WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer examination interactive

  1. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  2. Cancer Knowledge and Examination Frequency in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Ann M.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated whether the personality construct of repression-sensitization could identify which college students would or would not practice regular examinations for breast, cervical, or testicular cancer. Although knowledge of cancer increased after the lecture, no change was found in the frequency of breast self-examination while…

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of Couples’ Coping Strategies as Predictors of Adjustment to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Lia M.; Stanton, Annette L.; Meyerowitz, Beth E.; Rowland, Julia H.; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This study’s goals were to examine coping strategies of women and their male partners as predictors of change in women’s adjustment over the year following breast cancer treatment and to test whether partners’ coping processes interact to predict adjustment. In a sample of women who had recently completed breast cancer treatment and were taking part in a psychoeducational intervention trial and their partners, patients’ and partners’ cancer-specific coping strategies were assessed at study en...

  4. Inclusive Education: An Examination of School Relationships and Student Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Marti, Angelina; Ramirez-Iniguez, Alma A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine inclusive education in multicultural contexts from an interaction networks perspective. The paper is based on the idea that inclusive education can be better understood by studying how native and non-native students interact, and what kinds of networks they establish in school. To do so, we assume two premises:…

  5. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  6. Cancer mortality after multiple fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total cancer deaths were not increased among 2074 women and 1277 men who were fluoroscopically examined an average of 73 and 91 times, respectively, during lung-collapse therapy for tuberculosis (TB). Patients who did not receive this form of therapy (2141 women and 1418 men) and general population rates were used for comparison. All subjects were discharged alive from eight TB sanatoria in Massachusetts between 1930 and 1954; the average follow-up was 23 years. Deaths due to breast cancer were not increased among exposed females [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.0, n = 24], and SMRs greater than 2.1 could be excluded with 95% confidence. In contrast to other series, our inability to detect a breast cancer excess was likely due to lower breast doses (66 rad) and higher average ages at exposure (28 yr) and thus lower sensitivity. A deficit of lung cancer among exposed males and females was observed (SMR = 0.8, n = 26), even though increased risks have been observed among other populations exposed to similar dose levels. The estimated average lung dose was 91 rad, and SMRs greater than 1.2 for lung cancer could be excluded with 95% confidence. Overall, this study indicates that the radiation hazard of multiple low-dose exposures experienced over many years is not greater than currently accepted estimates for breast and lung cancer. For lung cancer the radiogenic risk may be less than predicted from high-dose, single-exposure studies

  7. Breast self examination and survival from breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Geyte, M.; Mant, D.; Vessey, M P; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P

    1992-01-01

    The survival of 616 women aged 15-59 with breast cancer, 226 of whom had been taught and practised breast self examination (BSE) prior to diagnosis and 390 of whom had not, is reported. Six year survival rates were 73.1% in the BSE taught group and 66.1% in other women (P = 0.07).

  8. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  9. Environmental and genetic interactions in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans, depending upon their genetic make-up, differ in their susceptibility to the cancer-causing effects of extrinsic agents. Clinical and laboratory studies on the hereditary disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (AT) show that persons afflicted with this are cancer-prone and unusually sensitive to conventional radiotherapy. Their skin cells, when cultured, are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation, being defective in the enzymatic repair of radiation-induced damange to the genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This molecular finding implicates DNA damage and its imperfect repair as an early step in the induction of human cancer by radiation and other carcinogens. The parents of AT patients are clincally normal but their cultured cells are often moderately radiosensitive. The increased radiosensitivity of cultured cells offers a means of identifying a presumed cancer-prone subpopulation that should avoid undue exposure to certain carcinogens. The radioresponse of cells from patients with other cancer-associated genetic disorders and persons suspected of being genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer has also been measured. Increased cell killing by γ-rays appears in the complex genetic disease, tuberous sclerosis. Cells from cancer-stricken members of a leukemia-prone family are also radiosensitive, as are cells from one patient with radiation-associated breast cancer. These radiobiological data, taken together, strongly suggest that genetic factors can interact with extrinsic agents and thereby play a greater causative role in the development of common cancers in man than previously thought. (L.L.)

  10. Examining nuclear effects in neutrino interactions with transverse kinematic imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Luke

    2016-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo truth study examining nuclear effects in charged-current neutrino interactions using observables constructed in the transverse plane. Three distributions are introduced that show very weak dependence on neutrino flux and its associated uncertainty. Measurements comparing these distributions between quasi-elastic-like and single charged pion final states will provide new constraints of nuclear effects. It is suggested that the on-axis position in the NuMI beam provides...

