-10 years of extensive colitis, or after 15-20 years

  19. Vibrational power flow and structural intensity: Measurements and limitations at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1991-01-01

    The cross-spectral methods and their sensitivity to phase errors are investigated for the two and four-accelerometer arrays. From experiments on a beam structure it is attempted to verify the influence of phase errors and to determine the usable frequency ranges of the two methods. Measurements a...... are made in both moderately and highly reverberant wave fields with system loss factors, η, ranging from 0.04 to 0.0004....

  20. Acute esophagus toxicity in lung cancer patients after intensity modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; de Bois, Josien; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van den Heuvel, Michel; Knegjens, Joost; van Herk, Marcel; Belderbos, José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One

  1. MRI-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckel, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for completely noninvasive tumor ablation. This thesis focuses on its application for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The first part of the thesis describes the role of breast MRI for

  2. Recent trends and climatic perspectives of hailstorms frequency and intensity in Tuscany and Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The damages from climatic extremes have dramatically increased in the last decades in Europe, as likely outcomes of climate change: floods, droughts, heat waves and hailstorms have brought local as well as widespread damages to farmers, industry, infrastructures and society, to insurance and reinsurance companies; in this work we deal with the hailstorm hazard. The NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis (2.5 by 2.5° lat-lon over the Italian area and the hailstorm reports at several sites are used to identify few forcings for hailstorms; statistical relationships linking forcings and hailstorm frequencies are derived. Such relationships are applied to the same forcings derived from the CGCM2-A2 climate scenario provided by the Canadian Centre for Climate modeling and analysis (CCCma; resolution approximately 3.75 by 3.75° lat-lon, to evaluate the expected changes of the frequency of hailstorms. The time series of the forcings from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and the CCCma climate scenario in the past decades are compared in order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the predictions of the future hailstorm hazard. It is shown that the climate scenario provides a fairly faithful representation of the past trends of the forcings relevant to the hailstorms frequency and that such quantity, hence the hailstorm hazard, is growing and will likely grow in the future over the limited area taken into consideration in this study.

  3. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably......)% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains). Our observational results provide inputs to quantify and optimize...

  4. Frequency of cancer testis antigens in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mendoza-Salas

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Detection of CTA genes by molecular biology techniques is important due to their use as biomarkers in LMC, in the monitoring of disease progression and in patients who are resistant to chemotherapy. The frequency of CTA expression in treated and de novo differs significantly.

  5. Measurement of intense coherent synchrotron radiation at frequencies around 0.1 THz using the compact S-band linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Yasumoto, Masato; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaki; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2008-01-01

    We measured intense radiation from an electron bunch in a millimeter wave region using the compact S-band linac. The dependence of the radiation on the electron-bunch charge was measured with an rf detector system at frequencies around 0.1 THz and was confirmed to be a coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The total power of the horizontally and vertically polarized CSRs, which were extracted through the Z-cut quartz window within 1 ns, was calculated to be about 88 and 30 nJ/pulse, excluding the absorption by the window. The two-dimensional distribution of the vertically polarized CSR was measured at a distance of about 0.7 m from the radiation point. The CSR distribution was comparatively uniform in the horizontal plane. Intense CSR, which was reflected in the vacuum chamber, was extracted with a delay of about 6 ns. This suggests that measurement of temporal structure is needed for CSR applications

  6. Association of Physical Activity by Type and Intensity With Digestive System Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Bao, Ying; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that common carcinogenic pathways may underlie digestive system cancers. Physical activity may influence these pathways. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the role of physical activity in overall digestive system cancer risk. To examine the association between physical activity and digestive system cancer risk, accounting for amount, type (aerobic vs resistance), and intensity of physical activity. A prospective cohort study followed 43 479 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2012. At enrollment, the eligible participants were 40 years or older, were free of cancer, and reported physical activity. Follow-up rates exceeded 90% in each 2-year cycle. The amount of total physical activity expressed in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-hours/week. Incident cancer of the digestive system encompassing the digestive tract (mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colorectum) and digestive accessory organs (pancreas, gallbladder, and liver). Over 686 924 person-years, we documented 1370 incident digestive system cancers. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower digestive system cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 for ≥63.0 vs ≤8.9 MET-hours/week; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; P value for trend = .003). The inverse association was more evident with digestive tract cancers (HR, 0.66 for ≥63.0 vs ≤8.9 MET-hours/week; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87) than with digestive accessary organ cancers. Aerobic exercise was particularly beneficial against digestive system cancers, with the optimal benefit observed at approximately 30 MET-hours/week (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.83; P value for nonlinearity = .02). Moreover, as long as the same level of MET-hour score was achieved from aerobic exercise, the magnitude of risk reduction was similar regardless of intensity of aerobic exercise. Physical activity, as indicated by MET-hours/week, was inversely associated with the risk of

  7. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  8. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality: an analysis of mortality change by screening intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldman, Andrew J; Phillips, Norman; Pickles, Thomas A

    2003-01-07

    The rate of death from prostate cancer has recently declined in many areas of the world. Over the past 15 years prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has increased in popularity, which has resulted in increases in the incidence of prostate cancer. Over the same period there have been changes in the management of the disease and, in particular, the use of androgen ablation. We set out to examine the relation between changes in prostate cancer incidence (a surrogate for PSA screening) and subsequent changes in mortality in regions using common treatment recommendations. We used data from prostate cancer cases and deaths reported to the British Columbia Cancer Registry during 1985-1999 to examine trends in incidence and mortality in 88 small health areas (SHAs) among men aged 50-74 years. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first we classified the SHAs by intensity of PSA screening (low, medium or high) according to their ranked age-standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer in 1990-1994 and examined subsequent trends in prostate cancer mortality. In the second analysis we examined the SHA-specific relative change in prostate cancer incidence between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 and correlated it with the relative change in mortality for cases diagnosed after 1990. Between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 the incidence of prostate cancer increased by 53.2% and 14.6% among men aged 50-74 and those 75 and over respectively. Between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 prostate cancer mortality declined by 17.6% and 7.9% in the 2 age groups respectively. Among men aged 50-74 years SHAs with low, middle and high levels of screening had respective increases in prostate cancer incidence of 5.4%, 53.6% and 70.5% between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994. Corresponding decreases in mortality between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 were 28.9%, 18.0% and 13.5%. Mortality declines were greatest in SHAs with low screening levels (p = 0.032). Before 1990 prostate cancer mortality was similar in the 3 screening groups (p

  9. Cyclic AMP response in cells exposed to electric fields of different frequencies and intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knedlitschek, G. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie; Noszvai-Nagy, M. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie; Meyer-Waarden, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie; Schimmelpfeng, J. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie; Weibezahn, K.F. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie; Dertinger, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie

    1994-04-01

    The action on intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) of therapeutically used 4000-Hz electric fields was investigated and compared with 50-Hz data. Cultured mouse fibroblasts were exposed for 5 minutes to 4000-Hz sine wave internal electric fields between 3 mV/m and 30 V/m applied within culture medium. A statistically significant decrease in cellular cAMP concentration relative to unexposed cells was observed for fields higher than 10 mV/m. The drop in cAMP was ost pronounced at lower field strengths (71% of controls at 30 mV/m) and tended to disappear at higher field strengths. An increase of cAMP content was observed with 50-Hz electric fields, as was also the case when 4000-Hz fields were modulated with certain low frequencies. (orig.)

  10. Intensive care for the cancer patient - unique clinical and ethical challenges and outcome prediction in the critically ill cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmore, Timothy James; Farquhar-Smith, Paul; Lawson, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    With the rising number of cancer cases and increasing survival times, cancer patients with critical illness are increasingly presenting to the intensive care unit. This article considers the unique challenges they pose in terms of oncological-specific disease processes and treatment and reviews current trends in outcome prediction. We also consider the ethical standpoints surrounding the treatment of patients for whom there may be no cure and their subsequent transition to palliative care, should it become necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency of Germline Mutations in 25 Cancer Susceptibility Genes in a Sequential Series of Patients With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine; Lin, Nancy U; Kidd, John; Allen, Brian A; Singh, Nanda; Wenstrup, Richard J; Hartman, Anne-Renee; Winer, Eric P; Garber, Judy E

    2016-05-01

    Testing for germline mutations in BRCA1/2 is standard for select patients with breast cancer to guide clinical management. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows testing for mutations in additional breast cancer predisposition genes. The frequency of germline mutations detected by using NGS has been reported in patients with breast cancer who were referred for BRCA1/2 testing or with triple-negative breast cancer. We assessed the frequency and predictors of mutations in 25 cancer predisposition genes, including BRCA1/2, in a sequential series of patients with breast cancer at an academic institution to examine the utility of genetic testing in this population. Patients with stages I to III breast cancer who were seen at a single cancer center between 2010 and 2012, and who agreed to participate in research DNA banking, were included (N = 488). Personal and family cancer histories were collected and germline DNA was sequenced with NGS to identify mutations. Deleterious mutations were identified in 10.7% of women, including 6.1% in BRCA1/2 (5.1% in non-Ashkenazi Jewish patients) and 4.6% in other breast/ovarian cancer predisposition genes including CHEK2 (n = 10), ATM (n = 4), BRIP1 (n = 4), and one each in PALB2, PTEN, NBN, RAD51C, RAD51D, MSH6, and PMS2. Whereas young age (P breast cancer (P = .01), and family history of breast/ovarian cancer (P = .01) predicted for BRCA1/2 mutations, no factors predicted for mutations in other breast cancer predisposition genes. Among sequential patients with breast cancer, 10.7% were found to have a germline mutation in a gene that predisposes women to breast or ovarian cancer, using a panel of 25 predisposition genes. Factors that predict for BRCA1/2 mutations do not predict for mutations in other breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility genes when these genes are analyzed as a single group. Additional cohorts will be helpful to define individuals at higher risk of carrying mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2. © 2016 by American

  12. Influence of kick frequency on metabolic efficiency and performance at a severe intensity in international monofin-swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Boitel, Guillaume; Alberty, Morgan; Nesi, Xavier; Bourdon, Lionel; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of kick frequency on metabolic efficiency and performance in elite monofin-swimmers at the surface. Seven participants of international calibre were requested to perform three separate time limit exercises conducted at an intensity corresponding to 97.5% of the velocity at the maximal oxygen uptake. The first Time Limit exercise was systematically conducted at a freely chosen kick frequency (FCK(F)) and the other Time Limit exercises were performed in random order at FCK(F)-10% and FCK(F) + 10%. The slow component of oxygen uptake (VO2sc) was identified independently of the Time Limit exercise (ranging from 180 to 243 ml · min(-1), P FCK(F) was associated with a significant reduction in Time Limit of -47.3% and -49.1%, respectively (P FCK(F) is detrimental to overall monofin-swimming performance. Furthermore, the study results showed that the indicators of metabolic efficiency such as energy cost or [VO2sc) do not determine the performance response in elite monofin-swimmers at a severe intensity.

  13. The effectiveness of melodic intonation therapy on fundamental frequency and intensity in Persian autistic children’s speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ferdosi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder with several speech disorders such as prosodic and pragmatic impairments. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT based on Albert et al. model (1973 is a rehabilitation method, developed on prosodic features. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MIT on Persian autistic children’s prosody.Methods: An easy version of MIT, adopted for Persian language was designed by researchers. Then, after a successful pilot study on a 10-years-old boy for one month, 13 subjects were selected for the main study. All the subjects were autistic, male, right-handed, 7-10-years-old Persian children studied for 48 sessions (16 weeks. Background information gathered from the parents by a questionnaire. As pre- and post-test, some assessments about children’s fundamental frequency (Fº and intensity of the Persian vowel sounds and declarative and interrogative sentences were accomplished. The data analysis was done using Praat and SPSS softwares.Results: There was a statistically significant increase in acoustic features, such as intensity, and fundamental frequency of declarative and interrogative sentences; also all six vowels of Persian, excluding /â/ and /æ/ (p<0.05 for all.Conclusion: The widely reported unusual prosody in autistic children was quantified by this study, too. In addition, there was convincing evidence of the positive effects of melodic intonation therapy on acoustic features in Persian autistic children.

  14. Rehabilitation Using High-Intensity Physical Training and Long-Term Return-to-Work in Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J.; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received

  15. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary factors related to colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse; Van Camp, John; Huybrechts, Inge; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Loco, Joris; De Smet, Stefaan; Sterck, Ellen; Rabai, Celine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Peeters, Marc; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged 50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was asses...

  16. Age-Related Frequency of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M. T.; Ahmad, M.; Mustafa, Q.; Shukr, I.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in Pakistani women with respect to age. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from July 2005 to July 2010. Methodology: Pathological records of all specimens of breast cancer were reviewed and data was obtained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2 neu receptor proteins. Specimens having complete record of all three proteins were included for analysis. TNBC was defined as those who were ER, PR and HER-2 neu negative. Overall frequency as well as frequency with respect to age was calculated. Descriptive and categorical variables were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Eight hundred and fifteen patients out of 4715 (17.28%) were found to be TNBC. Mean age of diagnosis of TNBC was found to be 46.26 A +- 12.22 years of age while other breast cancers had a mean age 52.90 A +- 9.78 years (p 50 years while majority of patients with other breast cancers were elderly females (p < 0.001). Conclusion: TNBC comprised 17.28% of the breast cancers in Pakistani women diagnosed at the studied centre. A higher frequency of TNBC was noted in significantly younger patients. (author)

  17. Plasma Temperature Determination of Hydrogen Containing High-Frequency Electrode less Lamps by Intensity Distribution Measurements of Hydrogen Molecular Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavare, Z.; Revalde, G.; Skudra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present work was the investigation of the possibility to use intensity distribution of the Q-branch lines of the hydrogen Fulcher-a diagonal band (d3η u- a3Σg + electronic transition; Q-branch with ν=ν=2) to determine the temperature of hydrogen containing high-frequency electrode less lamps (HFEDLs). The values of the rotational temperatures have been obtained from the relative intensity distributions for hydrogen-helium and hydrogen-argon HFEDLs depending on the applied current. The results have been compared with the method of temperature derivation from Doppler profiles of He 667.8 nm and Ar 772.4 nm lines. The results of both methods are in good agreement, showing that the method of gas temperature determination from the intensity distribution in the hydrogen Fulcher-a (2-2)Q band can be used for the hydrogen containing HFEDLs. It was observed that the admixture of 10% hydrogen in the argon HFEDLs significantly reduces the gas temperature

  18. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  19. Frequency and Intensive Care Related Risk Factors of Pneumothorax in Ventilated Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bhat Yellanthoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Relationships of mechanical ventilation to pneumothorax in neonates and care procedures in particular are rarely studied. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of selected ventilator variables and risk events to pneumothorax. Methods. Pneumothorax was defined as accumulation of air in pleural cavity as confirmed by chest radiograph. Relationship of ventilator mode, selected settings, and risk procedures prior to detection of pneumothorax was studied using matched controls. Results. Of 540 neonates receiving mechanical ventilation, 10 (1.85% were found to have pneumothorax. Respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, and pneumonia were the underlying lung pathology. Pneumothorax mostly (80% occurred within 48 hours of life. Among ventilated neonates, significantly higher percentage with pneumothorax received mandatory ventilation than controls (70% versus 20%; P20 cm H2O and overventilation were not significantly associated with pneumothorax. More cases than controls underwent care procedures in the preceding 3 hours of pneumothorax event. Mean airway pressure change (P=0.052 and endotracheal suctioning (P=0.05 were not significantly associated with pneumothorax. Reintubation (P=0.003, and bagging (P=0.015 were significantly associated with pneumothorax. Conclusion. Pneumothorax among ventilated neonates occurred at low frequency. Mandatory ventilation and selected care procedures in the preceding 3 hours had significant association.

  20. Frequency format diagram and probability chart for breast cancer risk communication: a prospective, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahner-Roedler Dietlind

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer risk education enables women make informed decisions regarding their options for screening and risk reduction. We aimed to determine whether patient education regarding breast cancer risk using a bar graph, with or without a frequency format diagram, improved the accuracy of risk perception. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized trial among women at increased risk for breast cancer. The main outcome measurement was patients' estimation of their breast cancer risk before and after education with a bar graph (BG group or bar graph plus a frequency format diagram (BG+FF group, which was assessed by previsit and postvisit questionnaires. Results Of 150 women in the study, 74 were assigned to the BG group and 76 to the BG+FF group. Overall, 72% of women overestimated their risk of breast cancer. The improvement in accuracy of risk perception from the previsit to the postvisit questionnaire (BG group, 19% to 61%; BG+FF group, 13% to 67% was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .10. Among women who inaccurately perceived very high risk (≥ 50% risk, inaccurate risk perception decreased significantly in the BG+FF group (22% to 3% compared with the BG group (28% to 19% (P = .004. Conclusion Breast cancer risk communication using a bar graph plus a frequency format diagram can improve the short-term accuracy of risk perception among women perceiving inaccurately high risk.

  1. Benefits of adaptive radiation therapy in lung cancer as a function of replanning frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dial, Christian; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the potential benefit associated with daily replanning in lung cancer in terms of normal tissue dose sparing and to characterize the tradeoff between adaptive benefit and replanning frequency. Methods: A set of synthetic images and contours, derived from weekly active breathing control images of 12 patients who underwent radiation therapy treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer, is generated for each fraction of treatment using principal component analysis in a way that preserves temporal anatomical trends (e.g., tumor regression). Daily synthetic images and contours are used to simulate four different treatment scenarios: (1) a “no-adapt” scenario that simulates delivery of an initial plan throughout treatment, (2) a “midadapt” scenario that implements a single replan for fraction 18, (3) a “weekly adapt” scenario that simulates weekly adaptations, and (4) a “full-adapt” scenario that simulates daily replanning. An initial intensity modulated radiation therapy plan is created for each patient and replanning is carried out in an automated fashion by reoptimizing beam apertures and weights. Dose is calculated on each image and accumulated to the first in the series using deformable mappings utilized in synthetic image creation for comparison between simulated treatments. Results: Target coverage was maintained and cord tolerance was not exceeded for any of the adaptive simulations. Average reductions in mean lung dose (MLD) and volume of lung receiving 20 Gy or more (V20 lung ) were 65 ± 49 cGy (p = 0.000 01) and 1.1% ± 1.2% (p = 0.0006), respectively, for all patients. The largest reduction in MLD for a single patient was 162 cGy, which allowed an isotoxic escalation of the target dose of 1668 cGy. Average reductions in cord max dose, mean esophageal dose (MED), dose received by 66% of the heart (D66 heart ), and dose received by 33% of the heart (D33 heart ), were 158 ± 280, 117 ± 121, 37 ± 77, and 99 ± 120 c

  2. Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone: impact of dose intensity and administration frequency on safety in the PANORAMA 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Miguel, Jesús F; Hungria, Vania T M; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Beksac, Meral; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Elghandour, Ashraf; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Guenther, Andreas; Na Nakorn, Thanyaphong; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Schlossman, Robert L; Hou, Jian; Moreau, Philippe; Lonial, Sagar; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Einsele, Hermann; Salwender, Hans; Sopala, Monika; Redhu, Suman; Paul, Sofia; Corrado, Claudia; Richardson, Paul G

    2017-10-01

    Panobinostat in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone demonstrated a significant and clinically meaningful progression-free survival benefit compared with placebo, bortezomib and dexamethasone in the phase 3 PANORAMA 1 (Panobinostat Oral in Multiple Myeloma 1) trial. Despite this benefit, patients in the panobinostat arm experienced higher rates of adverse events (AEs) and higher rates of discontinuation due to AEs. This PANORAMA 1 subanalysis examined AEs between 2 treatment phases of the study (TP1 and TP2), in which administration frequency of bortezomib and dexamethasone differed per protocol. The incidences of several key AEs were lower in both arms following the planned reduction of bortezomib dosing frequency in TP2. In the panobinostat arm, rates of thrombocytopenia (grade 3/4: TP1, 56·7%; TP2, 6·0%), diarrhoea (grade 3/4: TP1, 24·1%; TP2, 7·1%), and fatigue (grade 3/4: TP1, 16·3%; TP2, 1·8%) were lower in TP2 compared with TP1. Dose intensity analysis of panobinostat and bortezomib by cycle in the panobinostat arm showed reductions of both agent doses during cycles 1-4 due to dose adjustments for AEs. Exposure-adjusted analysis demonstrated a reduction in thrombocytopenia frequency in TP1 following dose adjustment. These results suggest that optimization of dosing with this regimen could improve tolerability, potentially leading to improved patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of ActiGraph's low frequency extension for estimating steps and physical activity intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Feito

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the ActiGraph's (AG low-frequency extension (LFE filter on steps and physical activity classification in the free-living environment. Thirty-four African-American women (age, 24.5±5.2 years; BMI, 24.9±4.5 kg/m2 had daily activity measured simultaneously with an AG-GT3X+ accelerometer and a New Lifestyles NL-800 pedometer for seven days. Steps per day (steps/day and time (minutes/day spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA were examined with and without the LFE filter (AG-LFE and AG-N, respectively. The AG-LFE recorded more total steps (13,723±4,983 steps/day compared to AG-N and NL-800 (6,172±2,838 and 5,817±3,037 steps/day, respectively; p<0.001. Compared to the AG-N, the AG-LFE estimated less time in sedentary behaviors (518.7±92.1 vs. 504.2±105.4 min/day, respectively; p<0.001, and more time in light (247.7±70.4 vs. 279.1±74.7 min/day, respectively; p<0.001 and MVPA (18.9±16.9 vs. 21.5±18.2 min/day, respectively; p<0.001, respectively. These data suggest that steps and physical activity classifications will be affected when using the ActiGraph with and without the LFE filter. Future research should investigate the accuracy of these measures using the LFE filter.

  4. Implementation of intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy for cervical cancers at the Alexis Vautrin Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard-Oldrini, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    As platinum salt based concomitant conformational radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been used as a standard treatment for cervical cancers but resulted in digestive and haematological toxicities, this research thesis reports the application of intensity-modulated conformational radiation therapy. After having recalled some epidemiological, anatomical aspects, diagnosis and treatments aspects regarding cervical cancer, the author presents this last treatment technique (principles, benefits, practical implementation). The author discusses results obtained by an experiment during which seven patients have been treated by simple conformational radiation therapy, and four by intensity-modulated conformational radiation therapy. Results are discussed in terms of volumes (clinical target volume, growth target volume, planned target volume), dosimetric results, toxicities (urine and skin), weight loss [fr

  5. Reduced Frequency of Cases with Seclusion Is Associated with “Opening the Doors” of a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hochstrasser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImplementing an open door policy is a complex intervention comprising changes in therapeutic stance, team processes, and a change from locked to open doors. Recent studies show that it can lead to a reduction of seclusion and forced medication, but the role of the physical change of door status is still unclear.AimsThe aims of this study is to examine the transition from closed to predominantly open doors on a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU and its associations with the frequency of seclusion and forced medication.MethodA PICU at the Department of Adult Psychiatry, University of Basel, Switzerland, implemented evidence-based strategies for operating an open door policy within the context of acute psychiatry and participated in a hospital-wide implementation of an open door policy before changing door status. 131 inpatient cases hospitalized on this PICU were examined regarding the frequency of seclusion and forced medication using explorative analyses over a time span of 32 weeks (16 weeks after implementation of the new treatment concept but before door opening, 16 weeks after door opening.ResultsFollowing door status change, the PICU was completely open on 51% of the days and partly open on 23% of the days. The mean number of open hours per day was 12.8 ± 3.9 h. The frequency of forced medication did not change, and the frequency of seclusion decreased significantly [χ2 (1, N = 131 = 4.73, p = 0.036].ConclusionThis pilot study underlines the potential of a change of door status to attain a reduction in safety measures in the first 4 months.

  6. [Pain Intensity and Time to Death of Cancer Patients Referred to Palliative Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Pedro; Santos, Filipa; Mesquita, Graça; Cardoso, Alice; Custódio, Maria Paula; Alves, Marta; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Barbosa, António; Lawlor, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Pain is a common symptom experienced by cancer patients, especially in those with advanced disease. Our aim was to describe pain intensity in advanced cancer patients, referred to the palliative care unit, the factors underlying moderate to severe pain and its prognostic values. This was a prospective observational study. All patients with mestastatic solid tumors and with no specific oncologic treatment were included. Pain intensity was accessed using the pain scale from Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, rated from 0 to 10 on a numerical scale, where zero = no pain and 10 = worst possible pain. Between October 2012 and June 2015, a total of 301 patients participated in the study. The median age was 69 years, (37 - 94); most of the patients were men (57%) and 64.8% had a performance status of 3/4. About 42% reported pain severity ≥ 4 and 74% were medicated with opioids. Multivariate analysis indicated a correlation between performance status and reported pain (OR: 1.7; IC 95%: 1.0 - 2.7; p = 0.045). Median overall survival was 37 days (IC 95%: 28 - 46). Patients reporting moderate to severe pain (pain severity ≥ 4) had a median survival of 29 days (IC 95%: 21 - 37), comparing with those who had no or moderate pain with median survival of 49 days (IC 95%: 35 - 63) (p = 0.022). The performance status was associated with more intense pain. The performance status, hospitalization, intra-abdominal metastization and opioid analgesia were associated with shorter time to death in advanced cancer patients referred to palliative care. Cancer pain continues to be a major clinical problem in advanced cancer patients.

  7. Application of intensity modulated radiation therapy for the cancer patients treatment in Bach Mai Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Trong Khoa; Tran Dinh Ha; Le Chinh Dai; Nguyen Quang Hung; Vu Huu Khiem

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern techniques in cancer treatment, in which dose is delivered optimally into the shape of the tumor and minimally in surround benign tissues. In developed countries, this technique has been performed routinely by Linacs with MLC for tumors at the critical areas. In Vietnam, because of the wet climate, the use of Linacs with MLC is difficult to operate and maintain. However, IMRT can be implemented by Linacs without MLC via independent jaws, Jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT), in which beams are separated into many segments with different weights to optimize highest dose in the tumor and lowest dose in the surrounding health organs. Methods: We describe the new treatment technic application and compare it with normal radiotherapy method (3D-CRT). Results: From 7/2008, the Dep of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology at Bach Mai Hospital has been conducting JO-IMRT to treat cancer patients. Up to now, we have 81 cases treated by IMRT including head and neck cancers (NPC, larynx cancer, maxillary sinus cancer, brain tumor), cancers in the thorax (esophagus cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer), cancers in the pelvis (prostate cancer, cervical cancer, rectal cancer). On the average, beam number is from 5 to 9 and 5-9 segments per beam. Treatment time for a fraction is from 6 to 12 minutes with 2.25 Gy for CTV1 per day. Discrepancies of doses were below 3% (0.15 to 2.84%) between planning and practice. In plan, the preeminences with IMRT are clearly superior to 3D radiation therapy. In clinical, almost patients had good respond, whereas side effects were quite less than conventional radiotherapy. Conclusions: JO-IMRT is a modern technic with more advantage than normal 3D-CRT. It help radiation dose to concentrate maximally in treatment target while influence minimally for sensitive surrounding tissues. Another, it is a high technic to appropriate with the climatic condition in Vietnam. (author)

  8. Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Microwave Imaging via Space-Frequency Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Spandana

    The conventional breast cancer detection methods have limitations ranging from ionizing radiations, low specificity to high cost. These limitations make way for a suitable alternative called Microwave Imaging, as a screening technique in the detection of breast cancer. The discernible differences between the benign, malignant and healthy breast tissues and the ability to overcome the harmful effects of ionizing radiations make microwave imaging, a feasible breast cancer detection technique. Earlier studies have shown the variation of electrical properties of healthy and malignant tissues as a function of frequency and hence stimulates high bandwidth requirement. A Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays have been designed, simulated and optimized for high (44%), medium (33%) and low (7%) bandwidths respectively, using the EM (electromagnetic software) called FEKO. These arrays are then used to illuminate the breast model (phantom) and the received backscattered signals are obtained in the near field for each case. The Microwave Imaging via Space-Time (MIST) beamforming algorithm in the frequency domain, is next applied to these near field backscattered monostatic frequency response signals for the image reconstruction of the breast model. The main purpose of this investigation is to access the impact of bandwidth and implement a novel imaging technique for use in the early detection of breast cancer. Earlier studies show the implementation of the MIST imaging algorithm on the time domain signals via a frequency domain beamformer. The performance evaluation of the imaging algorithm on the frequency response signals has been carried out in the frequency domain. The energy profile of the breast in the spatial domain is created via the frequency domain Parseval's theorem. The beamformer weights calculated using these the MIST algorithm (not including the effect of the skin) has been calculated for Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays, respectively

  9. The changes of the frequency specific impedance of the human body due to the resonance in the kHz range in cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, K. P.; Nawrocka-Bogusz, H.

    2011-12-01

    The frequency-specific absorption of kHz signals has been postulated for different tissues, trace elements, vitamins, toxins, pathogens, allergens etc. for low-power (μV) signals. An increase in the impedance of the human body is observed only up to the given power of the applied signal. The highest amplification of the given signal being damped by the body makes it possible to determine the intensity of the given process in the body (e.g. amount of the toxin, trace element, intensity of the allergy) being connected with a given frequency spectrum of the signal. The mechanism of frequency-specific absorption can be explained by means of the Quantum Field Theory being applied to the structure of the water. Substantially high coincidence between the frequencies of the rotation of free quasi-excited electrons in coherent domains of water and the frequencies being used in the MORA diagnostics (Med-Tronic GmbH, EN ISO 13485, EN ISO 9001) can be observed. These frequencies are located in the proximity of f = 7kHz · i (i = 1,3,5,7,...). This fact suggests that the coherent domains with the admixtures of the given substances create structure-specific coherent domains that possess frequency-specific absorption spectra. The diagnostic tool called "MORA System diagnosis" was used to investigate 102 patients with different types and stages of cancer. Many signals were observed to be absorbed by many cancer patients, e.g.: 'Cellular defense system', 'Degeneration tendencies', Manganese, Magnesium, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin E, Glutamine, Glutathione, Cysteine, Candida albicans, Mycosis. The results confirm the role of oxidative stress, immunological system deficiency and mitochondria malfunction in the development of cancer.

  10. Sunflower exposed to high-intensity microwave-frequency electromagnetic field: electrophysiological response requires a mechanical injury to initiate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, David; Catrain, Alexandre; Lallechere, Sébastien; Joly, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We have monitored the electrical potential variations (EPV) of sunflower plants illuminated by a high-intensity microwave-frequency (2.5 GHz, 1.5 kV/m) electromagnetic field (EMF). We have designed an appropriate set-up that allows parallel temperature and EPV measurements while part of the plant is being exposed to the field. The results show that the considered EMF does not induce plant EPV directly. This electrophysiological response appears only when the EMF leads to a mechanical injury of the tissues via a thermal effect (dielectric heating). Once the plant inner temperature reached a threshold, we systematically observed burn-like lesions associated with the bending of the stem or leaf-stalks. Theses mechanical constraints were rapidly followed by EPVs, moving through the stem.

  11. On conductivity, permittivity, apparent diffusion coefficient, and their usefulness as cancer markers at MRI frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancu, Ileana; Roberts, Jeannette Christine; Bulumulla, Selaka; Lee, Seung-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the permittivity and conductivity of cancerous and normal tissues, their correlation to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and the specificity that they could add to cancer detection. Breast and prostate carcinomas were induced in rats. Conductivity and permittivity measurements were performed in the anesthetized animals using a dielectric probe and an impedance analyzer between 50 and 270 MHz. The correlations between ADCs (measured at 128 MHz) and conductivity values were investigated. Frequency-dependent discriminant functions were computed to assess the value that each parameter adds to cancer detection. Tumors exhibited higher permittivity than muscle tissue by 27%/12%/5% at 64/128/270MHz. Frequency independent, 15-20% higher conductivity was also noted in tumors compared to muscle tissue over the same frequency range. Strong negative correlation was observed between tissue conductivity and ADC. Whereas permittivity had the strongest discriminatory power at 64 MHz, it became comparable to ADC at 128 MHz and less important than ADC at 270 MHz. Conductivity measurements offered limited advantages in separating cancer from normal tissue beyond what ADC already provided; conversely, permittivity added separation power when added to the discriminant function. The moderately high cancerous tissue permittivity and conductivity impose strong constraints on the capability of MRI-based tissue electrical property measurements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SPREAD: a high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset for Spain – an extreme events frequency and intensity overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serrano-Notivoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset was built from raw data of 12 858 observatories covering a period from 1950 to 2012 in peninsular Spain and 1971 to 2012 in Balearic and Canary islands. The original data were quality-controlled and gaps were filled on each day and location independently. Using the serially complete dataset, a grid with a 5 × 5 km spatial resolution was constructed by estimating daily precipitation amounts and their corresponding uncertainty at each grid node. Daily precipitation estimations were compared to original observations to assess the quality of the gridded dataset. Four daily precipitation indices were computed to characterise the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and nine extreme precipitation indices were used to describe the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. The Mediterranean coast and the Central Range showed the highest frequency and intensity of extreme events, while the number of wet days and dry and wet spells followed a north-west to south-east gradient in peninsular Spain, from high to low values in the number of wet days and wet spells and reverse in dry spells. The use of the total available data in Spain, the independent estimation of precipitation for each day and the high spatial resolution of the grid allowed for a precise spatial and temporal assessment of daily precipitation that is difficult to achieve when using other methods, pre-selected long-term stations or global gridded datasets. SPREAD dataset is publicly available at https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/7393.

  13. The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernbom, Mathias; Augustsson, Jesper; Thomeé, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Strength training is an important component in sports training and rehabilitation. Quantification of the dose-response relationships between training variables and the outcome is fundamental for the proper prescription of resistance training. The purpose of this comprehensive review was to identify dose-response relationships for the development of muscle hypertrophy by calculating the magnitudes and rates of increases in muscle cross-sectional area induced by varying levels of frequency, intensity and volume, as well as by different modes of strength training. Computer searches in the databases MEDLINE, SportDiscus and CINAHL were performed as well as hand searches of relevant journals, books and reference lists. The analysis was limited to the quadriceps femoris and the elbow flexors, since these were the only muscle groups that allowed for evaluations of dose-response trends. The modes of strength training were classified as dynamic external resistance (including free weights and weight machines), accommodating resistance (e.g. isokinetic and semi-isokinetic devices) and isometric resistance. The subcategories related to the types of muscle actions used. The results demonstrate that given sufficient frequency, intensity and volume of work, all three types of muscle actions can induce significant hypertrophy at an impressive rate and that, at present, there is insufficient evidence for the superiority of any mode and/or type of muscle action over other modes and types of training. Tentative dose-response relationships for each variable are outlined, based on the available evidence, and interactions between variables are discussed. In addition, recommendations for training and suggestions for further research are given.

  14. SPREAD: a high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset for Spain - an extreme events frequency and intensity overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Beguería, Santiago; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Longares, Luis Alberto; de Luis, Martín

    2017-09-01

    A high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset was built from raw data of 12 858 observatories covering a period from 1950 to 2012 in peninsular Spain and 1971 to 2012 in Balearic and Canary islands. The original data were quality-controlled and gaps were filled on each day and location independently. Using the serially complete dataset, a grid with a 5 × 5 km spatial resolution was constructed by estimating daily precipitation amounts and their corresponding uncertainty at each grid node. Daily precipitation estimations were compared to original observations to assess the quality of the gridded dataset. Four daily precipitation indices were computed to characterise the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and nine extreme precipitation indices were used to describe the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. The Mediterranean coast and the Central Range showed the highest frequency and intensity of extreme events, while the number of wet days and dry and wet spells followed a north-west to south-east gradient in peninsular Spain, from high to low values in the number of wet days and wet spells and reverse in dry spells. The use of the total available data in Spain, the independent estimation of precipitation for each day and the high spatial resolution of the grid allowed for a precise spatial and temporal assessment of daily precipitation that is difficult to achieve when using other methods, pre-selected long-term stations or global gridded datasets. SPREAD dataset is publicly available at https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/7393.

  15. Simulating sub-daily Intensity-Frequency-Duration curves in Australia using a dynamical high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, Gabriel A.; White, Christopher J.; Remenyi, Tomas A.; Corney, Stuart P.; Fox-Hughes, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Climate change has the potential to significantly alter the characteristics of high-intensity, short-duration rainfall events, potentially leading to more severe and more frequent flash floods. Research has shown that future changes to such events could far exceed expectations based on temperature scaling and basic physical principles alone, but that computationally expensive convection-permitting models are required to accurately simulate sub-daily extreme rainfall events. It is therefore crucial to be able to model future changes to sub-daily duration extreme rainfall events as cost effectively as possible, especially in Australia where such information is scarce. In this study, we seek to determine what the shortest duration of extreme rainfall is that can be simulated by a less computationally expensive convection-parametrizing Regional Climate Model (RCM). We examine the ability of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM), a ∼10 km high-resolution convection-parametrizing RCM, to reproduce sub-daily Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IFD) curves corresponding to two long-term observational stations in the Australian island state of Tasmania, and examine the future model projections. We find that CCAM simulates observed extreme rainfall statistics well for 3-h durations and longer, challenging the current understanding that convection-permitting models are needed to accurately model sub-daily extreme rainfall events. Further, future projections from CCAM for the end of this Century show that extreme sub-daily rainfall intensities could increase by more than 15% per °C, far exceeding the 7% scaling estimate predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron vapour pressure relationship and the 5% scaling estimate recommended by the Australian Rainfall and Runoff guide.

  16. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  17. Effects of a Low-Intensity Laser on Dental Implant Osseointegration: Removal Torque and Resonance Frequency Analysis in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Alberto; Blay, Claudia C; Tunchel, Samy; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Groth, Eduardo B; Zezell, Denise M

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how a low-intensity laser affects the stability and reverse torque resistance of dental implants installed in the tibia of rabbits. Thirty rabbits received 60 dental implants with the same design and surface treatment, one in each proximal metaphysis of the tibia. Three groups were prepared (n = 10 animals each): conventional osseointegration without treatment (control group), surgical sites irradiated with a laser beam emitted in the visible range of 680 nm (Lg1 group), surgical sites irradiated with a laser beam with a wavelength in the infrared range of 830 nm (Lg2 group). Ten irradiation sessions were performed 48 hours apart; the first session was during the immediate postoperative period. Irradiation energy density was 4 J/cm(2) per point in 2 points on each side of the tibias. The resonance frequency and removal torque values were measured at 2 time points after the implantations (3 and 6 weeks). Both laser groups (Lg1 and Lg2) presented a significant difference between resonance frequency analysis values at the baseline and the values obtained after 3 and 6 weeks (P > .05). Although the removal torque values of all groups increased after 6 weeks (P < .05), both laser groups presented greater mean values than those of the control group (P < .01). Photobiomodulation using laser irradiation with wavelengths of 680 and 830 nm had a better degree of bone integration than the control group after 6 weeks of observation time.

  18. The influence of non thermal coherent EMR with low intensity and extremely high frequency on total activity and isoenzyme composition of peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, A.V.; Shahinyan, M.A.; Khachatryan, A.V.; Vardevanyan, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the influence of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with low intensity and extremely high frequency on intensity of wheat developing germ metabolism has been investigated. Particularly, total activity and isoenzymatic composition of peroxidase of germ cells have been determined during their growth. The role of water in formation of organism response reaction to the external physical field effect has also been investigated. It has been shown, that water appears to be a primary element of extremely high frequency EMR effect on bio system. Extremely high frequency EMR irradiation of germinating seeds and the cultivation of dry seeds and their germs by irradiated water stimulate peroxidase synthesis in germ cells. The redistribution of quantitative composition of peroxidase molecular forms takes place in germ cells effected by EMR with extremely high frequency and low intensity

  19. General prognostic scores in outcome prediction for cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopterides, Petros; Liberopoulos, Panayiotis; Ilias, Ioannis; Anthi, Anastasia; Pragkastis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsaknis, Georgios; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Dimopoulou, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Intensivists and nursing staff are often reluctant to admit patients with cancer to the intensive care unit even though these patients' survival rate has improved since the 1980s. To identify factors associated with mortality in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit and to assess and compare the effectiveness of 3 general prognostic models: the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II), and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). A prospective observational cohort study was performed in 2 general intensive care units. Discrimination was assessed by using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, and calibration was evaluated by using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests. A total of 126 patients were included during a 3-year period. The observed mortality was 46.8%. All 3 general models showed excellent discrimination (area under the curve >0.8) and good calibration (P = .17, .14, and .22 for APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA, respectively). However, discrimination was significantly better with APACHE II scores than with SOFA scores (P = .02). Multivariate analyses indicated that independent of the 3 severity-of-illness scores, unfavorable risk factors for mortality included a patient's preadmission performance status, source of admission (internal medicine vs surgery department), and the presence of septic shock, infection, or anemia. Combining SOFA and SAPS II scores with these variables created prognostic models with improved calibration and discrimination. The general prognostic models seem fairly accurate in the prediction of mortality in critically ill cancer patients in the intensive care unit.

  20. Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Michael; Nativ, Or; Richter, Elihu D

    2018-05-01

    We reexamine whether radio frequency radiation (RFR) in the occupational and military settings is a human carcinogen. We extended an analysis of an already-reported case series of patients with cancer previously exposed to whole-body prolonged RFR, mainly from communication equipment and radar. We focused on hematolymphatic (HL) cancers. We used analysis by percentage frequency (PF) of a cancer type, which is the proportion of a specific cancer type relative to the total number of cancer cases. We also examined and analyzed the published data on three other cohort studies from similar military settings from different countries. The PF of HL cancers in the case series was very high, at 40% with only 23% expected for the series age and gender profile, confidence interval CI95%: 26-56%, pRFR in Israeli defense industry, the PF of HL cancers was 60% versus 17% expected for the group age and gender profile, pRFR and highly elevated HL cancer risk in the four groups spread over three countries, operating different RFR equipment types and analyzed by different research protocols, suggests a cause-effect relationship between RFR and HL cancers in military/occupational settings. While complete measurements of RFR exposures were not available and rough exposure assessments from patients interviews and from partial exposure data were used instead, we have demonstrated increased HL cancers in occupational groups with relatively high RFR exposures. Our findings, combined with other studies, indicate that exposures incurred in the military settings evaluated here significantly increased the risk of HL cancers. Accordingly, the RFR military exposures in these occupations should be substantially reduced and further efforts should be undertaken to monitor and measure those exposures and to follow cohorts exposed to RFR for cancers and other health effects. Overall, the epidemiological studies on excess risk for HL and other cancers together with brain tumors in cellphone users and

  1. First clinical experience with a dedicated MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound system for breast cancer ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckel, Laura G.; Knuttel, Floor M.; Peters, Nicky H.G.M.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, HP E 01.132, Utrecht (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Bartels, Lambertus W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dalen, Thijs van [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schubert, Gerald [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Weits, Teun [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Diest, Paul J. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vaessen, Paul H.H.B. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Anesthesiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gorp, Joost M.H.H. van [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    To assess the safety and feasibility of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation in breast cancer patients using a dedicated breast platform. Patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer underwent partial tumour ablation prior to surgical resection. MR-HIFU ablation was performed using proton resonance frequency shift MR thermometry and an MR-HIFU system specifically designed for breast tumour ablation. The presence and extent of tumour necrosis was assessed by histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between sonication parameters, temperature increase and size of tumour necrosis at histopathology. Ten female patients underwent MR-HIFU treatment. No skin redness or burns were observed in any of the patients. No correlation was found between the applied energy and the temperature increase. In six patients, tumour necrosis was observed with a maximum diameter of 3-11 mm. In these patients, the number of targeted locations was equal to the number of areas with tumour necrosis. A good correlation was found between the applied energy and the size of tumour necrosis at histopathology (Pearson = 0.76, p = 0.002). Our results show that MR-HIFU ablation with the dedicated breast system is safe and results in histopathologically proven tumour necrosis. (orig.)

  2. HLA Class I Allele Frequencies in Southern Iranian Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. It has been revealed that elevated risk for malignancy may be associated with certain HLA alleles. This study was performed to assess the association of HLA class I alleles with breast cancer in women in Southern Iran. Eighty nine patients included for analyzing the HLA class I alleles frequency using complement dependent cytotoxicity microassay and results were compared to 86 gender-matched healthy volunteers. There were significantly more patients with A24(9) allele than those of healthy individuals (38.2% versus 16.3%) (P-value=0.002). In contrast, HLA-A1 had significantly much less expression in the patient group compared to the controls (P- value=0.04). A24(9) allele appears to be one of the factors increasing an individual's the susceptibility to breast cancer in our population but further investigation might be required.

  3. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in breast cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim, Maria Regina; Jobim, Mariana; Salim, Patrícia H; Portela, Pâmela; Jobim, Luiz Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Bittelbrunn, Ana Cristina; Menke, Carlos Henrique; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death among women, with a 0.5% increase in incidence per year. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred thirty patients with breast cancer and 272 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSO. When both groups were compared, the presence of inhibitory KIR2DL2 receptors was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls. No significant differences were found for HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4. However, a higher frequency of HLA-C1 in breast cancer patients was observed. These findings suggest a potential role for the KIR gene system in breast cancer. Further studies to confirm this observation are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary factors related to colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse; Van Camp, John; Huybrechts, Inge; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Loco, Joris; De Smet, Stefaan; Sterck, Ellen; Rabâi, Céline; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Peeters, Marc; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was assessed by co...

  5. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. Patients and Methods A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

  6. The Effects of Low to Moderate Intensity Exercise on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Following Clinical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 37:5, 2005. Frank, J., Burnham T., Kemble K., (2005). Low...moderate intensity aerobic exercise improves quality of life indices and emotional distress in cancer survivors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 37...life and body composition in breast cancer survivors. Medicine and Science in Sports and

  7. Precipitation intensity-duration-frequency curves for central Belgium with an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX simulations, and associated uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Willems, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    An ensemble of 88 regional climate model (RCM) simulations at 0.11° and 0.44° spatial resolutions from the EURO-CORDEX project is analyzed for central Belgium to investigate the projected impact of climate change on precipitation intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships and extreme precipitation quantiles typically used in water engineering designs. The rate of uncertainty arising from the choice of RCM, driving GCM, and radiative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 & RCP8.5) is quantified using a variance decomposition technique after reconstruction of missing data in GCM × RCM combinations. A comparative analysis between the historical simulations of the EURO-CORDEX 0.11° and 0.44° RCMs shows higher precipitation intensities by the finer resolution runs, leading to a larger overestimation of the observations-based IDFs by the 0.11° runs. The results reveal that making a temporal stationarity assumption for the climate system may lead to underestimation of precipitation quantiles up to 70% by the end of this century. This projected increase is generally larger for the 0.11° RCMs compared with the 0.44° RCMs. The relative changes in extreme precipitation do depend on return period and duration, indicating an amplification for larger return periods and for smaller durations. The variance decomposition approach generally identifies RCM as the most dominant component of uncertainty in changes of more extreme precipitation (return period of 10 years) for both 0.11° and 0.44° resolutions, followed by GCM and RCP scenario. The uncertainties associated with cross-contributions of RCMs, GCMs, and RCPs play a non-negligible role in the associated uncertainties of the changes.

  8. High-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as treatment of pain after surgical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, B; Andréll, P; Raner, C; Rudolph, M; Dvoretsky, A; Mannheimer, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the pain-relieving effect and the time spent in the recovery ward after treatment with high-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or intravenous (IV) conventional pharmacological treatment after surgical abortion. Two-hundred women who underwent surgical abortion and postoperatively reported a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score3 were included. The patients were randomised to TENS or conventional pharmacological treatment for their postoperative pain. The TENS treatment was given with a stimulus intensity between 20 and 60 mA during 1 min and repeated once if insufficient pain relief (VAS3). In the conventional pharmacological treatment group, a maximum dose of 100 microg fentanyl was given IV. There was no difference between the groups with regard to pain relief according to the VAS pain score (TENS=VAS 1.3 vs. IV opioids=VAS 1.6; p=0.09) upon discharge from the recovery ward. However, the patients in the TENS group spent shorter time (44 min) in the recovery ward than the conventional pharmacological treatment group (62 min; p<0.0001). The number of patients who needed additional analgesics in the recovery ward was comparable in both groups, as was the reported VAS pain score upon leaving the hospital (TENS=2.0 vs. conventional pharmacological treatment=1.8, NS). These results suggest that the pain-relieving effect of TENS seems to be comparable to conventional pharmacological treatment with IV opioids. Hence, TENS may be a suitable alternative to conventional pain management with IV opioids after surgical abortion. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prescribing physical activity: applying the ACSM protocols for exercise type, intensity, and duration across 3 training frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Wayne L; Winett, Richard A; Annesi, James J; Wojcik, Janet R; Anderson, Eileen S; Madden, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    When physicians advise patients to attain more physical activity, they usually recommend a walking program. However, in a similar way to no exercise, those embarking on a walking program will typically lose 4 to 6 lb of lean weight and reduce their resting metabolic rate 2% to 3% every decade. These effects may be mitigated by the inclusion of resistance exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) minimum exercise guidelines recommend 20 minutes of aerobic activity 3 days per week, and 1 set (8-12 repetitions) of 8 to 10 resistance exercises to train the major muscle groups 2 days per week. However, large-scale testing of these recommendations in a field setting has been minimal. Men and women between 21 and 80 years (N = 1725) [corrected] participated in a 10-week combined strength and aerobic activity program based on the ACSM protocols for exercise intensity and duration across 3 training frequencies (1, 2, or 3 sessions/week). Across all training frequencies, mean changes included a reduction in body fat of 1.97%, a decrease in fat weight of 1.7 kg, an increase in lean weight of 1.35 kg, a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 3.83 mm Hg, and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 1.73 mm Hg. More frequent weekly training sessions were associated with greater improvements in body fat percent, fat weight, and lean weight. Participants responded favorably to the ACSM exercise program with a 91% completion rate and a 95% satisfaction rating. This article presents recommendations for prescribing safe, effective, and time-efficient exercise programs.

  10. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence R. [Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.

  11. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced...... disease. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing 21 diagnoses. Main exclusion criteria were brain or bone metastases. 235 patients completed follow......-up. INTERVENTION: Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: European Organization for Research...

  12. Effect of a Multimodal High Intensity Exercise Intervention in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment...... for advanced disease. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants: 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing 21 diagnoses. Main exclusion criteria were brain or bone metastases. 235 patients...... completed follow-up. Intervention: Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. Main outcome measures: European...

  13. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer using Sonablate-500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Ohkusa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Hideyuki; Nagata, Yoshihiro

    2005-03-01

    We evaluated 181 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for biochemical disease-free rate, safety, morbidity and predictors of biochemical outcome. A total of 181 patients underwent HIFU with the Sonablate-500 and with at least 12 months of follow-up. Biochemical failure was defined according to the criteria recommended by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel. The biochemical disease-free rates at 1, 3 and 5 years in all patients were 84%, 80% and 78%, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rates at 3 years for patients with pretreatment PSA less than 10 ng/ml, 10.01 to 20.0 ng/ml and more than 20.0 ng/ml were 94%, 75% and 35%, respectively (ppatients with localized prostate cancer, especially those with a pretreatment PSA level less than 20 ng/ml.

  14. Fatal pneumonitis associated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer: Case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Li, Jingjing; Su, Xiaoyan

    2013-02-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with inverse planning enables us to achieve the desired dose distribution. However, there are many high-risk procedures associated with lung irradiation, including chemotherapy and surgery. We report a case of fatal treatment-related pneumonitis, where the patient had undergone postoperative IMRT for lung cancer. Following completion of radiotherapy, the patient developed progressive dyspnea. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed the presence of diffuse reticular interstitial processes and honeycombing in both lungs. The fibrotic change in both lungs in a transverse view was compatible with low-dose irradiation of non-target organs at risk. Acute radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed. For patients receiving postoperative IMRT, low-dose irradiation volumes should be considered for lungs, as well as strict dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters.

  15. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. Methods We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiothera...

  16. Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino J.; Li, Yupeng; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates potential gains of an improved beam angle arrangement compared to a conventional fixed gantry setup in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment for localized prostate cancer patients based on a proof of principle study. Materials and Methods: Three patients with localized prostate cancer retrospectively selected from our institution were studied. For each patient, IMPT plans were designed using two, three and four beam angles, respectively, obtained from a beam angle optimization algorithm. Those plans were then compared with ones using two lateral parallel-opposed beams according to the conventional planning protocol for localized prostate cancer adopted at our institution. Results: IMPT plans with two optimized angles achieved significant improvements in rectum sparing and moderate improvements in bladder sparing against those with two lateral angles. Plans with three optimized angles further improved rectum sparing significantly over those two-angle plans, whereas four-angle plans found no advantage over three-angle plans. A possible three-beam class solution for localized prostate patients was suggested and demonstrated with preserved dosimetric benefits because individually optimized three-angle solutions were found sharing a very similar pattern. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potential of using an improved beam angle arrangement to better exploit the theoretical dosimetric benefits of proton therapy and provided insights of selecting quality beam angles for localized prostate cancer treatment

  17. A comparison of morbidity following conformal versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jimmi; Holmberg, Mats; Jakobsen, Annette Ross; Agerbæk, Mads; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Høyer, Morten

    2014-10-01

    In radiotherapy (RT) of urinary bladder cancer, the use of intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) opens for sparing of considerable intestinal volumes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute and late toxicities following either conformal RT (CRT) or IMRT for bladder cancer, and to correlate the toxicities to dose-volume parameters. The study included 116 consecutively treated patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received either CRT (n = 66) or IMRT (n = 50) during 2007-2010. Acute side effects were retrospectively collected whereas late effects were assessed by a cross-sectional evaluation by telephone interview of 44 recurrence-free patients. Acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) version 3.0. Acute diarrhoea grade ≥ 2 was more frequent in patients treated by CRT (56%) compared to IMRT (30%) (p = 0.008). Logistic regression analysis showed a correlation between acute diarrhoea and bowel cavity dose-volume parameters in the 10-50 Gy range. Severe late toxicity (grade ≥ 3) was recorded in 10% of the total cohort, with no statistical difference between the IMRT and CRT groups. Patients treated with IMRT for bladder cancer had significantly less acute diarrhoea compared to those treated with CRT, but there was no significant difference in late morbidity between the groups. The risk of acute diarrhoea was related to the volume of bowel irradiated.

  18. Audio-frequency magnetotelluric, and total magnetic intensity observations in 2014-2016, at Zao volcano, NE Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, M.; Moriyama, T.; Kaida, T.; Kanda, W.; Demachi, T.; Hirahara, S.; Miura, S.; Nakayama, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Seki, K.; Akutagawa, M.; Ushioda, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Uyeshima, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Matsu'ura, S.; Omori, S.; Ono, K.; Seki, S.

    2017-12-01

    Zao volcano is situated at a distance of about 40 km SW from Sendai in NE Japan. There exists the crater lake, Okama, with about 360 m diameter and about 30 m depth, in the summit area. The seismicity of the low frequency earthquakes deeper than 20 km depth beneath Zao volcano has turned active since middle of 2012. We have also observed shallow (˜5 km) volcanic earthquakes beneath Zao volcano in 2013 to 2017. In the historical records, fumaroles, degassing and phreato-magmatic eruptions occurred close to Okama in 1867 to 1943. Since 1940, fumaroles have observed in about 1 to 1.5 km NE of Okama. Subsurface hydrotherm distribution and geotherm variation are the key feature to forecast future phreatic or phreato-magmatic eruption. In this presentation, we report electrical resistivity distribution and demagnetized region beneath Zao volcano.We observed total magnetic intensity variation of a demagnetized spatial pattern between June and October in 2014. To model a demagnetized region, we carried out a global optimized inversion of grid search assuming ellipsoidal shape and 5 A/m demagnetization intensity. The estimated demagnetized body located in 800 m northeastern side of the center of Okama, and the top surface is 330 m depth. The principal axis length is 500, 425, 190 m, respectively. The demagnetized region locates at the middle points between the recent fumarole region and Okama.AMT data were acquired at 24 sites in the area of 2 km by 2 km. The observation sites do not cover over the demagnetized region described above. We obtained the AMT response of 10 kHz to 0.1 Hz and calculated a 3-D electrical conductivity model beneath around Okama. The conductor (1-30 Ohm-m) is embedded in 200-600 m depth beneath Okama and the lateral dimension is up to 400 m. The conductor is isolated and neither expands in deeper parts nor tends to elongate to the demagnetized region. We interpret the conductor as a hydrothermal alteration zone of the past volcanic activities

  19. The Role of Parental Perceptions of Tic Frequency and Intensity in Predicting Tic-Related Functional Impairment in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency. PMID:24395287

  20. The role of parental perceptions of tic frequency and intensity in predicting tic-related functional impairment in youth with chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espil, Flint M; Capriotti, Matthew R; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-12-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with chronic tic disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency.

  1. Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Im, Hyoungjune; Lee, Mihye; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Byung-Chan; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2007-08-01

    Leukemia and brain cancer patients under age 15 years, along with controls with respiratory illnesses who were matched to cases on age, sex, and year of diagnosis (1993-1999), were selected from 14 South Korean hospitals using the South Korean Medical Insurance Data System. Diagnoses were confirmed through the South Korean National Cancer Registry. Residential addresses were obtained from medical records. A newly developed prediction program incorporating a geographic information system that was modified by the results of actual measurements was used to estimate radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposure from 31 amplitude modulation (AM) radio transmitters with a power of 20 kW or more. A total of 1,928 leukemia patients, 956 brain cancer patients, and 3,082 controls were analyzed. Cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for residential area, socioeconomic status, and community population density. The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR.

  2. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  3. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  4. Precipitation extremes on multiple timescales - Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model and intensity-duration-frequency curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Christoph; Ulbrich, Uwe; Névir, Peter; Rust, Henning W.

    2017-12-01

    For several hydrological modelling tasks, precipitation time series with a high (i.e. sub-daily) resolution are indispensable. The data are, however, not always available, and thus model simulations are used to compensate. A canonical class of stochastic models for sub-daily precipitation are Poisson cluster processes, with the original Bartlett-Lewis (OBL) model as a prominent representative. The OBL model has been shown to well reproduce certain characteristics found in observations. Our focus is on intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships, which are of particular interest in risk assessment. Based on a high-resolution precipitation time series (5 min) from Berlin-Dahlem, OBL model parameters are estimated and IDF curves are obtained on the one hand directly from the observations and on the other hand from OBL model simulations. Comparing the resulting IDF curves suggests that the OBL model is able to reproduce the main features of IDF statistics across several durations but cannot capture rare events (here an event with a return period larger than 1000 years on the hourly timescale). In this paper, IDF curves are estimated based on a parametric model for the duration dependence of the scale parameter in the generalized extreme value distribution; this allows us to obtain a consistent set of curves over all durations. We use the OBL model to investigate the validity of this approach based on simulated long time series.

  5. Radio frequency radiation-induced hyperthermia using Si nanoparticle-based sensitizers for mild cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarov, Konstantin P.; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Zinovyev, Sergey V.; Maximova, Ksenia A.; Kargina, Julia V.; Gongalsky, Maxim B.; Ryabchikov, Yury; Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Sviridov, Andrey P.; Sentis, Marc; Ivanov, Andrey V.; Nikiforov, Vladimir N.; Kabashin, Andrei V.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-11-01

    Offering mild, non-invasive and deep cancer therapy modality, radio frequency (RF) radiation-induced hyperthermia lacks for efficient biodegradable RF sensitizers to selectively target cancer cells and thus avoid side effects. Here, we assess crystalline silicon (Si) based nanomaterials as sensitizers for the RF-induced therapy. Using nanoparticles produced by mechanical grinding of porous silicon and ultraclean laser-ablative synthesis, we report efficient RF-induced heating of aqueous suspensions of the nanoparticles to temperatures above 45-50°C under relatively low nanoparticle concentrations (Combined with the possibility of involvement of parallel imaging and treatment channels based on unique optical properties of Si-based nanomaterials, the proposed method promises a new landmark in the development of new modalities for mild cancer therapy.

  6. 3D radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer: the Shanghai Cancer Hospital experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available We evaluate the outcomes of irradiation by using three-dimensional radiation therapy (3D-RT or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer. Between 2007 and 2010, 50 patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer were treated using 3D-RT or IMRT. The median time interval between the initial treatment and the start of irradiation was 12 (6-51 months. Salvage surgery was performed before irradiation in 5 patients, and 38 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Sixteen patients underwent 3D-RT, and 34 patients received IMRT. Median follow-up for all the patients was 18.3 months. Three-year overall survival and locoregional control were 56.1% and 59.7%, respectively. Three-year progression-free survival and disease-free survival were 65.3% and 64.3%, respectively. Nine patients developed grade 3 leukopenia. Grade 5 acute toxicity was not observed in any of the patients; however, 2 patients developed Grade 3 late toxicity. 3D-RT or IMRT is effective for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer, with the 3-year overall survival of 56.1%, and its complications are acceptable. Long-term follow-up and further studies are needed to confirm the role of 3D-RT or IMRT in the multimodality management of the disease.

  7. Outcomes of cancer and non-cancer patients with acute kidney injury and need of renal replacement therapy admitted to general intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccariello, Elizabeth; Valente, Carla; Nogueira, Lina; Bonomo, Helio; Ismael, Marcia; Machado, Jose Eduardo; Baldotto, Fernanda; Godinho, Marise; Rocha, Eduardo; Soares, Marcio

    2011-02-01

    Studies on cancer patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are restricted to specialized intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of cancer and non-cancer patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) for AKI in general ICUs. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 14 ICUs from three tertiary care hospitals. A total of 773 (non-cancer 85%; cancer 15%) consecutive patients were included over a 44-month period. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality. Continuous RRT was used in 79% patients. The main contributing factors for AKI were sepsis (72%) and ischaemia/shock (66%); AKI was multifactorial in 87% of cancer and in 71% non-cancer patients. Hospital mortality rates were higher in cancer (78%) than in non-cancer patients (68%) (P=0.042). However, in multivariate analyses, older age, medical admission, poor chronic health status, comorbidities, ICU days until the RRT start and number of associated organ dysfunctions were associated with hospital mortality. The diagnosis of cancer was not independently associated with mortality [odds ratio=1.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-2.62), P=0.115]. Mortality in cancer patients was mostly dependent on the number of associated organ dysfunctions. Of note, 85% cancer patients recovered renal function at hospital discharge. In general ICUs, one in six patients requiring RRT has cancer. Despite a relatively higher mortality, the presence of cancer was not independently associated with mortality in the present cohort.

  8. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Pain Management in Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababou, Susan; Marrocchio, Cristina; Scipione, Roberto; Erasmus, Hans-Peter; Ghanouni, Pejman; Anzidei, Michele; Catalano, Carlo; Napoli, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Cancer-related pain affects up to 80% of patients with malignancies. Pain is an important distressing symptom that diminishes the quality of life and negatively affects the survival of patients. Opioid analgesics are generally the primary therapy for cancer-related pain, with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other interventions used in cases of treatment-resistant pain. These treatments, which can be associated with substantial side effects and systemic toxicity, may not be effective. High-intensity focused ultrasound is an entirely noninvasive technique that is approved for treatment of uterine fibroids, bone metastases, and essential tremors. With magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonographic guidance, high-intensity ultrasound waves are focused on a small well-demarcated region to result in precise localized ablation. This treatment may represent a multimodality approach to treating patients with malignant diseases-facilitating pain palliation, enhanced local drug delivery and radiation therapy effects, and stimulation of anticancer specific immune responses, and potentially facilitating local tumor control. Focused ultrasound can be used to achieve pain palliation by producing several effects, including tissue denervation, tumor mass reduction, and neuromodulation, that can influence different pathways at the origin of the pain. This technology has several key advantages compared with other analgesic therapies: It is completely noninvasive, might be used to achieve rapid pain control, can be safely repeated, and can be used in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy to enhance their effects. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2018.

  9. Dynamic intensity-modulated non-coplanar arc radiotherapy (INCA) for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krayenbuehl, Jerome; Davis, J. Bernard; Ciernik, I. Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To define the potential advantages of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) applied using a non-coplanar dynamic arc technique for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was planned in ten patients with head and neck cancer using coplanar IMRT and non-coplanar arc techniques, termed intensity modulated non-coplanar arc EBRT (INCA). Planning target volumes (PTV1) of first order covered the gross tumor volume and surrounding clinical target volume treated with 68-70 Gy, whereas PTV2 covered the elective lymph nodes with 54-55 Gy using a simultaneous internal boost. Treatment plan comparison between IMRT and INCA was carried out using dose-volume histogram and 'equivalent uniform dose' (EUD). Results: INCA resulted in better dose coverage and homogeneity of the PTV1, PTV2, and reduced dose delivered to most of the organs at risk (OAR). For the parotid glands, a reduction of the mean dose of 2.9 (±2.0) Gy was observed (p 0.002), the mean dose to the larynx was reduced by 6.9 (±2.9) Gy (p 0.003), the oral mucosa by 2.4 (±1.1) Gy (p < 0.001), and the maximal dose to the spinal cord by 3.2 (±1.7) Gy (p = 0.004). The mean dose to the brain was increased by 3.0 (±1.4) Gy (p = 0.002) and the mean lung dose increased by 0.2 (±0.4) Gy (p = 0.87). The EUD suggested better avoidance of the OAR, except for the lung, and better coverage and dose uniformity were achieved with INCA compared to IMRT. Conclusion: Dose delivery accuracy with IMRT using a non-coplanar dynamic arc beam geometry potentially improves treatment of head and neck cancer

  10. PET/CT scanning guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy in treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xue-lian, E-mail: duxuelian23800@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan 250117 (China); Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250012 (China); Jiang, Tao, E-mail: melody23800@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan 250117 (China); Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250012 (China); Sheng, Xiu-gui, E-mail: jnsd2000@yahoo.cn [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan 250117 (China); Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Qing-shui, E-mail: lqs1966@126.com [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan 250117 (China); Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang, Cong, E-mail: jnwc1981@hotmail.com [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan 250117 (China); Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250012 (China); Yu, Hao, E-mail: jnyh2200@sina.com [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan 250117 (China); Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical contribution of positron emission tomography using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and integrated computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer. Materials and methods: Fifty-eight patients with recurrent ovarian cancer from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively studied. In these patients, 28 received PET/CT guided IMRT (PET/CT-IMRT group), and 30 received CT guided IMRT (CT-IMRT group). Treatment plans, tumor response, toxicities and survival were evaluated. Results: Changes in GTV delineation were found in 10 (35.7%) patients based on PET-CT information compared with CT data, due to the incorporation of additional lymph node metastases and extension of the metastasis tumor. PET/CT guided IMRT improved tumor response compared to CT-IMRT group (CR: 64.3% vs. 46.7%, P = 0.021; PR: 25.0% vs. 13.3%, P = 0.036). The 3-year overall survival was significantly higher in the PET-CT/IMRT group than control (34.1% vs. 13.2%, P = 0.014). Conclusions: PET/CT guided IMRT in recurrent ovarian cancer patients improved the delineation of GTV and reduce the likelihood of geographic misses and therefore improve the clinical outcome.

  11. Different frequencies of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in cancers of the upper digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang; Liu, Yiwen; Kong, Jinyu; Gu, Bianli; Qi, Yijun; Wang, Xinshuai; Sun, Man; Chen, Pan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Huizhi; Zhou, Fuyou; Gao, Shegan

    2017-09-28

    The high incidence rate of multiple carcinomas in the upper digestive tract is often explained in terms of involvement of the same underlying risk factors. It has been reported that the oral bacterium Streptococcus anginosus is associated with esophageal, gastric, and pharyngeal cancers. We previously reported occurrence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) DNA in esophagus cancer. In this study, the presence of P. gingivalis in specimens of various types of cancer from the upper digestive tract was investigated. Here we report that P. gingivalis was preferentially and frequently present in specimens of esophageal cancer as well as in those from dysplasia of the esophagus but rarely in matched noncancerous portions and are quite low or absent in cancers from the cardia or stomach. Therefore, it led us to propose that, the microorganism does not survive in conditions of high acidity. We then investigate the pH dependence of survival of P. gingivalis as well as the acid tolerance of it. We found that, exposure to acidic buffers of a wide range of pH values led to a decline in colony forming units of P. gingivalis, thus, providing a possible explanation for variations in frequencies of P. gingivalis infection in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency of Opioid Use in a Population of Cancer Patients During the Trajectory of the Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbaek, L.; Hansen, D.G.; Bruera, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Bearing in mind that Denmark has one of the world's highest legal uses of strong opioids per capita, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of opioid use in a complete, population-based cohort of cancer patients at different time points during the trajectory of the disease......, and to analyse the influence of different factors on opioid use close to death. Materials and methods: All incident cancer patients registered in 1997-1998 (n = 4006) from a population of 470 000 were followed individually from diagnosis to death (non-survivors) or for 5 years (survivors). The use of opioids...... inversely to the cancer type's 5-year survival, and ranged from 20 to 46%; before death 64-76% used opioids. The odds ratios for opioid use at death were smaller for breast cancer (0.53; confidence interval 0.33-0.85), haemopoietic cancer (0.28; confidence interval 0.17-0.44) and the group of miscellaneous...

  13. Frequency of opioid use in a population of cancer patients during the trajectory of the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Bruera, E

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Bearing in mind that Denmark has one of the world's highest legal uses of strong opioids per capita, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of opioid use in a complete, population-based cohort of cancer patients at different time points during the trajectory of the disease......, and to analyse the influence of different factors on opioid use close to death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All incident cancer patients registered in 1997-1998 (n=4006) from a population of 470,000 were followed individually from diagnosis to death (non-survivors) or for 5 years (survivors). The use of opioids...... inversely to the cancer type's 5-year survival, and ranged from 20 to 46%; before death 64-76% used opioids. The odds ratios for opioid use at death were smaller for breast cancer (0.53; confidence interval 0.33-0.85), haemopoietic cancer (0.28; confidence interval 0.17-0.44) and the group of miscellaneous...

  14. The effect of high frequency steep pulsed electric fields on in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficiency of ovarian cancer cell line skov3 and potential use in electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fei-Yun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients received electrochemotherapy often associated with unpleasant sensations mainly result from low-frequency electric pulse induced muscle contractions. Increasing the repetition frequency of electric pulse can reduce unpleasant sensations. However, due to the specificity of SPEF, frequency related antitumor efficiency need to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro cytotoxic and in vivo antitumor effect on ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 by SPEF with different repetition frequencies. Explore potential benefits of using high frequency SPEF in order to be exploitable in electrochemotherapy. Methods For in vitro experiment, SKOV3 cell suspensions were exposed to SPEF with gradient increased frequencies (1, 60, 1 000, 5 000 Hz and electric field intensity (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 V/cm respectively. For in vivo test, SKOV3 subcutaneous implanted tumor in BALB/c nude mice (nu/nu were exposure to SPEF with gradient increased frequencies (1, 60, 1 000, 5 000 Hz and fixed electric field intensity (250 V/cm (7 mice for each frequency and 7 for control. Antitumor efficiency was performed by in vitro cytotoxic assay and in vivo tumor growth inhibition rate, supplemented by histological and TEM observations. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by the comparisons of multiple groups. Results SPEF with a given frequency and appropriate electric field intensity could achieve similar cytotoxicity until reached a plateau of maximum cytotoxicity (approx. 100%. SPEF with different frequencies had significant antitumor efficiency in comparison to the control group (P 0.05. Histological and TEM observations demonstrated obvious cell damages in response to SPEF exposure. Furthermore, SPEF with 5 kHz could induce apoptosis under TEM observations both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion SPEF with high frequency could also achieve similar antitumor efficiency which can be used to reduce

  15. Evaluation of frequency and intensity of asymptomatic anisocytosis in the Japanese dog breeds Shiba, Akita, and Hokkaido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aniołek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcytosis is observed in healthy Japanese breed dogs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and intensity of asymptomatic anisocytosis using a three-grade scale in Japanese dog breeds with special emphasis on the following indices: mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell distribution width. The retrospective study included analyses of blood morphology and blood smear for clinically healthy Japanese dog breeds Shiba, Akita, and Hokkaido aged from 6 months to 14 years, performed as a part of preventative care. A total of 74 dogs of both sexes were qualified for the study. The group included both neutered and non-neutered animals (Akita – 17 females, 12 males, Shiba – 24 females, 18 males, Hokkaido – 2 females, 1 male. The blood smear revealed significant anisocytosis in 60.8% and mild anisocytosis in 28.4% of the tested dogs – 89.2% in total. Microcytosis was reported for 25.7% of the tested Japanese breed dogs. Reduced mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration were diagnosed in 75.7% and 40.5% of dogs, respectively. Red blood cell distribution width as an anisocytosis indicator exceeded the norm in 12% of the tested dogs. Compared to mixed breed dogs, the Japanese breeds had a reduced mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration and significant anisocytosis in the blood smear as well as a higher red blood cell distribution width indicator. Veterinarians should consider these differences when interpreting the results of morphological blood tests.

  16. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Novotny

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26 and mdx mice (n = 22 were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34. Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12; however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03 and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03. These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  17. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  18. LOW-FREQUENCY LOW INTENSITY MAGNETIC FIELD (50 Hz; 2,7 mT INFLUENCES ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOLLOWING CHEMICAL SYMPATHECTOMY IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Maniu

    2007-08-01

    hydroxydopamine infusion with 25 mg/kg i.p. desipramine (Sigma to protect noradrenergic projections. 12 days after the operation, the hematological parameters (the total number of erythrocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin level were evaluated. The sympathectomy-induced severe reduction in hematological parameters under low-frequency low intensity magnetic field exposure.

  19. Evaluation of Pain Intensity Assessment Tools Among Elderly Patients With Cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Chen; Lai, Yeur-Hur; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Hung-Ru

    Effective pain management requires careful assessment of pain. Auditory, visual, cognitive, and motor impairments in elderly people may affect their ability to use pain assessment tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability, validity, and no-response rate of pain scales among elderly patients with cancer pain, as well as patient preference for the scales. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with a convenience sample of 73 elderly cancer patients recruited at a cancer-based hospital in southern Taiwan. Participants were asked to rate their pain by using a numeric rating scale (NRS-11), a facial pain scale (FPS), a verbal descriptor scale (VDS), and a mixed scale (consisting of NRS-11, FPS, and VDS) on 2 consecutive days. Test-retest reliability, as indicated by Spearman rank correlation coefficients for the 24-hour interval pain ratings, ranged from 0.426 to 0.683. The criterion-related validity of the scales was supported by significant Spearman rank-order correlation. The time taken to respond to the scales ranged from 40.3 to 16.2 seconds. The no-response rates for the scales decreased in the order NRS-11 > FPS > mixed scale > VDS. Patient preference for the scales decreased in the order mixed scale > VDS > NRS-11 > FPS. All 4 scales were reliable and valid for assessing cancer pain among elderly patients. Because the no-response rates for the scales depended on educational level and cognitive function, nurses should exercise good judgment in choosing pain intensity assessment tools for use with elderly patients.

  20. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  1. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  2. Patterns of Disease Recurrence Following Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, Adam S., E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Morrison, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Stugis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, Gary B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Schwartz, David L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Kies, Merill S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weber, Randal S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian; Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To report mature results of a large cohort of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The database of patients irradiated at The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was searched for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer and treated with IMRT between 2000 and 2007. A retrospective review of outcome data was performed. Results: The cohort consisted of 776 patients. One hundred fifty-nine patients (21%) were current smokers, 279 (36%) former smokers, and 337 (43%) never smokers. T and N categories and American Joint Committee on Cancer group stages were distributed as follows: T1/x, 288 (37%); T2, 288 (37%); T3, 113 (15%); T4, 87 (11%); N0, 88(12%); N1/x, 140 (18%); N2a, 101 (13%); N2b, 269 (35%); N2c, 122 (16%); and N3, 56 (7%); stage I, 18(2%); stage II, 40(5%); stage III, 150(19%); and stage IV, 568(74%). Seventy-one patients (10%) presented with nodes in level IV. Median follow-up was 54 months. The 5-year overall survival, locoregional control, and overall recurrence-free survival rates were 84%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. Primary site recurrence developed in 7% of patients, and neck recurrence with primary site control in 3%. We could only identify 12 patients (2%) who had locoregional recurrence outside the high-dose target volumes. Poorer survival rates were observed in current smokers, patients with larger primary (T) tumors and lower neck disease. Conclusions: Patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with IMRT have excellent disease control. Locoregional recurrence was uncommon, and most often occurred in the high dose volumes. Parotid sparing was accomplished in nearly all patients without compromising tumor coverage.

  3. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status

  4. Overtreatment of young adults with colon cancer: more intense treatments with unmatched survival gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneuertz, Peter J; Chang, George J; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Eng, Cathy; Vilar, Eduardo; Skibber, John M; Feig, Barry W; Cormier, Janice N; You, Y Nancy

    2015-05-01

    Colon cancer is increasing among adults younger than 50 years. However, the prognosis of young-onset colon cancer remains poorly defined given significant age-related demographic, disease, and treatment differences. To define stage-specific treatments and prognosis of colon cancer diagnosed in young adults (ages 18-49 years) vs older adults (ages 65-75 years) outside of the clinical trial setting while accounting for real-world age-related variations in patient, tumor, and treatment factors. A nationwide cohort study was conducted among US hospitals accredited by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer. Participants were 13 102 patients diagnosed as having young-onset colon adenocarcinoma aged 18 to 49 years and 37 007 patients diagnosed as having later-onset colon adenocarcinoma aged 65 to 75 years treated between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2005, and reported to the National Cancer Data Base. Patients who underwent surgical resection and postoperative systemic chemotherapy of curative intent. The primary end point was stage-specific relative survival, an objective measure of survival among patients with cancer, adjusting for baseline mortality rates and independent of the data on cause of death. The secondary end point was stage-specific likelihood of receiving postoperative systemic chemotherapy. Most young-onset colon cancer was initially seen at advanced stages (61.8% had stage III or IV). After adjusting for patient-related and tumor-related factors, young patients were more likely to receive systemic chemotherapy, particularly multiagent regimens, at all stages relative to those with later-onset disease. These odds ratios were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.21-3.77) for stage I, 3.93 (95% CI, 3.58-4.31) for stage II, 2.42 (95% CI, 2.18-2.68) for stage III, and 2.74 (95% CI, 2.44-3.07) for stage IV. The significantly more intense treatments received by younger patients were unmatched by any survival gain, which was nil for stage II (relative risk, 0

  5. A 3-week multimodal intervention involving high-intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty-eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group performing exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (LMIE; n = 14) or a group performing high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 14) as part of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation program. No adverse events related to the exercise were reported. Work economy improved following both HIIT and LMIE, with improved peak oxygen uptake following LMIE. HIIT reduced mean total body fat mass with no change in body mass, muscle or fat-free mass (best P cancer-related fatigue. This randomized controlled study demonstrates that HIIT can be performed by female cancer survivors without adverse health effects. Here, HIIT and LMIE both improved work economy, quality of life and cancer-related fatigue, body composition or energy expenditure. Since the outcomes were similar, but HIIT takes less time, this may be a time-efficient strategy for improving certain aspects of the health of female cancer survivors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Speech recognition and frequency of hearing loss in patients treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Patrícia Helena Pecora; Schultz, Christiane; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Lopes, Luiz Fernando

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the audiological profile accompanying oncological treatment in patients who had cancer in childhood and had been free of oncological treatment for at least 8 years. Our main interest lay in identifying the affected frequencies that interfered with speech intelligibility (SI) in those who had acquired hearing loss after treatment. Two hundred patients who had cancer in childhood were evaluated. Diagnosis was made at the mean age of 6 years old, and hearing evaluation was performed at a mean age of 21 years. Fifty-one of these patients received chemotherapy without cisplatin, carboplatin or head and neck radiotherapy; 64 received cisplatin without head and neck radiotherapy; 75 received head and neck radiotherapy without cisplatin; and 10 received both head and neck radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. All patients underwent pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry. Patients who had hearing loss primarily had bilateral symmetric sensorineural hearing loss. Although the average SI for ears with hearing loss in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz was normal, the Kruskall-Wallis test showed a significant difference between ears without hearing loss and those with hearing loss between 4 and 8 kHz. The average SI score in ears with hearing loss between 1 and 8 kHz was significantly different from all other ears. Hearing loss involving frequencies at and above 4 kHz determines a decline in SI. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF SEVERAL SKIN CANCER TYPES BASED ON AUTOFLUORESCENCE INTENSITY OF VISIBLE LIGHT TO NEAR INFRARED RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo Tedjo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin caused by many factors. The most common skin cancers are Basal Cell Cancer (BCC and Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC. This research uses a discriminant analysis to classify some tissues of skin cancer based on criterion number of independent variables. An independent variable is variation of excitation light sources (LED lamp, filters, and sensors to measure Autofluorescence Intensity (IAF of visible light to near infrared (VIS/NIR ratio of paraffin embedded tissue biopsy from BCC, SCC, and Lipoma. From the result of discriminant analysis, it is known that the discriminant function is determined by 4 (four independent variables i.e., Blue LED-Red Filter, Blue LED-Yellow Filter, UV LED-Blue Filter, and UV LED-Yellow Filter. The accuracy of discriminant in classifying the analysis of three skin cancer tissues is 100 %.