  11. "I Am More than My Cancer": An Exploratory Examination of Adventure Programming and Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Adventure programs have recently emerged that are specifically designed for individuals living with cancer, yet few research studies document the outcomes of such programs. The purpose of the current qualitative study was to examine the effects of an adventure program on individual adult cancer survivors. Three central themes emerged from the…

  12. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  13. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  14. Examining breast cancer growth and lifestyle risk factors: early life, childhood, and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Dorgan, Joanne F; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Hartman, Terryl J

    2008-08-01

    The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

  15. Examination of radioargon production by cosmic neutron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine; Armstrong, Hirotatsu; Wilson, William H; Biegalski, Steven R

    2015-02-01

    Radioargon isotopes, particularly (37)Ar, are currently being considered for use as an On-Site Inspection (OSI) relevant radionuclide within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order to understand any soil air measurements taken during an OSI, the radioargon background due to cosmic ray induced activation along with other sources must be understood. An MCNP6 model was developed using the cosmic ray source feature within the code to examine the neutron flux at ground level as a function of various conditions: date during the solar magnetic activity cycle, latitude of sampling location, geology of the sampling location, and sampling depth. Once the cosmic neutron flux was obtained, calculations were performed to determine the rate of radioargon production for the main interactions. Radioargon production was shown to be highly dependent on the soil composition, and a range of (37)Ar production values at 1 m depth was found with a maximum production rate of 4.012 atoms/sec/m(3) in carbonate geologies and a minimum production rate of 0.070 atoms/sec/m(3) in low calcium granite. The sampling location latitude was also shown to have a measurable effect on the radioargon production rate, where the production of (37)Ar in an average continental crust is shown to vary by a factor of two between the equator and the poles. The sampling date's position within the solar magnetic activity cycle was also shown to cause a smaller change, less than a factor of 1.2, in activation between solar maxima and solar minima. PMID:25461524

  16. Examination of radioargon production by cosmic neutron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioargon isotopes, particularly 37Ar, are currently being considered for use as an On-Site Inspection (OSI) relevant radionuclide within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order to understand any soil air measurements taken during an OSI, the radioargon background due to cosmic ray induced activation along with other sources must be understood. An MCNP6 model was developed using the cosmic ray source feature within the code to examine the neutron flux at ground level as a function of various conditions: date during the solar magnetic activity cycle, latitude of sampling location, geology of the sampling location, and sampling depth. Once the cosmic neutron flux was obtained, calculations were performed to determine the rate of radioargon production for the main interactions. Radioargon production was shown to be highly dependent on the soil composition, and a range of 37Ar production values at 1 m depth was found with a maximum production rate of 4.012 atoms/sec/m3 in carbonate geologies and a minimum production rate of 0.070 atoms/sec/m3 in low calcium granite. The sampling location latitude was also shown to have a measurable effect on the radioargon production rate, where the production of 37Ar in an average continental crust is shown to vary by a factor of two between the equator and the poles. The sampling date's position within the solar magnetic activity cycle was also shown to cause a smaller change, less than a factor of 1.2, in activation between solar maxima and solar minima. - Highlights: • Cosmic neutron flux modeled in various geologic materials using MCNP6. • Radioargon production rate calculated in various geologic materials. • Variations in production considered for latitude, date, material, and depth. • Geology and depth have greatest impact, some latitude effect, smaller date effect

  17. Space-time interactions in childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, V

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to examine a cohort of cases of childhood cancer occurring in a defined geographical area to try to identify clustering and possible causative factors. DESIGN--Data were analysed using the close pair method developed by Knox for signs of clustering in relation to date and place of onset or date and place of birth. SETTING--Cases were those occurring in the 8 year period between 1953 and 1960 in four old counties of the Midlands of England (Worcestersh...

  18. Characteristics of Sudden Unexpected Cancer Deaths Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Annually, about 400 cases of sudden unexpected death are attributed to cancer in Tokyo, Japan. These individuals may have been undiagnosed, or their medical conditions may not have been carefully evaluated before death. We examined medical consultations, cancer diagnoses, and economic status of all cancer deaths investigated by medical examiners in 2009. Methods Among cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office in 2009 (N = 12 493), records for all cases of cancer death (n...