  8. Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption Quantity and Frequency and Cancer-Specific Mortality in the US Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Chen, Chiung M.; Graubard, Barry I.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective associations between quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and cancer-specific mortality were studied using a nationally representative sample with pooled data from the 1988, 1990, 1991, and 1997–2004 administrations of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 323,354). By 2006, 8,362 participants had died of cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks. Among current alcohol drinkers, for all-site cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking (≥3 drinks on drinking days vs. 1 drink on drinking days) was associated with increased risk among men (relative risk (RR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.41; P for linear trend = 0.001); higher-frequency drinking (≥3 days/week vs. cancer mortality results were similar, but among never smokers, results were null. For colorectal cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking was associated with increased risk among women (RR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.18; P-trend = 0.03). Higher-frequency drinking was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.38; P for quadratic effect = 0.03) and tended to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.17; P-trend = 0.06). Epidemiologic studies of alcohol and cancer mortality should consider the independent effects of quantity and frequency. PMID:21965184

  9. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Pristina. The main important factors included in this study are: age, sex and risk factors that altogether have considerable influence in incidence of pancreatic cancer. The imaging diagnostics are performed with the use of 2D ECHO Phillips, MSCT Sensation 64 and 6 and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens that are situated in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK. The statistic data were obtained from NIPH of Kosovo and Agency of Statistics of Kosovo. Out of the total number of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the mortality in all age groups was higher at male patients-61.6 % of cases (n=223) with the highest number found at 51-60 years age group. The 38.4 % (n= 139) were female patients with the highest incidence frequency at F 61-70 years age group. The F/M ratio is 1:1.6. The "plane" nicotine users were found at 34 % (n=123) while the joined, nicotine/alcohol addiction was detected at 26 % (n= 94). The 18.5% (n=67) have had established diagnose of the diabetes mellitus tip II and 9.6 % (n=35) have undergone the medical treatment of the gastroduodenal peptic ulcerations. The total number of deaths is 310 (85.6%) and there are only 52 patients (14.4%) still alive. The mortality rate of the pancreatic cancer in Kosovo was 17.2 in 100.000 residents while the morbidity rate was 2.8 in 100.000 residents. This retrospective research study intends to present the role of the risk factor, that

  10. The frequency of T regulatory cells is increased in peripheral blood of patients with colon-rectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D. Saverino; C. Stabilini; R. SImone; E. Gianetta; F. Milintenda-Florian

    2011-01-01

    Immune system can recognise the tumor-associated antigens present in peripheal blood of cancer patients. Recent studies suggest that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) might hamper effective immune-surveillance of cancer cells and impede effective immune responses to established tumours. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Treg in the peripheral blood of colon-rectal cancer (CRC) patients. Results indicate an increase frequency of Treg in the peripheral blood of CRC patie...

  11. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    .62+/-13.42 kg, post: 73.25+/-13.44 kg, P=0.016). There was a significant decrease in skin-fold measurements by 3% (P=0.031). The exercise intervention was well tolerated, provided that daily screening criteria were adhered to. The effects of resistance and cardiovascular training observed in this short......The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a supervised high- and low-intensity structured training program in cancer patients concurrently undergoing chemotherapy. Seventy patients, in different stages of the disease and with different diagnoses (48 females, 22 males), between 18...... and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were...

  12. Photodynamic Therapy Activated by Intense Pulsed Light in the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Piccolo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL has proven to be a highly effective conservative method for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK, Bowen’s disease (BD, and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC. PDT is traditionally performed in association with broad-spectrum continuous-wave light sources, such as red or blue light. Recently, intense pulsed light (IPL devices have been investigated as an alternative light source for PDT in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC. We herein report our observational findings in a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of AK, sBCC, and BD that is treated with MAL-PDT using IPL, as well as we review published data on the use of IPL-PDT in NMSC.

  13. Design status of an intense 14 MeV neutron source for cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Z E; Cheng, S W; Jia, W B

    2002-01-01

    Design and development of an intense 14 MeV neutron source for cancer therapy is in progress at the Institute of Nuclear Research of Lanzhou University. The neutrons from the T(d,n) sup 4 He reaction are produced by bombarding a rotating titanium tritide target with a 40 mA deuteron beam at 600 keV. The designed neutron yield is 8x10 sup 1 sup 2 n/s and the maximum dose rate at a 100 cm source-to-skin distance is 25 cGy/min. The HV terminal, accelerating column and HV power supply are enclosed inside a stainless steel pressure vessel containing 6 atm SF sub 6 gas to provide the electrical insulation.

  14. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerod, Frederikke Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels; Borre, Michael; Ørntoft, Torben F; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Brünner, Nils; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer

  15. Ejaculatory frequency and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: Findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Pedersen, John; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2017-08-01

    Recent literature reports inverse associations with ejaculator frequency and prostate cancer (PC). We sought to explore the relationship between ejaculatory frequency from ages 20 to 50 and subsequent development of aggressive PC. We conducted a case-control study sampling 2,141 men from private urology practices in Victoria, Australia. Cases were defined as men with high grade or high stage PC and controls being biopsy negative men. Ejaculation frequency recalled at age decades 20, 30, and 40 second was assessed by questionnaire. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (ORs). An inverse association with ejaculatory frequency at age 30 to 39 was observed (OR per 5-unit increase per week = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.96) but not at ages 20 to 29 (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.89-1.14) or ages 40 to 49 (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81-1.12). This result differed between men with new sexual partners after age 30 (OR = 0.77, P = 0.009) and those with no new partners (OR = 0.97, P = 0.8) though the test for a difference between these estimates was not significant (P = 0.11). We found only weak evidence of an inverse association between ejaculatory frequency in the fourth decade of life and advanced PC, which was not significantly modified by number of new sexual partners. No relationship was found for ejaculatory frequency in the third and fifth decades of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Shinya; Kataoka, Hiromi; Mimura, Mikio; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ayakawa, Shiho; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Akihiro; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Baba, Fumiya; Yanagi, Takeshi; Sugie, Chikao

    2012-01-01

    Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC) was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS), which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding) and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding). Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months). Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42%) observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%), although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62%) treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003) and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%). One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p < 0.001) and bleeding stopped in 5 (42%). After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories/enemas are expected to be effective. However, short

  17. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemoto Shinya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS, which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding. Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. Results The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months. Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42% observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%, although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62% treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003 and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%. One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p  Conclusions After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories

  18. Effect of fire season, fire frequency, rainfall and management on fire intensity in savanna vegetation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available and fire intensity in conjunction with the park's fire records to reconstruct broad fire intensity regimes. Changes in management from regular prescribed burning to 'natural' fires over the past four decades have resulted in a decrease in moderate...

  19. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Pierre & Marie Curie University (UPMC Paris VI), Paris (France); Richard, S.; Khalil, A. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Alexandre, I. [Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Centre of Bligny, Briis-sous-Forges (France); Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Lotz, J.P. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Pierre & Marie Curie University (UPMC Paris VI), Paris (France)

    2014-11-04

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis.

  20. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J.; Richard, S.; Khalil, A.; Alexandre, I.; Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G.; Lotz, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis

  1. Application of combined 6-Hz primed low-frequency rTMS and intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Umemori, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety, feasibility and efficacy of 6-Hz primed low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Eleven patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age at intervention: 61.0 ± 13.7 years, time after stroke onset: 70.2 ± 39.8 months) were studied. Each patient received 22 sessions of 6-Hz primed low-frequency rTMS (10-min 6-Hz priming stimulation followed by 20-min low-frequency rTMS of 1-Hz) applied to the non-lesional hemisphere plus intensive OT comprising 60-min one-to-one training and 60-min self-training during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. The treatment increased the FMA score (from 42.2 ± 6.9 to 45.6 ± 7.2 points, plow-frequency rTMS combined with intensive OT seems safe and a potentially useful therapeutic modality for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  2. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Marinac, Catherine R.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Natarajan, Loki; Gallo, Linda C.; Breen, Caitlin I.; Patterson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in ...

  3. Carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy on early glottic cancer: Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon Sik; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Jeong, Ho Jin; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon; Kang, Ki Mun [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the dose distribution between carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed lateral field technique (LAFT), and to determine the effects of carotid sparing IMRT in early glottic cancer patients who have risk factors for atherosclerosis. Ten early glottic cancer patients were treated with carotid sparing IMRT. For each patient, the conventional LAFT plan was developed for comparison. IMRT and LAFT plans were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity index, homogeneity index, and the doses to planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for carotid arteries, spinal cord and pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Recurrence was not observed in any patients during the follow-up period. V95% for PTV showed no significant difference between IMRT and LAFT plans, while V100% was significantly higher in the IMRT plan (95.5% vs. 94.6%, p = 0.005). The homogeneity index (11.6%) and conformity index (1.4) in the IMRT plan were significantly better than those in the LAFT plans (8.5% and 5.1, respectively) (p = 0.005). The median V5Gy (90.0%), V25Gy (13.5%), and V50Gy (0%) for carotid artery PRV in the IMRT plan were significantly lower than those in the LAFT plan (99.1%, 89.0%, and 77.3%, respectively) (p = 0.005). Our study suggests that carotid sparing IMRT can significantly decrease the dose to carotid arteries compared to LAFT, and it would be considered for early glottic cancer patient with high risk of atherosclerosis.

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary: Toxicity and Preliminary Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, Michelle L.; Mechalakos, James G.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Kraus, Dennis; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Pfister, David G.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Unknown primary head and neck cancers often require comprehensive mucosal and bilateral neck irradiation. With conventional techniques, significant toxicity can develop. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to minimize the toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2005, 21 patients underwent IMRT for unknown primary head and neck cancer at our center. Of the 21 patients, 5 received IMRT with definitive intent and 16 as postoperative therapy; 14 received concurrent chemotherapy and 7 IMRT alone. The target volumes included the bilateral neck and mucosal surface. The median dose was 66 Gy. Acute and chronic toxicities, esophageal strictures, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence were evaluated. Progression-free survival, regional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: With a median follow-up of 24 months, the 2-year regional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rate was 90%, 90%, and 85%, respectively. Acute grade 1 and 2 xerostomia was seen in 57% and 43% of patients, respectively. Salivary function improved with time. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was required in 72% with combined modality treatment and 43% with IMRT alone. Only 1 patient required percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy support at the last follow-up visit. Two patients treated with combined modality and one treated with IMRT alone developed esophageal strictures, but all had improvement or resolution with dilation. Conclusion: The preliminary analysis of IMRT for unknown primary head and neck cancer has shown acceptable toxicity and encouraging efficacy. The analysis of the dosimetric variables showed excellent tumor coverage and acceptable doses to critical normal structures. Esophageal strictures developed but were effectively treated with dilation. Techniques to limit the esophageal dose

  5. Toxicity after intensity-modulated, image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias; Ok, Sami; Polat, Buelent; Sweeney, Reinhart A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity after dose-escalated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated treatment planning (IMRT) and image-guided treatment (IGRT) delivery. Patients and Methods: 100 patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) IMRT for prostate cancer: doses of 76.23 Gy and 60 Gy in 33 fractions were prescribed to the prostate and the seminal vesicles, respectively, for intermediate- and high-risk patients (n = 74). The total dose was 73.91 Gy in 32 fractions for low-risk patients and after transurethral resection of the prostate (n = 26). The pelvic lymphatics were treated with 46 Gy in 25 fractions in patients with high risk of lymph node metastases using an SIB to the prostate (n = 25). IGRT was practiced with cone-beam computed tomography. Acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was evaluated prospectively (CTCAE v3.0). Results: Treatment was completed as planned by all patients. Acute GI and GU toxicity grade ≥ 2 was observed in 12% and 42% of the patients, respectively, with 4% suffering from GU toxicity grade 3. 6 weeks after treatment, the incidence of acute toxicity grade ≥ 2 had decreased to 12%. With a median follow-up of 26 months, late GI and GU toxicity grade ≥ 2 was seen in 1.5% and 7.7% of the patients at 24 months. Four patients developed late toxicity grade 3 (GI n = 1; GU n = 3). Presence of acute GI and GU toxicity was significantly associated with late GI (p = 0.0007) and GU toxicity (p = 0.006). Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy for prostate cancer using IMRT and IGRT resulted in low rates of acute toxicity and preliminary results of late toxicity are promising. (orig.)

  6. Photoionization of resonantly driven atomic states by an extreme ultraviolet-free-electron laser: intensity dependence and renormalization of Rabi frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B; Brand, A; Glässl, M; Vagov, A; Axt, V M; Pietsch, U

    2013-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the high intensity photoionization dynamics of a system with two atomic states resonantly coupled by coherent extreme ultraviolet laser radiation that also gives rise to the ionization. The ground state occupation of such a system is shown to exhibit damped Rabi oscillations. The corresponding ionization, which is responsible for the damping, scales almost linearly with the field intensity when the pulse length exceeds the Rabi period. For shorter pulses a quadratic scaling is found. The Rabi frequency is shifted compared to its value for an isolated two-level system. The shift increases with excitation intensity and can acquire a high percentage of the unrenormalized frequency at high intensities. Analytical results obtained within a simplified solvable model demonstrate that the damping and the shift both result from the coupling of the discrete states to the ionization continuum and are therefore closely related. Numerical simulations for a two-electron system reveal at high intensities the importance of off-resonant ionization channels. (paper)

  7. [Acute toxicity of breast cancer irradiation with modulated intensity by tomotherapy®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoulad, N; Massabeau, C; de Lafontan, B; Vieillevigne, L; Hangard, G; Ciprian, C; Chaltiel, L; Moyal, É; Izar, F

    2017-05-01

    Helical radiation intensity modulated by tomotherapy improves dose distribution to complex and large volumes. The aim of the study was to assess acute toxicity of this technique during breast cancer irradiation after conserving surgery or mastectomy. Cutaneous toxicities, lung and oesophageal side effects, and breast lymphedema were retrospectively collected according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 (CTCAE v4.0) in 292 patients treated for a breast cancer by tomotherapy between May 2010 and December 2014. After conservative surgery, the dose administered to breast volume and the tumour bed was respectively 52.2Gy and 63.8Gy in 29 fractions. After mastectomy, the dose was 50Gy in 25 fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to highlight risk factors for dermatitis and breast oedema. The rate of dermatitis grade 2 and 3 were 22.9% and 1.7% respectively. In univariate analysis, factors associated with acute radiation dermatitis were breast volume (P=0.002), body mass index (BMI) (Pacute radiation dermatitis (mastectomy: OR 0.64, 95% CI [0.04-0.43]; mastectomy with immediate reconstruction with prosthesis: OR 0.13 95% CI [0.10-0.38] P=0.0003). The incidence of breast oedema grade 2 or above was 19.5%, in univariate analysis, there was a correlation with BMI (P=0.003) and smoking (P=0.009). In multivariate analysis, smoking and BMI greater than 25kg/m 2  increased the risk of breast oedema (OR 2.47, respectively [95% CI 1.22-5.01] P=0.012 and OR 2.37 [95% CI 1.22-4.59] P=0.01). The rate of radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or above was 1.4%. Among the patients, 19.9% had esophagitis grade 1 or 2. The helical irradiation intensity modulation tomotherapy is a well-tolerated treatment for breast cancer that reduces the high radiation doses to organs at risk. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypofractionated Concomitant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Boost for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Late Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Harvey [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cheung, Patrick C.F., E-mail: patrick.cheung@sunnybrook.ca [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Loblaw, D. Andrew; Morton, Gerard; Pang, Geordi; Szumacher, Ewa; Danjoux, Cyril [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Thomas, Gillian [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kiss, Alex; Mamedov, Alexandre; Deabreu, Andrea [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report the acute and late toxicities of patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer treated using a concomitant hypofractionated, intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: A prospective Phase I-II study of patients with any of the following: clinical Stage T3 disease, prostate-specific antigen level {>=}20 ng/mL, or Gleason score 8-10. A dose of 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) was delivered to the pelvic lymph nodes with a concomitant 22.5 Gy prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost, to a total of 67.5 Gy (2.7 Gy/fraction) in 25 fractions within 5 weeks. Image guidance was performed using three gold seed fiducials. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scores were used to assess the acute and late toxicities, respectively. Biochemical failure was determined using the Phoenix definition. Results: A total of 97 patients were treated and followed up for a median of 39 months, with 88% having a minimum of 24 months of follow-up. The maximal toxicity scores were recorded. The grade of acute gastrointestinal toxicity was Grade 0 in 4%, 1 in 59%, and 2 in 37%. The grade of acute urinary toxicity was Grade 0 in 8%, 1 in 50%, 2 in 39%, and 3 in 4%. The grade of late gastrointestinal toxicity was Grade 0 in 54%, 1 in 40%, and 2 in 7%. No Grade 3 or greater late gastrointestinal toxicities developed. The grade of late urinary toxicity was Grade 0 in 82%, 1 in 9%, 2 in 5%, 3 in 3%, and 4 in 1% (1 patient). All severe toxicities (Grade 3 or greater) had resolved at the last follow-up visit. The 4-year biochemical disease-free survival rate was 90.5%. Conclusions: A hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost delivering 67.5 Gy in 25 fractions within 5 weeks combined with pelvic nodal radiotherapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy was well tolerated, with low rates

  9. Frequency of Polymorphism in Aromatase Enzyme Coding Gene with Prostate Cancer Risk in North Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Onsory

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of biochemical reactions are involved in the endogenous production of estrogens. Their final and rate-limiting step is catalyzed by aromatase belonging to the class XIX of cytochrome P450. CYP19 is a key enzyme for estrogen synthesis in males. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol-17β, respectively. Aromatase P450 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-reproducing cells in which it is expressed. The effects of the resulting estrogens are mediated through the estrogen receptor. One of the most important polymorphism, is a C to T variation in exon 7 resulting in an Arg264Cys amino acid exchange, has been shown to be very common in Asia. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of CYP19 gene polymorphism with the prostate cancer risk among the studied population. Methods: PCR-RFLP analysis of CYP19 gene was on 100 prostate cancer patients and an equal number of matching controls. The data was analyzed using the computer software SPSS for windows (version 19. Results: The frequency of CT genotype was higher in patients (37% as compared to controls (21.2% and this incidence was statistically significant (OR, 2.10; 95 % CI, 1.02-4.34; P=0.044. Stratification of patients according to the risk factors, resulted in a slightly improved OR in individuals carrying CT compared to CC genotype (OR, 2.35 95% CI, 1.11-4.96; P=0.024. The TT genotype was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.16-2.50; P=0.519. Conclusion: It seems that CT genotype is more associated with cancer prostate compare with other genotypes. It appears to be an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with the Arg264Cys substitution in the CYP19 gene.

  10. Abnormal Fhit protein expression and high frequency of microsatellite instability in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Leopoldo; Bottarelli, Lorena; Azzoni, Cinzia; Campanini, Nicoletta; Di Cola, Gabriella; Bader, Giovanni; Iusco, Domenico; Salvemini, Carlo; Caruso, Giuseppe; Donadei, Enrico; Pizzi, Silvia; D'Adda, Tiziana; Renato, Costi; Roncoroni, Luigi; Bordi, Cesare

    2004-07-01

    The role of Fhit protein in the oncogenesis of colorectal cancer is still in debate. Recent studies have revealed that reduced Fhit protein expression is associated with a deficiency of the mismatch repair protein. One hundred and twenty unselected patients who underwent curative resection for sporadic colorectal cancer in a three-year period were evaluated for microsatellite instability (MSI) using six microsatellite markers, and for the presence of Fhit and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins (Mlh1 and Msh2) by means of immunostaining. The relations between these markers were analysed. Reduced or absent Fhit expression was noted in 18 out of 118 patients. This altered expression was significantly higher in right-sided cancer (P = 0.005), mucinous tumours (P = 0.005) and in poorly differentiated histological types (P = 0.0001). MSI was found in 22 out of 109 patients, more so in right-sided cancer (P = 0.0001), poorly differentiated histology (P = 0.0001), and mucinous tumours (P = 0.0001). No association was found with TNM stage. MSI was present in 66.7% of tumours with altered Fhit expression and in only 10% of tumours with preserved or intermediate Fhit expression (P = 0.0001). Of the tumours with reduced or absent Fhit expression, 72.2% had loss of nuclear Mlh1 or Msh2 expression compared with only 14% of the preserved or intermediate Fhit expression tumours (P = 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that deficiency in a MMR gene could be a cause of the high frequency of alterations in Fhit expression, and they permit the suggestion that FHIT gene alteration may be part of the genetic pathway involving MSI through which some colorectal cancers arise.

  11. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  12. Measuring high-frequency responses of an electro-optic phase modulator based on dispersion induced phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangjian; Wang, Heng; Wang, Yani; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion in dispersive fibers for measuring frequency responses of electro-optic phase modulators, and demonstrate two typical measurements with cascade path and fold-back path. The measured results achieve an uncertainty of less than 2.8% within 20 GHz. Our measurements show stable and repeatable results because the optical carrier and its phase-modulated sidebands are affected by the same fiber impairments. The proposed method requires only dispersive fibers and works without any small-signal assumption, which is applicable for swept frequency measurement at different driving levels and operating wavelengths.

  13. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced ≥Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, ≥Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  14. Reduced acute bowel toxicity in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelian, Jason M; Callister, Matthew D; Ashman, Jonathan B; Young-Fadok, Tonia M; Borad, Mitesh J; Gunderson, Leonard L

    2012-04-01

    We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced ≥Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, ≥Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity

  15. Computerized detection of breast cancer using resonance-frequency-based electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Fan, Ming; Zhao, Weijie; Zheng, Bin; Li, Lihua

    2017-03-01

    This study developed and tested a multi-probe resonance-frequency-based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system aimed at detection of breast cancer. The REIS system consists of specially designed mechanical supporting device that can be easily lifted to fit women of different height, a seven probe sensor cup, and a computer providing software for system control and management. The sensor cup includes one central probe for direct contact with the nipple, and other six probes uniformly distributed at a distance of 35mm away from the center probe to enable contact with breast skin surface. It takes about 18 seconds for this system to complete a data acquisition process. We utilized this system for examination of breast cancer, collecting a dataset of 289 cases including biopsy verified 74 malignant and 215 benign tumors. After that, 23 REIS based features, including seven frequency, fifteen magnitude features were extracted, and an age feature. To reduce redundancy we selected 6 features using the evolutionary algorithm for classification. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was computed to assess classifier performance. A multivariable logistic regression method was performed for detection of the tumors. The results of our study showed for the 23 REIS features AUC and ACC, Sensitivity and Specificity of 0.796, 0.727, 0.731 and 0.726, respectively. The AUC and ACC, Sensitivity and Specificity for the 6 REIS features of 0.840, 0.80, 0.703 and 0.833, respectively, and AUC of 0.662 and 0.619 for the frequency and magnitude based REIS features, respectively. The performance of the classifiers using all the 6 features was significantly better than solely using magnitude features (p=3.29e-08) and frequency features (5.61e-07). Smote algorithm was used to expand small samples to balance the dataset, the AUC after data balance of 0.846 increased than the original data classification performance. The results indicated that the REIS system is

  16. On the consideration of scaling properties of extreme rainfall in Madrid (Spain) for developing a generalized intensity-duration-frequency equation and assessing probable maximum precipitation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Castillo, M. Carmen; Rodríguez-Solà, Raúl; Navarro, Xavier; Russo, Beniamino; Lastra, Antonio; González, Paula; Redaño, Angel

    2018-01-01

    The fractal behavior of extreme rainfall intensities registered between 1940 and 2012 by the Retiro Observatory of Madrid (Spain) has been examined, and a simple scaling regime ranging from 25 min to 3 days of duration has been identified. Thus, an intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) master equation of the location has been constructed in terms of the simple scaling formulation. The scaling behavior of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for durations between 5 min and 24 h has also been verified. For the statistical estimation of the PMP, an envelope curve of the frequency factor ( k m ) based on a total of 10,194 station-years of annual maximum rainfall from 258 stations in Spain has been developed. This curve could be useful to estimate suitable values of PMP at any point of the Iberian Peninsula from basic statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) of its rainfall series. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Delirium Frequency and Risk Factors Among Patients With Cancer in Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenel, Gülcin; Uysal, Neşe; Oguz, Gonca; Kaya, Mensure; Kadioullari, Nihal; Koçak, Nesteren; Karaca, Serife

    2017-04-01

    Introductıon: Delirium is a complex but common disorder in palliative care with a prevalence between 13% and 88% but a particular frequency at the end of life yet often remains insufficiently diagnosed and managed. The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of delirium and identify factors associated with delirium at palliative care unit. Two hundred thirteen consecutive inpatients from October 1, 2012, to March 31, 2013, were studied prospectively. Age, gender, Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), length of stay in hospital, and delirium etiology and subtype were recorded. Delirium was diagnosed with using Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision ( DSM-IV TR) criteria. The incidence of delirium among the patients with cancer was 49.8%. Mean age was 60.3 ± 14.8 (female 41%, male 59%, PPS 39.8%, PPI 5.9 ± 3.0, length of stay in hospital 8.6 ± 6.9 days). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that use of opioids, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, steroids, polypharmacy, infection, malnutrition, immobilization, sleep disturbance, constipation, hyperbilirubinemia, liver/renal failure, pulmonary failure/hypoxia, electrolyte imbalance, brain cancer/metastases, decreased PPS, and increased PPI were risk factors. Subtypes of delirium included hypoactive 49%, mixed 41%, and hyperactive 10%. The communicative impediments associated with delirium generate distress for the patient, their family, and health care practitioners who might have to contend with agitation and difficulty in assessing pain and other symptoms. To manage delirium in patients with cancer, clinicians must be able to diagnose it accurately and undertake appropriate assessment of underlying causes.

  18. Magnetic liposomes for colorectal cancer cells therapy by high-frequency magnetic field treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Huang, Li-Ying; Yang, Ming-Chien; Liu, Ting-Yu; Tsai, Sung-Chen; Yang, Chih-Yung; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Zou, Hui-Ming; Lian, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chi-Hung

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we developed the cancer treatment through the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy using doxorubicin-loaded magnetic liposomes. The citric acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CAMNP, ca. 10 nm) and doxorubicin were encapsulated into the liposome (HSPC/DSPE/cholesterol = 12.5:1:8.25) by rotary evaporation and ultrasonication process. The resultant magnetic liposomes ( ca. 90 to 130 nm) were subject to characterization including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence microscope. In vitro cytotoxicity of the drug carrier platform was investigated through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using L-929 cells, as the mammalian cell model. In vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia (inductive heating) studies were evaluated against colorectal cancer (CT-26 cells) with high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF) exposure. MTT assay revealed that these drug carriers exhibited no cytotoxicity against L-929 cells, suggesting excellent biocompatibility. When the magnetic liposomes with 1 μM doxorubicin was used to treat CT-26 cells in combination with HFMF exposure, approximately 56% cells were killed and found to be more effective than either hyperthermia or chemotherapy treatment individually. Therefore, these results show that the synergistic effects between chemotherapy (drug-controlled release) and hyperthermia increase the capability to kill cancer cells.

  19. Intensive care at the end of life in patients dying due to non-cancer chronic diseases versus cancer: a nationwide study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngaa, Thomas; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Nielsen, Henrik; Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Laut, Kristina Grønborg; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2015-11-24

    It is unknown to what extent use of palliative care and focus on proactive planning of end-of-life (EOL) care among cancer patients is also reflected by less use of intensive care. We aimed to examine the use of intensive care in the EOL in patients dying as a result of non-cancer diseases compared with patients dying due to cancer. We conducted a nationwide follow-up study among 240,757 adults dying as a result of either non-cancer chronic disease or cancer in Denmark between 2005 and 2011. Using the Danish Intensive Care Database, we identified all admissions and treatments in intensive care units (ICU) during the patients' last 6 months before death. We used prevalence ratios (aPRs) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, marital status and residential region to compare the 6-month prevalence of ICU admissions as well as treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and inotropes and/or vasopressors. In addition, length of ICU stay and death during ICU admission were compared among non-cancer and cancer patients dying between 2009 and 2011. Overall 12.3 % of non-cancer patients were admitted to an ICU within their last 6 months of life, compared with 8.7 % of cancer patients. The overall aPR for ICU admission was 2.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.98-2.24] for non-cancer patients compared with cancer patients and varied widely within the non-cancer patients (patients with dementia, aPR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.17-0.21; patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, aPR 3.19, 95 % CI 2.97-3.41). The overall aPRs for treatment among non-cancer patients compared with cancer patients were 1.40 (95 % CI 1.35-1.46) for MV, 1.62 (95 % CI 1.50-1.76) for NIV, 1.19 (95 % CI 1.07-1.31) for RRT and 1.05 (95 % CI 0.87-1.28) for inotropes and/or vasopressors. No difference in admission length was observed. Non-cancer patients had an increased risk of dying in an ICU (aPR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.99-1.54) compared with

  20. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study invest...

  1. Combination treatment of low-frequency rTMS and occupational therapy with levodopa administration: an intensive neurorehabilitative approach for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2011-07-01

    The combination treatment of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy was applied with concomitant oral administration of levodopa in five post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (age at treatment: 56-66 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 18-143 months) as a 15-day inpatient protocol. Daily levodopa administration of 100 mg was initiated 1 week before admission and continued until 4 weeks after discharge. Low-frequency rTMS of 1 Hz was applied to the contralesional hemisphere for 40 min daily (two 20-min sessions) combined with intensive occupational therapy consisting of 60-min one-on-one training and 60-min self-exercise. Motor function of the affected upper limb was serially evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and the Wolf Motor Function Test. At the end of the treatment, all patients showed improved motor function in the affected upper limbs. In some patients, the improvement was maintained until 4 weeks after discharge. No patient showed any adverse effect from the intervention. Our proposed protocol featuring levodopa administration, low-frequency rTMS, and intensive occupational therapy could provide a safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  2. Interaction between Gender and Skill on Competitive State Anxiety Using the Time-to-Event Paradigm: What Roles Do Intensity, Direction, and Frequency Dimensions Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hagan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The functional understanding and examination of competitive anxiety responses as temporal events that unfold as time-to-competition moves closer has emerged as a topical research area within the domains of sport psychology. However, little is known from an inclusive and interaction oriented perspective. Using the multidimensional anxiety theory as a framework, the present study examined the temporal patterning of competitive anxiety, focusing on the dimensions of intensity, direction, and frequency of intrusions in athletes across gender and skill level.Methods: Elite and semi-elite table tennis athletes from the Ghanaian league (N = 90 completed a modified version of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 with the inclusion of the directional and frequency of intrusion scales at three temporal phases (7 days, 2 days, and 1 h prior to a competitive fixture.Results: Multivariate Analyses of Variance repeated measures with follow-up analyses revealed significant interactions for between-subjects factors on all anxiety dimensions (intensity, direction, and frequency. Notably, elite (international female athletes were less cognitively anxious, showed more facilitative interpretation toward somatic anxiety symptoms and experienced less frequency of somatic anxiety symptoms than their male counterparts. However, both elite groups displayed appreciable level of self-confidence. For time-to-event effects, both cognitive and somatic anxiety intensity fluctuated whereas self-confidence showed a steady rise as competition neared. Somatic anxiety debilitative interpretation slightly improved 1 h before competition whereas cognitive anxiety frequencies also increased progressively during the entire preparatory phase.Conclusion: Findings suggest a more dynamic image of elite athletes’ pre-competitive anxiety responses than suggested by former studies, potentially influenced by cultural differences. The use of psychological

  3. Interaction between Gender and Skill on Competitive State Anxiety Using the Time-to-Event Paradigm: What Roles Do Intensity, Direction, and Frequency Dimensions Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John E.; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: The functional understanding and examination of competitive anxiety responses as temporal events that unfold as time-to-competition moves closer has emerged as a topical research area within the domains of sport psychology. However, little is known from an inclusive and interaction oriented perspective. Using the multidimensional anxiety theory as a framework, the present study examined the temporal patterning of competitive anxiety, focusing on the dimensions of intensity, direction, and frequency of intrusions in athletes across gender and skill level. Methods: Elite and semi-elite table tennis athletes from the Ghanaian league (N = 90) completed a modified version of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) with the inclusion of the directional and frequency of intrusion scales at three temporal phases (7 days, 2 days, and 1 h) prior to a competitive fixture. Results: Multivariate Analyses of Variance repeated measures with follow-up analyses revealed significant interactions for between-subjects factors on all anxiety dimensions (intensity, direction, and frequency). Notably, elite (international) female athletes were less cognitively anxious, showed more facilitative interpretation toward somatic anxiety symptoms and experienced less frequency of somatic anxiety symptoms than their male counterparts. However, both elite groups displayed appreciable level of self-confidence. For time-to-event effects, both cognitive and somatic anxiety intensity fluctuated whereas self-confidence showed a steady rise as competition neared. Somatic anxiety debilitative interpretation slightly improved 1 h before competition whereas cognitive anxiety frequencies also increased progressively during the entire preparatory phase. Conclusion: Findings suggest a more dynamic image of elite athletes’ pre-competitive anxiety responses than suggested by former studies, potentially influenced by cultural differences. The use of psychological skills

  4. Suitability of frequency modulated thermal wave imaging for skin cancer detection-A theoretical prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Arka; Repaka, Ramjee; Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-07-01

    A theoretical study on the quantification of surface thermal response of cancerous human skin using the frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (FMTWI) technique has been presented in this article. For the first time, the use of the FMTWI technique for the detection and the differentiation of skin cancer has been demonstrated in this article. A three dimensional multilayered skin has been considered with the counter-current blood vessels in individual skin layers along with different stages of cancerous lesions based on geometrical, thermal and physical parameters available in the literature. Transient surface thermal responses of melanoma during FMTWI of skin cancer have been obtained by integrating the heat transfer model for biological tissue along with the flow model for blood vessels. It has been observed from the numerical results that, flow of blood in the subsurface region leads to a substantial alteration on the surface thermal response of the human skin. The alteration due to blood flow further causes a reduction in the performance of the thermal imaging technique during the thermal evaluation of earliest melanoma stages (small volume) compared to relatively large volume. Based on theoretical study, it has been predicted that the method is suitable for detection and differentiation of melanoma with comparatively large volume than the earliest development stages (small volume). The study has also performed phase based image analysis of the raw thermograms to resolve the different stages of melanoma volume. The phase images have been found to be clearly individuate the different development stages of melanoma compared to raw thermograms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality assurance and dosimetric analysis of intensity modulation radiotherapy using compensators for head and neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Atul; Nangia, Sapna; Chufal, Kundan S.; Mishra, Maninder B.; Ghosh, Dhananjay; Supe, Sanjay S.; Singh, Man P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we describe our experience in implementing compensator based intensity modulated radiotherapy (cIMRT) for head and neck cancer with regard to pre treatment quality assurance (QA), dosimetric parameters and other technical detail. This study represents the analysis of initial 48 patients who underwent cIMRT for head and neck cancers. All patients were treated with pre treatment QA in terms of point dose with ion chamber and spatial dose comparison with film dosimetry. In our study for all 48 patients, compensators revealed a deviation in central axis dose of 2% ± 1.8% in terms of cumulative calculated versus measured dose. Target coverage for high dose volume (70 Gy) was adequate in terms of volume receiving 93% and 95% of the prescription dose, which was 98.5% and 97.5% respectively. Parotid and other critical organs were spared adequately. Contralateral parotid (CLP) was spared. V30 Gy and V35 Gy was 55.9% and 36.8% for CLP and average dose was 31.7 Gy. Median variation in cumulative measured dose versus cumulative calculated dose was 1.8% (SD + 1.8) and mean variation was 2.5% (95%CI 1.5, 2.6). Range was 0 to 7%. cIMRT is practically feasible. Our QA tests revealed high degree of concordance between cumulative measured doses versus cumulative calculated doses. All dosimetric parameters were within acceptable limits. The manufacturing of compensator is cumbersome but it is a one time job followed by easy treatment delivery and simple QA procedure, high monitor unit (MU) efficiency and less treatment time. cIMRT is easy to implement and now can be applied to larger number of patients with different type of tumor.

  6. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  8. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with fixed collimator jaws for locoregional left-sided breast cancer irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Yang, Zhaozhi; Hu, Weigang; Chen, Zhi; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao

    2017-05-16

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with the fixed collimator jaws technique (FJT) for the left breast and regional lymph node. The targeted breast tissue and the lymph nodes, and the normal tissues were contoured for 16 left-sided breast cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy after lumpectomy. For each patient, treatment plans using different planning techniques, i.e., volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), tangential IMRT (tangential-IMRT), and IMRT with FJT (FJT-IMRT) were developed for dosimetric comparisons. A dose of 50Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. The dose-volume histograms were generated, and the paired t-test was used to analyze the dose differences. FJT-IMRT had similar mean heart volume receiving 30Gy (V30 Gy) with tangential-IMRT (1.5% and 1.6%, p = 0.41), but inferior to the VMAT (0.8%, p < 0.001). In the average heart mean dose comparison, FJT-IMRT had the lowest value, and it was 0.6Gy lower than that for the VMAT plans (p < 0.01). A significant dose increase in the contralateral breast and lung was observed in VMAT plans. Compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT plans, FJT-IMRT reduced the mean dose of thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal by 47.6% (p < 0.01) and 45.7% (p < 0.01), 74.3% (p =< 0.01) and 73% (p =< 0.01), and 26.7% (p =< 0.01) and 29.2% (p =< 0.01). In conclusion, compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT, FJT-IMRT plan has the lowest thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal mean dose and it can be a reasonable treatment option for a certain subgroup of patients, such as young left-breast cancer patients and/or patients with previous thyroid disease.