  19. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  20. Interactions between CagA and smoking in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Hong Yan; Paul D Terry; Jian-Sheng Wang; Li Cheng; Wen-An Wu; Sen-Ke Hu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the interactions between cytotoxinassociated gene (CagA ) positive Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking in non-cardiac gastric cancer. METHODS: A case-control study (257 cases and 514 frequency-matched controls) was conducted from September 2008 to July 2010 in Xi'an, China. Cases were newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed non-cardiac cancer. Controls were randomly selected from similar communities to the cases and were further matched by sex and age (± 5 years). A face-to-face interview was performed by the investigators for each participant. Data were obtained using a standardized questionnaire that included questions regarding known or suspected lifestyle and environmental risk factors of gastric cancer. A 5 mL sample of fasting venous blood was taken. CagA infection was serologically detected by enzymelinked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Smoking and CagA infection were statistically significant risk factors of non-cardiac cancer. CagA was categorized in tertiles, and the odds ratio (OR) was 12.4 (95% CI: 6.1-20.3, P = 0.003) for CagA after being adjusted for confounding factors when the highexposure category was compared with the low-exposure category. Smokers had an OR of 5.4 compared with subjects who never smoked (95% CI: 2.3-9.0, P = 0.002). The OR of non-cardiac cancer was 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8-5.3) for non-smokers with CagA infection, 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-5.1) for smokers without CagA infection, and 8.7 (95% CI: 5.1-11.9) for smokers with CagA infection compared with subjects without these risk factors. After adjusting for confounding factors, the corresponding ORs of non-cardiac cancer were 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.8), 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-4.9) and 19.5 (95% CI: 10.3-42.2), respectively. There was a multiplicative interaction between smoking and CagA , with a synergistic factor of 2.257 (Z = 2.315, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: These findings support a meaningful interaction between CagA and smoking for the risk of gastric cancer which may have

  1. Drug interactions in oncology: the impact on cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    Suphat Subongkot

    2011-01-01

    Drug interactions are important in the cancer care setting, the majority of drugs being used for palliative care. Failure to recognise these interactions can lead to either overt toxicity or suboptimal treatment.

  2. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse...

  3. Examining the dynamic interactions on volatilities of paired stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Shean; Sek, Siok Kun

    2015-02-01

    We conduct empirical analyses to investigate the interaction between volatilities of paired stock markets. The main objective of this study is to reveal possibility of spillover effects among stock markets which can determine the performances of stock returns and trade volumes of stocks. In particular, we seek to investigate if there exist two-way causal relationships on the volatilities in two stock markets in two groups of countries, i.e. between emerging markets of ASEAN-5 and between emerging and advanced countries. Our study is focused in Malaysia stock market and the paired relationship with its neighbouring countries (ASEAN5) and advanced countries (Japan and U.S.) respectively. The multivariate GARCH(1,1) model is applied in studying the interactions on the volatilities of paired stock markets. The results are compared between neighbouring countries and with that of advanced countries. The results are expected to reveal linkages between volatilities of stock markets and the dynamic relationships across markets. The results provide useful information in studying the performances of stock markets and predicting the stock movements by incorporating the external impacts from foreign stock markets.

  4. EXAMINATION OF SPUTUM SEDIMENT PARAFFIN SECTION OF DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁俊良; 申延琴; 黄杰雄; 马琼凤; 黄致治

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the rapid and accurate methods for detecting cancer cells from the sputum of patients with lung cancer. Methods: Sputum sediment section examination and sputum smear examination were performed. For 142 cases of lung cancer patients diagnosed by bronchia fibrous lens and confirmed by pathologic diagnosis. Results: (a) The positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer cell was 71.83% (102/142) when using sputum sediment examination while that was 32.39% (46/142) when using sputum smear examination, when using sputum sediment examination jointly with sputum smear examination, the positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer was 91.55% (130/142). According to the positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer, the sputum sediment examination was significantly higher than sputum smear examination (P<0.001), joint examination of both of them was significantly higher than the single sputum sediment examination (P<0.001); (b) As to the histopathological types of lung cancers, 66 cases could be identified among 102 cases whom were confirmed by sputum sediment examination, the identification rate was 64.71%; and 8 cases could be identified among 46 cases whom were confirmed by sputum smear examination, with an identification rate of 17.39%, it was significantly lower than that by sputum sediment examination (P<0.001); (c) Immunohistochemistry technique could be used in the sections of sputum sediment to identify some histopathological types which could not be identified by routine HE stain, with an identification rate of 94.44% (34/36). Conclusion: the sputum sediment examination has some advantages compared to the sputum smear examination such as the specimen may include more materials, the higher cancer cell identification positive rate and immunohistochemistry method can be used to identify the histopathological type.

  5. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish cancer patients generally have a poorer survival than Swedish cancer patients. The difference is most pronounced for certain tumour types, e.g. common types such as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The reasons are not clear. The present article examines...... are diagnosed in Sweden than in Denmark. The total capacity for oncologic treatment, both in terms of trained personnel and equipment, seen in relation to the size of the population, is considerably larger in Southern Sweden than in Eastern Denmark. DISCUSSION: The data for some of the common cancer types seem...... if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...

  6. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with ...

  7. Screening examinations for double cancer in patients with oral cancer. Usefulness of gastrointestinal endoscopy and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients with oral cancer have double cancers, especially in the upper gastrointestinal tract. We studied synchronous double cancers in 138 patients with oral cancer who underwent gastrointestinal endscopy and 161 who underwent positron emission tomography (PET) preoperatively. Fifteen patients (10.9%) had cancer or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract on gastrointestinal endoscopy: 10 in the esophagus and 5 in the stomach. The histopathological diagnosis was severe epithelial dysplasia in 6 patients, carcinoma in situ in 4, and carcinoma in 5. These 15 lesions were asymptomatic and detected by gastrointestinal endscopy for the first time. Patients with severe epithelial dysplasia were observed, and those with carcinoma or carcinoma in situ underwent radical therapy. All of these gastrointestinal lesions were treated successfully, without any recurrence or metastasis. Double cancers were detected by PET in 3 patients (1.9%): lung and esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and ovarian cancer in one patient each. These 3 cases also were detected by PET for the first time and were free of clinical symptoms. Radical therapy was performed in 2 patients. The other patient had advanced disease and received only palliative therapy. Although PET could not detect most cancers or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract that could be detected by gastrointestinal endscopy, it was useful for detecting malignant lesions in sites other than the upper gastrointestinal tract. Our results suggest that preoperative gastrointestinal endscopy and PET examinations can detect double cancer in the early stage and contribute to better outcomes in patients with oral cancer. (author)

  8. Strategy for improving the detailed examination rate for colorectal cancer screening. New approach for detailed colorectal cancer examination. Study for optimal pre-treatment for CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to drastically improve the detailed examination rate for strategic colorectal cancer examination in Japan, it is necessary to introduce CT colonography (CTC) as a detailed examination method for colorectal cancer examination, in addition to colonoscopy (CS) which is the conventional detailed examination method. In our study, a cleansing enema/contrast solution (3% Nif-C) was prepared by adding 60 ml of a water-soluble iodine-based contrast agent (Gastrografin) and water to an oral cleansing enema agent (Niflec) in solid (powder) form to a final amount of 2000 ml. The solution was compared with a Niflec solution. In terms of patient's acceptability, more than half of the examined patients answered ''easier to drink than the Niflec solution'' or ''as easy to drink as the Niflec solution. '' Also, the Nif-C solution was comparable or superior to the Niflec solution in terms of cleansing enema effects. Regarding imaging effects essential for CTC, the CT level was found to be 200 HU or greater for any large intestine region upon CTC using the Nif-C solution. Thus, practically sufficient imaging effects were achieved. In conclusion, CTC with pretreatment involving a cleansing enema with oral administration of 3% Nif-C is superior to CS in terms of patient's acceptability. In addition, at least in view of the overseas reports on CTC, there is no particular problem in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Thus, CTC is expected to resolve various problems related to colorectal cancer examination in Japan. (author)

  9. Bayesian logistic regression in detection of gene–steroid interaction for cancer at PDLIM5 locus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KE-SHENG WANG; DANIEL OWUSU; YUE PAN; CHANGCHUN XIE