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, Indira; Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien; Boterberg, Tom; Neve, Wilfried de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy between August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy

  10. Predictors of Dysgeusia in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated With Chemotherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapir, Eli; Tao, Yebin; Feng, Felix; Samuels, Stuart; El Naqa, Issam; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A.; Feng, Mary; Schipper, Matthew; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Dysgeusia is a significant factor reducing quality of life and worsening dysphagia in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The factors affecting dysgeusia severity are uncertain. We investigated the effects on patient-reported dysgeusia of doses to the oral cavity, salivary output (required to dissolve food particles), and patient-reported xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) (N=73) receiving definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy concurrently with chemotherapy participated in a prospective, longitudinal study of quality of life (QOL), including assessment of patient-reported gustatory function by taste-related questions from the Head and Neck QOL instrument (HNQOL) and the University of Washington Head and Neck-related QOL instrument (UWQOL), before therapy and periodically after treatment. At these intervals, patients also completed a validated xerostomia-specific questionnaire (XQ) and underwent unstimulated and stimulated major salivary gland flow rate measurements. Results: At 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, dysgeusia improved over time: severe dysgeusia was reported by 50%, 40%, 22%, and 23% of patients, respectively. Significant associations were found between patient-reported severe dysgeusia and radiation dose to the oral cavity (P=.005) and tongue (P=.019); normal tissue complication probability for severe dysgeusia at 3 months showed mean oral cavity D 50 doses 53 Gy and 57 Gy in the HNQOL and WUQOL questionnaires, respectively, with curve slope (m) of 0.41. Measured salivary output was not statistically significantly correlated with severe taste dysfunction, whereas patient-reported XQ summary scores and xerostomia while eating scores were correlated with severe dysgeusia in the UWQOL tool (P=.04). Conclusions: Taste impairment is significantly correlated with mean radiation dose to the oral cavity. Patient

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: a mono-institutional retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zheng; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Ma, Ning-Yi; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xue-Jun; Long, Jiang; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC), and the prognostic factors in the setting of multidisciplinary approach strategies. 63 patients with LAPC and MPC receiving IMRT in our institution were retrospectively identified. Information on patient baseline, treatment characteristics and overall survival (OS) time were collected. Data of pain relief and toxicity were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate the prognostic factors. All patients received IMRT with a median dose of 46.0 Gy. The median OS for LAPC and MPC patients were 15.7 months and 8.0 months, respectively (p = 0.029). Symptomatic improvements were observed in the 44 patients with abdominal/back pain after radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), particularly in those with severe pain. Only 13.9% and 14.8% cases presented Grade ≥ 3 hematologic toxicities in RT and CCRT group, while no cases developed Grade ≥ 3 non-hematologic toxicities in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumors located in pancreas body/tail (HR 0.28, p = 0.008), pretreatment CA19-9 < 1000 U/mL (HR 0.36, p = 0.029) and concurrent chemotherapy (HR 0.37, p = 0.016) were independent favorable predictors for OS. CCRT further improved OS for LAPC and MPC with acceptable toxicities, and use of RT markedly alleviated pain. Tumors located in pancreas body/tail, pretreatment CA19-9 level of < 1000 U/mL and CCRT were associated with better OS. However, regional intra-arterial chemotherapy did not show any survival benefit in our study

  12. Promising results with image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, D.; Caine, H.; McCloud, P.; Guo, L.; Kneebone, A.; Eade, T.

    2015-01-01

    To describe the feasibility of image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using daily soft tissue matching in the treatment of bladder cancer. Twenty-eight patients with muscle-invasive carcinoma of the bladder were recruited to a protocol of definitive radiation using IMRT with accelerated hypofractionation with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Isotropic margins of .5 and 1 cm were used to generate the high risk and intermediate risk planning target volumes respectively. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired daily and a soft tissue match was performed. Cystoscopy was scheduled 6 weeks post treatment. The median age was 83 years (range 58-92). Twenty patients had stage II or III disease, and eight were stage IV. Gross disease received 66 Gy in 30 fractions in 11 patients (ten with concurrent chemotherapy) or 55 Gy in 20 fractions for those of poorer performance status or with palliative intent. All patients completed radiation treatment as planned. Three patients ceased chemotherapy early due to toxicity. Six patients (21 %) had acute Grade ≥ 2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity and six (21 %) had acute Grade ≥ 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Five patients (18 %) developed Grade ≥2 late GU toxicity and no ≥2 late GI toxicity was observed. Nineteen patients underwent cystoscopy following radiation, with complete response (CR) in 16 cases (86 %), including all patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Eight patients relapsed, four of which were local relapses. Of the patients with local recurrence, one underwent salvage cystectomy. For patients treated with definitive intent, freedom from locoregional recurrence (FFLR) and overall survival (OS) was 90 %/100 % for chemoradiotherapy versus 86 %/69 % for radiotherapy alone. IG- IMRT using daily soft tissue matching is a feasible in the treatment of bladder cancer, enabling the delivery of accelerated synchronous integrated boost with good early local control outcomes and low toxicity

  13. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW INTENSITY VISIBLE AND INFRARED LIGHT ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER (MCF7 CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Peidaee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7 cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM cells (control were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm. The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlueTM cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlueTM assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment.

  14. High frequency of germline p53 mutations in childhood adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J; Portwine, C; Rabin, K; Leclerc, J M; Narod, S A; Malkin, D

    1994-11-16

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ADCC) is a rare childhood cancer, affecting three of 1 million children younger than 16 years old in the United States. ADCC may be found in association with the Li-Fraumeni and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. Children with ADCC are also at substantially increased risk of second primary cancers. Because of these associations, it is believed that the genetic basis for ADCC is stronger than for most childhood malignancies. Germline mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene are associated with cancer predisposition in families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome as well as in individuals with sporadically occurring component tumors of the syndrome. We investigated the possibility that germline TP53 gene alterations existed in children with ADCC. Sixteen children with ADCC under the age of 18 were identified from searches of medial oncology records at three Canadian hospitals. Eleven of these 16 patients identified were alive. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years (range, 1-17 years). Family histories were obtained for 11 unselected children with ADCC (six girls and five boys). Pathologic confirmation of tumor diagnosis was obtained from the medical records. Using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by single-strand DNA sequencing, genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was analyzed for the presence of TP53 mutations for six living ADCC patients. Three of six (50%) children were found to carry germline TP53 mutations in exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively. Both wild-type and mutant alleles were identified in all three TP53 sequences, indicating that the patients were heterozygous for germline TP53 mutations. None of these children was from a family with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The mutation in one child was shown to be inherited from the mother, who subsequently developed breast cancer. A striking excess of cancer was found in one family of a patient carrying wild-type TP53. Our observation of a high frequency of germline TP53

  15. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckel, Laura G., E-mail: L.G.Merckel-2@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Bartels, Lambertus W., E-mail: W.Bartels@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Koehler, Max O., E-mail: max.kohler@philips.com [Philips Healthcare (Finland); Bongard, H. J. G. Desiree van den, E-mail: D.vandenBongard@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiotherapy (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel, E-mail: R.Deckers-2@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P. Th. M., E-mail: W.Mali@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: Christoph.Binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Moonen, Chrit T., E-mail: C.Moonen@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A., E-mail: K.G.A.Gilhuijs@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  16. Complete high-intensity focused ultrasound in prostate cancer: outcome from the @-Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, A; Robertson, C N; Brown, S C W; Chaussy, C; Crouzet, S; Gelet, A; Conti, G N; Ganzer, R; Pasticier, G; Thuroff, S; Ward, J F

    2012-09-01

    To analyze data on patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated with complete high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) prospectively captured within a voluntary HIFU user database (@-Registry). The @-Registry includes data from consecutive patients treated with Ablatherm (EDAP-TMS) HIFU at nine European Centres during the period 1994 and 2009. For this analysis, the data repository was reviewed for information on patients with localized prostate cancer (T1 -- T2) treated with complete (whole-gland) HIFU on the basis of an anterior-posterior prostate height of ≤24 mm and a treated volume >120% of the prostate volume. Patients were regularly followed with PSA measurement and biopsy. Biochemical failure was defined for this study as PSA nadir +2 ngml(-1) (Phoenix definition). Disease-free survival was based on a biopsy, retreatment and biochemical data. Patients were risk group-stratified using the D'Amico classification system. The median follow-up was 2.8 years for the 356 patients included in the analysis. The majority could be classified as either low (44.9%) or intermediate risk (39.6%); 14.6% patients were classified as high risk. The median (mean, s.d.) PSA nadir was 0.11 ng ml(-1) (0.78 and 3.6), achieved at a mean (s.d.) of 14.4 (11.6) weeks after HIFU. Follow-up biopsies on 226/356 (63.5%) patients revealed an overall negative biopsy rate of 80.5% (182/226); there was no statistically significant difference in positive biopsy rate by risk group-stratification. Actuarial freedom from biochemical recurrence at 5 and 7 years according to the Phoenix definition was 85% and 79%, respectively. Disease-free progression rates at 5 and 7 years were 64% and 54%, respectively. Whole-gland prostate HIFU as primary monotherapy for localized prostate cancer achieves a recurrence-free survival in short-term analysis as assessed by prostate biopsy and serum PSA endpoints in a majority of patients.

  17. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; Møller, Tom; Herrstedt, Jørn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; Rørth, Mikael

    2009-10-13

    To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. Randomised controlled trial. Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing 21 diagnoses. Main exclusion criteria were brain or bone metastases. 235 patients completed follow-up. Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36), Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, muscular strength (one repetition maximum), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2)max). Statistical methods The general linear model was used for continuous outcome while analysis of associates between categorical outcomes was performed as analysis of marginal homogeneity in contingency tables. Adjusted for baseline score, disease, and demographic covariates, the intervention group showed an estimated improvement at six weeks for the primary outcome, fatigue, of -6.6 points (95% confidence interval -12.3 to -0.9, P=0.02; effect size=0.33, 0.04 to 0.61). Significant effects were seen on vitality (effect size 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82), physical functioning (0.37, 0.09 to 0.65), role physical (0.37, 0.10 to 0.64), role emotional (0.32, 0.05 to 0.59), and mental health (0.28, 0.02 to 0.56) scores. Improvement was noted in physical capacity: estimated mean difference between groups for maximum oxygen consumption was 0.16 l/min (95% CI 0.1 to 0.2, Pmuscular strength (leg press) was 29.7 kg (23.4 to

  18. Optimisation of conformal radiation therapy by intensity modulation Cancer of the larynx and salivary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaksma, Mirjam M.J.; Wijers, Oda B.; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Est, Henrie van der; Schmitz, Paul I.M.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Prevention of damage to critical normal tissues is of paramount importance for the quality of life of patients irradiated for cancers in the head and neck. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parotid gland sparing 3D conformal radiation therapy technique (3DCRT) in a prospective study in node negative cancer of the larynx. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients with node negative squamous cell cancer of the larynx were irradiated by a 3DCRT technique (class solution) to both sides of the neck (elective dose 46 Gy to levels II, III and IV) and primary tumour (70 Gy). Dose distributions of the major salivary glands were correlated with objective (stimulated whole saliva flow, WS) and subjective (questionnaire; visual analogue scale, VAS) salivary gland function. Apart from the clinically used 3DCRT technique, in order to optimise 3DCRT dose distributions, intensity modulated (IMRT) treatment plans were generated for the same patient population. Dose-volume histograms of 3DCRT and IMRT treatment plans were analysed and compared. Results: For the 26 patients irradiated with the 3DCRT class solution technique: VAS scores and questionnaires reached their nadir 3 months post-radiotherapy; WS reached its nadir 6 months post-radiotherapy. WS flow rates improved significantly, but never normalised; 2 years post-treatment WS measurements were 48% of the pre-treatment values. VAS scores deteriorated during ERT from 0 pre-treatment to 6.1 immediately post-treatment. Compared to pre-treatment, questionnaires were answered affirmative by increasing numbers of patients. For all patients, IMRT treatment plans resulted in a significant reduction of the dose delivered to the parotid glands compared to the 3DCRT-treatment technique. Conclusions: The class solution for the 3DCRT salivary gland sparing technique is inadequate for fully preserving salivary gland function, given the dose distributions (DVHs) as well as the subjective- and objective salivary gland

  19. Lower treatment intensity and poorer survival in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who live alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli-Björkman, N; Qvortrup, C; Sebjørnsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and social support influences cancer survival. If SES and social support affects cancer treatment has not been thoroughly explored.......Socioeconomic status (SES) and social support influences cancer survival. If SES and social support affects cancer treatment has not been thoroughly explored....

  20. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancers: in which direction are we heading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Punita; Verma, Mranalini; Maria Das, K.J.; Kumar, Shaleen

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the treatment modalities, which most of the time used in the treatment of most head and neck cancers with/without chemotherapy either as a definitive treatment or adjuvant/postoperated or for symptoms palliation, but it is always accompanied by late sequelae such as xerostomia and dysphagia. These two major sequelae have a significant effect on patient's quality of life even after cure of disease. However, with the advancement of modern techniques such as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) which effectively spares the parotid glands has a significant effect, proven in randomized trials, for xerostomia as well as dysphagia. IMRT to spare dysphagia and aspiration related structure (DARSs) has also been studied extensively. To improve the results further, nowadays, we focus on use of functional imaging at the time of RT planning and/or use of image guidance for the adaptation during RT treatment as well as focus on to reduce neurocognition effects of treatment by sparing brain. (author)

  1. PATHOMORPHISM OF PROSTATE CANCER DURING HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Fomkin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of prostate cancer (PC treatment using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU on the basis of morphometric and immunohistochemical (IHC analyses of postoperative prostate biopsy specimens. The study subjects were 40 patients with localized and locally advanced PC. The postoperative morphological analysis was made on the basis of standard hematoxylineosin staining and morphometric and IHC studies using the following antibodies: PCNA, Bcl-2, AMACR, Е-cadherin, and ANDR (Dako. Pre- and post-HIFU therapy histological examination of the routinely hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens showed that the therapeutic pathomorphism of the tumor corresponded to grades III and IV. It was established that the IHC study should be used as an additional crite-rion for the efficiency of PC therapy after HIFU ablation. In spite of positive clinical, laboratory, instrumental, and objective changes, the patients with high AMACR and Bcl-2 levels and decreased Е-cadherin expression may be considered as a group at risk for prolonged malignant growth or recurrent PC.

  2. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Zhung, Joanne E.; Gomez, Jennifer; Chan, Kelvin; Wu, Abraham J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2006, 35 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. The sites included were buccal mucosa in 8, oral tongue in 11, floor of the mouth in 9, gingiva in 4, hard palate in 2, and retromolar trigone in 1. Most patients had Stage III-IV disease (80%). Ten patients (29%) also received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy with IMRT. The median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 28.1 months (range, 11.9-85.1). Treatment failure occurred in 11 cases as follows: local in 4, regional in 2, and distant metastases in 5. Of the 5 patients with distant metastases, 2 presented with dermal metastases. The 2- and 3-year estimates of locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 84% and 77%, 85% and 85%, 70% and 64%, and 74% and 74%, respectively. Acute Grade 2 or greater dermatitis, mucositis, and esophageal reactions were experienced by 54%, 66%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. Documented late complications included trismus (17%) and osteoradionecrosis (5%). Conclusion: IMRT as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection for oral cavity tumors is feasible and effective, with promising results and acceptable toxicity

  3. Clinical Results after High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Fonteyne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC can be treated with high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and long-term androgen deprivation (AD. In this paper we report on (i late toxicity and (ii biochemical (bRFS and clinical relapse-free survival (cRFS of this combined treatment. Methods. 126 patients with high-risk PC (T3-4 or PSA >20 ng/mL or Gleason 8–10 and ≥24 months of followup were treated with high-dose IMRT and AD. Late toxicity was recorded. Biochemical relapse was defined as PSA nadir +2 ng/mL. Clinical relapse was defined as local failure or metastases. Results. The incidence of late grade 3 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity was 2 and 6%, respectively. Five-year bRFS and cRFS were 73% and 86% respectively. AD was a significant predictor of bRFS (P=0.001 and cRFS (P=0.01. Conclusion. High-dose IMRT and AD for high-risk PC offers excellent biochemical and clinical control with low toxicity.

  4. Stochastic extreme downscaling model for an assessment of changes in rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves over South Korea using multiple regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Byung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Young; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Lima, Carlos H. R.

    2017-10-01

    A conditional copula function based downscaling model in a fully Bayesian framework is developed in this study to evaluate future changes in intensity-duration frequency (IDF) curves in South Korea. The model incorporates a quantile mapping approach for bias correction while integrated Bayesian inference allows accounting for parameter uncertainties. The proposed approach is used to temporally downscale expected changes in daily rainfall, inferred from multiple CORDEX-RCMs based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, into sub-daily temporal scales. Among the CORDEX-RCMs, a noticeable increase in rainfall intensity is observed in the HadGem3-RA (9%), RegCM (28%), and SNU_WRF (13%) on average, whereas no noticeable changes are observed in the GRIMs (-2%) for the period 2020-2050. More specifically, a 5-30% increase in rainfall intensity is expected in all of the CORDEX-RCMs for 50-year return values under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Uncertainty in simulated rainfall intensity gradually decreases toward the longer durations, which is largely associated with the enhanced strength of the relationship with the 24-h annual maximum rainfalls (AMRs). A primary advantage of the proposed model is that projected changes in future rainfall intensities are well preserved.

  5. The distinguishing effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of different extremely high frequencies on Enterococcus hirae: growth rate inhibition and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovnanyan, K; Kalantaryan, V; Trchounian, A

    2017-09-01

    A low-intensity electromagnetic field of extremely high frequency has inhibitory and stimulatory effects on bacteria, including Enterococcus hirae. It was shown that the low-intensity (the incident power density of 0·06 mW cm -2 ) electromagnetic field at the frequencies of 51·8 GHz and 53 GHz inhibited E. hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth rate; a stronger effect was observed with 53 GHz, regardless of exposure duration (0·5 h, 1 h or 2 h). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of these effects has been done; the cells were of spherical shape. Electromagnetic field at 53 GHz, but not 51·8 GHz, changed the cell size-the diameter was enlarged 1·3 fold at 53 GHz. These results suggest the difference in mechanisms of action on bacteria for electromagnetic fields at 51·8 GHz and 53 GHz. A stronger inhibitory effect of low-intensity electromagnetic field on Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth rate was observed with 53 GHz vs 51·8 GHz, regardless of exposure duration. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that almost all irradiated cells in the population have spherical shapes similar to nonirradiated ones, but they have increased diameters in case of irradiated cells at 53 GHz, but not 51·8 GHz. The results are novel, showing distinguishing effects of low-intensity electromagnetic field of different frequencies. They could be applied in treatment of food and different products in medicine and veterinary, where E. hirae plays an important role. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sio, Terence T.; Lin, Huei-Kai; Shi, Qiuling; Gunn, G. Brandon; Cleeland, Charles S.; Lee, J. Jack; Hernandez, Mike; Blanchard, Pierre; Thaker, Nikhil G.; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Fuller, C. David; Mendoza, Tito R.; Mohan, Radhe; Wang, Xin Shelley; Frank, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) would have lower symptom burdens, as measured by patient-reported outcome (PRO) surveys, than patients treated with intensity modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated for oropharyngeal cancer from 2006 to 2015 through prospective registries with concurrent chemotherapy and IMPT or chemotherapy and IMRT and completed the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN) module at various times before treatment (baseline), during treatment (acute phase), within the first 3 months after treatment (subacute phase), and afterward (chronic phase). Individual symptoms and the top 5 and top 11 most severe symptoms were summarized and compared between the radiation therapy modalities. Results: PRO data were collected and analyzed from 35 patients treated with chemotherapy and IMPT and from 46 treated with chemotherapy and IMRT. The baseline symptom burdens were similar between both groups. The overall top 5 symptoms were food taste problems (mean score 4.91 on a 0-10 scale), dry mouth (4.49), swallowing/chewing difficulties (4.26), lack of appetite (4.08), and fatigue (4.00). Among the top 11 symptoms, changes in taste and appetite during the subacute and chronic phases favored IMPT (all P<.048). No differences in symptom burden were detected between modalities during the acute and chronic phases by top-11 symptom scoring. During the subacute phase, the mean (±standard deviation) top 5 MDASI scores were 5.15 ± 2.66 for IMPT versus 6.58 ± 1.98 for IMRT (P=.013). Conclusions: According to the MDASI-HN, symptom burden was lower among the IMPT patients than among the IMRT patients during the subacute recovery phase after treatment. A prospective randomized clinical trial is underway to define the value of IMPT for the management of head and neck tumors.

  7. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sio, Terence T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Lin, Huei-Kai; Shi, Qiuling [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gunn, G. Brandon [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cleeland, Charles S. [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, J. Jack; Hernandez, Mike [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Blanchard, Pierre; Thaker, Nikhil G.; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Fuller, C. David [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mendoza, Tito R. [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin Shelley [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: We hypothesized that patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) would have lower symptom burdens, as measured by patient-reported outcome (PRO) surveys, than patients treated with intensity modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated for oropharyngeal cancer from 2006 to 2015 through prospective registries with concurrent chemotherapy and IMPT or chemotherapy and IMRT and completed the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN) module at various times before treatment (baseline), during treatment (acute phase), within the first 3 months after treatment (subacute phase), and afterward (chronic phase). Individual symptoms and the top 5 and top 11 most severe symptoms were summarized and compared between the radiation therapy modalities. Results: PRO data were collected and analyzed from 35 patients treated with chemotherapy and IMPT and from 46 treated with chemotherapy and IMRT. The baseline symptom burdens were similar between both groups. The overall top 5 symptoms were food taste problems (mean score 4.91 on a 0-10 scale), dry mouth (4.49), swallowing/chewing difficulties (4.26), lack of appetite (4.08), and fatigue (4.00). Among the top 11 symptoms, changes in taste and appetite during the subacute and chronic phases favored IMPT (all P<.048). No differences in symptom burden were detected between modalities during the acute and chronic phases by top-11 symptom scoring. During the subacute phase, the mean (±standard deviation) top 5 MDASI scores were 5.15 ± 2.66 for IMPT versus 6.58 ± 1.98 for IMRT (P=.013). Conclusions: According to the MDASI-HN, symptom burden was lower among the IMPT patients than among the IMRT patients during the subacute recovery phase after treatment. A prospective randomized clinical trial is underway to define the value of IMPT for the management of head and neck tumors.

  8. A Comparison of Helical Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, Matthew M.; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning J.; Zhou Jinghao; Nelson, Carl; Jabbour, Salma K.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed dosimetric differences in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy via helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (HIMRT), linac-based IMRT, and 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with regard to successful plan acceptance and dose to critical organs. Dosimetric analysis was performed in 16 pancreatic cases that were planned to 54 Gy; both post-pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 8) and unresected (n = 8) cases were compared. Without volume modification, plans met constraints 75% of the time with HIMRT and IMRT and 13% with 3D-CRT. There was no statistically significantly improvement with HIMRT over conventional IMRT in reducing liver V35, stomach V45, or bowel V45. HIMRT offers improved planning target volume (PTV) dose homogeneity compared with IMRT, averaging a lower maximum dose and higher volume receiving the prescription dose (D100). HIMRT showed an increased mean dose over IMRT to bowel and liver. Both HIMRT and IMRT offer a statistically significant improvement over 3D-CRT in lowering dose to liver, stomach, and bowel. The results were similar for both unresected and resected patients. In pancreatic cancer, HIMRT offers improved dose homogeneity over conventional IMRT and several significant benefits to 3D-CRT. Factors to consider before incorporating IMRT into pancreatic cancer therapy are respiratory motion, dose inhomogeneity, and mean dose.

  9. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2007-12-01

    To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 plus a 13-item LC-specific scale and the Thurstone Scale of Symptom Distress-Lung Cancer at six time points during the first year after diagnosis. Patients were divided into subgroups, using data from the time point closest to death ( 2 to 3; > 3 to 6; > 6 to 12; and > 12 months before death) for analysis. More than 50% of patients in all subgroups reported problems related to physical, role, and emotional functioning; fatigue; dyspnea; and cough. In general, functional levels were lower and symptoms higher in subgroups closer to death. Notably, clinically relevant differences were also found in role and social functioning and appetite loss between the two groups furthest from death. A consistent pattern was found among the six subgroups, with breathing, pain, and fatigue rated as the symptoms most associated with distress. High prevalence of symptoms was found in all subgroups, with higher intensity in subgroups closer to death, indicating a need for prophylactic and proactive symptom management. Less concordance was found among symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in subgroups further from death. Future studies should investigate longitudinal associations between symptoms with low intensity and high distress, and examine their clinical implications.

  10. Thermoacoustic contrast of prostate cancer due to heating by very high frequency irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, S K; Hull, D; Thomas, M; Jacobsohn, K; See, WA; Griep, SK

    2015-01-01

    Applying the thermoacoustic (TA) effect to diagnostic imaging was first proposed in the 1980s. The object under test is irradiated by high-power pulses of electromagnetic energy, which heat tissue and cause thermal expansion. Outgoing TA pressure pulses are detected by ultrasound transducers and reconstructed to provide images of the object. The TA contrast mechanism is strongly dependent upon the frequency of the irradiating electromagnetic pulse. When very high frequency (VHF) electromagnetic irradiation is utilized, TA signal production is driven by ionic content. Prostatic fluids contain high levels of ionic metabolites, including citrate, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. Healthy prostate glands produce more ionic metabolites than diseased glands. VHF pulses are therefore expected to generate stronger TA signal in healthy prostate glands than in diseased glands. A benchtop system for performing ex vivo TA computed tomography with VHF energy is described and images are presented. The system utilizes irradiation pulses of 700 ns duration exceeding 20 kW power. Reconstructions frequently visualize anatomic landmarks such as the urethra and verumontanum. TA reconstructions from three freshly excised human prostate glands with little, moderate, and severe cancerous involvement are compared with histology. TA signal strength is negatively correlated with percent cancerous involvement in this small sample size. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity. This sample size is far too small to draw sweeping conclusions, but the results warrant a larger volume study including comparison of TA images to the gold standard, histology. (paper)

  11. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Hatle

    Full Text Available The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively.Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF or three weeks (high frequency, HF followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was evaluated before training, at the 9(th and 17(th session and four days after the final 24(th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training.The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126, whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035. The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026 twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001 above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609.Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  12. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Although most patients with stage II-III rectal cancer at queried National Cancer Institute–designated cancer centers between 2005 and 2011 received 3-dimensional CRT, significant and increasing numbers received IMRT. IMRT utilization is highly variable among institutions and not uniform among sociodemographic groups but may be more consistently embraced in specific clinical settings. Given this trend, comparative-effectiveness research is needed to evaluate the benefits of IMRT for rectal cancer.

  13. Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2. The validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing FFQ1 against the 3-day diary method (3 DD. A total of 162 respondents (mean age 57.5 years provided data for the FFQ, of whom 156 also participated in the validity assessment. Mean differences in the intake of foods and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were, overall, small and statistically insignificant. However, a higher estimation was observed by FFQ1 as compared to the 3-DD method for the majority of food groups and nutrient intake in the validity assessment. A systematic mean difference (g/day was observed for eight food groups in the Bland–Altman agreement test; the largest was for fruit intake. Regarding the nutrients, a systematic mean difference was observed in calcium, fat, and vitamin D intake. Overall, the reproducibility of the FFQ was good, and its validity could be satisfactory for estimating absolute food and nutrient intakes and ranking individuals according to high and low intake categories.

  14. Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollosa, Daniel Nigusse; Van Camp, John; Huybrechts, Inge; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Loco, Joris; De Smet, Stefaan; Sterck, Ellen; Rabâi, Céline; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vossen, Els; Peeters, Marc; Lachat, Carl

    2017-11-17

    Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing FFQ1 against the 3-day diary method (3 DD). A total of 162 respondents (mean age 57.5 years) provided data for the FFQ, of whom 156 also participated in the validity assessment. Mean differences in the intake of foods and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were, overall, small and statistically insignificant. However, a higher estimation was observed by FFQ1 as compared to the 3-DD method for the majority of food groups and nutrient intake in the validity assessment. A systematic mean difference (g/day) was observed for eight food groups in the Bland-Altman agreement test; the largest was for fruit intake. Regarding the nutrients, a systematic mean difference was observed in calcium, fat, and vitamin D intake. Overall, the reproducibility of the FFQ was good, and its validity could be satisfactory for estimating absolute food and nutrient intakes and ranking individuals according to high and low intake categories.

  15. Trends in frequency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Mexicans. A 20 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Peniche-Becerra, Adriana-Graciela; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    To establish the time trends of the frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer in regard to age and gender in a 20-years (time period 1989 - 2008) cohort of Mexicans. 13,235 head and neck biopsies from the archive of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico were revised. The cases with diagnoses of oral cancer were selected. Gender and age at diagnosis was obtained from medical records. The frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma were assessed biannually in regard to the total number of population served by the oral pathology laboratory. The statistical significance of trends was established using the linear logistic regression (curve estimation) test (s 0.05). 298 cases (138 males; 160 females) of oral cancer were included; 167 (92 females; 75 males; female:male ratio: 1.1:1) corresponded to oral squamous cell carcinoma. From 1989 to 2008 the prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma increased 200% (s 0.05) and 100% (s 0.000) respectively. The increase of frequency and prevalence was observed in both genders however only in females was significant (s 0.000). We do not identify changes in the age at diagnosis. Oral cancer, specifically oral squamous cell carcinoma, has increase in Mexicans females in the last 20 years.

  16. Comorbidities, intensity, frequency and duration of pain, daily functioning and health care seeking in local, regional, and widespread pain - a descriptive population-based survey (SwePain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Gerdle, Björn; Björk, Jonas; Larsson, Britt

    2015-07-24

    The clinical knowledge of factors related to the spread of pain on the body has increased and understanding these factors is essential for effective pain treatment. This population-based study examines local (LP), regional (RP), and widespread pain (WSP) on the body regarding comorbidities, pain aspects, and impact of pain and elucidates how the spread of pain varies over time. A postal questionnaire that addressed pain aspects (intensity, frequency, duration and anatomical spreading on a body manikin), comorbidities and implications of pain (i.e., work situation, physical activity, consumption of health care and experience of hospitality and treatment of health care) was sent to 9000 adults living in southeastern Sweden. Of these, 4774 (53 %) completed and returned the questionnaire. After 9 weeks, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the 2983 participants who reported pain in the first questionnaire (i.e. 62 % of 4774 subjects). Of these, 1940 completed and returned the questionnaire (i.e. 65 % of 2983 subjects). The follow-up questionnaire included the same items as the first questionnaire. This study found differences in intensity, frequency and duration of pain, comorbidities, aspects of daily functioning and health care seeking in three pain categories based on spreading of pain: LP, RP and WSP. Compared to the participants with RP and LP, the participants with WSP had lower education and worse overall health, including more frequent heart disease and hypertension. In addition, participants with WSP had more intense, frequent, and long-standing pain, required more medical consultations, and experienced more impact on work. The participants with RP constituted an intermediate group regarding frequency and intensity of pain, and impact on work. The participants with LP were the least affected group regarding these factors. A substantial transition to RP had occurred by the 9-week follow-up. This study shows an association between increased spread of pain

  17. Frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of women with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza Jeria, Marcela; Castro Acuna, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This study proposes to obtain information about the behavior of the frequency and distribution of radiation induced lymphocyte dicentric chromosome aberrations with therapeutic doses in women with breast cancer treated only with radiotherapy, about which there are no existing works in Chile. Blood samples were taken from 6 women volunteers included in the study, with their informed consent, treated in the Fundacion Arturo Lopez Perez, aged 24 to 65 years old, without prior or parallel chemotherapy, nor prior radiotherapy. Three peripheral blood samples were taken from each patient in 0, 16.2 and 43.2 Gy doses. The lymphocytes obtained from each sample were cultivated using the micro-culture technique following the protocol in IAEA Technical Report No. 405, 2001. The samples were evaluated under a microscope and the unstable chromosome aberrations for lymphocytes were counted. A total of 500 cells per sample was evaluated in most cases, which were distributed depending on the number of aberrations that they had. The results were analyzed by treatment dose for each of the study patients, using the Papworth u test, Dolphin's 'Contaminated Poisson' method and Sasaki's 'QDR'. Great variations were observed in the frequency distribution of aberrations among the patients studied, which could be due to the influence of factors related to the patients' partial irradiations (C.Wood)

  18. Antimicrobial sensitivity and frequency of DRUG resistance among bacterial strains isolated from cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, M.; Bashir, T.

    2004-01-01

    increase in number of resistant strains as compared to carbapenem and quinolones where yearwise frequency of sensitive strains remain nearly similar. This study demonstrated that with an increase in use of antibiotic against infections to which the cancer patients are prone to there is need to monitor the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens so that effective management therapies could be adopted to treat these bacterial infections. (authors)

  19. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feister, S., E-mail: feister.7@osu.edu; Orban, C. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Nees, J. A. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Center for Ultra-Fast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 20001 (United States); Frische, K. D. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Chowdhury, E. A. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Intense Energy Solutions, LLC., Plain City, Ohio 43064 (United States); Roquemore, W. M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser “noise” (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120° phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements

  20. Passive coherent discriminator using phase diversity for the simultaneous measurement of frequency noise and intensity noise of a continuous-wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud-Belleau, V.; Bergeron, H.; Light, P. S.; Hébert, N. B.; Deschênes, J. D.; Luiten, A. N.; Genest, J.

    2016-10-01

    The frequency noise and intensity noise of a laser set the performance limits in many modern photonics applications and, consequently, must often be characterized. As lasers continue to improve, the measurement of these noises however becomes increasingly challenging. Current approaches for the characterization of very high-performance lasers often call for a second laser with equal or higher performance to the one that is to be measured, an incoherent interferometer having an extremely long delay-arm, or an interferometer that relies on an active device. These instrumental features can be impractical or problematic under certain experimental conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents an entirely passive coherent interferometer that employs an optical 90° hybrid coupler to perform in-phase and quadrature detection. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the frequency noise power spectral density of a highly-stable 192 THz (1560 nm) fiber laser over five frequency decades. Simultaneously, we are able to measure its relative intensity noise power spectral density and characterize the correlation between its amplitude noise and phase noise. We correct some common misconceptions through a detailed theoretical analysis and demonstrate the necessity to account for normal imperfections of the optical 90° hybrid coupler. We finally conclude that this passive coherent discriminator is suitable for reliable and simple noise characterization of highly-stable lasers, with bandwidth and dynamic range benefits but susceptibility to additive noise contamination.

  1. Soy food frequency questionnaire does not correlate with baseline isoflavone levels in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Jill M; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Kim, KyungMann; Tangrea, Joseph A; Parnes, Howard L; House, Margaret G; Gee, Jason; Messing, Edward; Bailey, Howard H

    2015-04-01

    The isoflavone genistein, a natural soy product with receptor tyrosine kinase-inhibiting activity, as well as phytoestrogenic and other potential anticarcinogenic effects, is being studied as an anticancer agent. Since isoflavones are commonly consumed in food products containing soy proteins, a method to control for baseline isoflavone consumption is needed. HPLC was used to evaluate baseline plasma and urine concentrations of isoflavone in fifty-four participants with bladder cancer enrolled on a phase II chemoprevention study of G-2535. The soy food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participant's baseline soy intake. The association between baseline isoflavone concentrations and intakes for genistein and daidzein was assessed by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The majority of participants had no detectable genistein or daidzein in plasma at baseline. The median and range of values were 0 (0-1480) nmol/L for genistein, and 0 (0-1260) nmol/L for daidzein. In urine, the median and range of values were 91.0 (0-9030) nmol/L for genistein and 623 (0-100,000) nmol/L for daidzein. The median and range of weekly estimated genistein intake was 0 (0-236) mg/wk; the median and range of weekly estimated daidzein intake was 0 (0-114) mg/wk. There was no relationship to soy intake as measured by the food frequency questionnaire and baseline isoflavone levels in plasma or urine and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were not significant. The soy food frequency questionnaire did not correlate with plasma or urine concentrations of either isoflavone. Alternative methods for controlling for soy consumption, including measuring plasma and urine concentrations, in isoflavone chemoprevention trials should be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Robustness Recipes for Minimax Robust Optimization in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voort, Sebastian van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Section of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications, Department of Radiation, Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Water, Steven van de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Perkó, Zoltán [Section of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications, Department of Radiation, Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lathouwers, Danny [Section of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications, Department of Radiation, Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Hoogeman, Mischa, E-mail: m.hoogeman@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: We aimed to derive a “robustness recipe” giving the range robustness (RR) and setup robustness (SR) settings (ie, the error values) that ensure adequate clinical target volume (CTV) coverage in oropharyngeal cancer patients for given gaussian distributions of systematic setup, random setup, and range errors (characterized by standard deviations of Σ, σ, and ρ, respectively) when used in minimax worst-case robust intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization. Methods and Materials: For the analysis, contoured computed tomography (CT) scans of 9 unilateral and 9 bilateral patients were used. An IMPT plan was considered robust if, for at least 98% of the simulated fractionated treatments, 98% of the CTV received 95% or more of the prescribed dose. For fast assessment of the CTV coverage for given error distributions (ie, different values of Σ, σ, and ρ), polynomial chaos methods were used. Separate recipes were derived for the unilateral and bilateral cases using one patient from each group, and all 18 patients were included in the validation of the recipes. Results: Treatment plans for bilateral cases are intrinsically more robust than those for unilateral cases. The required RR only depends on the ρ, and SR can be fitted by second-order polynomials in Σ and σ. The formulas for the derived robustness recipes are as follows: Unilateral patients need SR = −0.15Σ{sup 2} + 0.27σ{sup 2} + 1.85Σ − 0.06σ + 1.22 and RR=3% for ρ = 1% and ρ = 2%; bilateral patients need SR = −0.07Σ{sup 2} + 0.19σ{sup 2} + 1.34Σ − 0.07σ + 1.17 and RR=3% and 4% for ρ = 1% and 2%, respectively. For the recipe validation, 2 plans were generated for each of the 18 patients corresponding to Σ = σ = 1.5 mm and ρ = 0% and 2%. Thirty-four plans had adequate CTV coverage in 98% or more of the simulated fractionated treatments; the remaining 2 had adequate coverage in 97.8% and 97.9%. Conclusions: Robustness recipes were derived that can

  3. High-intensity interstitial ultrasound for thermal ablation of focal cancer targets in prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena; Kurhanewicz, John; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in image based techniques such as multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) can provide precise targeting of focal disease in the prostate. Thermal ablation of such cancer targets while avoiding rectum, urethra, neurovascular bundles (NVB) and sphincter is clinically challenging. The approach described here employs multi-element ultrasound linear arrays designed for transperineal placement within prostate. They consist of independently powered sectored tubular transducers (6.5 - 8.0 MHz) that provide spatial control of energy deposition in angle and length. Volumetric ablation strategies were investigated through patient-specific biothermal models based on Pennes bioheat transfer equation. The acoustic and heat transfer models used here have been validated in several previous simulation and experimental studies. Focal disease sites in prostate were identified through multi-parametric MR images of representative patient cases (n=3). Focal cancer lesions and critical anatomy (prostate, urethra, rectum, bladder, seminal vesicles) were manually segmented (Mimics, Materialise) and converted to 3D finite element meshes (3-Matic, Materialise). The chosen test cases consisted of patients with medium and large sized glands and models of bulk tissue ablation covered volumes in a single quadrant in posterior prostate, hemi-gland targets and "hockey-stick" targets (lesions in three quadrants). Ultrasound applicator placement was determined such that devices were positioned along the prostate periphery while avoiding surrounding anatomy. Transducer sector angles were chosen based on applicator location within limits of fabrication practicability. Thermal models were numerically solved using finite element methods (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics. Temperature and thermal dose distributions were calculated to determine treated volumes (> 240 CEM43C, >52 °C) and safety profiles (<10 CEM43C, <45 °C) for nerve, rectal and urethral sparing. Modeling studies indicated that focal

  4. Image Guided Hypofractionated Postprostatectomy Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Stephen L.; Patel, Pretesh; Song, Haijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Freedland, Stephen J. [Surgery Section, Durham Veterans Administration, and Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Bynum, Sigrun; Oh, Daniel; Palta, Manisha; Yoo, David; Oleson, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) has promising long-term biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) with comparable toxicity for definitive treatment of prostate cancer. However, data reporting outcomes after adjuvant and salvage postprostatectomy hypofractionated RT are sparse. Therefore, we report the toxicity and clinical outcomes after postprostatectomy hypofractionated RT. Methods and Materials: From a prospectively maintained database, men receiving image guided hypofractionated intensity modulated RT (HIMRT) with 2.5-Gy fractions constituted our study population. Androgen deprivation therapy was used at the discretion of the radiation oncologist. Acute toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Late toxicities were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale. Biochemical recurrence was defined as an increase of 0.1 in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from posttreatment nadir or an increase in PSA despite treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the time-to-event outcomes. Results: Between April 2008 and April 2012, 56 men received postoperative HIMRT. The median follow-up time was 48 months (range, 21-67 months). Thirty percent had pre-RT PSA <0.1; the median pre-RT detectable PSA was 0.32 ng/mL. The median RT dose was 65 Gy (range, 57.5-65 Gy). Ten patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent hormone therapy. Posttreatment acute urinary toxicity was limited. There was no acute grade 3 toxicity. Late genitourinary (GU) toxicity of any grade was noted in 52% of patients, 40% of whom had pre-RT urinary incontinence. The 4-year actuarial rate of late grade 3 GU toxicity (exclusively gross hematuria) was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-41%). Most grade 3 GU toxicity resolved; only 7% had persistent grade ≥3 toxicity at the last follow-up visit. Fourteen patients experienced biochemical recurrence at a

  5. Evaluation of xerostomia following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Ho; Kim, Tae Hyun; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2004-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate xerostomia following intensity modulated radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, and to analyze the correlation between the dosimetric parameters and xerostomia parameters. From February till October 2003, 13 patients with 3 months of follow-up were evaluated for xerostomia after being treated for head and neck cancer with IMRT. Their median age was 57 years (range:43 ∼ 77). Xerostomia were assessed with a 4-question xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS) and a test for salivary flow rates (unstimulated and stimulated). The patients were also given a validated LENT SOMA scale (LSC) questionnaire. The evaluations were completed before radiation therapy (pre-RT) and at 1 and. 3 months after radiation therapy (RT). We evaluated xerostomia at pre-RT, 1 and, 3 months after RT. The association between the xerostomia parameters (XQS and LSC) and salivary flow rates (unstimulated and stimulated: USFR and SSFR) was assessed at 1 and 3 months after RT. All 13 patients showed no significant changes in XQS, LSC and Salivary Flow rates. As a result, we couldn't find out about xerostomia development. Based on the total mean parotid dose, 3,500 cGy, we divided these patients into two groups. The 8 patients (< 3,500 cGy) showed no significant changes in XQS, LSC and Salivary Flow rates. However, in 5 patients (≥ 3,500 cGy), there was a significant increase in USFR and, SSFR at 3 months after RT, and for the XQS and, LSC at 1 and 3 months after RT. The correlation between XQS and, LSC, and USFR and, SSFR in all patients (13) was significant at 3 months after RT. The correlation had a tendency to the decrease for USFR and, SSFR in proportion to the increase of XQS and, LSC. Base on the results of this study, IMRT seem to be an effective treatment to significantly decrease the xerostomia. XQS and, LSC seem to be a effective tool for predicting the xerostomia. A total parotid gland mean dose of < 3,500 cGy should be a planning goal if

  6. Predictors of Dysgeusia in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated With Chemotherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapir, Eli [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tao, Yebin [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix; Samuels, Stuart; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Objective(s): Dysgeusia is a significant factor reducing quality of life and worsening dysphagia in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The factors affecting dysgeusia severity are uncertain. We investigated the effects on patient-reported dysgeusia of doses to the oral cavity, salivary output (required to dissolve food particles), and patient-reported xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) (N=73) receiving definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy concurrently with chemotherapy participated in a prospective, longitudinal study of quality of life (QOL), including assessment of patient-reported gustatory function by taste-related questions from the Head and Neck QOL instrument (HNQOL) and the University of Washington Head and Neck-related QOL instrument (UWQOL), before therapy and periodically after treatment. At these intervals, patients also completed a validated xerostomia-specific questionnaire (XQ) and underwent unstimulated and stimulated major salivary gland flow rate measurements. Results: At 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, dysgeusia improved over time: severe dysgeusia was reported by 50%, 40%, 22%, and 23% of patients, respectively. Significant associations were found between patient-reported severe dysgeusia and radiation dose to the oral cavity (P=.005) and tongue (P=.019); normal tissue complication probability for severe dysgeusia at 3 months showed mean oral cavity D{sub 50} doses 53 Gy and 57 Gy in the HNQOL and WUQOL questionnaires, respectively, with curve slope (m) of 0.41. Measured salivary output was not statistically significantly correlated with severe taste dysfunction, whereas patient-reported XQ summary scores and xerostomia while eating scores were correlated with severe dysgeusia in the UWQOL tool (P=.04). Conclusions: Taste impairment is significantly correlated with mean radiation dose to the oral cavity. Patient

  7. Intracervical US with a high-frequency miniature probe: a method for diagnosing early invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, A; Okai, T; Kobayashi, K; Yoshikawa, H; Shiromizu, K; Matsuzawa, M; Taketani, Y

    1996-02-01

    To determine whether intracervical ultrasound (US) with a high-frequency miniature probe can depict cervical neoplasms, especially in early invasive stages. Forty-eight women with cervical cancer underwent preoperative transvaginal and intracervical US. US scans were compared with findings from histologic examination or surgery. Intracervical US was completed in 45 of the 48 patients. Both intracervical and transvaginal US were unable to depict preinvasive cancer. Intracervical US depicted the lesion in eight of 16 patients (50%) in whom the depth of cancer invasion was less than or equal to 5 mm, whereas transvaginal US failed to depict the lesion in all 16 patients. Intracervical US depicted the lesions in all 19 patients in whom the depth of cancer invasion was more than 5 mm, whereas transvaginal US was successful only in 14 (74%). Intracervical US is useful for evaluating invasive cervical cancer and is especially suitable for detecting early invasion in the endocervix.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampshoff, C.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Brug, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Schep, G.; Nijziel, M.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Buffart, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate

  9. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampshoff, C.S.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Brug, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Schep, G.; Nijziel, M.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Buffart, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate

  10. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings and the Voigt line shapes in the phase-resolved and intensity sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-21

    In this report we show that the ability to measure the sub-1 cm-1 resolution phase-resolved and intensity high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectra (HR-BB-SFG-VS) of the –CN stretch vibration of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer of the 4-n-octyl-4’-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) on the z-cut α-quartz surface allows for the first time the direct comparison and understanding of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in the imaginary and intensity SFG vibrational spectral lineshapes in detail. The difference of the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of the imaginary and intensity SFG-VS spectra of the same vibrational mode is the signature of the Voigt lineshape and it measures the relative contribution to the overall lineshape from the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in SFG vibrational spectra. From the phase-resolved and intensity spectra, we found that the FWHM of the 2238.00 ±0.02 cm-1 peak in the phase-resolved imaginary and intensity spectra is 19.2 ± 0.2 cm-1 and 21.6 ± 0.4 cm-1, respectively, for the –CN group of the 8CB LB monolayer on the z-cut α-quartz crystal surface. The FWHM width difference of 2.4 cm-1 agrees quantitatively with a Voigt lineshape with a homogeneous broadening half width of Γ = 5.29 ± 0.08 cm-1 and a inhomogeneous standard derivation width Δω = 5.42 ± 0.07 cm-1. These results shed new lights on the understanding and interpretation of the lineshapes of both the phase-resolved and the intensity SFG vibrational spectra, as well as other incoherent and coherent spectroscopic techniques in general.

  11. Dosimetric comparison using different multileaf collimeters in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuchuan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To study the impacts of multileaf collimators (MLC width [standard MLC width of 10 mm (sMLC and micro-MLC width of 4 mm (mMLC] in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for the upper thoracic esophageal cancer (UTEC. Methods and materials 10 patients with UTEC were retrospectively planned with the sMLC and the mMLC. The monitor unites (MUs and dose volume histogram-based parameters [conformity index (CI and homogeneous index (HI] were compared between the IMRT plans with sMLC and with mMLC. Results The IMRT plans with the mMLC were more efficient (average MUs: 703.1 ± 68.3 than plans with the sMLC (average MUs: 833.4 ± 73.8 (p p 5 (3260.3 ± 374.0 vs 3404.5 ± 374.4/gEUD (1815.1 ± 281.7 vs 1849.2 ± 297.6 of the spinal cord, the V10 (33.2 ± 6.5 vs 34.0 ± 6.7, V20 (16.0 ± 4.6 vs 16.6 ± 4.7, MLD (866.2 ± 174.1 vs 887.9 ± 172.1 and gEUD (938.6 ± 175.2 vs 956.8 ± 171.0 of the lungs were observed in the plans with the mMLC, respectively (p Conclusions Comparing to the sMLC, the mMLC not only demonstrated higher efficiencies and more optimal target coverage, but also considerably improved the dose sparing of OARs in the IMRT planning for UTEC.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated solutions for intact prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Cory J., E-mail: coryjneill@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is intended to investigate the implementation of a modified class solution for intact prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The class solution uses 2 additional optimization structures intended to increase target conformity and decrease unnecessary dose to healthy tissue. A total of 10 randomly selected intact prostate IMRT patients were chosen for this retrospective study. Each of the original IMRT plans was compared with a modified class solution. The class solution implemented 2 additional optimization structures. The 95{sub O}PT was intended to increase target conformity, and the Avoidance{sub 3}780 was intended to reduce normal tissue. Each plan was evaluated for minimum, maximum, and mean doses to the target. Additionally, mean normal tissue dose, total monitor units (MUs), and segments were investigated. Conformity index and normal healthy index were also compared. All comparisons were evaluated using a paired t-test using GraphPad software. Evaluations of MUs; segments; minimum, maximum, mean target doses; mean normal tissue dose; and conformity index did not demonstrate a significant difference between the modified class solution and the original plans. However, evaluation of healthy tissue conformity index indicated a significant difference. Overall, 70% of the original plans failed to demonstrate a satisfactory score (< 0.6) of properly sparing normal healthy tissue, whereas 70% of the modified plans exhibited a satisfactory score (> 0.6). Most (90%) of the modified plans demonstrated a greater number of segments than the compared original plan. A modified class solution provides a good starting point for planning intact prostate cancer. The addition of the Avoidance{sub 3}780 structure increases the healthy tissue conformity index score.

  13. Dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the objective and subjective long term swallowing function, and to relate dysphagia to the radiation dose delivered to the critical anatomical structures in head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, +/- chemotherapy, using a midline protection contour (below hyoid, ~level of vertebra 2/3. Methods 82 patients with stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, oropharynx, or hypopharynx, who underwent successful definitive (n = 63, mean dose 68.9Gy or postoperative (n = 19, mean dose 64.2Gy simultaneous integrated boost (SIB -IMRT either alone or in combination with chemotherapy (85% with curative intent between January 2002 and November 2005, were evaluated retrospectively. 13/63 definitively irradiated patients (21% presented with a total gross tumor volume (tGTV >70cc (82-173cc; mean 106cc. In all patients, a laryngo-pharyngeal midline sparing contour outside of the PTV was drawn. Dysphagia was graded according subjective patient-reported and objective observer-assessed instruments. All patients were re-assessed 12 months later. Dose distribution to the swallowing structures was calculated. Results At the re-assessment, 32-month mean post treatment follow-up (range 16-60, grade 3/4 objective toxicity was assessed in 10%. At the 32-month evaluation as well as at the last follow up assessment mean 50 months (16-85 post-treatment, persisting swallowing dysfunction grade 3 was subjectively and objectively observed in 1 patient (1%. The 5-year local control rate of the cohort was 75%; no medial marginal failures were observed. Conclusions Our results show that sparing the swallowing structures by IMRT seems effective and relatively safe in terms of avoidance of persistent grade 3/4 late dysphagia and local disease control.

  14. Concurrent Chemotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nancy Y.; O'Meara, William; Chan, Kelvin; Della-Bianca, Cesar; Mechalakos, James G.; Zhung, Joanne; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Narayana, Ashwatha; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective review of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal carcinomas treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and June 2005, 20 laryngeal and 11 hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients underwent IMRT with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy; most patients had Stage IV disease. The prescription of the planning target volume for gross, high-risk, and low-risk subclinical disease was 70, 59.4, and 54 Gy, respectively. Acute/late toxicities were retrospectively scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria scale. The 2-year local progression-free, regional progression-free, laryngectomy-free, distant metastasis-free, and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up of the living patients was 26 months (range, 17-58 months). The 2-year local progression-free, regional progression-free, laryngectomy-free, distant metastasis-free, and overall survival rate was 86%, 94%, 89%, 92%, and 63%, respectively. Grade 2 mucositis or higher occurred in 48% of patients, and all experienced Grade 2 or higher pharyngitis during treatment. Xerostomia continued to decrease over time from the end of RT, with none complaining of Grade 2 toxicity at this analysis. The 2-year post-treatment percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy-dependency rate for those with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal tumors was 31% and 15%, respectively. The most severe late complications were laryngeal necrosis, necrotizing fascitis, and a carotid rupture resulting in death 3 weeks after salvage laryngectomy. Conclusion: These preliminary results have shown that IMRT achieved encouraging locoregional control of locoregionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas. Xerostomia improved over time. Pharyngoesophageal stricture with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy dependency remains a problem, particularly for patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma and, to a lesser

  15. Dosimetric predictors of hypothyroidism in oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyan, Arthur; Chen, Josephine; Shugard, Erin; Lambert, Louise; Quivey, Jeanne M; Yom, Sue S

    2014-01-01

    Radiation to the neck has long been associated with an elevated risk of hypothyroidism development. The goal of the present work is to define dosimetric predictors of hypothyroidism in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Data for 123 patients, with a median follow up of 4.6 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels or with a clinical diagnosis were categorized as hypothyroid. Patient demographic parameters, thyroid volume, mean thyroid dose, the percent of thyroid volume receiving minimum specified dose levels (VxxGy), and the absolute thyroid volume spared from specified dose levels (VSxxGy) were analyzed. Normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) was also calculated using several recently published models. Thyroid volume and many radiation dosimetric parameters were statistically different in the hypothyroid group. For the patients with initial thyroid volumes of 8 cc or greater, several dosimetric parameters were found to define subgroups at statistically significant lower risk of developing hypothyroidism. Patients with VS45 Gy of at least 3 cc, VS50 Gy at least 5 cc, VS50 Gy at least 6 cc, V50 Gy below 45%, V50 Gy below 55%, or mean thyroid dose below 49 Gy had a 28-38% estimated risk of hypothyroidism at 3 years compared to a 55% risk for the entire study group. Patients with a NTCP of less than 0.75 or 0.8, calculated using recently published models, were also observed to have a lower risk of developing hypothyroidism. Based on long-term follow up data for OPC patients treated with IMRT, we recommend plan optimization objectives to reduce the volume of thyroid receiving over 45 Gy to significantly decrease the risk of developing hypothyroidism. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-014-0269-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  16. Dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peponi, Evangelia; Glanzmann, Christoph; Willi, Bettina; Huber, Gerhard; Studer, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the objective and subjective long term swallowing function, and to relate dysphagia to the radiation dose delivered to the critical anatomical structures in head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, +/- chemotherapy), using a midline protection contour (below hyoid, ~level of vertebra 2/3). 82 patients with stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, oropharynx, or hypopharynx, who underwent successful definitive (n = 63, mean dose 68.9Gy) or postoperative (n = 19, mean dose 64.2Gy) simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) -IMRT either alone or in combination with chemotherapy (85%) with curative intent between January 2002 and November 2005, were evaluated retrospectively. 13/63 definitively irradiated patients (21%) presented with a total gross tumor volume (tGTV) >70cc (82-173cc; mean 106cc). In all patients, a laryngo-pharyngeal midline sparing contour outside of the PTV was drawn. Dysphagia was graded according subjective patient-reported and objective observer-assessed instruments. All patients were re-assessed 12 months later. Dose distribution to the swallowing structures was calculated. At the re-assessment, 32-month mean post treatment follow-up (range 16-60), grade 3/4 objective toxicity was assessed in 10%. At the 32-month evaluation as well as at the last follow up assessment mean 50 months (16-85) post-treatment, persisting swallowing dysfunction grade 3 was subjectively and objectively observed in 1 patient (1%). The 5-year local control rate of the cohort was 75%; no medial marginal failures were observed. Our results show that sparing the swallowing structures by IMRT seems effective and relatively safe in terms of avoidance of persistent grade 3/4 late dysphagia and local disease control

  17. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiar, Vinita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Ma, Dominic; Morrison, William H.; Edson, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zafereo, Mark E. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gunn, Gary B.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Beadle, Beth; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); William, William N.; Kies, Merrill [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); El-Naggar, Adel K. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weber, Randal [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Phan, Jack, E-mail: jphan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To review our 15-year institutional experience using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to reirradiate patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and identify predictors of outcomes and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 227 patients who received head and neck reirradiation using IMRT from 1999 to 2014. Patients treated with noncurative intent were excluded. Radiation-related acute and late toxicities were recorded. Prognostic variables included performance status, disease site, disease-free interval, chemotherapy, and RT dose and volume. Correlative analyses were performed separately for surgery and nonsurgery patients. Results: Two hundred six patients (91%) were retreated with curative intent, and 173 had HNSCC histology; 104 (50%) underwent salvage resection, and 135 (66%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up after reirradiation was 24.7 months. Clinical outcomes were worse for HNSCC patients, with 5-year locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival rates of 53%, 22%, and 32%, respectively, compared with 74%, 59%, and 79%, respectively, for non-HNSCC patients. On multivariate analysis, concurrent chemotherapy and retreatment site were associated with tumor control, whereas performance status was associated with survival. Favorable prognostic factors specific to surgery patients were neck retreatment and lack of extracapsular extension, whereas for nonsurgery patients, these were a nasopharynx subsite and complete response to induction chemotherapy. Actuarial rates of grade ≥3 toxicity were 32% at 2 years and 48% at 5 years, with dysphagia or odynophagia being most common. Increased grade ≥3 toxicity was associated with retreatment volume >50 cm{sup 3} and concurrent chemotherapy. Conclusions: Reirradiation with IMRT either definitively or after salvage surgery can produce promising local control and survival in selected patients with head and neck

  18. Combination Treatment of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Ataxic Hemiparesis due to Thalamic Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Urushidani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS and intensive occupational therapy (OT are clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper-limb hemiparesis. However, the usefulness of LF-rTMS and intensive OT for ataxic hemiparesis (AH is unknown. Methods: The study subjects included 7 patients with AH. All patients had ataxia and mild hemiparesis without a sensory disturbance that was due to thalamic hemorrhage. Each patient was scheduled to receive 20-min rTMS at 1 Hz at the contralesional cerebral hemisphere followed by 120-min intensive OT, daily for 21 sessions. The primary outcome was the motor function of the affected upper limb that was evaluated by using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA. In addition, the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS score was determined to assess the severity of ataxia. Results: All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score significantly increased after treatment. Notably, the ICARS score also significantly decreased. Conclusions: Our proposed combination treatment is a safe and feasible neurorehabilitative intervention for patients with AH due to thalamic hemorrhage. Our results demonstrate the possibility that rTMS in combination with intensive OT could improve motor function and alleviated ataxia in patients with AH.

  19. Baseline severity of upper limb hemiparesis influences the outcome of low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy in patients who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Takagishi, Toshimitsu; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2011-06-01

    To clarify whether the efficacy of combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) depends on baseline severity of upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Retrospective comparative study. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at a university hospital. Fifty-two patients who had sustained a stroke and had upper limb hemiparesis (age: 57 ± 13 years; time after onset: 50 ± 33 months). Based on the Brunnstrom stage for hand-fingers at admission, patients were divided into a Stage 3 group (n = 13), a Stage 4 group (n = 20), and a Stage 5 group (n = 19). During a 15-day hospitalization, each patient underwent 22 sessions of 20-minute low-frequency rTMS that was applied to the non-lesional hemisphere and 120 minutes of intensive OT (one-on-one training and self-training). Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. WMFT performance time data were log-transformed. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment score increased significantly in all patients (from 40.2 ± 12.2 to 43.4 ± 11.8 points, P low-frequency rTMS and intensive OT is potentially promising in improving motor function of the affected upper limb. The extent of motor improvement by the intervention seemed to be influenced by the severity of upper limb hemiparesis at study entry. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Theory of photostructural changes in glasses with negative-U centers: dependencies of steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is presented of a mechanism for the photostructural changes observed in semiconducting glasses. The theory takes into account that in these materials negative-U centers are the basic charge carriers, and gap-light generated excited states of such centers are accompanied by metastable 'defects' in the original structure, which can be identified as the photostructural changes. The theory gives rise to a consistent interpretation, and some predictions, of dependencies of the steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

  1. Study on the usefulness of high-frequency analysis of the combined treatment of cancer with hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Youn Sang; Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hwa Yeon [Dept. of of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to understand the usefulness to the high-frequency thermal therapy of cancer staging according to the TNM classification treatment, was to evaluate the effect of high frequency hyperthermia treatment approach through other means and whether other organs, according to the combined presence of transition. Targeted to receive more than a total of 1 cycle high frequency heat treatment at C hospital that performed the high-frequency hyperthermia cancer patients 92 people out stage, depending on the presence or absence of metastasis, combined hyperthermia patients for statistics before and after treatment the therapeutic effect of the therapeutic classification. Out of a total of 92 patients decrease 11 patients, stable 71 patients, with increase 10 patients, the rate of increase is the result of about 11% patients showed a decrease of about 89% is occupied by patients and a stable rate. There is strong evidence for the usefulness as a secondary therapy to maintain the quality of life, while slowing the progression of cancer by a high-frequency heat treatment.

  2. Study on the usefulness of high-frequency analysis of the combined treatment of cancer with hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Youn Sang; Dong, Kyung Rae; Yeo, Hwa Yeon

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the usefulness to the high-frequency thermal therapy of cancer staging according to the TNM classification treatment, was to evaluate the effect of high frequency hyperthermia treatment approach through other means and whether other organs, according to the combined presence of transition. Targeted to receive more than a total of 1 cycle high frequency heat treatment at C hospital that performed the high-frequency hyperthermia cancer patients 92 people out stage, depending on the presence or absence of metastasis, combined hyperthermia patients for statistics before and after treatment the therapeutic effect of the therapeutic classification. Out of a total of 92 patients decrease 11 patients, stable 71 patients, with increase 10 patients, the rate of increase is the result of about 11% patients showed a decrease of about 89% is occupied by patients and a stable rate. There is strong evidence for the usefulness as a secondary therapy to maintain the quality of life, while slowing the progression of cancer by a high-frequency heat treatment

  3. Frequency of the ATM IVS10-6T→G variant in Australian multiple-case breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Suthers, Graeme; Kirk, Judy; Hiew, Melody; Visvader, Jane E; Leary, Jennifer; Field, Michael; Gaff, Clara L; Gardner, RJ McKinlay; Trainor, Kevin; Cheetham, Glenice

    2004-01-01

    Germline mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for only a proportion of hereditary breast cancer, suggesting that additional genes contribute to hereditary breast cancer. Recently a heterozygous variant in the ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, IVS10-6T→G, was reported by an Australian multiple-case breast cancer family cohort study (the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer) to confer a substantial breast cancer risk. Although this variant can result in a truncated ATM product, its clinical significance as a high-penetrance breast cancer allele or its role as a low-penetrance risk-modifier is controversial. We determined the frequency of ATM IVS10-6T→G variants in a cohort of individuals affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer who underwent BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing at four major Australian familial cancer clinics. Seven of 495 patients (1.4%) were heterozygous for the IVS10-6T→G variant; the carrier rate in unselected Australian women with no family history of breast cancer is reported to be 6 of 725 (0.83%) (P = 0.4). Two of the seven probands also harboured a pathogenic BRCA1 mutation and one patient had a BRCA1 unclassified variant of uncertain significance. These findings indicate that the ATM IVS10-6T→G variant does not seem to occur at a significantly higher frequency in affected individuals from high-risk families than in the general population. A role for this variant as a low-penetrance allele or as a modifying gene in association with other genes (such as BRCA1) remains possible. Routine testing for ATM IVS10-6T→G is not warranted in mutation screening of affected individuals from high-risk families

  4. Intensity-Modulated Whole Abdominal Radiotherapy After Surgery and Carboplatin/Taxane Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Phase I Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Sterzing, Florian; Jensen, Alexandra D.; Dinkel, Julien; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Schubert, Kai; Eichbaum, Michael H.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Results: Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

  5. Intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy after surgery and carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Sterzing, Florian; Jensen, Alexandra D; Dinkel, Julien; Herfarth, Klaus K; Schubert, Kai; Eichbaum, Michael H; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the electromagnetic adjustment of a quadrupolar radio-frequency cavity accelerating an intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoens, Francois

    2002-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis describes radio-frequency quadrupolar (RFQ) cavities in terms of electrostatic and electro-dynamic properties. It describes the construction of a RFQ four-wire model which leads to a differential equation describing the cavity electromagnetic behaviour. The operator spectral theory allows the eigenvalue problem to be solved. An experimental methodology applied to this cavity is presented, and experimental studies are reported with a good correlation between the model resonance modes and measurements performed on the mock-up. The second part reports the development of a mathematical formulation based on the perturbation of line parameters of the previously developed model. This allows the assessment of mechanical defects and of tuning piston control

  7. Separate representation of stimulus frequency, intensity, and duration in auditory sensory memory: an event-related potential and dipole-model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, M H; Lavikahen, J; Reinikainen, K; Perrin, F; Bertrand, O; Pernier, J; Näätänen, R

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The present study analyzed the neural correlates of acoustic stimulus representation in echoic sensory memory. The neural traces of auditory sensory memory were indirectly studied by using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential component elicited by a change in a repetitive sound. The MMN is assumed to reflect change detection in a comparison process between the sensory input from a deviant stimulus and the neural representation of repetitive stimuli in echoic memory. The scalp topographies of the MMNs elicited by pure tones deviating from standard tones by either frequency, intensity, or duration varied according to the type of stimulus deviance, indicating that the MMNs for different attributes originate, at least in part, from distinct neural populations in the auditory cortex. This result was supported by dipole-model analysis. If the MMN generator process occurs where the stimulus information is stored, these findings strongly suggest that the frequency, intensity, and duration of acoustic stimuli have a separate neural representation in sensory memory.

  8. Effects of experience on the dimensions of intensity, direction and frequency of the competitive anxiety and self-confidence: A study in athletes of individual and team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the following objectives: i to examine the inter-scale correlations between the three dimensions of responses (intensity, direction and frequency of the CSAI-2R and its relationship with competitive experience, and ii evaluate the effect of competitive experience anxiety (cognitive and somatic and self-confidence in the total sample and for different types of modalities (individual vs. team. The sample consisted of 267 athletes (196 male and 71 female, of different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M = 24.30, SD = 5.62. Athletes completed the Brazilian version of the CSAI-2, which included the addition of the dimensions of direction and frequency response. Spearman test and Manova were used for the data analysis. Overall, it was found that the competitive experience has a high multivariate and significant effect on the dimensions of competitive anxiety. Both individual and team athletes with low competitive experience showed a trend to report lower levels of self-confidence intensity, compared to counterparts with high competitive experience. These results were discussed in view of the theoretic framework and practical implications planning Sport Psychology intervention programs in local athletes with different backgrounds.

  9. The clinical feasibility and effect of online cone beam computer tomography-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Bai Sen; Chen Nianyong; Xu Feng; Jiang Xiaoqin; Li Yan; Xu Qingfeng; Shen Yali; Zhang Hong; Gong Youling; Zhong Renming; Jiang Qingfeng

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Online adaptive correction in image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy appeared to be a promising approach for precision radiation treatment in head and neck tumors. This protocol was designed to evaluate the clinical feasibility and effect of online cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance in IMRT of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Methods and materials: The Elekta Synergy system, which integrates an X-ray volumetric imager (XVI), was used to deliver radiation treatment for 22 cases of NPC. The acquired CBCT was registered to the planning CT for online and offline analysis. The systematic and random setup errors, as well as planning target volume (PTV) margin, were calculated at different correction threshold levels. The impact of online setup correction on dosimetry was evaluated by simulation of pre-correction errors. Results: The correction-of-setup-errors frequencies for 1, 2 and 3 mm thresholds were 41.3-53.9%, 12.7-21.2% and 6.3-10.3%, respectively. Online correction was effective at the 2 mm threshold level for all three axes. The pre-correction systematic errors for the whole group ranged 1.1-1.3 mm, and the random errors were also 1.1-1.3 mm. After online correction, the systematic and random errors ranged 0.4-0.5 mm and 0.7-0.8 mm, respectively, in the three directions. The PTV margins for the pre-correction, pretreatment and post-treatment positions were 3.5-4.2 mm, 1.6-1.8 mm and 2.5-3.2 mm, respectively, in three directions. Analysis of hypothetical dosimetric change due to a translational isocenter shift of 3 mm showed that if no correction was applied, the mean maximum dose to both the brain stem and spinal cord would be increased by 10 Gy, the mean dose to the left and right parotids would be increased by 7.8 and 8.5 Gy, respectively, and the dose to target volumes would be decreased: 4 Gy for 95% GTV and 5.6 Gy for 95% CTV 60. Conclusions: CBCT-based online correction increased the accuracy of IMRT for NPC and

  10. A multi-center study on low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis in post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakuda Wataru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and intensive occupational therapy (OT have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Based on these reports, we developed an inpatient combination protocol of these two modalities for the treatment of such patients. The aims of this pilot study were to confirm the safety and feasibility of the protocol in a large number of patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. Methods The study subjects were 204 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (mean age at admission 58.5 ± 13.4 years, mean time after stroke 5.0 ± 4.5 years, ± SD from five institutions in Japan. During 15-day hospitalization, each patient received 22 treatment sessions of 20-min low-frequency rTMS and 120-min intensive OT daily. Low-frequency rTMS of 1 Hz was applied to the contralesional hemisphere over the primary motor area. The intensive OT, consisting of 60-min one-to-one training and 60-min self-exercise, was provided after the application of low-frequency rTMS. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT were performed serially. The physiatrists and occupational therapists involved in this study received training prior to the study to standardize the therapeutic protocol. Results All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score increased and WMFT log performance time decreased significantly at discharge, relative to the respective values at admission (change in FMA score: median at admission, 47 points; median at discharge, 51 points; p Conclusions The 15-day inpatient rTMS plus OT protocol is a safe, feasible, and clinically useful neurorehabilitative intervention for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. The response to the treatment was not influenced by age or time after stroke onset. The

  11. Assessment of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with time-intensity curve parameters in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunxue; Wang Xiaoying; Qin Naishan; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of the type and the steepest slope of tumor's time-intensity curve (TIC) in assessing the pathologic response of locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods: Thirty-six patients with pathologically confirmed locally advanced breast cancer who finished four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent preoperative breast MRI three times during the NAC. Pathologic response was assessed according Miller-Payne grading system, grade 4 and 5 were defined as major histological response (MHR, n=16) group, and grade 1 to 3 as non- major histological response(NMHR, n=20)group. The type and the steepest slope of tumor's TIC were compared between two groups before NAC, after the second cycle and after the fourth cycle of NAC. ROC analysis was carded out to assess the clinical value of the TIC parameters. Results: After the second cycle of NAC, the steepest slope of TIC and its first change rate were different between the MHR group [(1.93± 0.88)%/s, median 35.6%] and NMHR group [(2.73±1.22)%/s, median -11.4%] (P= 0.045 and 0.01, t=1.09, Z=-3.64). After the fourth cycle, the proportion of type I in MHR group (62.5%, 10/16) was significantly higher than that in NMHR group (10.0%, 2/20, P=0.01, Z=-2.02), and the proportion of type III in MHR group (6.2%, 1/16) was significantly lower than that in NMH1R group (60.0%, 12/20, P=0.01, Z=-1.48). The steepest slope and its second change rate were different between the MHR group [(1.33±0.52)%/s, median 56.8%] and NMHR group [(2.33± 0.94)%/s, median 15.8%] (P<0.01, t=1.82, Z=-3.58). After the second cycle, the area under curve of the steepest slope of TIC and its first change rate were 0.70 (P=0.04), 0.80 (P=0.01), respectively. After the fourth cycle, the area under curve of the type I , the type I + II, the steepest slope and its second change were 0.78 (P=0.03), 0.69 (P=0.06), 0.82 (P=0.01), 0.92 (P=0.01), respectively. Conclusion: The steepest

  12. Impact of geometric uncertainties on dose calculations for intensity modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Runqing

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses non-uniform beam intensities within a radiation field to provide patient-specific dose shaping, resulting in a dose distribution that conforms tightly to the planning target volume (PTV). Unavoidable geometric uncertainty arising from patient repositioning and internal organ motion can lead to lower conformality index (CI) during treatment delivery, a decrease in tumor control probability (TCP) and an increase in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The CI of the IMRT plan depends heavily on steep dose gradients between the PTV and organ at risk (OAR). Geometric uncertainties reduce the planned dose gradients and result in a less steep or "blurred" dose gradient. The blurred dose gradients can be maximized by constraining the dose objective function in the static IMRT plan or by reducing geometric uncertainty during treatment with corrective verification imaging. Internal organ motion and setup error were evaluated simultaneously for 118 individual patients with implanted fiducials and MV electronic portal imaging (EPI). A Gaussian probability density function (PDF) is reasonable for modeling geometric uncertainties as indicated by the 118 patients group. The Gaussian PDF is patient specific and group standard deviation (SD) should not be used for accurate treatment planning for individual patients. In addition, individual SD should not be determined or predicted from small imaging samples because of random nature of the fluctuations. Frequent verification imaging should be employed in situations where geometric uncertainties are expected. Cumulative PDF data can be used for re-planning to assess accuracy of delivered dose. Group data is useful for determining worst case discrepancy between planned and delivered dose. The margins for the PTV should ideally represent true geometric uncertainties. The measured geometric uncertainties were used in this thesis to assess PTV coverage, dose to OAR, equivalent

  13. Effect of bacterial ice nuclei on the frequency and intensity of lightning activity inferred by the BRAMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. T. Gonçalves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies from the last decades have shown that airborne microorganisms can be intrinsically linked to atmospheric processes. Certain bacteria may constitute the most active ice nuclei found in the atmosphere and might have some influence on the formation of ice crystals in clouds. This study deals with the ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas syringae inside of thunderstorms through numerical simulations using BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System. The numerical simulations were developed in order to investigate the effect on the total amount of rainwater as a function of ice nuclei (IN P. syringae concentrations with different scenarios (classified as S2 to S4 scenarios corresponding to a maximum of 102 to 104 IN bacteria per liter of cloud water plus the BRAMS default (classified as S5 scenario. Additionally, two other scenarios were included without any IN (S1 and the sum of RAMS default and S4 scenario (classified as S6. The chosen radiosonde data is for 3 March 2003, typical summertime in São Paulo City which presents a strong convective cell. The objective of the simulations was to analyze the effect of the IN concentrations on the BRAMS modeled cloud properties and precipitation. The simulated electrification of the cloud permitted analysis of the total flashes estimated from precipitable and non-precipitable ice mass fluxes in two different lightning frequencies. Among all scenarios, only S4 and S6 presented a tendency to decrease the total cloud water, and all bacteria scenarios presented a tendency to decrease the total amount of rain (−8%, corroborating other reports in the literature. All bacteria scenarios also present higher precipitable ice concentrations compared to S5 scenario, the RAMS default. The main results present the total flash number per simulation as well. From the results, the total flash numbers, from both lightning frequencies, in S4 and S6 scenarios

  14. Beam intensity modulation for penumbra enhancement in the treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Essers, Marion; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Senan, Suresh; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A treatment planning study was performed for patients with lung cancer in order to investigate the extent to which doses to critical structures could be reduced by penumbra enhancement at the superior and inferior field edges, using beam intensity modulation (BIM) with a multileaf collimator. By applying two independent published models for the prediction of the incidence of normal tissue complications, the potential for dose escalation without increasing the incidence of pneumonitis was estimated. Methods and Materials: For 12 patients, the standard treatment technique was compared with the BIM technique using the Cadplan 3D planning system (Varian-Dosetek). Dose distributions in the healthy lung tissue were evaluated by considering both lungs minus the tumor as one functional unit. The following parameters were compared: (i) the average normalized total dose (NTD), (ii) the lung volume receiving an NTD of more than 20 Gy, and (iii) the calculated normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: Due to the applied BIM technique, the field lengths could be reduced by 1.4 cm for all patients, while achieving a minimum dose at the superior and inferior parts of the target of 95% of the isocenter dose. Compared to the standard technique, BIM reduced the patient mean of the average NTD for the healthy lung tissue from 16.5 to 15.3 Gy. The volume of healthy lung tissue receiving an NTD of 20 Gy or more was reduced by 9.7% (range 2.2 to 23.1%). The calculated NTCP reduced from 10.7% to 7.6% on average. The length of the esophagus that received a dose of 60 Gy or more could be reduced for 5 of the 6 stage III patients in this study. Based on equal lung NTCPs for the standard technique and the BIM technique, a mean dose escalation of 5.7 Gy (range 1.1 to 16.0 Gy) was possible for the 12 patients in this study. Based on equal average NTDs for the two techniques, the patient mean of the allowed dose escalation was 6.5 Gy (range 1.1 to 18.2 Gy). All dose

  15. Postoperative Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in High Risk Prostate Cancer: A Dosimetric Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digesu, Cinzia; Cilla, Savino; De Gaetano, Andrea; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Macchia, Gabriella; Ippolito, Edy; Deodato, Francesco; Panunzi, Simona; Iapalucci, Chiara; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; D'Angelo, Elisa; Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT), with respect to target coverage and irradiation of organs at risk for high dose postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) of the prostate fossa. 3D-CRT and IMRT treatment plans were compared with respect to dose to the rectum and bladder. The dosimetric comparison was carried out in 15 patients considering 2 different scenarios: (1) exclusive prostate fossa irradiation, and (2) pelvic node irradiation followed by a boost on the prostate fossa. In scenario (1), a 3D-CRT plan (box technique) and an IMRT plan were calculated and compared for each patient. In scenario (2), 3 treatment plans were calculated and compared for each patient: (a) 3D-CRT box technique for both pelvic (prophylactic nodal irradiation) and prostate fossa irradiation (3D-CRT only); (b) 3D-CRT box technique for pelvic irradiation followed by an IMRT boost to the prostatic fossa (hybrid 3D-CRT and IMRT); and (c) IMRT for both pelvic and prostate fossa irradiation (IMRT only). For exclusive prostate fossa irradiation, IMRT significantly reduced the dose to the rectum (lower Dmean, V50%, V75%, V90%, V100%, EUD, and NTCP) and the bladder (lower Dmean, V50%, V90%, EUD and NTCP). When prophylactic irradiation of the pelvis was also considered, plan C (IMRT only) performed better than plan B (hybrid 3D-CRT and IMRT) as respect to both rectum and bladder irradiation (reduction of Dmean, V50%, V75%, V90%, equivalent uniform dose [EUD], and normal tissue complication probability [NTCP]). Plan (b) (hybrid 3D-CRT and IMRT) performed better than plan (a) (3D-CRT only) with respect to dose to the rectum (lower Dmean, V75%, V90%, V100%, EUD, and NTCP) and the bladder (Dmean, EUD, and NTCP). Postoperative IMRT in prostate cancer significantly reduces rectum and bladder irradiation compared with 3D-CRT.