    2016-06-01

    The PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) gene may play a role in cancer, bipolar disorder, major depression, alcohol dependence and schizophrenia; however, little is known about the interaction effect of steroid and PDLIM5 gene on cancer. This study examined 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PDLIM5 gene in the Marshfield sample with 716 cancer patients (any diagnosed cancer, excluding minor skin cancer) and 2848 noncancer controls. Multiple logistic regression model in PLINK software was used to examine the association of each SNP with cancer. Bayesian logistic regression in PROC GENMOD in SAS statistical software, ver. 9.4 was used to detect gene steroid interactions influencing cancer. Single marker analysis using PLINK identified 12 SNPs associated with cancer(P<0.05); especially, SNP rs6532496 revealed the strongest association with cancer $(P=6.84×10^{−3})$; while the next best signal was rs951613 $(P=7.46×10^{−3})$. Classic logistic regression in PROC GENMOD showed that both rs6532496 and rs951613 revealed strong gene–steroid interaction effects (OR =2.18, 95% CI=1.31−3.63 with $P= 2.9×10^{−3}$ for rs6532496 and OR = 2.07, 95% CI =1.24 −3.45 with $P=5.43×10^{−3}$ for rs951613, respectively). Results from Bayesian logistic regression showed stronger interaction effects (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.2−3.38 for rs6532496 and OR=2.14, 95% CI =1.14 −3.2 for rs951613, respectively). All the 12 SNPs associated with cancer revealed significant gene–steroid interaction effects (P<0.05); whereas 13 SNPs showed gene–steroid interaction effects without main effect on cancer. SNP rs4634230 revealed the strongest gene–steroid interaction effect (OR= 2.49, 95% CI=1.5−4. 13 with $P=4.0×10^{−4}$ based on the classic logistic regression and OR= 2.59, 95% CI =1.4−3.97 from Bayesian logistic regression;respectively). This study provides evidence of common genetic variants within the PDLIM5 gene and interactions between PLDIM5 gene

  10. Goal adjustment strategies operationalised and empirically examined in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Moniek; Sulkers, Esther; Tissing, Wim Je; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents facing cancer may need to adjust their personal life goals. Theories identified several goal adjustment strategies, but their use has not been tested. Therefore, this study operationalises goal adjustment strategies and examines their use. Adolescent cancer patients listed their goals 3

  11. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Makar, Karen W.; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals.

  12. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

  13. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  14. Interactions between epigenetics and metabolism in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JihyeYun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is accompanied by widespread transcriptional changes and metabolic alterations. Although it is widely accepted that the origin of cancer can be traced to the mutations that accumulate over time, relatively recent evidence favors a similarly fundamental role for alterations in the epigenome during tumorigenesis. Changes in epigenetics that arise from post-translational modifications of histones and DNA, are exploited by cancer cells to upregulate and/or downregulate the expression levels of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, respectively. Although the mechanisms behind these modifications, in particular how they lead to gene silencing and activation, are still being understood, many enzymes that carry out post-translational modifications that alter epigenetics require metabolites as substrates or cofactors. As a result, their activities can be influenced by the metabolic state of the cell. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of cancer epigenetics and metabolism and provide examples of where they converge.

  15. Re-examining the levers of control-framework: from interactive controls towards "interactive transparency". Case Rautaruukki Oyj.

    OpenAIRE

    Tero, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS (HSE) ABSTRACT Department of Accounting and Finance 3.9.2009 Joanna Tero RE-EXAMINING THE LEVERS OF CONTROL-FRAMEWORK: FROM INTERACTIVE CONTROL TOWARDS “INTERACTIVE TRANSPARENCY” Case Rautaruukki Oyj. Objectives of the study The objective of this study is to critically re-examine Simons’ (1995) levers of control-framework, which has been widely used in previous research, but received only limited attempts of fur...

  16. FGFR2 intronic SNPs and breast cancer risk; associations with tumor characteristics and interactions with exogenous exposures and other known breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marian, Catalin; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Nie, Jing; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.; Ambrosone, Christine B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Edge, Stephen; Shields, Peter G.; Freudenheim, Jo L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed several new candidate genes for breast cancer, including FGFR2. The associations were also replicated in several other independent studies. The next important step is to study whether these common variants interact with known breast cancer risk factors, exogenous exposures, and tumor characteristics. In a population-based case-control study of 1170 breast cancer cases and 2115 controls, we examined genetic associations of four intronic FGFR...

  17. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. A. Ugboma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.