  16. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Cervical and Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Report on Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.Vandecasteele@uzgent.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Tummers, Philippe; Makar, Amin [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Eijkeren, Marc van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Delrue, Louke [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Denys, Hannelore [Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Bieke [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Beerens, Anne-Sophie [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, Rudy [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambein, Kathleen [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Fonteyne, Valerie; De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To report on toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for cervical (CC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-four CC and 41 EC patients were treated with postoperative IMAT. If indicated, para-aortic lymph node irradiation (preventive or when affected, PALN) and/or concomitant cisplatin (40 mg/m Superscript-Two , weekly) was administered. The prescribed dose for IMAT was 45 Gy (CC, 25 fractions) and 46 Gy (EC, 23 fractions), followed by a brachytherapeutic boost if possible. Radiation-related toxicity was assessed prospectively. The effect of concomitant cisplatin and PALN irradiation was evaluated. Results: Regarding acute toxicity (n = 65), Grade 3 and 2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in zero and 63% of patients (79% CC, 54% EC), respectively. Grade 3 and 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was observed in 1% and 18% of patients, respectively. Grade 2 (21%) and 3 (12%) hematologic toxicity (n = 41) occurred only in CC patients. Seventeen percent of CC patients and 2% of EC patients experienced Grade 2 fatigue and skin toxicity, respectively. Adding cisplatin led to an increase in Grade >2 nausea (57% vs. 9%; p = 0.01), Grade 2 nocturia (24% vs. 4%; p = 0.03), Grade {>=}2 hematologic toxicity (38% vs. nil, p = 0.003), Grade {>=}2 leukopenia (33% vs. nil, p = 0.009), and a strong trend toward more fatigue (14% vs. 2%; p = 0.05). Para-aortic lymph node irradiation led to an increase of Grade 2 nocturia (31% vs. 4%, p = 0.008) and a strong trend toward more Grade >2 nausea (44% vs. 18%; p = 0.052). Regarding late toxicity (n = 45), no Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity occurred. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, genitourinary toxicity, and fatigue occurred in 4%, 9%, and 1% of patients. Neither concomitant cisplatin nor PALN irradiation increased late toxicity rates. Conclusions: Postoperative IMAT for EC or CC is associated with low acute and late toxicity. Concomitant chemotherapy and PALN irradiation

  17. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Francesco; Missale, Francesco; Incandela, Fabiola; Filauro, Marta; Parrinello, Giampiero; Paderno, Alberto; Della Casa, Palmiro; Piazza, Cesare; Peretti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC) can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position. We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed. Significant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B ( p  = 0.04). A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A), although no statistical significance was achieved. Use of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.

  18. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTransoral laser microsurgery (TLM for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position.MethodsWe reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed.ResultsSignificant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B (p = 0.04. A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A, although no statistical significance was achieved.ConclusionUse of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.

  19. The frequency of QTc prolongation among pediatric and young adult patients receiving methadone for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kevin; Park, Minjeong; Liu, Diane; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    A prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval in pediatric patients is defined as ≥470 msec. Methadone can cause a prolonged QTc interval that can lead to ventricular arrhythmias. The risk of methadone-induced prolongation of the QTc interval in children and young adults is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of QTc prolongation among pediatric and young adult patients with cancer pain on methadone treatment. We retrospectively reviewed data for all patients on methadone during the study period. Qualifying patient data were reviewed to determine whether these patients had an electrocardiogram (ECG) while on methadone. The QTc values for analysis were manually calculated using the standard formula described by Bazett. Twenty-five patients were identified that met eligibility criteria. The median QTc decreased from baseline after initiation of methadone. QTc prolongation occurred in four of 25 (16%) patients and only one patient had a QTc greater than 500 msec. This patient had 17 normal QTc intervals on methadone prior to the prolongation. After resolution of electrolyte abnormalities, six subsequent ECGs on methadone had a normal QTc interval. Prolongation of the QTc interval is infrequent. The only observed case was transient during multiple comorbid conditions. A prospective study is justified to better understand what role methadone plays as one of many risk factors for prolongation of the QTc interval in children and young adults. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient ( R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  1. Frequency, causes and outcome of neonates with respiratory distress admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, National Institute of Child Health, Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Arit; Haider, Nighat; Khoso, Zubair Ahmed; Shaikh, Abdul Sattar

    2015-07-01

    To determine the frequency, aetiology and outcome of respiratory distress in neonates in intensive care unit. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from October 2009 to March 2010. It comprised neonates aged day 0 to 28 who were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The neonates were screened first for respiratory distress and presence of one or more signs and symptoms. History, examination and investigations were carried out to find out various aetiologies of respiratory distress. Outcome was measured in terms of discharge and death. Data was analysed using SPSS12. Of the 205 neonates in the study, 120(58.6%) were boys and 85(41.4%) were girls The overall mean age was 70.58±110.02 hours and the mean gestational age was 36.32±2.72 weeks while the mean weight was 2.41±2.4kg. Respiratory rate >60/min was found in all (100%) the neonates. In terms of signs and symptoms, 125(60.9%) had grunting, 205(100%) had subcostal retractions and nasal flaring, and 81(40%) had cyanosis. The aetiologies observed were birth asphyxia, sepsis, transient tachypnoea of the newborn, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome and respiratory distress syndrome in 22(10.75%), 37(18.05%), 29(14.1%), 36(17.6%), 34(16.7%) and 47(23.0%) neonates respectively. The incidence of neonates with respiratory distress was 68(33.3%). The frequency of respiratory distress among the neonates was high, while mortality was high in neonates with respiratory distress, especially in pre-term and low birthweight neonates. Early diagnosis and management is important for better outcome.

  2. [Frequency and maternal complications of the criteria of hemolysis in preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome treated in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, J G; Ríos-Gutiérrez, C D; Paredes-Lozano, E P; García-Flores, A

    2016-01-01

    HELLP syndrome is an aggressive form of preeclampsia related with hemolysis and its complications. To determine the frequency of the appearance of criteria of hemolysis and maternal complications in preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome treated in an intensive care unit. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 50 preeclamptic women with HELLP syndrome admitted to intensive care unit to determine the presence of the following criteria of hemolysis: peripheral blood schistocytes, anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dL), lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 600 U/L, indirect bilirubin ≥ 0.6 mg/dL and hemoglobinuria. We also studied maternal complications in patients with lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 600 U/L and positive for schistocytes. Descriptive (mean, median, range, standard deviation) and inferential (Student t test) statistics were used. Lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 600 U/L was found in 36%, indirect bilirubin 0.6 mg/dL in 20%, positive schistocytes in 16%, hemoglobinuria in 4% and anemia in 0%. Patients with lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 600 U/L had more clinical and laboratory deterioration as well as prolonged intensive care unit stay (p = 0.0025). Patients positive for schistocytes did not demonstrate adverse effects. Biochemical criteria of hemolysis were more frequent than schistocytes, hemoglobinuria and anemia. Patients with lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 600 U/L was alterations more serious than patients with positive schistocytes so its usefulness as a biomarker may be higher.

  3. On the possibility of gamma-laser pumping occurring at a charged particle counter motion and in density-modulated electron beams by a high frequency intensive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksyuta, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    The given report deals with the problem of motion and radiation of relativistic electron in a field of opposite plane density-modulated relativistic electron beam. Physical essence of high-frequency intensive radiation origin could be explained, first by the additional Lorentz reduction of the electron beam modulation period (modulation period Λ in a laboratory co-ordinate system reduces by a factor γ as compared with the modulation period in a beam co-ordinate system) and, secondly, a simultaneous γ-fold increase of transverse components of relativistic electrons of the beam electric and magnetic fields. Such a moving modulated electron beam can be regarded as a dynamic micro-ondulator. Unlike static micro-ondulators we can observe here one more positive moment along with a small period Λ = Λ'/γ, i.e. the electric and magnetic fields in a transverse direction are changed according to the law of exp(-2πx/Λ'). It means that charged particle interaction with a dynamic micro-ondulator will be effective in a wide range of transverse distances, i.e., to get an intensive short wave radiation one can use charged particle beams with rather large apertures which leads to an additional radiation intensity increase. A discussion is given showing that the proposed dynamic modulator possesses some essential merits. A detailed calculation is presented. (author)

  4. Frequency of CHEK2 mutations in a population based, case–control study of breast cancer in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichsen, Danielle M; Malone, Kathleen E; Doody, David R; Daling, Janet R; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2004-01-01

    The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase (CHEK)2 protein truncating mutation 1100delC has been associated with increased risk for breast or prostate cancer. Multiple studies have found an elevated frequency of the 1100delC variant in specific stratifications of breast cancer patients with a family history of the disease, including BRCA1/BRCA2 negative families and families with a history of bilateral disease or male breast cancer. However, the 1100delC mutation has only been investigated in a few population-based studies and none from North America. We report here on the frequency of three CHEK2 variants that alter protein function – 1100delC, R145W, and I175T – in 506 cases and 459 controls from a population based, case–control study of breast cancer conducted in young women from western Washington. There was a suggestive enrichment in the 1100delC variant in the cases (1.2%) as compared with the controls (0.4%), but this was based on small numbers of carriers and the differences were not statistically significant. The 1100delC variant was more frequent in cases with a first-degree family history of breast cancer (4.3%; P = 0.02) and slightly enriched in cases with a family history of ovarian cancer (4.4%; P = 0.09). The CHEK2 variants are rare in the western Washington population and, based on accumulated evidence across studies, are unlikely to be major breast cancer susceptibility genes. Thus, screening for the 1100delC variant may have limited usefulness in breast cancer prevention programs in the USA

  5. Intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy in the anal canal cancer. Report of technological assessment. Updating of the 2006 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    As intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR) has already been technologically assessed in 2006 with a positive opinion for some treatments and a negative one for others, and as this technique displays some interesting properties for the treatment of pelvic cancers (optimisation of dose distribution, preservation of sane tissues, reduction of secondary effects during irradiation), this report proposes an assessment of clinical safety and efficiency of IMCR in the treatment of an anal canal cancer. After a discussion of generalities, of histological and epidemiological data, and of knowledge regarding treatment and follow-up of this cancer, the report presents the IMCR technique, some regulatory aspects, and its applications to the considered cancer. The methodology adopted for this assessment is then presented. Based on various studies and clinical results, the IMCR clinical safety and efficiency in the treatment of the anal canal cancer are discussed and assessed. Recommendations produced by different medical professional bodies are reported. Opinion of experts and a synthesis of stakeholders are then proposed

  6. Secondary radiation doses of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton beam therapy in patients with lung and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonkyu; Min, Byung Jun; Yoon, Myonggeun; Kim, Jinsung; Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Sungkoo; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2011-03-01

    To compare the secondary radiation doses following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with lung and liver cancer. IMRT and PBT were planned for three lung cancer and three liver cancer patients. The treatment beams were delivered to phantoms and the corresponding secondary doses during irradiation were measured at various points 20-50 cm from the beam isocenter using ion chamber and CR-39 detectors for IMRT and PBT, respectively. The secondary dose per Gy (i.e., a treatment dose of 1Gy) from PBT for lung and liver cancer, measured 20-50 cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.17 to 0.086 mGy. The secondary dose per Gy from IMRT, however, ranged between 5.8 and 1.0 mGy, indicating that PBT is associated with a smaller dose of secondary radiation than IMRT. The internal neutron dose per Gy from PBT for lung and liver cancer, 20-50 cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.03 to 0.008 mGy. The secondary dose from PBT is less than or compatible to the secondary dose from conventional IMRT. The internal neutron dose generated by the interaction between protons and body material is generally much less than the external neutron dose from the treatment head. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human primary fibroblasts and immortalized cancer cells exposed to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyyedi, S. S.; Mozdarani, H.; Rezaei Tavirani, M.; Heydari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly increasing possibilities of exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields have become a topic of worldwide investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may increase cancer risk therefore assessment of chromosomal damage in various cell lines might be of predictive value for future risk estimation. Materials and Methods: Primary cultures of fibroblasts from human skin biopsy were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (3, 50 and 60 Hz, sinusoidal, 3h, and 4 m T). Also immortalized cell lines, SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 3 h, 4 m T). Metaphase plates Were prepared according to standard methods and stained in 5% Giemsa solution. Chromosomal aberrations of both chromosome and chromatid types were scored to evaluate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on primary or established cell lines. Results: Results indicate that by increasing the frequency of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 7-fold above background levels in primary human fibroblast cells. In addition, continuous exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field led to a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 cell lines compared to sham control. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields has the potential for induction of chromosomal aberrations in all cell types.

  8. Reduction of edge localized mode intensity on DIII-D by on-demand triggering with high frequency pellet injection and implications for ITERa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Futatani, S.

    2013-08-01

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12× the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized β operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  9. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuttel, Floor; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes several aspects of MR-HIFU treatment for breast cancer. The current and future applications, technical developments and clinical results are discussed. MR-HIFU ablation is under investigation for the treatment of breast cancer, but is not yet ready for clinical implementation.

  10. Model of cancer growth affected by irradiation. Effect of fluctuating intensity of the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska-Nowak, E.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of a biological model system which describes the growth of a cancer cell population in the presence of external irradiation is studied. The effect of randomly fluctuating source of radiation is analysed and its influence on cancer cell extinction is presented. The main stress is put on the biological significance of random fluctuations which seem to favour rejection of a tumor. (author)

  11. CHEK2 1100DELC germline mutation: a frequency study in hereditary breast and colon cancer Brazilian families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Abud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: CHEK2 encodes a cell cycle checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in the DNA damage repair pathway, activated mainly by ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. A germline mutation in CHEK2, 1100delC, has been described as a low penetrance allele in a significant number of families with breast and colorectal cancer in certain countries and is also associated with increased risk of contralateral breast cancer in women previously affected by the disease. About 5%-10% of all breast and colorectal cancers are associated with hereditary predisposition and its recognition is of great importance for genetic counseling and cancer risk management. OBJECTIVES: Here, we have assessed the frequency of the CHEK2 1100delC mutation in the germline of 59 unrelated Brazilian individuals with clinical criteria for the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. METHODS: A long-range PCR strategy followed by gene sequencing was used. RESULTS: The 1100delC mutation was encountered in the germline of one (1.7% individual in this high risk cohort. This indicates that the CHEK2 1100delC is not commonly encountered in Brazilian families with multiple diagnoses of breast and colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: These results should be confirmed in a larger series of families and further testing should be undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer phenotype.

  12. A Phase 1 Study of Everolimus + Weekly Cisplatin + Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy Y.; Sherman, Eric; Ho, Alan L.; Rao, Shyam; Heguy, Adriana; Shen, Ronglai; Korte, Susan; Lisa, Donna; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal; Wong, Richard J.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Haque, Sofia; Katabi, Nora; Pfister, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Elevated expression of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in histologically cancer-free margins of resected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and has been associated with increased risk of disease recurrence. Preclinically, inhibition of mTORC1 with everolimus sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin and radiation. Methods and Materials: This was single-institution phase 1 study to establish the maximum tolerated dose of daily everolimus given with fixed dose cisplatin (30 mg/m 2 weekly × 6) and concurrent intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with locally and/or regionally advanced head-and-neck cancer. The study had a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Results: Tumor primary sites were oral cavity (4), salivary gland (4), oropharynx (2), nasopharynx (1), scalp (1), and neck node with occult primary (1). In 4 of 4 cases in which resected HNSCC surgical pathology specimens were available for immunohistochemistry, elevated expression of eIF4E was observed in the cancer-free margins. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse event was lymphopenia (92%), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were mucositis (n=2) and failure to thrive (n=1). With a median follow up of 19.4 months, 2 patients have experienced recurrent disease. The maximum tolerated dose was everolimus 5 mg/day. Conclusions: Head-and-neck cancer patients tolerated everolimus at therapeutic doses (5 mg/day) given with weekly cisplatin and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The regimen merits further evaluation, especially among patients who are status post resection of HNSCCs that harbor mTORC1-mediated activation of eIF4E in histologically negative surgical margins

  13. A Phase 1 Study of Everolimus + Weekly Cisplatin + Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fury, Matthew G. [Department of Medicine, Head and Neck Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Sherman, Eric; Ho, Alan L. [Department of Medicine, Head and Neck Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Rao, Shyam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Heguy, Adriana [Department of Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shen, Ronglai [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Korte, Susan; Lisa, Donna [Department of Medicine, Head and Neck Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal; Wong, Richard J.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Haque, Sofia [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Katabi, Nora [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pfister, David G. [Department of Medicine, Head and Neck Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Elevated expression of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in histologically cancer-free margins of resected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and has been associated with increased risk of disease recurrence. Preclinically, inhibition of mTORC1 with everolimus sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin and radiation. Methods and Materials: This was single-institution phase 1 study to establish the maximum tolerated dose of daily everolimus given with fixed dose cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2} weekly × 6) and concurrent intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with locally and/or regionally advanced head-and-neck cancer. The study had a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Results: Tumor primary sites were oral cavity (4), salivary gland (4), oropharynx (2), nasopharynx (1), scalp (1), and neck node with occult primary (1). In 4 of 4 cases in which resected HNSCC surgical pathology specimens were available for immunohistochemistry, elevated expression of eIF4E was observed in the cancer-free margins. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse event was lymphopenia (92%), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were mucositis (n=2) and failure to thrive (n=1). With a median follow up of 19.4 months, 2 patients have experienced recurrent disease. The maximum tolerated dose was everolimus 5 mg/day. Conclusions: Head-and-neck cancer patients tolerated everolimus at therapeutic doses (5 mg/day) given with weekly cisplatin and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The regimen merits further evaluation, especially among patients who are status post resection of HNSCCs that harbor mTORC1-mediated activation of eIF4E in histologically negative surgical margins.

  14. Morphogenesis of dwarf elephant grass clones in response to intensity and frequency of defoliation in dry and rainy seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Miranda Gomide

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate during the dry and rainy seasons the morphogenesis traits of two clones of dwarf elephant grass under different management strategies. The study was conducted in a factorial 2 × 2 × 3 design, using two clones, one green and one purple, two residual heights, 25 and 45 cm, and three frequencies of defoliation according to the light interception of 90, 95 and 100%. The design was a randomized block with three replications. The variables were leaf elongation and leaf senescence rate, stem elongation rate and phyllochron. The leaf lifespan and the number of living leaves per tiller were also estimated. The clones presented low stem elongation rates, showing adaptation for grazing use. In the rainy season, the light interception of 100% promoted the highest stem elongation rate and increased the leaf senescence rate. In the dry season, the leaf elongation rate (LER was higher for the purple clone than for the green one (23 vs 15 mm.tiller-1.day-1. In the rainy season, the LER of the green clone exceeded that of the purple one by 71% (149 vs. 87 mm.tiller-1.day-1. The phyllochron varied among clones only in the rainy season, when the value was 4.6 days.leaf-1 for the green clone and 8.4 days.leaf-1 for the purple one; both of these values are below the mean value observed during the drought (21,6 days.leaf-1. The residual heights did not affect, in an isolated way, any of the variables. The clones are well adapted to grazing, presenting low stem elongation rates. The interval between defoliations should consider the scope of light interception between 90 and 95%. The green clone, with a greater flow of biomass, requires handling with shorter defoliation intervals.

  15. Positive effect of specific low-frequency electrical stimulation during short-term recovery on subsequent high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieuzen, François; Borne, Rachel; Toussaint, Jean-François; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test how low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES; Veinoplus Sport (AdRem Technology, Paris, France)) of the calf muscles affects recovery indices compared with 2 other commonly used recovery methods (active, ACT; passive, PAS). The tests used assessed predominantly anaerobic performance after short-term (15 min) recovery, and the kinetics of blood markers. Fourteen highly trained female handball players completed 2 Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery tests (level 2; YYIR2) separated by a 15-min recovery period. During recovery, 1 of 3 recovery methods (ACT, LFES or PAS) was randomly selected. Performance (i.e., distance run) was measured at the end of each YYIR2 test. Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate concentrations, heart rate, respiratory gas exchange and tissue saturation index for the lateral gastrocnemius were recorded. LFES showed a very likely beneficial effect on performance during the second YYIR2 relative to PAS and a possible beneficial effect relative to ACT (distance Pre vs. Post; LFES: -1.8%; ACT: -7.6%; PAS: -15.9%). Compared with PAS recovery, LFES and ACT recovery clearly showed a faster return to baseline for blood lactate, pH and bicarbonate concentrations during the recovery period. LFES of the calf muscles and, to a lesser extent, ACT recovery appear to effectively improve short-term recovery between 2 bouts of exhausting exercises. These methods could be of benefit if applied during half-time, for sports involving successive rounds, or where only a limited recovery period is available.

  16. Moderate-intensity exercise reduces fatigue and improves mobility in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Dennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is there a dose-response effect of exercise on inflammation, fatigue and activity in cancer survivors? Design: Systematic review with meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adults diagnosed with cancer, regardless of specific diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Exercise interventions including aerobic and/or resistance as a key component. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were markers of inflammation (including C-reactive protein and interleukins and various measures of fatigue. The secondary outcomes were: measures of activity, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including activities of daily living and measures of functional mobility (eg, 6-minute walk test, timed sit-to-stand and stair-climb tests. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. Results: Forty-two trials involving 3816 participants were included. There was very low-quality to moderate-quality evidence that exercise results in significant reductions in fatigue (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52 and increased walking endurance (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.28. A significant negative association was found between aerobic exercise intensity and fatigue reduction. A peak effect was found for moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving walking endurance. No dose-response relationship was found between exercise and markers of inflammation or exercise duration and outcomes. Rates of adherence were typically high and few adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Exercise is safe, reduces fatigue and increases endurance in cancer survivors. The results support the recommendation of prescribing moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to reduce fatigue and improve activity in people with cancer. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD

  17. Automatic Feature Selection and Weighting for the Formation of Homogeneous Groups for Regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curve Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Burn, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events can have devastating impacts on society. To quantify the associated risk, the IDF curve has been used to provide the essential rainfall-related information for urban planning. However, the recent changes in the rainfall climatology caused by climate change and urbanization have made the estimates provided by the traditional regional IDF approach increasingly inaccurate. This inaccuracy is mainly caused by two problems: 1) The ineffective choice of similarity indicators for the formation of a homogeneous group at different regions; and 2) An inadequate number of stations in the pooling group that does not adequately reflect the optimal balance between group size and group homogeneity or achieve the lowest uncertainty in the rainfall quantiles estimates. For the first issue, to consider the temporal difference among different meteorological and topographic indicators, a three-layer design is proposed based on three stages in the extreme rainfall formation: cloud formation, rainfall generation and change of rainfall intensity above urban surface. During the process, the impacts from climate change and urbanization are considered through the inclusion of potential relevant features at each layer. Then to consider spatial difference of similarity indicators for the homogeneous group formation at various regions, an automatic feature selection and weighting algorithm, specifically the hybrid searching algorithm of Tabu search, Lagrange Multiplier and Fuzzy C-means Clustering, is used to select the optimal combination of features for the potential optimal homogenous groups formation at a specific region. For the second issue, to compare the uncertainty of rainfall quantile estimates among potential groups, the two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test-based sample ranking process is used. During the process, linear programming is used to rank these groups based on the confidence intervals of the quantile estimates. The proposed methodology fills the gap

  18. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Hae Ri; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hae Ri; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

  20. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Dept. of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  1. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Department of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung 25457 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  2. [Efficacy, impact on survival and cost of intensive follow-up after curative resection for colorectal cancer aim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, Bruno; Cuicchi, Dajana; Lecce, Ferdinando; Lombardi, Raffaele; Ciaroni, Valentina; Dalla Via, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study was aimed at establishing the efficacy, impact on survival and cost of an intensive follow-up program. Data from 790 patients who underwent resections for primary colorectal carcinoma were prospectively entered into a data-base. Four hundred fifty-six patients who had radical surgery were followed-up with a 5-year preestablished schedule. Median follow-up was 42 months (range 2-108). Seventy-four adenomas, 7 metachronous carcinomas, 11 extra-colonic carcinomas and 96 recurrences (13 locoregional recurrences, 68 metastases and 15 cases of combined recurrences) were detected. Thirty-eight (39.6%) of 96 recurrences were amenable to salvage therapy and 23 relapses (24.0%) were radically resected. The median survival of patients who had recurrences was 38 months. The 5-year overall survival was significantly better in patients underwent radical surgery than those who were not treated with curative resection (60.0% vs 7.5%, p cancer and 2519.90 Euro for rectal cancer. Our intensive follow-up program after curative colorectal cancer surgery allowed to detect a quite large number of asymptomatic recurrences with a benefit in term of radical re-operation and overall survival.

  3. Implementation and utility of a daily ultrasound-based localization system with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morr, Jody; DiPetrillo, Thomas; Tsai, J.-S.; Engler, Mark; Wazer, David E. MD.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of daily computer-assisted transabdominal ultrasonography for target position verification in the setting of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated using a sequential tomotherapy IMRT technique (Peacock) and daily computer-assisted transabdominal ultrasonography (BAT) for target localization. Patients were instructed to maintain a full bladder and were placed in the supine position using triangulation tattoos and a leg immobilizer to minimize pelvic rotation. The BAT ultrasound system is docked to the treatment collimator and electronically imports the CT simulation target contours and isocenter. The system is able to use the machine isocenter as a reference point to overlay the corresponding CT contours onto the ultrasound images captured in the transverse and sagittal planes. A touch screen menu is used to maneuver the CT contours in three dimensions such that they match the ultrasound images. The system then displays the three-dimensional couch shifts required to produce field alignment. Data were prospectively collected to measure the frequency by which useful ultrasound images were obtained, the amount of time required for localization/setup, and the direction/magnitude of the positional adjustments. Results: Of the 23 patients, the BAT ultrasound system produced images of sufficient quality to perform the overlay of the CT contours in 19 patients such that positional verification could be reliably performed. Poor image quality was associated with patient inability to maintain a full bladder, large body habitus, or other anatomic constraints. Of the 19 assessable patients, a total of 185 treatment alignments were performed (mean 8.8/patient). For all cases, the average time required for the daily ultrasound imaging and positional adjustments was 11.9 min. After the initial 5 cases, the user

  4. Abdominal symptoms in general practice: Frequency, cancer suspicions raised, and actions taken by GPs in six European countries. Cohort study with prospective registration of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtedahl, Knut; Vedsted, Peter; Borgquist, Lars; Donker, Gé A; Buntinx, Frank; Weller, David; Braaten, Tonje; Hjertholm, Peter; Månsson, Jörgen; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Campbell, Christine; Ellegaard, Lisbeth; Parajuli, Ranjan

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal symptoms are diagnostically challenging to general practitioners (GPs): although common, they may indicate cancer. In a prospective cohort of patients, we examined abdominal symptom frequency, initial diagnostic suspicion, and actions of GPs in response to abdominal symptoms. Over a 10-day period, 493 GPs in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Scotland, recorded consecutive consultations: sex, date of birth and any specified abdominal symptoms. For patients with abdominal symptoms, additional data on non-specific symptoms, GPs' diagnostic suspicion, and features of the consultation were noted. Data on all cancer diagnoses among all included patients were requested from the GPs eight months later. Consultations with 61802 patients were recorded. Abdominal symptoms were recorded in 6264 (10.1%) patients. A subsequent malignancy was reported in 511 patients (0.8%): 441 (86.3%) had a new cancer, 70 (13.7%) a recurrent cancer. Abdominal symptoms were noted in 129 (25.2%) of cancer patients ( P GPs noted a suspicion of cancer for 85 (65.9%) versus 1895 (30.9%) when there was no subsequent cancer ( P GPs' diagnostic thinking and referral practices.

  5. A Ten-Year Study on the Prevalence and Frequency of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Sabzevar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hashemian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Evaluation of prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in different regions of Iran and identification of their significant effect on this disease can promote the prevention and reduction of breast cancer incidence. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, demographic characteristics, and frequency of the risk factors of breast cancer during 10 years. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 women with breast cancer during 10 years. The samples, referred by health connectors and registration centers for patients with cancer, were selected using census sampling. Research tool was a reliable and valid researcher-made questionnaire, validity and reliability of which were confirmed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, mean age of surviving women was 50.7±1.2 years. The highest incidence rate of breast cancer was 35.2% in the group of participants aged 40-49, while the highest prevalence rate of this disease was 0.432 per 1000 samples in a group of patients aged 50- 59 years. Moreover, the most frequent risk factors for this disease were previous use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP (56.8% and positive family history (19%. Conclusion: The results of this study were indicative of positive family history as a certain risk factor for breast cancer in Sabzevar. Therefore, it is recommended that special attention be paid to women with positive family history of breast cancer. Therefore, prioritization of breast cancer screening and prevention programs is of paramount importance in this regard.

  6. Non-coplanar beam intensity modulation allows large dose escalation in stage III lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derycke, Sylvie; Van Duyse, Bart; De Gersem, Werner; De Wagter, Carlos; De Neve, Wilfried

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in stage III non-small cell lung cancer, we compared standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar beam arrangements, without (3D) and with beam intensity modulation (3D-BIM). Materials and methods: This study was a planning effort performed on a non-selected group of 10 patients. Starting from a serial CT scan, treatment planning was performed using Sherouse's GRATIS TM 3D planning system. Two target volumes were defined; gross tumor volume (GTV) defined a high-dose target volume that had to receive a dose of at least 80 Gy and GTV plus the lymph node regions with >10% probability of invasion defined an intermediate-dose target volume (GTV+N). It was our intention to irradiate GTV+N up to 56 Gy or more. If the prescribed doses on GTV and GTV+N could not be reached with either the 2D or 3D technique, a 3D-BIM plan was performed. The 3D-BIM plan was a class solution involving identical gantry angles, segment arrangements and relative segment weights for all patients. Dose volume histograms for GTV, GTV+N, lung and spinal cord were calculated. Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20 Gy. Under these constraints, maximal achievable doses to GTV and GTV+N were calculated. Results: In all 2D plans, spinal cord was the limiting factor and the prescribed doses for GTV and GTV+N could not be reached in any patient. The non-coplanar 3D plan resulted in a satisfying solution in 4 out of 10 patients under the same constraints. In comparison with 2D, the minimum dose in GTV+N was increased. Six patients had to be planned with the 3D-BIM technique. The theoretical minimum dose to GTV+N ranged between 56 and 98 Gy. The delivery of 80 Gy or more to GTV was possible in all patients. For a minimal dose of 80 Gy to GTV, the maximal dose to any point of the spinal cord varied between 27 and 46 Gy. The lung volume receiving more than

  7. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; M?ller, Tom; Herrstedt, J?rn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; R?rth, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing...

  8. Cardiac Exposure in the Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ming

    Full Text Available To retrospectively evaluate the cardiac exposure in three cohorts of lung cancer patients treated with dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT at our institution in the past seven years.A total of 140 lung cancer patients were included in this institutional review board approved study: 25 treated with DCAT, 70 with IMRT and 45 with VMAT. All plans were generated in a same commercial treatment planning system and have been clinically accepted and delivered. The dose distribution to the heart and the effects of tumor laterality, the irradiated heart volume and the beam-to-heart distance on the cardiac exposure were investigated.The mean dose to the heart among all 140 plans was 4.5 Gy. Specifically, the heart received on average 2.3, 5.2 and 4.6 Gy in the DCAT, IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. The mean heart doses for the left and right lung tumors were 4.1 and 4.8 Gy, respectively. No patients died with evidence of cardiac disease. Three patients (2% with preexisting cardiac condition developed cardiac disease after treatment. Furthermore, the cardiac exposure was found to increase linearly with the irradiated heart volume while decreasing exponentially with the beam-to-heart distance.Compared to old technologies for lung cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy treatment modalities demonstrated better heart sparing. But the heart dose in lung cancer radiotherapy is still higher than that in the radiotherapy of breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease where cardiac complications have been extensively studied. With strong correlations of mean heart dose with beam-to-heart distance and irradiated heart volume, cautions should be exercised to avoid long-term cardiac toxicity in the lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  9. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of radio frequency radiation-exposed MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Bum; Ko, Young-Gyu; Byun, Hae-Ok; Han, Na-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Seon; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Although many in vitro studies have previously been conducted to elucidate the biological effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation over the past decades, the existence and nature of any effects is still inconclusive. In an effort to further elucidate this question, we have monitored changes in protein expression profiles in RF-exposed MCF7 human breast cancer cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. MCF7 cells were exposed to 849 MHz RF radiation for 1 h per day for three consecutive days at specific absorption rates (SARs) of either 2 W/Kg or 10 W/kg. During exposure, the temperature in the exposure chamber was kept in an isothermal condition. Twenty-four hours after the final RF exposure, the protein lysates from MCF cells were prepared and two-dimensional electrophoretic analyses were conducted. The protein expression profiles of the MCF cells were not significantly altered as the result of RF exposure. None of the protein spots on the two-dimensional electrophoretic gels showed reproducible changes in three independent experiments. To determine effect of RF radiation on protein expression profiles more clearly, three spots showing altered expression without reproducibility were identified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis and their expressions were examined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays. There was no alteration in their mRNA and protein levels. As we were unable to observe any significant and reproducible changes in the protein expression profiles of the RF radiation-exposed MCF7 cells using high throughput and non-high throughput techniques, it seems unlikely that RF exposure modulates the protein expression profile. (author)

  10. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Using Sonablate-500 for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer: 6-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Shoji, Sunao; Nagata, Yoshihiro

    2006-05-01

    We evaluated 281 patients of localized prostate cancer treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for biochemical disease-free rate, safety, morbidity and predictors of biochemical outcome. A total of 281 patients underwent HIFU with the use of Sonablate-500 and with at least 12 months of follow-up. Biochemical failure was defined according to the criteria recommended by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel. The biochemical disease-free rates at 1, 3 and 5 years in all patients were 78%, 74% and 72%, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rates at 5 years for patients with pretreatment PSA less than 10 ng/ml, 10.01 to 20.0 ng/ml and more than 20.0 ng/ml were 88%, 70% and 17%, respectively (ppatients with localized prostate cancer, especially those with a pretreatment PSA level less than 20 ng/ml.

  11. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    -up. INTERVENTION: Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: European Organization for Research...

  12. The early adoption of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiation treatment among older Medicare beneficiaries with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce L; Yabes, Jonathan G; Lopa, Samia H; Heron, Dwight E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Schroeck, Florian R; Bekelman, Justin E; Kahn, Jeremy M; Nelson, Joel B; Barnato, Amber E

    2017-08-01

    Several new prostate cancer treatments have emerged since 2000, including 2 radiotherapies with similar efficacy at the time of their introduction: intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The objectives of this study were to compare their early adoption patterns and identify factors associated with their use. By using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, patients who received radiation therapy during the 5 years after IMRT introduction (2001-2005) and the 5 years after SBRT introduction (2007-2011) were identified. The outcome of interest was the receipt of new radiation therapy (ie, IMRT or SBRT) compared with the existing standard radiation therapies at that time. The authors fit a series of multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression models accounting for patients nested within health service areas to examine the factors associated with the receipt of new radiation therapy. During 2001 to 2005, 5680 men (21%) received IMRT compared with standard radiation (n = 21,555). Men who received IMRT were older, had higher grade tumors, and lived in more populated areas (P adoption rate for IMRT was substantially higher than that for SBRT (44% vs 4%; P adoption rates of IMRT and SBRT at the time of their introduction. Further investigation of the nonclinical factors associated with this difference is warranted. Cancer 2017;123:2945-54. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Sparing of the submandibular glands by intensity modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarilahti, Kauko; Kouri, Mauri; Collan, Juhani; Kangasmaeki, Aki; Atula, Timo; Joensuu, Heikki; Tenhunen, Mikko

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The submandibular glands produce most of the unstimulated saliva output and are the key in prevention of radiation-related xerostomia. We investigated whether sparing of the submandibular function is feasible with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and methods: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer were treated with IMRT and had at least one parotid gland excluded from the planning target volume. In a subset, of these patients (n=18) where the risk of cancer recurrence in the contralateral submandibular region was judged low, the contralateral submandibular gland was spared from full-dose irradiation. The total unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates and adverse effects were monitored. Results: Twelve months following IMRT mean unstimulated saliva flow was 60% of the baseline value among patients who had one submandibular gland spared and 25% among those who did not (P=0.006). Patients whose contralateral submandibular was spared reported less grade two or three xerostomia (4 vs. 11; P=0.018), and used less saliva substitutes. No cancer recurrences were detected at the vicinity of the spared glands during a median follow-up time of 31 months. Conclusions: Submandibular gland sparing with IMRT is safe in selected patients treated for head and neck cancer. It is effective in prevention of radiation-associated xerostomia

  14. Conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation and integrated boost in the head and neck cancers: experience of the Curie Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, I.; Serre, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Racadot, S.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.; Graff, P.; Serre, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Racadot, S.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.

    2009-01-01

    The modulated intensity radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) is used in the treatment of cancers in superior aero digestive tracts to reduce the irradiation of parotids and to reduce the delayed xerostomia. This retrospective study presents the results got on the fourteen first patients according an original technique of I.M.R.T. with integrated boost. It appears that this technique is feasible and allows to reduce the xerostomia rate without modifying the local control rate. To limit the average dose to the parotids under 30 Gy seems reduce the incidence of severe xerostomia. (N.C.)

  15. The frequency of T regulatory cells is increased in peripheral blood of patients with colon-rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saverino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune system can recognise the tumor-associated antigens present in peripheal blood of cancer patients. Recent studies suggest that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg might hamper effective immune-surveillance of cancer cells and impede effective immune responses to established tumours. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Treg in the peripheral blood of colon-rectal cancer (CRC patients. Results indicate an increase frequency of Treg in the peripheral blood of CRC patients. In addition, Treg is able to regulate the in vitro proliferative response to CEA. Thus, these cells could regulate the immunosuppression and, eventually, the neoplastic progression in CRC patients.

  16. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  17. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment, well-being (subjective and psychological, and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement.Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29. We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment. Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted.Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour.Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (indirect model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  18. Implications of various intensities of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (462 MHz in the induction of oxidative stress during the germination of Hippophae rhamnoides seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Lucian Maniu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The data accumulated by now shows that the topic of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation is far from being exhausted. Is undoubtedly that a non-ionizing radiation field maintained on a biological entity has some effects on it. To try shaping issues regarding this, this work aims to study the impact of radiation generated by an emission-reception radio station that emits on 462.6875 MHz frequency. For this purpose, were used Hippophae rhamnoides L. seeds which germinated in the laboratory, under controlled conditions, concentrically arranged around the radiation source, in which case electromagnetic radiation has a different impact. Seed germination lasted 35 days, while the device has continuously worked, and the seeds were constantly irradiated. It was precisely measured the intensity of the magnetic component of the field in all places where the seeds were placed for germination. It was calculated the percentage of germination and it was determined the enzyme activity involved in eliminating the oxidative stress effects. It was found significant variations of the parameters mentioned above in conjunction with the radiation intensity depending on the distance from the source.

  19. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  20. Factors associated with frequency of discussion of or referral for counselling about fertility issues in female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwé, L A; Stiggelbout, A M; Overbeek, A; Hilders, C G J M; van den Berg, M H; Wendel, E; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E; Ter Kuile, M M

    2018-01-01

    Current practices in counselling of female cancer patients with respect to fertility issues need considerable improvement, particularly given the general underuse of fertility preservation options and the negative impact that infertility can have on quality of life. We investigated the relationship between physicians' and physician-related factors and the frequency of physicians discussing fertility issues and referring to a reproductive specialist. We invited 1,832 physicians in the Netherlands who had treated at least five reproductive-age female cancer patients within the past year to complete a questionnaire. Of the 748 respondents, 406 met our inclusion criteria, and 280 participated. Analysis revealed that 79% of the participants usually or always discuss fertility issues. Specialty, confidence in knowledge regarding fertility issues and a lack of reproductive specialists in their region contributed independently to the variance in the frequency of discussing fertility issues. Moreover, 54% either regularly or always refer. Specialty and frequency of discussion contributed independently to the variance in referral. In conclusion, although high, frequency of discussion of fertility issues is not optimal, and referral seems limited. Patients would benefit from more knowledge among physicians regarding fertility issues and referral options, both in terms of informed choice, and more importantly, quality of life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quality Assurance Analysis of a Large Multicenter Practice: Does Increased Complexity of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Lead to Increased Error Frequency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Adam C.; Wegner, Rodney E.; Scicutella, Carol; Heron, Dwight E.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Huq, M. Saiful; Bednarz, Gregory; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Error reduction is an important concern in clinical medicine. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is an important advancement in radiation oncology that increases the complexity of treatment, potentially increasing the error risk. We studied the frequency and severity of errors in a large multicenter practice to ascertain the impact of quality improvement interventions over time, IMRT, and type of practice. Methods and Materials: We analyzed prospective data from three academic and 16 community practice sites with 24,775 courses of radiotherapy (9,210 IMRT courses and 15,565 non-IMRT) between January 2006 and December 2009. All IMRT treatment was performed using one centralized dose planning center for all sites. Results: We prospectively identified various errors or potential errors in 0.14 % vs. 0.40 % of the IMRT vs. non-IMRT courses (13/9,210 vs. 62/15,565, p = 0.0004) and excluding potential errors: 0.03 % for IMRT vs. 0.21% for non-IMRT. We developed the Clinical Radiotherapy Error Severity Scale (CRESS) to classify error severity from 1 to 10, with 1 to 3 for potential or completely correctable errors, 4 to 5 for dose variations 5%. Multivariate analyses of CRESS values, severity >4, and any error (including potential) correlated significantly reduced errors with IMRT (p = 0.0001–0.0024) but found no significant difference between the academic and community practice sites and no change in error frequency over time despite implementation of 39 system-wide policy changes by the centralized quality improvement committee. Conclusions: Despite the increase in complexity with IMRT compared with conventional radiotherapy, it can be delivered with reduced error frequency.

  2. Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Atmospheric Blocking and Associated Heat Waves During Northern Summer Over Eurasia in the CMIP5 Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chunho

    2012-01-01

    The Russia heat wave and wild fires of the summer of 2010 was the most extreme weather event in the history of the country. Studies show that the root cause of the 2010 Russia heat wave/wild fires was an atmospheric blocking event which started to develop at the end of June and peaked around late July and early August. Atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010 was anomalous in terms of the size, duration, and the location, which shifted to the east from the normal location. This and other similar continental scale severe summertime heat waves and blocking events in recent years have raised the question of whether such events are occurring more frequently and with higher intensity in a warmer climate induced by greenhouse gases. We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric blocking and associated heat waves for northern summer over Eurasia based on CMIPS model simulations. To examine the global warming induced change of atmospheric blocking and heat waves, experiments for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.S) and a medium mitigation scenario (RCP4.S) are compared to the 20th century simulations (historical). Most models simulate the mean distributions of blockings reasonably well, including major blocking centers over Eurasia, northern Pacific, and northern Atlantic. However, the models tend to underestimate the number of blockings compared to MERRA and NCEPIDOE reanalysis, especially in western Siberia. Models also reproduced associated heat waves in terms of the shifting in the probability distribution function of near surface temperature. Seven out of eight models used in this study show that the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the Europe will likely decrease in a warmer climate, but slightly increase over the western Siberia. This spatial pattern resembles the blocking in the summer of 2010, indicating the possibility of more frequent occurrences of heat waves in western Siberia. In this talk, we will also

  3. Measuring symptom distress in patients with lung cancer. A pilot study of experienced intensity and importance of symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, C; Degner, L F; Mueller, B

    2000-04-01

    Patients with cancer experience high levels of symptom distress. Current measures of symptoms generally weight the importance of each symptom equally, and do not generally address the relative importance of different symptoms to patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore whether the assumption of equal weighting is warranted in measurements of symptom distress. Consecutive patients presenting with primary lung cancer at the Lung Medicine Unit of one Swedish hospital completed the Symptom Distress Scale and a Thurstone scale eliciting patients' weightings of the symptoms' relative importance three times: after first contact with the unit, then 1 and 2 months later. The results show that subjects weighted some symptoms as significantly more important than others, and the ordering of symptoms was found to differ by intensity and perceived importance in this group. Outlook was the symptom rated most important at T1. Fatigue received the highest intensity score, but ranked second lowest in importance. Kendall's coefficient showed minimal agreement among these patients as to the specific order for the weighting of the importance of symptoms. In addition to theoretical relevance, this issue is clinically relevant in selecting symptoms that should be the focus of intervention and in determining how the success of interventions should be judged.

  4. Risk Factors for Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Røhl, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after definitive chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 101 patients with LACC treated from 2008-2014. Patients received weekly cisplatin...

  5. Dose and dose-intensity of chemotherapy, studies in small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne Christine Gerarda

    2002-01-01

    Without treatment, survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is less than 3 months. Although combination chemotherapy has improved the prognosis, long-term survival remains poor. To assess the impact of chemotherapy dose intensification on survival, 244 SCLC patients were randomised to

  6. Management of Endometrial Cancer at Mayo Clinic: Intensive Surgical Staging and Disease-based Postoperative Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariani, A.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 1 is a general introduction, while chapter 8 is the final discussion and conclusions. The remaining chapters (from 2 to 7) are composed by a brief introduction, followed by the published article(s) that form(s) the structure of the chapter. Management of Endometrial Cancer at Mayo

  7. Adaptation is mandatory for intensity modulated proton therapy of advanced lung cancer to ensure target coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Lone; Alber, Markus; Jensen, Maria Fuglsang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large anatomical changes during radiotherapy are seen for a large proportion of lung cancer patients. We investigate the applicability of a decision support protocol for photon therapy in a proton therapy setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive NSCLC patients...

  8. Health care providers underestimate symptom intensities of cancer patients: a multicenter European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laugsand, Eivor A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Bjordal, Kristin; Skorpen, Frank; Kaasa, Stein; Klepstad, Pål

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with advanced cancer depend upon health care providers for symptom assessment. The extent of agreement between patient and provider symptom assessments and the association of agreement with demographic- and disease-related factors was examined. This cross-sectional study included 1933

  9. Health care providers underestimate symptom intensities of cancer patients: A multicenter European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laugsand, E.A.; Sprangers, M.A.G.; Bjordal, K.; Skorpen, F.; Kaasa, S.; Klepstad, P.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients with advanced cancer depend upon health care providers for symptom assessment. The extent of agreement between patient and provider symptom assessments and the association of agreement with demographic- and disease-related factors was examined. METHODS: This

  10. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36), Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, muscular strength (one repetition maximum), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2)max). Statistical methods The general linear model was used...

  11. Prediction of Cancer Proteins by Integrating Protein Interaction, Domain Frequency, and Domain Interaction Data Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins are known to be associated with cancer diseases. It is quite often that their precise functional role in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. A strategy to gain a better understanding of the function of these proteins is to make use of a combination of different aspects of proteomics data types. In this study, we extended Aragues’s method by employing the protein-protein interaction (PPI data, domain-domain interaction (DDI data, weighted domain frequency score (DFS, and cancer linker degree (CLD data to predict cancer proteins. Performances were benchmarked based on three kinds of experiments as follows: (I using individual algorithm, (II combining algorithms, and (III combining the same classification types of algorithms. When compared with Aragues’s method, our proposed methods, that is, machine learning algorithm and voting with the majority, are significantly superior in all seven performance measures. We demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method on two independent datasets. The best algorithm can achieve a hit ratio of 89.4% and 72.8% for lung cancer dataset and lung cancer microarray study, respectively. It is anticipated that the current research could help understand disease mechanisms and diagnosis.

  12. Application of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy to the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Mark J.; Tsai, J.-S.; Vora, Sujay; Wazer, David E.; Di Petrillo, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To apply safe, reliable dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the treatment of prostate cancer, and to compare IMRT prostatic dose distributions to those of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were CT-simulated for dynamic IMRT planning, plan and plan verification, and treatment and treatment verification. IMRT was planned with dose optimization based on simulated annealing, and delivered with a pencil beam collimator affixed to a high dose rate 6 MV linear accelerator. Seven received primary therapy of 35 fractions (Fx) x 2 Gy/Fx = 70 Gy at isodose surfaces of 80 - 87% of maximum dose. The first 22 Fx were prescribed to the gross tumor volume (GTV) with a 1 cm margin, and subsequent 13 Fx prescribed to GTV with a 5 mm margin. Five patients were boosted with 14 - 24 Gy of IMRT after 45 - 55 Gy of 4 - 6 field 3DCRT, to 69 - 71 Gy. All patients' feet were immobilized in foot stocks, or by taping both feet to a styrofoam block. Seven patients were positioned with customized polyurethane posterior-lateral-perineal supports (saddles), four, with anterior thermoplastic casts, and one was positioned without a pelvic device. Target positional reproducibility was studied with gold seeds at stategic prostatic locations (apex, base, rt and lt lateral), barium fiducial marks, rectal balloon catheters with lead markers, and skin and device laser alignment marks. Delineator lines were placed on CT simulator films at borders of IMRT field matchlines for comparison with port films exposed to adjacent 4 x 20 cm fields of the fully open collimator. Plans were verified with films in an anthropomorphic phantom adjusted with bolus to approximate patient geometry. 'Treatment films' were exposed under the patient for the entire treatment to measure spatial accuracy of matchlines. Significance of matchline and positioning errors was assessed with biological models. Rectal

  13. Can dosimetric parameters predict acute hematologic toxicity in rectal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Juefeng; Liu, Kaitai; Li, Kaixuan; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    To identify dosimetric parameters associated with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in rectal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy. Ninety-three rectal cancer patients receiving concurrent capecitabine and pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were analyzed. Pelvic bone marrow (PBM) was contoured for each patient and divided into three subsites: lumbosacral spine (LSS), ilium, and lower pelvis (LP). The volume of each site receiving 5–40 Gy (V 5, V10, V15, V20, V30, and V40, respectively) as well as patient baseline clinical characteristics was calculated. The endpoint for hematologic toxicity was grade ≥ 2 (HT2+) leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia or thrombocytopenia. Logistic regression was used to analyze correlation between dosimetric parameters and grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Twenty-four in ninety-three patients experienced grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Only the dosimetric parameter V40 of lumbosacral spine was correlated with grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Increased pelvic lumbosacral spine V40 (LSS-V40) was associated with an increased grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity (p = 0.041). Patients with LSS-V40 ≥ 60 % had higher rates of grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity than did patients with lumbosacral spine V40 < 60 % (38.3 %, 18/47 vs.13 %, 6/46, p =0.005). On univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, lumbosacral spine V40 and gender was also the variable associated with grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Female patients were observed more likely to have grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity than male ones (46.9 %, 15/32 vs 14.8 %, 9/61, p =0.001). Lumbosacral spine -V40 was associated with clinically significant grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Keeping the lumbosacral spine -V40 < 60 % was associated with a 13 % risk of grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity in rectal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  14. Late Side Effects After Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From 2 Prospective Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aluwini, Shafak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Witte, Marnix G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Technical developments in the field of external beam radiation therapy (RT) enabled the clinical introduction of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT), which improved target conformity and allowed reduction of safety margins. Whether this had an impact on late toxicity levels compared to previously applied three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is currently unknown. We analyzed late side effects after treatment with IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT, evaluating 2 prospective cohorts of men treated for localized prostate cancer to investigate the hypothesized reductions in toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=189) or IG-IMRT (n=242) to 78 Gy in 39 fractions were recruited from 2 Dutch randomized trials with identical toxicity scoring protocols. Late toxicity (>90 days after treatment) was derived from self-assessment questionnaires and case report forms, according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG-EORTC) scoring criteria. Grade ≥2 endpoints included gastrointestinal (GI) rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, discomfort, rectal incontinence, proctitis, and genitourinary (GU) obstruction, increased urinary frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 toxicities between both techniques, adjusting for other modifying factors. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 24.9% for IG-IMRT and 37.6% following 3D-CRT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, P=.005), with significant reductions in proctitis (HR: 0.37, P=.047) and increased stool frequency (HR: 0.23, P<.001). GU grade ≥2 toxicity levels at 5 years were comparable with 46.2% and 36.4% following IG-IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively (adjusted HR: 1.19, P=.33). Other strong predictors (P<.01) of grade ≥2 late toxicity were baseline complaints, acute toxicity, and age

  15. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at the West China Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 to identify any correlation between the clinical or dosimetric parameters and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) or severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) by t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Of the 68 patients, 33 patients (48.5%) developed ARP, 13 of which (19.1%) developed SARP. Of these 33 patients, 8 (11.8%), 12 (17.6%), 11 (16.2%), and 2 (2.9%) patients were grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ARP, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lung infection during radiotherapy, use of VMAT, mean lung dose (MLD), and dosimetric parameters (e.g. V20, V30) are significantly correlated with RP. Multivariate analysis found that lung infection during radiotherapy, MLD ≥ 12 Gy, and V30 ≥ 13% are significantly correlated with an increased risk of RP. Lung infection during radiotherapy and low radiation dose volume distribution were predictive factors associated with RP and should be accounted for during radiation planning.

  16. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron......BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...

  17. Nutrition therapy with high intensity interval training to improve prostate cancer-related fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael D; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-01-03

    Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent, prolonged and distressing side effects of prostate cancer treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests natural therapies such as nutrition therapy and structured exercise prescription can reduce symptoms of cancer-related fatigue. Men appear to change their habitual dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis, yet prostate-specific dietary guidelines provide limited support for managing adverse side effects of treatment. The exercise literature has shown high intensity interval training can improve various aspects of health that are typically impaired with androgen deprivation therapy; however exercise at this intensity is yet to be conducted in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nutrition therapy beyond the current healthy eating guidelines with high intensity interval training for managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. This is a two-arm randomized control trial of 116 men with prostate cancer and survivors treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group i.e. nutrition therapy and high intensity interval training, or usual care. The intervention group will receive 20 weeks of individualized nutrition therapy from an Accredited Practising Dietitian, and high intensity interval training (from weeks 12-20 of the intervention) from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist. The usual care group will maintain their standard treatment regimen over the 20 weeks. Both groups will undertake primary and secondary outcome testing at baseline, week 8, 12, and 20; testing includes questionnaires of fatigue and quality of life, objective measures of body composition, muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers for disease progression, as well as dietary analysis. The primary outcomes for this trial are measures of

  18. Development of a Cancer Treatment with the Concomitant Use of Low-Intensity Ultrasound: Entering the Age of Simultaneous Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Emoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, studies using ultrasound energy for cancer treatment have advanced, thus revealing the enhancement of drug effects by employing low-intensity ultrasound. Furthermore, anti-angiogenesis against tumors is now attracting attention as a new cancer treatment. Therefore, we focused on the biological effects and the enhancement of drug effects brought by this low-intensity ultrasound energy and reported on the efficacy against a uterine sarcoma model, by implementing the basic studies, for the first time, including the concomitant use of low-intensity ultrasound irradiation, as an expected new antiangiogenic therapy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, we have succeeded in simultaneously utilizing low-intensity ultrasound in both diagnosis and treatment, upon real time evaluation of the anti-tumor effects and anti-angiogenesis effects using color Doppler ultrasound imaging. Although the biological effects of ultrasound have not yet been completely clarified, transient stomas were formed (Sonoporation in cancer cells irradiated by low-intensity ultrasound and it is believed that the penetration effect of drugs is enhanced due to the drug being more charged inside the cell through these stomas. Furthermore, it has become clear that the concomitant therapy of anti-angiogenesis drugs and low-intensity ultrasound blocks the angiogenic factor VEGF produced by cancer cells, inhibits the induction of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the bone marrow, and expedites angiogenic inhibitor TSP-1. Based on research achievements in recent years, we predict that the current diagnostic device for color Doppler ultrasound imaging will be improved in the near future, bringing with it the arrival of an age of “low-intensity ultrasound treatment that simultaneously enables diagnosis and treatment of cancer in real time.”

  19. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Marinac

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1 proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5 pm-midnight, (2 number of eating episodes per day, and (3 nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR. Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP. There was a significant interaction between proportion of calories consumed in the evening and fasting duration with CRP (p = 0.02. A longer nighttime fasting duration was associated with an 8 percent lower CRP only among women who ate less than 30% of their total daily calories in the evening (p = 0.01. None of the eating frequency and timing variables were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. These findings suggest that eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations.

  20. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinac, Catherine R; Sears, Dorothy D; Natarajan, Loki; Gallo, Linda C; Breen, Caitlin I; Patterson, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5 pm-midnight), (2) number of eating episodes per day, and (3) nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP. There was a significant interaction between proportion of calories consumed in the evening and fasting duration with CRP (p = 0.02). A longer nighttime fasting duration was associated with an 8 percent lower CRP only among women who ate less than 30% of their total daily calories in the evening (p = 0.01). None of the eating frequency and timing variables were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. These findings suggest that eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations.

  1. No difference in the frequency of locus-specific methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of women diagnosed with breast cancer and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K.; Thestrup, Britta Boserup; Cold, Søren

    2011-01-01

    might predispose for cancer development. Here, we have used the methlyation-sensitive high-resolution melting approach to examine the methylation status of the BRCA1, BRCA2, APC, RASSF1A and RARβ2 genes in PBLs of a group of women diagnosed with breast cancer, and an age-matched control group...... with no signs of breast cancer. No significant differences in the frequency of methylation of the above genes were found between cases and controls in our study. Hence, testing for the presence of methylation of cancer-related genes in PBL DNA from women diagnosed with sporadic breast cancer and classified...

  2. Benzoxazinoids in Prostate Cancer Patients after a Rye-Intensive Diet: Methods and Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Stine K; Pedersen, Hans A; Adhikari, Khem B; Laursen, Bente B; Jensen, Claudia; Høyer, Søren; Borre, Michael; Pedersen, Helene H; Borre, Mette; Edwards, David; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-11-02

    Rye bread contains high amounts of benzoxazinoids, and in vitro studies have shown suppressive effects of selected benzoxazinoids on prostate cancer cells. Thus, research into benzoxazinoids as possible suppressors of prostate cancer is demanded. A pilot study was performed in which ten prostate cancer patients received a rye-enriched diet 1 week prior to prostatectomy. Plasma and urine samples were collected pre- and postintervention. Ten prostate biopsies were obtained from each patient and histologically evaluated. The biopsies exhibited concentrations above the detection limit of seven benzoxazinoids ranging from 0.15 to 10.59 ng/g tissue. An OPLS-DA analysis on histological and plasma concentrations of benzoxazinoids classified the subjects into two clusters. A tendency of higher benzoxazinoid concentrations toward the benign group encourages further investigations. Benzoxazinoids were quantified by an optimized LC-MS/MS method, and matrix effects were evaluated. At low concentrations in biopsy and plasma matrices the matrix effect was concentration-dependent and nonlinear. For the urine samples the general matrix effects were small but patient-dependent.

  3. Combined therapeutic application of botulinum toxin type A, low-frequency rTMS, and intensive occupational therapy for post-stroke spastic upper limb hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, W; Abo, M; Momosaki, R; Yokoi, A; Fukuda, A; Ito, H; Tominaga, A; Umemori, T; Kameda, Y

    2012-03-01

    For spastic upper limb hemiparesis after stroke, we developed triple-element protocol of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) injection, low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS), and intensive occupational therapy (OT). Aim. To investigate the safety and feasibility of the protocol. Design. A preliminary study. Setting. At a university hospital. Population. Fourteen post-stroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis (mean age: 54.9±9.2 years, time after onset: 87.1±48.2 months, ±SD). In all patients, BoNTA was injected into spastic muscles of the affected upper limb (maximum total dose: 240 units). Four weeks later, they were hospitalized to receive 22 sessions of 20-min LF-rTMS and 120-min intensive OT daily over 15 days. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated mainly using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), motor activity log (MAL), and the severity of spasticity was measured with modified Ashworth scale (MAS) at BoNTA injection, discharge and four weeks post-discharge. All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score and MAL scores, but not WMFT performance time, improved significantly at discharge. The MAS score of all examined muscles decreased significantly between BoNTA and discharge. The beneficial effect of the protocol on motor function and spasticity was almost maintained until four weeks after discharge. The protocol is safe and feasible, although further larger studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. The protocol is a potentially useful neurorehabilitative approach for this patient population.

  4. Effects of high-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus intravenous opioids for pain relief after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, Birgitta; Mannheimer, Clas; Andréll, Paulin

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the pain relieving effect and the time spent in the recovery unit after treatment with high frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or intravenous (IV) opioids after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. All patients who postoperatively reported visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score ≥ 3 were consecutively included in the study. The TENS treatment was given with a stimulus intensity between 40-60 mA during 1 minute, repeated once if insufficient pain relief. In the opioid group, a maximum dose of 10 mg morphine was given IV. If the patient reported insufficient pain relief (VAS ≥ 3) on the assigned treatment, the patient crossed over to the other treatment group. Ninety-three women were randomized to TENS (n = 47) or IV opioids (n = 46). Both groups reported significant pain relief at leave from the recovery unit (TENS group: VAS 5.4 to 1.0, P < 0.001; IV opioid group: VAS 5.2 to 1.1, P < 0.001) with no differences between the groups. When only responders, i.e. patients with VAS < 3 after assigned treatment, were compared the TENS responders spent significantly shorter time in the recovery unit (90 vs. 122 minutes, P = 0.008) compared to the responders in the opioid group. TENS and IV opioids are both effective treatments for pain relief after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. TENS seems to be preferable for first choice of treatment as the treatment is associated with shorter time spent in recovery unit if the patient responds to the treatment.

  5. Intensive smoking diminishes the differences in quality of life and exacerbation frequency between the alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency genotypes PiZZ and PiSZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Nikolas; Lepper, Philipp M; Vogelmeier, Claus; Seibert, Martina; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Bals, Robert; Fähndrich, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with low levels of circulating alpha-1-antitrypsin in serum. In comparison to the genotype PiZZ, PiSZ usually leads to lower risk of emphysema, better lung function and better survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between cigarette smoking (packyears) and the AATD genotypes (PiZZ and PiSZ) concerning quality of life (SGRQ), transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) and exacerbation rate. We compared PiZZ and PiSZ individuals from the German registry for individuals with AATD (AATDR) in univariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models. All subjects were stratified into three groups according to their cumulative nicotine consumption (0 py; 0 < py < 30; ?30 py). 868 PiZZ individuals (mean age 52.6 ± 12.8 years (43.5% female)) and 114 PiSZ individuals (mean age 50.3 ± 17.4 years (46.5% female)) were compared. In contrast to never- and intensive (ex-) smokers, moderate (ex-) smoking PiSZ individuals had a significantly better SGRQ total score (B = ?8.148; p = 0.020) and less exacerbations (B = ?0.354; p = 0.037) than individuals with PiZZ in multivariate analysis. The differences in quality of life and exacerbation frequency between PiZZ and PiSZ individuals diminish by intensive (ex-) smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Michael; Leong, Trevor; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Kneebone, Andrew; Carroll, Susan; Wiltshire, Kirsty; Ngan, Samuel; Kachnic, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  7. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.villeneuve@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  8. Utilization of intensity modulated beam radiotherapy (IMBXRT) to diminish dose to the parotid gland in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, W. Woo; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine if intensity conformal modulated radiotherapy could diminish the radiation dose to the parotid gland in the treatment of primary head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The NOMOS Peacock treatment system was utilized in the planning and delivery of conformal radiotherapy for the following diseases: 1) an oropharyngeal cancer that extends from the soft palate to the tonsillar fossa without nodal disease, 2) laryngeal hypopharyngeal cancer without nodal disease, 3) and adenocystic carcinoma, that originated in the hard palate. Patients were treated to areas suspicious for microscopic disease (nodal disease in 1 and 2, perineural spread in 3) at 2 Gy per fraction for a tc of 50 Gy in five weeks. The primary disease was treated at 2.4 Gy per fraction for a total of 60 Gy over five weeks. The percent of the volume of each parotid gland receiving < 20 Gy, <25 Gy and <30 Gy retrospectively was determined for each of the above mentioned optimized plans. The patients were observed for the clinical development of xerostomia. Results: No patient developed clinically apparent xerostomia within one month of completion of radiotherapy. Conclusion: IMBXRT could reduce the volume to parotid glands receiving high radiation doses. Sparing of the parotid glands appear to be most easily accomplished when irradiating head and neck tumors that do not require regional nodal treatment. For head and neck cancer that requires nodal treatment it is possible to spare a significant portion of the parotid glands if the disease originates below the hyoid bone where the primary site is not in close proximity to the parotid glands. Objective salivary flow data are being obtained pre ar post treatment, to confirm the subjective impression of lack of clinical xerostomia. IMBXRT is potentially beneficial in decreasing the morbidity of xerostomia related to head and neck irradiation

  9. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Michael, E-mail: mng@radoncvic.com.au [Radiation Oncology Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Carroll, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Wiltshire, Kirsty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Kachnic, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  10. Females with paired occurrence of cancers in the UADT and genital region have a higher frequency of either Glutathione S-transferase M1/T1 null genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhavar Sameer G

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upper Aero digestive Tract (UADT is the commonest site for the development of second cancer in females after primary cervical cancer. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and / or T1 null genotype modulates the risk of developing UADT cancer (primary as well as second cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in GST null genotype frequencies in females with paired cancers in the UADT and genital region as compared to females with paired cancers in the UADT and non-genital region. Forty-nine females with a cancer in the UADT and another cancer (at all sites-genital and non-genital were identified from a database of patients with multiple primary neoplasms and were analyzed for the GSTM1 and T1 genotype in addition to known factors such as age, tobacco habits, alcohol habits and family history of cancer. Frequencies of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and either GSTM1/T1 null were higher in females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and genital site (54%, 33% and 75% respectively in comparison to females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and non-genital sites (22%, 6% and 24% respectively. The significantly higher inherited frequency of either GSTM1/T1 null genotype in females with a paired occurrence of cancers in UADT and genital region (p = 0.01, suggests that these females are more susceptible to damage by carcinogens as compared to females who have UADT cancers in association with cancers at non-genital sites.

  11. Frequencies of Private Mentions and Sharing of Mammography and Breast Cancer Terms on Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco; Chetlen, Alison; Segel, Joel; Schetter, Susann

    2017-06-09

    The most popular social networking site in the United States is Facebook, an online forum where circles of friends create, share, and interact with each other's content in a nonpublic way. Our objectives were to understand (1) the most commonly used terms and phrases relating to breast cancer screening, (2) the most commonly shared website links that other women interacted with, and (3) the most commonly shared website links, by age groups. We used a novel proprietary tool from Facebook to analyze all of the more than 1.7 million unique interactions (comments on stories, reshares, and emoji reactions) and stories associated with breast cancer screening keywords that were generated by more than 1.1 million unique female Facebook users over the 1 month between November 15 and December 15, 2016. We report frequency distributions of the most popular shared Web content by age group and keywords. On average, each of 59,000 unique stories during the month was reshared 1.5 times, commented on nearly 8 times, and reacted to more than 20 times by other users. Posted stories were most often authored by women aged 45-54 years. Users shared, reshared, commented on, and reacted to website links predominantly to e-commerce sites (12,200/1.7 million, 36% of all the most popular links), celebrity news (n=8800, 26%), and major advocacy organizations (n=4900, 15%; almost all accounted for by the American Cancer Society breast cancer site). On Facebook, women shared and reacted to links to commercial and informative websites regarding breast cancer and screening. This information could inform patient outreach regarding breast cancer screening, indirectly through better understanding of key issues, and directly through understanding avenues for paid messaging to women authoring and reacting to content in this space. ©Marco Huesch, Alison Chetlen, Joel Segel, Susann Schetter. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 09.06.2017.

  12. Meta-analysis of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer risk: a pooled analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yemao; Lai, Jinsheng; Ruan, Guoran; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) may affect physiological functions in animal models. However, epidemiologic studies investigating the association of ELF-EMF with the susceptibility to cancer yield contradictory results. In this comprehensive analysis, we conducted a search for case-control surveys regarding the associations of ELF-EMF and cancer susceptibility in electronic databases. A total of 42 studies involving 13,259 cases and 100,882 controls were retrieved. Overall, increased susceptibility to cancer was identified in the ELF-EMF exposed population (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.15, P=0.02). In the stratified analyses, increased risk was found in North America (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20, P=0.02), especially the United States (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20, P=0.03). However, studies from Europe contradict these results. Moreover, a higher risk was found to be statistically significantly associated with the residential exposed population (OR=1.18; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.37, P=0.03). Furthermore, an increased cancer risk was found in interview-based surveys (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35, P=0.04). In device measurement-based studies, a slight increased risk was found only in premenopausal breast cancer (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49, P=0.04). Our meta-analysis suggests that ELF-EMFs are associated with cancer risk, mainly in the United States and in residential exposed populations. Methodological challenges might explain the differences among studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequencies of Private Mentions and Sharing of Mammography and Breast Cancer Terms on Facebook: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Segel, Joel; Schetter, Susann

    2017-01-01

    Background The most popular social networking site in the United States is Facebook, an online forum where circles of friends create, share, and interact with each other’s content in a nonpublic way. Objective Our objectives were to understand (1) the most commonly used terms and phrases relating to breast cancer screening, (2) the most commonly shared website links that other women interacted with, and (3) the most commonly shared website links, by age groups. Methods We used a novel proprietary tool from Facebook to analyze all of the more than 1.7 million unique interactions (comments on stories, reshares, and emoji reactions) and stories associated with breast cancer screening keywords that were generated by more than 1.1 million unique female Facebook users over the 1 month between November 15 and December 15, 2016. We report frequency distributions of the most popular shared Web content by age group and keywords. Results On average, each of 59,000 unique stories during the month was reshared 1.5 times, commented on nearly 8 times, and reacted to more than 20 times by other users. Posted stories were most often authored by women aged 45-54 years. Users shared, reshared, commented on, and reacted to website links predominantly to e-commerce sites (12,200/1.7 million, 36% of all the most popular links), celebrity news (n=8800, 26%), and major advocacy organizations (n=4900, 15%; almost all accounted for by the American Cancer Society breast cancer site). Conclusions On Facebook, women shared and reacted to links to commercial and informative websites regarding breast cancer and screening. This information could inform patient outreach regarding breast cancer screening, indirectly through better understanding of key issues, and directly through understanding avenues for paid messaging to women authoring and reacting to content in this space. PMID:28600279

  14. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  15. Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smolińska, Katarzyna; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The colon and rectum are common sites of food-related cancer in developed countries. Recent studies strongly suggest that red meat intake is associated with colon cancer, whereas for rectal cancer such an association still needs to be proved. The aim of the study was to assess the role of total amount and frequency of red meat intake in colorectal carcinogenesis based on published data using meta-analysis methods. Material and methods The literature published until 2009 was selec...

  16. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of fat-free mass in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, Stine Skov; Tang Møllehave, Line; Kadkhoda, Zahra Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Changes in body composition in cancer patients during chemotherapy are associated with treatment related toxicities or mortalities. Thus, it is relevant to identify accessible, relatively inexpensive, portable and reliable tools for evaluation of body composition in cancer patients...... during the course of their treatments. Objective: To examine relationships between single cross-sectional thighs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skeletal muscle mass (SM) as reference and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) in patients with colorectal cancer...

  17. Intensive follow-up for women with breast cancer: review of clinical, economic and patient's preference domains through evidence to decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranconi, Alessandra; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Deandrea, Silvia; Bramesfeld, Anke; Lerda, Donata; Neamțiu, Luciana; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Posso, Margarita; Rigau, David; Sola, Ivan; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-10-19

    Women treated for breast cancer are followed-up for monitoring of treatment effectiveness and for detecting recurrences at an early stage. The type of follow-up received may affect women's reassurance and impact on their quality of life. Anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer has been described, but little is known about how the intensity of the follow-up can affect women's psychological status. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intensive vs. less-intensive follow-up on different health outcomes, to determine what are women's preferences and values regarding the follow-up received, and also assess the costs of these different types of follow-up. A systematic review following standard Cochrane Collaboration methods was carried out to assess the efficacy of intensive follow-up versus non-intensive follow-up in breast cancer patients. Two additional reviews on women's preferences and economic evidence were also carried out. The search was performed up to January 2016 in: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PDQ, McMaster Health Systems Evidence, CENTRAL, and NHS EED (through The Cochrane Library). The quality of evidence was assessed by GRADE (for quantitative studies) and CerQUAL (for qualitative studies). Several outcomes including mortality, breast cancer recurrences, quality of life, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Six randomised trials (corresponding to 3534 women) were included for the evaluation of health outcomes; three studies were included for women's values and preferences and four for an economic assessment. There is moderate certainty of evidence showing that intensive follow-up, including more frequent diagnostic tests or visits, does not have effects on 5- or 10-year overall mortality and recurrences in women with breast cancer, compared with less intensive follow-up. Regarding women's preferences and values, there was important variability among studies and within studies (low confidence due to risk of bias and inconsistency

  18. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  19. 1.319 μm excited intense 800 nm frequency upconversion emission in Tm{sup 3+}-doped fluorogermanate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia-Neto, A. S.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Gouveia, E. A.; Jacinto, C., E-mail: cjacinto@fis.ufal.br [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Bueno, L. A. [Universidade de Sorocaba, 18023-000 Sorocaba-SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    Generation of near-infrared light within the first biological optical window via frequency upconversion in Tm{sup 3+}-doped PbGeO{sub 3}-PbF{sub 2}-CdF{sub 2} glass excited within the second biological window at 1.319 μm is reported. The upconversion emission at 800 nm is the sole light signal observed in the entire ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral region making it possible obtaining high contrast imaging. The dependence of the 800 nm signal upon the sample temperature was investigated and results showed an increase by a factor of ×2.5 in the 30–280 °C range. Generation of detectable 690 nm for temperatures above 100 °C in addition to the intense 800 nm main signal was also observed. The proposed excitation mechanism for the 800 nm thulium emitting level is assigned to a multiphonon-assisted excitation from the ground-state {sup 3}H{sub 6} to the {sup 3}H{sub 5} excited-state level, a rapid relaxation to the {sup 3}F{sub 4} level and followed by an excited-state absorption of the pump photons mediated by multiphonons connecting the {sup 3}F{sub 4} level to the {sup 3}H{sub 4} emitting level.

  20. Aggression frequency and intensity, independent of testosterone levels, relate to neural activation within the dorsolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the tree lizard Urosaurus ornatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelik, David; Crombie, Tim; Moore, Michael C

    2008-06-01

    The mechanisms by which testosterone regulates aggression are unclear and may involve changes that alter the activity levels of one or more brain nuclei. We estimate neural activity by counting immunopositive cells against phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB). We demonstrate increased pCREB immunoreactivity within the dorsolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHdl) following an aggressive encounter in male tree lizards Urosaurus ornatus. This immunoreactivity is induced both by exposure to and performance of aggressive behaviors. This dual activation of the VMHdl suggests its possible role as an integration center for assessment and expression of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, pCREB induction was greater in encounters involving higher frequency and intensity of aggressive display, demonstrating a direct relationship between neural activation and behavior. The VMHdl is also rich in steroid receptors. In a second experiment involving hormone manipulations, testosterone treatment increased aggression levels, though it did not increase the number of pCREB positive cells within the VMHdl. This lack of an effect of testosterone on pCREB induction within the VMHdl may be due to induction arising from the behaviors of conspecifics (especially in low-testosterone, low-aggression individuals), variation in aggression mediated by other variables, or regulation of aggression by circuits outside of the VMHdl. Together, these findings support a notion of the VMHdl as a nucleus involved in integrating afferent and efferent information within the neural aggression-control circuit.

  1. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  2. [Intra-arterial regional chemotherapy and intensive loco-regional radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cancer of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolato, A

    1990-09-01

    A multimodal treatment combining intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive loco-regional radiotherapy was administered to 55 patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Adjuvant polychemotherapy followed, and eventually endocrino-therapy. Combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive radiotherapy gave excellent results in both primary and lymph node lesions, with 90.9% and 92.2% complete/partial response rates. Three-year and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 69% and 59%, respectively. Patients showing better local responses to combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive radiotherapy had longer survival and less frequent local recurrences. Combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive loco-regional radiotherapy seems to be an effective modality for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer.

  3. Screening frequency and histologic type influence the efficacy of cervical cancer screening: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yun-Yuan; Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; You, San-Lin; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chen, Chi-An

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of age, screening interval, and histologic type on the effect of Pap smears in cervical cancer screening. Data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry and Cervical Cancer Screening Registration System for the period from 2002 to 2010. Age, Pap smear interval, FIGO stage, and histology were further analyzed. A total of 12,294 women with cervical cancer were enrolled, including 10,040 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 1720 with adenocarcinoma (ADC), 401 with adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), and 133 with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SMC). Women who had a Pap smear at an interval of cervical cancer screening (p Pap smear; however, women with ADCs were predominantly in the younger age and greater than 40% of women with ADCs had Pap smear at intervals Pap smear is more effective in screening for cervical SCCs compared to cervical ADCs. Improving adherence to screening recommendations is important for the prevention of cervical SCC, especially in elderly women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Beam intensity modulation for penumbra enhancement and field length reduction in lung cancer treatments: a dosimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkx, M.L.P.; Heijmen, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent treatment planning study, a previously published technique for superior-inferior field length reduction for prostate cancer patients, based on penumbra enhancement using static beam intensity modulation (BIM) with a multileaf collimator, was investigated for lung cancer treatments. For the patient group studied, the field lengths could be reduced by 1.4 cm and an average dose escalation of 6 Gy (maximum 16 Gy) appeared to be possible without any increase in the calculated risk of radiation pneumonitis. However, this planning study was performed with a treatment planning system that does not correctly account for the increased lateral secondary electron transport in lung tissue, resulting in too steep beam penumbrae. Therefore, prior to clinical implementation, an extensive dosimetric study was performed to evaluate and optimize BIM for penumbra enhancement and superior-inferior field length reduction in lung cancer treatments. Film dosimetry was performed in several phantoms consisting of water equivalent and lung equivalent materials, both for a 6 and a 10 MV photon beam. Measured dose distributions were used to (i) adapt the BIM technique to properly account for increased lateral secondary electron transport, (ii) compare BIM dose distributions in lung material with dose distributions of standard treatment fields, and (iii) investigate the use of our treatment planning system for the design of BIM plans for lung cancer patients. Compared with our treatment planning study the superior and inferior boost fields, used in the BIM technique for penumbra enhancement, had to be longer and of a higher weight to compensate for the increased lateral secondary electron transport in lung tissue. With these modifications in the BIM technique, field lengths could indeed be reduced by 1.4 cm compared with treatment with standard fields, without the appearance of underdosages in the most superior and inferior target areas, whilst better sparing the healthy lung

  5. Intensity modulated or fractionated stereotactic reirradiation in patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Zwicker, Felix; Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan; Timke, Carmen; Thieke, Christian; Bischof, Marc; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    To report our experience with intensity-modulated or stereotactic reirradiation in patients suffering from recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma The records of 17 patients with recurrent nasopharygeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated (n = 14) or stereotactic (n = 3) reirradiation in our institution were reviewed. Median age was 53 years and most patients (n = 14) were male. The majority of tumors showed undifferentiated histology (n = 14) and infiltration of intracranial structures (n = 12). Simultaneous systemic therapy was applied in 8 patients. Initial treatment covered the gross tumor volume with a median dose of 66 Gy (50-72 Gy) and the cervical nodal regions with a median dose of 56 Gy (50-60 Gy). Reirradiation was confined to the local relapse region with a median dose of 50.4 Gy (36-64Gy), resulting in a median cumulative dose of 112 Gy (91-134 Gy). The median time interval between initial and subsequent treatment was 52 months (6-132). The median follow up for the entire cohort was 20 months and 31 months for survivors (10-84). Five patients (29%) developed isolated local recurrences and three patients (18%) suffered from isolated nodal recurrences. The actuarial 1- and 2-year rates of local/locoregional control were 76%/59% and 69%/52%, respectively. Six patients developed distant metastasis during the follow up period. The median actuarial overall survival for the entire cohort was 23 months, transferring into 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates of 82%, 44% and 37%. Univariate subset analyses showed significantly increased overall survival and local control for patients with less advanced rT stage, retreatment doses > 50 Gy, concurrent systemic treatment and complete response. Severe late toxicity (Grad III) attributable to reirradiation occurred in five patients (29%), particularly as hearing loss, alterations of taste/smell, cranial neuropathy, trismus and xerostomia. Reirradiation with intensity-modulated or stereotactic techniques in

  6. Single High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Session as a Whole Gland Primary Treatment for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: 10-Year Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Limani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the treatment outcomes of a single session of whole gland high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa. Methods. Response rates were defined using the Stuttgart and Phoenix criteria. Complications were graded according to the Clavien score. Results. At a median follow-up of 94months, 48 (44.4% and 50 (46.3% patients experienced biochemical recurrence for Phoenix and Stuttgart definition, respectively. The 5- and 10-year actuarial biochemical recurrence free survival rates were 57% and 40%, respectively. The 10-year overall survival rate, cancer specific survival rate, and metastasis free survival rate were 72%, 90%, and 70%, respectively. Preoperative high risk category, Gleason score, preoperative PSA, and postoperative nadir PSA were independent predictors of oncological failure. 24.5% of patients had self-resolving LUTS, 18.2% had urinary tract infection, and 18.2% had acute urinary retention. A grade 3b complication occurred in 27 patients. Pad-free continence rate was 87.9% and the erectile dysfunction rate was 30.8%. Conclusion. Single session HIFU can be alternative therapy for patients with low risk PCa. Patients with intermediate risk should be informed about the need of multiple sessions of HIFU and/or adjuvant treatments and HIFU performed very poorly in high risk patients.

  7. Analysis of parotid gland and target volume variations during the head neck cancer intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jingwei; Fu Weihua; Xu Guozhen; Gao Li; Yan Di; Wu Qiuwen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) and parotid gland volume dur- ing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods: Five patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma were treated by IMRT. Cone beam CT was done every week during the whole course of radiotherapy. All images were fused with cone beam CT pictures and the initial CT pictures. The contouring was on normal parotid gland and gas cavity in each slide of cone beam CT. The changes of parotid gland and gas volume in GTV were calculated. Results: The parotid gland volume decreased, and gas volume in the GTV increased throughout the course of IMRT. At the end of radiotherapy, the parotid gland volume decreased to 90.1%- 52.3% compared with the volume before IMRT, gas cavity volume increased and took up to 3.7%-16.8% of GTV at the beginning of radiotherapy. Conclusion: Normal parotid gland volume and GTV is changed during IMRT in head and neck cancer. Cone beam CT can be used to find these changes which are helpful in carrying out the second IMRT plan. (authors)

  8. Long-term results of forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Boram; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Rena; Moon, Byung In [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To observe long-term clinical outcomes for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including local control and clinical toxicities. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 214 patients with stage I-II breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant breast radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. All patients were treated using forward IMRT. The whole breast was irradiated to a dose of 50 to 50.4 Gy followed by an 8 to 12 Gy electron boost to the surgical bed. The median age was 46 years (range, 21 to 82 years) and the medial follow-up time was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11.7 years). Stage T1 was 139 (65%) and T2 was 75 (35%), respectively. Ipsilateral breast recurrence was observed in 3 patients. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 99.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated according to the Harvard scale and 89.4% of patients were scored as excellent or good. The whole breast radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment using a forward IMRT technique showed excellent long-term local control as well as favorable outcomes of toxicity and cosmesis.

  9. Association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer risk is not influenced by genetic polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Anna Maria; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Skjelbred, Camilla Furu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals has been associated with cancer risk. It is presently unclear whether this association is influenced by individual susceptibility factors such as genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic......-metabolizing enzymes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) as effect modifiers of the association between CA and cancer risk. METHODS: A case-control study was performed pooling data from cytogenetic studies carried out in 1974...... information about cancer risk by CA frequency. RESULTS: The association between CA frequency and cancer risk was confirmed [OR(medium) (odds ratio)(medium) = 1.5, 95% credibility interval (CrI), 0.9-2.5; OR(high) = 2.8, 95% CrI, 1.6-4.6], whereas no effect of the genetic polymorphism was observed. A much...

  10. The joint association of eating frequency and diet quality with colorectal cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekary, Rania A; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Chiuve, Stephanie; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles; Fung, Teresa T; Giovannucci, Edward

    2012-04-01

    The results of most case-control studies have suggested a positive association between eating frequency and colorectal cancer risk. Because no prospective cohort studies have done so to date, the authors prospectively examined this association. In 1992, eating frequency was assessed in a cohort of 34,968 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for various levels of eating frequency. Effect modifications by overall dietary quality (assessed using the Diet Approaches to Stop Hypertension score) and by factors that influence insulin resistance were further assessed. Between 1992 and 2006, a total of 583 cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed. When comparing the highest eating frequency category (5-8 times/day) with the reference category (3 times/day), the authors found no evidence of an increased risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate relative risk = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.26) or colon cancer (multivariate relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.25). There was an implied inverse association with eating frequency among participants who had healthier diets (high Diet Approaches to Stop Hypertension score; P for interaction = 0.01), especially among men in the high-insulin-sensitivity group (body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) frequency of healthy meals and colorectal cancer risk and in men with factors associated with higher insulin sensitivity.

  11. Cancer in Machado-Joseph disease patients-low frequency as a cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gabriele Nunes; Kersting, Nathália; Gonçalves, Thomaz Abramsson; Pacheco, Daphne Louise Oliveira; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria-Luiza; Camey, Suzi Alves; Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2017-04-01

    Since polyglutamine diseases have been related to a reduced risk of cancer, we aimed to study the 15 years cumulative incidence of cancer (CIC) (arm 1) and the proportion of cancer as a cause of death (arm 2) in symptomatic carriers of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD). SCA3/MJD and control individuals from our state were invited to participate. A structured interview was performed. CIC as published by the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer, was used as populational control. Causes of death were obtained from the Public Information System on Mortality. We interviewed 154 SCA3/MJD patients and 80 unrelated controls: CIC was 7/154 (4.5%) and 5/80 (6.3%), respectively. The interim analysis for futility showed that the number of individuals required to detect a significant difference between groups (1938) would be three times larger than the existing local SCA3/MJD population (625), for an absolute risk reduction of 1.8%. Then this study arm was discontinued due to lack of power. In the same period, cancer was a cause of death in 9/101 (8.9%) SCA3/MJD and in 52/202 (26.2%) controls, with an absolute reduction risk of 17.3% (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.13 to 0.58, p = 0.01). A significant reduction of cancer as cause of death was observed in SCA3/MJD, suggesting a common effect to all polyglutamine diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Intrafractional prostate motion during online image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiharto, Tom; Slagmolen, Pieter; Haustermans, Karin; Maes, Frederik; Junius, Sara; Verstraete, Jan; Oyen, Raymond; Hermans, Jeroen; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intrafractional motion consists of two components: (1) the movement between the on-line repositioning procedure and the treatment start and (2) the movement during the treatment delivery. The goal of this study is to estimate this intrafractional movement of the prostate during prostate cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods: Twenty-seven patients with prostate cancer and implanted fiducials underwent a marker match procedure before a five-field IMRT treatment. For all fields, in-treatment images were obtained and then processed to enable automatic marker detection. Combining the subsequent projection images, five positions of each marker were determined using the shortest path approach. The residual set-up error (RSE) after kV-MV based prostate localization, the prostate position as a function of time during a radiotherapy session and the required margins to account for intrafractional motion were determined. Results: The mean RSE and standard deviation in the antero-posterior, cranio-caudal and left-right direction were 2.3 ± 1.5 mm, 0.2 ± 1.1 mm and -0.1 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. Almost all motions occurred in the posterior direction before the first treatment beam as the percentage of excursions >5 mm was reduced significantly when the RSE was not accounted for. The required margins for intrafractional motion increased with prolongation of the treatment. Application of a repositioning protocol after every beam could decrease the 1 cm margin from CTV to PTV by 2 mm. Conclusions: The RSE is the main contributor to intrafractional motion. This RSE after on-line prostate localization and patient repositioning in the posterior direction emphasizes the need to speed up the marker match procedure. Also, a prostate IMRT treatment should be administered as fast as possible, to ensure that the pre-treatment repositioning efforts are not erased by intrafractional prostate motion. This warrants an optimized workflow with the use of faster treatment

  13. Preferred treatment frequency in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Nielsen, Torben K; Al-Hamadani, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess patient preference regarding the length of treatment intervals of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a questionnaire-based, cross...... satisfaction and side-effects. Overall, 238 men receiving ADT for prostate cancer were presented with the questionnaire between September 2011 and May 2012. Descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test and multiple regression were used for analyses. RESULTS: In total, 176 questionnaires (74%) were available...

  14. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: rigid compliance to dose-volume constraints as a warranty of acceptable toxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Michael J; Nadalin, Wladmir; Weltman, Eduardo; Hanriot, Rodrigo M; Luz, Fábio P; Cecílio, Paulo J; Cruz, José C da; Moreira, Frederico R; Santos, Adriana S; Martins, Lidiane C

    2007-01-01

    To report the toxicity after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with localized prostate cancer, as a sole treatment or after radical prostatectomy. Between August 2001 and December 2003, 132 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT and 125 were evaluable to acute and late toxicity analysis, after a minimum follow-up time of one year. Clinical and treatment data, including normal tissue dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints, were reviewed. Gastro-intestinal (GI) and genito-urinary (GU) signs and symptoms were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scales. Median prescribed dose was 76 Gy. Median follow-up time was of 26.1 months. From the 125 patients, 73 (58.4%) presented acute Grade 1 or Grade 2 GI and 97 (77.2%) presented acute Grade 1 or Grade 2 GU toxicity. Grade 3 GI acute toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (1.6%) and Grade 3 GU acute toxicity in only 3 patients (2.4%). Regarding Grade 1 and 2 late toxicity, 26 patients (20.8%) and 21 patients (16.8%) presented GI and GU toxicity, respectively. Grade 2 GI late toxicity occurred in 6 patients (4.8%) and Grade 2 GU late toxicity in 4 patients (3.2%). None patient presented any Grade 3 or higher late toxicity. Non-conformity to DVH constraints occurred in only 11.2% of treatment plans. On univariate analysis, no significant risk factor was identified for Grade 2 GI late toxicity, but mean dose delivered to the PTV was associated to higher Grade 2 GU late toxicity (p = 0.042). IMRT is a well tolerable technique for routine treatment of localized prostate cancer, with short and medium-term acceptable toxicity profiles. According to the data presented here, rigid compliance to DHV constraints might prevent higher incidences of normal tissue complication

  15. Treatment outcome of localized prostate cancer by 70 Gy hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with a customized rectal balloon

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    Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Chang Geol; Yang, Seung Choul; Choi, Young Deuk; Suh, Chang Ok; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to analyze the treatment outcome and long-term toxicity of 70 Gy hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer using a customized rectal balloon. We reviewed medical records of 86 prostate cancer patients who received curative radiotherapy between January 2004 and December 2011 at our institution. Patients were designated as low (12.8%), intermediate (20.9%), or high risk (66.3%). Thirty patients received a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions over 5 weeks via IMRT (the Hypo-IMRT group); 56 received 70.2 Gy in 39 fractions over 7 weeks via 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (the CF-3DRT group, which served as a reference for comparison). A customized rectal balloon was placed in Hypo-IMRT group throughout the entire radiotherapy course. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered to 47 patients (Hypo-IMRT group, 17; CF-3DRT group, 30). Late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The median follow-up period was 74.4 months (range, 18.8 to 125.9 months). The 5-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival rates for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients were 100%, 100%, and 88.5%, respectively, for the Hypo-IMRT group and 80%, 77.8%, and 63.6%, respectively, for the CF-3DRT group (p < 0.046). No patient presented with acute or late GU toxicity > or =grade 3. Late grade 3 GI toxicity occurred in 2 patients (3.6%) in the CF-3DRT group and 1 patient (3.3%) in the Hypo-IMRT group. Hypo-IMRT with a customized rectal balloon resulted in excellent biochemical control rates with minimal toxicity in localized prostate cancer patients.

  16. Histopathology of breast cancer after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuttel, Floortje M; Waaijer, Laurien; Merckel, Laura G; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Witkamp, Arjen J; Deckers, Roel; van Diest, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are being researched as possible substitutes for surgery in breast cancer patients. The histopathological appearance of ablated tissue has not been studied in great detail. This study aimed to compare histopathological features of breast cancer after MR-HIFU ablation and RFA. MR-HIFU ablation and RFA were performed in- and ex-vivo. Tumours in six mastectomy specimens were partially ablated with RFA or MR-HIFU. In-vivo MR-HIFU ablation was performed 3-6 days before excision; RFA was performed in the operation room. Tissue was fixed in formalin and processed to haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and cytokeratin-8 (CK-8)-stained slides. Morphology and cell viability were assessed. Ex-vivo ablation resulted in clear morphological changes after RFA versus subtle differences after MR-HIFU. CK-8 staining was decreased or absent. H&E tended to underestimate the size of thermal damage. In-vivo MR-HIFU resulted in necrotic-like changes. Surprisingly, some ablated lesions were CK-8-positive. Histopathology after in-vivo RFA resembled ex-vivo RFA, with hyper-eosinophilic stroma and elongated nuclei. Lesion borders were sharp after MR-HIFU and indistinct after RFA. Histopathological differences between MR-HIFU-ablated tissue and RF-ablated tissue were demonstrated. CK-8 was more reliable for cell viability assessment than H&E when used directly after ablation, while H&E was more reliable in ablated tissue left in situ for a few days. Our results contribute to improved understanding of histopathological features in breast cancer lesions treated with minimally invasive ablative techniques. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Limited Advantages of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Over 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in the Adjuvant Management of Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alani, Shlomo; Soyfer, Viacheslav; Strauss, Natan; Schifter, Dan; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although chemoradiotherapy was considered the standard adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer, a recent Phase III trial (Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy [MAGIC]) did not include radiotherapy in the randomization scheme because it was considered expendable. Given radiotherapy's potential, efforts needed to be made to optimize its use for treating gastric cancer. We assessed whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could improve upon our published results in patients treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy using a noncoplanar four-field arrangement. Subsequently, a nine-field IMRT plan was designed using a CMS Xio IMRT version 4.3.3 module. Two IMRT beam arrangements were evaluated: beam arrangement 1 consisted of gantry angles of 0 deg., 53 deg., 107 deg., 158 deg., 204 deg., 255 deg., and 306 deg.. Beam arrangement 2 consisted of gantry angles of 30 deg., 90 deg., 315 deg., and 345 deg.; a gantry angle of 320 deg./couch, 30 deg.; and a gantry angle of 35 o /couch, 312 o . Both the target volume coverage and the dose deposition in adjacent critical organs were assessed in the plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the clinical target volume, kidneys, spine, and liver. Results: Comparison of the clinical target volumes revealed satisfactory coverage by the 95% isodose envelope using either IMRT or 3D conformal therapy. However, IMRT was only marginally better than 3D conformal therapy at protecting the spine and kidneys from radiation. Conclusions: IMRT confers only a marginal benefit in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer and should be used only in the small subset of patients with risk factors for kidney disease or those with a preexisting nephropathy.

  18. Limited advantages of intensity-modulated radiotherapy over 3D conformal radiation therapy in the adjuvant management of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Shlomo; Soyfer, Viacheslav; Strauss, Natan; Schifter, Dan; Corn, Benjamin W

    2009-06-01

    Although chemoradiotherapy was considered the standard adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer, a recent Phase III trial (Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy [MAGIC]) did not include radiotherapy in the randomization scheme because it was considered expendable. Given radiotherapy's potential, efforts needed to be made to optimize its use for treating gastric cancer. We assessed whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could improve upon our published results in patients treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy. Fourteen patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy using a noncoplanar four-field arrangement. Subsequently, a nine-field IMRT plan was designed using a CMS Xio IMRT version 4.3.3 module. Two IMRT beam arrangements were evaluated: beam arrangement 1 consisted of gantry angles of 0 degrees , 53 degrees , 107 degrees , 158 degrees , 204 degrees , 255 degrees , and 306 degrees . Beam arrangement 2 consisted of gantry angles of 30 degrees , 90 degrees , 315 degrees , and 345 degrees ; a gantry angle of 320 degrees /couch, 30 degrees ; and a gantry angle of 35 degrees /couch, 312 degrees . Both the target volume coverage and the dose deposition in adjacent critical organs were assessed in the plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the clinical target volume, kidneys, spine, and liver. Comparison of the clinical target volumes revealed satisfactory coverage by the 95% isodose envelope using either IMRT or 3D conformal therapy. However, IMRT was only marginally better than 3D conformal therapy at protecting the spine and kidneys from radiation. IMRT confers only a marginal benefit in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer and should be used only in the small subset of patients with risk factors for kidney disease or those with a preexisting nephropathy.

  19. Clinical outcome of extended-field irradiation vs. pelvic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Kai; Cao, Xinping; Zeng, Yiming

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distinctions in survival and toxicity between patients with cervical cancer with common iliac node or para-aortic node involvement, who were treated with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) and patients with or without lower involved pelvic nodes, who were treated with pelvic IMRT. A total of 55 patients treated with EF-IMRT and 52 patients treated with pelvic IMRT at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients treated with EF-IMRT had the highest level of lymph node involvement to the para-aortic or common iliac nodes, while patients treated with pelvic IMRT had no para-aortic or common iliac nodes involved (Pirradiation was a protective prognostic factor for OS and DFS. A total of 16 patients in the EF-IMRT group and 13 patients in the pelvic IMRT group experienced treatment failure (P=0.67), with the patterns of failure being the same for the two groups (P=0.88). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 acute toxicities in the EF-IMRT group was 34.5%, in comparison with 19.2% in the pelvic group (P=0.048). The results of the present study suggest that patients with cervical cancer with grossly involved common iliac or para-aortic nodes should be electively subjected to EF irradiation to improve the survival and alter patterns of recurrence. Notably, EF irradiation delivered via IMRT exhibits an increased toxicity incidence, however, this remains within an acceptable range.

  20. A Novel Dose Constraint to Reduce Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Marucci, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the predictors of incidence and duration of xerostomia (XT) based on parotid glands (PG), submandibular glands (SMG), and both glands taken as a whole organ (TG) in head-and-neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was initiated in May 2003. Sixty-three head-and-neck patients (44 with nasopharynx cancer) were included in the analysis. Using the dose-volume histogram the PG, SMG, and TG mean doses were calculated. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow were measured and XT-related questionnaires were compiled before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after radiotherapy. Salivary gland toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, and Grade ≥3 toxicity was used as the endpoint. The XT incidence was investigated according to descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate analysis. The Bonferroni method was used for multiple comparison adjustment. Results: After a reduced flow at 3 months after radiotherapy, recovery of salivary flow was observed over time. Primary site and salivary gland mean doses and volumes were identified in univariate analysis as prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis confirmed that TG mean dose (p = 0.00066) and pretreatment stimulated salivary flow (p = 0.00420) are independent factors for predicting XT. Conclusion: The TG mean dose correlates with XT as assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, salivary output, and XT-related questionnaires. Our results suggest that TG mean dose is a candidate dose constraint for reducing XT, requiring considerably more validation in non-nasopharyngeal cancer patients.

  1. Outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for inoperable locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ningning; Jin Jing; Li Yexiong; Yu Zihao; Liu Xinfan; Wang Weihu; Wang Shulian; Song Yongwen; Liu Yuping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2007, 41 patients with inoperable locally advanced (stage III) pancreatic cancer were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Among these patients, 30 received concurrent radio-chemo-therapy. Results: The median survival time(MST) and 1-year overall survival were 9.2 months and 23%. Patients with pretreatment KPS ≥ 80, no regional lymph nodes metastasis, and CR/PR after radiotherapy had better prognosis. The corresponding MSTs were 11.1 months vs 5.8 months (χ 2 =7.50, P=0.006), 10.8 months vs 6.5 months(χ 2 =5.67, P=0.017), and 19.5 months vs 9.1 months (χ 2 =7.28, P=0.007), respectively. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy tended to improve the overall survival(χ 2 =3.25, P=0.072). After radiotherapy, 18 patients had clinical benefit response, mainly being abdominal pain relief. Neither grade 4 hematologic nor grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: For patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, both 3DCRT and IMRT are effective in alleviation of disease-related symptoms. Patients with better performance status before treatment, no regional lymph nodes metastasis, and better response to radiotherapy may have better prognosis. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy trend to improve overall survival when compared with radiotherapy alone. (authors)

  2. Normalization of prostate specific antigen in patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Matthew D; Padula, Gilbert DA; Chun, Patrick Y; Davis, Alan T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expected time to prostate specific antigen (PSA) normalization with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) therapy after treatment with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. A retrospective cohort research design was used. A total of 133 patients with clinical stage T1c to T3b prostate cancer (2002 AJCC staging) treated in a community setting between January 2002 and July 2005 were reviewed for time to PSA normalization using 1 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL as criteria. All patients received IMRT as part of their management. Times to PSA normalization were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Significance was assessed at p < 0.05. Fifty-six of the 133 patients received NAAD (42.1%). Thirty-one patients (23.8%) received radiation to a limited pelvic field followed by an IMRT boost, while 99 patients received IMRT alone (76.2%). The times to serum PSA normalization < 2 ng/mL when treated with or without NAAD were 298 ± 24 and 302 ± 33 days (mean ± SEM), respectively (p > 0.05), and 303 ± 24 and 405 ± 46 days, respectively, for PSA < 1 ng/mL (p < 0.05). Stage T1 and T2 tumors had significantly increased time to PSA normalization < 1 ng/mL in comparison to Stage T3 tumors. Also, higher Gleason scores were significantly correlated with a faster time to PSA normalization < 1 ng/mL. Use of NAAD in conjunction with IMRT leads to a significantly shortened time to normalization of serum PSA < 1 ng/mL in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

  3. Intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy regimens and grade III-V toxicities among elderly stage III colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erning, F N; Razenberg, L G E M; Lemmens, V E P P; Creemers, G J; Pruijt, J F M; Maas, H A A M; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight in the use, intensity and toxicity of therapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) and capecitabine monotherapy (CapMono) among elderly stage III colon cancer patients treated in everyday clinical practice. Data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used. All stage III colon cancer patients aged ≥70 years diagnosed in the southeastern part between 2005 and 2012 and treated with CAPOX or CapMono were included. Differences in completion of all planned cycles, cumulative dosages and toxicity between both regimens were evaluated. One hundred ninety-three patients received CAPOX and 164 patients received CapMono; 33% (n = 63) of the patients receiving CAPOX completed all planned cycles of both agents, whereas 55% (n = 90) of the patients receiving CapMono completed all planned cycles (P characteristics, CapMono was associated with a lower odds of developing grade III-V toxicity than CAPOX (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.89). For patients treated with CAPOX, the most common toxicities were gastrointestinal (29%), haematological (14%), neurological (11%) and other toxicity (13%). For patients treated with CapMono, dermatological (17%), gastrointestinal (13%) and other toxicity (11%) were the most common. CAPOX is associated with significantly more grade III-V toxicities than CapMono, which had a pronounced impact on the cumulative dosage received and completion of all planned cycles. In this light, CapMono seems preferable over CAPOX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A dosimetric comparison of 3D conformal vs intensity modulated vs volumetric arc radiation therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroudi Farshad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare 3 Dimensional Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT with Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT for bladder cancer. Methods Radiotherapy plans for 15 patients with T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were prospectively developed for 3-DCRT, IMRT and VMAT using Varian Eclipse planning system. The same radiation therapist carried out all planning and the same clinical dosimetric constraints were used. 10 of the patients with well localised tumours had a simultaneous infield boost (SIB of the primary tumour planned for both IMRT and VMAT. Tumour control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated. Results Mean planning time for 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT was 30.0, 49.3, and 141.0 minutes respectively. The mean PTV conformity (CI index for 3D-CRT was 1.32, for IMRT 1.05, and for VMAT 1.05. The PTV Homogeneity (HI index was 0.080 for 3D-CRT, 0.073 for IMRT and 0.086 for VMAT. Tumour control and normal tissue complication probabilities were similar for 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT. The mean monitor units were 267 (range 250–293 for 3D-CRT; 824 (range 641–1083 for IMRT; and 403 (range 333–489 for VMAT (P  Conclusions VMAT is associated with similar dosimetric advantages as IMRT over 3D-CRT for muscle invasive bladder cancer. VMAT is associated with faster delivery times and less number of mean monitor units than IMRT. SIB is feasible in selected patients with localized tumours.

  5. Grading xerostomia by physicians or by patients after intensity-modulated radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirovitz, Amichay; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne; Schipper, Mathew; Pan, Charlie; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess observer-based vs. patient self-reported scoring of xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Methods: A total of 38 patients who had received IMRT for HN cancer underwent xerostomia evaluations 6 to 24 months after completion of therapy using three methods each time: (1) Grading by 3 observers according to the Radiotherapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Therapy of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) system; (2) patient self-reported validated xerostomia questionnaire (XQ); and (3) major salivary gland flow measurements. Results: The interobserver agreement regarding the RTOG/EORTC grades was moderate: κ-coefficient 0.54 (95% CI = 0.31-0.76). The correlations between the average RTOG/EORTC grades and the salivary flow rates were not statistically significant. A trend for significant correlation was observed between these grades and the percent (relative to the pretherapy) nonstimulated salivary flow rates (p = 0.07), but not with the percent stimulated flow rates. Better correlations were found between grading made more than the median time (15 min) after the last liquid sipping and the nonstimulated (but not the stimulated) flows compared with grading made shortly after sipping. In contrast, significant correlations were found between the XQ scores and the nonstimulated (p < 0.005) and the stimulated (p < 0.005) salivary flow rates, as well as with the percentages of the corresponding pretherapy values (p = 0.002 and 0.038, respectively). No significant correlation was found between the RTOG/EORTC grades and the XQ scores. The observer-based grades underestimated the severity of xerostomia compared with the patient self-reported scores. Conclusions: Patient self-reported, rather than physician-assessed scores, should be the main end points in evaluating xerostomia

  6. A retrospective study evaluating frequency and risk factors of osteonecrosis of the jaw in 576 cancer patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbigere-Math, Vivek; Tu, Lam; Huckabay, Sabrina; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Lunos, Scott; Basi, David L; Hughes, Pamela J; Leach, Joseph W; Swenson, Karen K; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the frequency, risk factors, and clinical presentation of bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). We performed a retrospective analysis of 576 patients with cancer treated with intravenous pamidronate and/or zoledronate between January, 2003 and December, 2007 at the University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center and Park Nicollet Institute. Eighteen of 576 identified patients (3.1%) developed BRONJ including 8 of 190 patients (4.2%) with breast cancer, 6 of 83 patients (7.2%) with multiple myeloma, 2 of 84 patients (2.4%) with prostate cancer, 1 of 76 patients (1.3%) with lung cancer, 1 of 52 patients (1.9%) with renal cell carcinoma, and in none of the 73 patients with other malignancies. Ten patients (59%) developed BRONJ after tooth extraction, whereas 7 (41%) developed it spontaneously (missing data for 1 patient). The mean number of BP infusions (38.1 ± 19.06 infusions vs. 10.5 ± 12.81 infusions; P<0.001) and duration of BP treatment (44.3 ± 24.34 mo vs. 14.6 ± 18.09 mo; P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with BRONJ compared with patients without BRONJ. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that diabetes [hazard ratio (HR)=3.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-10.11; P=0.028], hypothyroidism (HR=3.59; 95% CI, 1.31-9.83; P=0.013), smoking (HR=3.44; 95% CI, 1.28-9.26; P=0.015), and higher number of zoledronate infusions (HR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; P=0.001) significantly increased the risk of developing BRONJ. Increased cumulative doses and long-term BP treatment are the most important risk factors for BRONJ development. Type of BP, diabetes, hypothyroidism, smoking, and prior dental extractions may play a role in BRONJ development.

  7. A comparison of forward and inverse treatment planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Werner; Schwarz, Marco; Alber, Markus; Bos, Luc J.; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Rasch, Coen; Schneider, Christoph; Nuesslin, Fridtjof; Damen, Eugene M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare intensity-modulated treatment plans of patients with head and neck cancer generated by forward and inverse planning. Materials and methods: Ten intensity-modulated treatment plans, planned and treated with a step and shoot technique using a forward planning approach, were retrospectively re-planned with an inverse planning algorithm. For this purpose, two strategies were applied. First, inverse planning was performed with the same beam directions as forward planning. In addition, nine equidistant, coplanar incidences were used. The main objective of the optimisation process was the sparing of the parotid glands beside an adequate treatment of the planning target volume (PTV). Inverse planning was performed both with pencil beam and Monte Carlo dose computation to investigate the influence of dose computation on the result of the optimisation. Results: In most cases, both inverse planning strategies managed to improve the treatment plans distinctly due to a better target coverage, a better sparing of the parotid glands or both. A reduction of the mean dose by 3-11 Gy for at least one of the parotid glands could be achieved for most of the patients. For three patients, inverse planning allowed to spare a parotid gland that had to be sacrificed by forward planning. Inverse planning increased the number of segments compared to forward planning by a factor of about 3; from 9-15 to 27-46. No significant differences for PTV and parotid glands between both inverse planning approaches were found. Also, the use of Monte Carlo instead of pencil beam dose computation did not influence the results significantly. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the potential of inverse planning to improve intensity-modulated treatment plans for head and neck cases compared to forward planning while retaining clinical utility in terms of treatment time and quality assurance

  8. Effects of spatial and spectral frequencies on wide-field functional imaging (wifi) characterization of preclinical breast cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Choi, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy to study breast cancer is the use of the preclinical model. These models provide a physiologically relevant and controlled environment in which to study both response to novel treatments and the biology of the cancer. Preclinical models, including the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model, are very amenable to optical imaging and to this end, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument that is perfectly suited to studying tumor metabolism in preclinical models. WiFI combines two optical imaging modalities, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm x 5 cm) field of view. Using SFDI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are determined, which are then used to extract tissue chromophore concentrations in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. In the current study, we employ Monte Carlo simulations of SFDI light propagation in order to characterize the penetration depth of light in both the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model. Preliminary results suggest that different spatial frequency and wavelength combinations have different penetration depths, suggesting the potential depth sectioning capability of the SFDI component of WiFI.

  9. Frequency of venous thromboembolism events during acute inpatient rehabilitation in a comprehensive cancer centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Ng

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Cancer patients with low FIM transfer scores and lower extremity oedema are at higher risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients with these clinical findings at admission may require measures for more aggressive surveillance for the presence of venous thromboembolism. Patients with venous thromboembolism had an increased length of stay in rehabilitation, but ultimately did not have significant differences in FIM score changes.

  10. Frequency of Acentric Fragments Are Associated with Cancer Risk in Subjects Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fucic, A.; Bonassi, S.; Gundy, S.; Šrám, Radim; Ceppi, M.; Lucas, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2016), s. 2451-2457 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : ionizing radiation * cancer risk * acentric fragments * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.937, year: 2016

  11. Frequency of the CCRD32 allele in Brazilians: a study in colorectal cancer and in HTLV-I infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rinaldo W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of a 32-bp deletion in the cc-chemokine receptor-5 gene (CCR5delta32 allele that renders homozygous individuals highly resistant to HIV infection has prompted worldwide investigations of the frequency of the CCR5delta32 allele in regional populations. It is important to ascertain if CCR5delta32 is a factor to be considered in the overall epidemiology of HIV in individual populations. With this in mind we determined the CCR5delta32 allele frequency in a large sample (907 individuals of the southeastern Brazilian urban population, stratified as follows: 322 healthy unrelated individuals, 354 unselected colorectal cancer patients, and 229 blood donors. The three groups displayed essentially identical allelic frequencies of CCR5delta32 and pairwise comparisons did not show significant differences. Thus, our results can be pooled to provide a reliable estimate of the CCR5delta32 allele frequency in the southeastern Brazil of 0.053 ± 0.005. The blood donors comprised 50 HTLV-I serologically negative individuals, 115 non-symptomatic individuals HTLV-I positive by ELISA but with indeterminate Western blot results, 49 healthy blood donors HTLV-I positive both at ELISA and Western blot and 15 patients with clinical spinal cord disease (HAM. A suggestive trend was observed, with the CCR5delta32 frequencies decreasing progressively in these four categories. However, when we applied Fischer's exact test no significant differences emerged. We believe that further studies in larger cohorts should be performed to ascertain whether the CCR5delta32 allele influences the chance of becoming infected or developing clinical symptoms of HTLV-I infection.

  12. Using low frequency and intensity ultrasound to enhance start-up and operation performance of Anammox process inoculated with the conventional sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Diandian; Sun, Yating; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Lin; Shao, Jingjing

    2018-04-01

    A lab-scale ultrasound enhancing Anammox reactor (R1) was established and irradiated once a week by ultrasound with the optimal parameter (frequency of 25 kHz, intensity of 0.2 W cm -2 and exposure time of 3 min) obtained by batch experiments. R1 and the controlled Anammox reactor (R2) without exposure to the ultrasound were operated in parallel. The start-up period of Anammox process (53 days) in R1 was shorter than that (61 days) in R2. The nitrogen loading-enhancing period (day 53-day 135) in R1 was also shorter than that (day 61-day 151) in R2. At the end of the nitrogen loading-enhancing period, NLR (0.76 kg N m -3  d -1 ) and NRR (0.68 kg N m -3  d -1 ) of R1 were both higher than NLR (0.66 kg N m -3  d -1 ) and NRR (0.56 kg N m -3  d -1 ) of R2. Moreover, The stability of Anammox process in R1 was better than that in R2. The results demonstrated that the periodical irradiation of ultrasound enhanced the start-up and operational performance of Anammox reactor. Microbial community analysis indicated that the ultrasound accelerated the microbial succession from some other bacteria to Anammox bacteria so that shorten the start-up period of Anammox process from the conventional activated sludge. It also indicated that the ultrasound strengthened the competitive advantage of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis in Anammox bacteria of the mature sludge so as to enhance the nitrogen removal performance of the Anammox reactor under the operation condition of high nitrogen loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tricia M; Moore, Steven C; Gierach, Gretchen L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of an inverse association of physical activity with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, whether a certain intensity or time of life of physical activity is most effective for lowering breast cancer risk is not known. In 118,899 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the relations of light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during four periods of life ('historical': ages 15-18, 19-29, 35-39 years; 'recent': past 10 years) to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at baseline, and 4287 incident breast cancers were identified over 6.6 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted and multivariate Cox regression models, >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (RR:0.84; 95%CI:0.76,0.93) compared with inactivity. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI (RR:0.87; 95%CI:0.78,0.96). Neither moderate-to-vigorous activity during other periods of life nor light intensity activity during any period of life was related to breast cancer risk, and associations did not vary by tumor characteristics. A high level of recent, but not historical, physical activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. More precise recall of recent physical activity than activity in the distant past is one possible explanation for our findings

  14. Treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, G.N.; Hanna, S.A.; Gadia, R.

    2014-11-15

    Through the development of four relevant clinical questions related with the proposed subject, we tried to present the main evidence for safety, toxicity and effectiveness using different radiotherapy techniques. The study population consisted of female patients of all ages with primary breast cancer treated with radiation therapy to the whole breast, regardless of histological type, staging, context of treatment (radical, adjuvant or palliative) and whether comorbidities were present or not. For this, a systematic review of the literature was performed in primary scientific research databases (Medline - Pubmed; Embase - Elsevier; Lilacs - Bireme; Cochrane Library - Central Register of Controlled Trials). All articles available until July 22, 2013, were included. The search strategy used for Medline research is described in Appendix. Articles were selected based on critical evaluation in search of the best available evidence. Recommendations were prepared based on discussion with the writing group, composed of three members of the Brazilian Society of Radiotherapy. The guideline was reviewed by an independent group specializing in evidence-based clinical guidelines. After completion, the guideline was made available for public consultation for 15 days and the suggestions forwarded to the writers for evaluation and consideration into the final text. Objective: to assess the most appropriate method of radiation therapy for treating patients with primary breast tumors. (author)

  15. The Frequency, Characteristics, and Outcomes Among Cancer Patients With Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Ransing, Viraj; Yennu, Sriram; Wu, Jimin; Liu, Diane; Reddy, Akhila; Delgado-Guay, Marvin; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric condition seen in patients with severe illness, such as advanced cancer. Few published studies are available of the frequency, course, and outcomes of standardized management of delirium in advanced cancer patients admitted to acute palliative care unit (APCU). In this study, we examined the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of delirium in patients with advanced cancer admitted to an APCU. Medical records of 609 consecutive patients admitted to the APCU from January 2011 through December 2011 were reviewed. Data on patients' demographics; Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) score; palliative care specialist (PCS) diagnosis of delirium; delirium etiology, subtype, and reversibility; late development of delirium; and discharge outcome were collected. Delirium was diagnosed with MDAS score ≥7 and by a PCS using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition, Text Revision criteria. All patients admitted to the APCU received standardized assessments and management of delirium per best practice guidelines in delirium management. Of 556 patients in the APCU, 323 (58%) had a diagnosis of delirium. Of these, 229 (71%) had a delirium diagnosis on admission and 94 (29%) developed delirium after admission to the APCU. Delirium reversed in 85 of 323 episodes (26%). Half of patients with delirium (n = 162) died. Patients with the diagnosis of delirium had a lower median overall survival than those without delirium. Patients who developed delirium after admission to the APCU had poorer survival (p ≤ .0001) and a lower rate of delirium reversal (p = .03) compared with those admitted with delirium. More than half of the patients admitted to the APCU had delirium. Reversibility occurred in almost one-third of cases. Diagnosis of delirium was associated with poorer survival. ©AlphaMed Press.

  16. Frequency and Risk Factors Associated With Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Cancer Patients Treated With Intravenous Bisphosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Hoff, Ana; Toth, Béla B; Altundag, Kadri; Johnson, Marcella M; Warneke, Carla L; Hu, Mimi; Nooka, Ajay; Sayegh, Gilbert; Guarneri, Valentina; Desrouleaux, Kimberly; Cui, Jeffrey; Adamus, Andrea; Gagel, Robert F; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported in patients treated with bisphosphonates. The incidence and risk factors associated with this disorder have not been clearly defined. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 4019 patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates between 1996 and 2004. Our goals were to estimate the frequency, understand the clinical presentation, and identify risk factors associated with ONJ development. Results Sixteen of 1338 patients with breast cancer (1.2%) and 13 of 548 patients with multiple myeloma (2.4%) developed ONJ. The median dose and duration of treatment with pamidronate or zoledronic acid were significantly higher in patients with ONJ (p breast cancer. In multiple myeloma, dental extractions (HR, 9.78; 95% CI: 3.07–31.14; p = 0.0001) and osteoporosis (HR, 6.11; 95% CI: 1.56–23.98; p = 0.0095) were significant risk factors while controlling for bisphosphonate therapy. Thirteen of 29 patients were followed for a median of 17.1 mo (range, 7–67 mo); lesions healed in 3 patients during this period. Conclusions ONJ is an uncommon but long-lasting disorder that occurs mainly in breast cancer and multiple myeloma patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates. High cumulative doses of bisphosphonates, poor oral health, and dental extractions may be significant risk factors for ONJ development. ONJ resolved in 23% of patients with conservative therapy. PMID:18558816

  17. CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Minxia [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David Y.; Henschke, Claudia I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To determine the frequency of adrenal enlargement of participants in a CT-screening program for lung cancer and demonstrate the progression during follow-up, separately for baseline and annual repeat rounds. HIPAA-compliant informed consent was obtained in 4,776 participants. The adrenal gland was defined as enlarged if it measured ≥6 mm at its largest diameter. Logistic regression analyses were performed. At baseline, 202 (4 %) of 4,776 participants had adrenal enlargement. Significant factors were age (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.7) and current smoker (OR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4). Follow-up 7-18 months after baseline for 133 cases with adrenal enlargement <40 mm showed it decreased or was stable in 85 (64 %), and increased by <10 mm in 48 (36 %). Five (0.04 %) cases of adrenal enlargement were newly identified, none increased beyond 40 mm on follow-up. Adrenal enlargement was a significant predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.4). Participants with adrenal enlargement <40 mm identified at baseline and on repeat screening could be reasonably assessed on subsequent annual screening. Adrenal enlargement increased with increasing pack-years of smoking. Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer. (orig.)