  18. A Landscape of Pharmacogenomic Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Francesco; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Vis, Daniel J; Bignell, Graham R; Menden, Michael P; Schubert, Michael; Aben, Nanne; Gonçalves, Emanuel; Barthorpe, Syd; Lightfoot, Howard; Cokelaer, Thomas; Greninger, Patricia; van Dyk, Ewald; Chang, Han; de Silva, Heshani; Heyn, Holger; Deng, Xianming; Egan, Regina K; Liu, Qingsong; Mironenko, Tatiana; Mitropoulos, Xeni; Richardson, Laura; Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Tinghu; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Soleimani, Maryam; Tamborero, David; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Esteller, Manel; Gray, Nathanael S; Haber, Daniel A; Stratton, Michael R; Benes, Cyril H; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; McDermott, Ultan; Garnett, Mathew J

    2016-07-28

    Systematic studies of cancer genomes have provided unprecedented insights into the molecular nature of cancer. Using this information to guide the development and application of therapies in the clinic is challenging. Here, we report how cancer-driven alterations identified in 11,289 tumors from 29 tissues (integrating somatic mutations, copy number alterations, DNA methylation, and gene expression) can be mapped onto 1,001 molecularly annotated human cancer cell lines and correlated with sensitivity to 265 drugs. We find that cell lines faithfully recapitulate oncogenic alterations identified in tumors, find that many of these associate with drug sensitivity/resistance, and highlight the importance of tissue lineage in mediating drug response. Logic-based modeling uncovers combinations of alterations that sensitize to drugs, while machine learning demonstrates the relative importance of different data types in predicting drug response. Our analysis and datasets are rich resources to link genotypes with cellular phenotypes and to identify therapeutic options for selected cancer sub-populations. PMID:27397505

  19. Looking beyond the Internet: Examining Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cancer Information Seeking among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-joo; Ramirez, Susana; Lewis, Nehama; Gray, Stacy W.; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The gap in cancer information seeking between high-socioeconomic status (SES) cancer patients and low-SES cancer patients deserves serious attention considering the importance of information and knowledge in cancer control. We thus explored the association of SES, as measured by education, with cancer patients’ overall cancer information seeking, and with seeking from each source (i.e., the Internet, mass media, medical sources, and non-medical interpersonal sources) and across two topic categories (i.e., treatment, quality of life). We then asked whether the effect of education on treatment information seeking is reduced among those who are particularly motivated to control treatment choices. We conducted a survey with breast, prostate, and colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2005 (N = 2,013), who were randomly drawn from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry in the fall of 2006. We found that education was more strongly associated with Internet use than with the use of other sources regardless of topics. Also, when information was sought from mass media, education had a greater association with treatment information seeking than with quality-of-life information seeking. Preference for active participation in treatment decision making, however, did not moderate the effect of education on treatment information seeking. The implications of these findings for public health research and cancer patient education were discussed. PMID:22356137

  20. Value of computed tomography as a screening examination of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abdominal CT films of 50 patients were reviewed by ten radiologists to evaluate the role of CT examination in the screening of pancreatic cancer. The 50 patients consisted of 10 with pancreatic cancer, 8 with other pancreatic abnormalities, and 32 with normal pancreas. Ten radiologists were divided into two groups according to their experience in evaluating CT examinations, an experienced group and an unexperienced group, respectively. In the detectability of pancreatic abnormality, the experienced group showed a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 86.2%. The unexperienced group showed a sensitivity of 70.9% and a specificity of 72.0%. In the detectability of pancreatic cancer, the experienced group showed a sensitivity of 62.0% and a specificity of 83.4%. The unexperienced group showed a sensitivity of 66.0% and a specificity of 81.8%. In the localization of the pancreatic cancer, there was no difference between the two groups. Pancreatic abnormality can be detected with high accuracy, but diagnosis of the nature of pancreatic cancer is difficult. Experience in evaluating CT examinations elevates the detectability of pancreatic abnormality but does not elevate the detectability of pancreatic cancer. These results suggest the difficulty in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  1. Cancer mortality in women after repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 1,047 women fluoroscopically examined in average of 102 times during pneumothorax therapy for tuberculosis and followed up to 45 years (average . 27 yr), no increase in the total number of cancer deaths occurred when these women were compared to 717 women who received other treatments [relative risk (RR) . 0.8]. However, elevated risks of mortality from stomach cancer (RR . 2.3), rectal cancer (RR . 3.8), breast cancer (RR . 1.2), lung cancer (RR . 1.8), and leukemia (RR . 1.2) were observed, but none was statistically significant and all were based on very small numbers of deaths. These increases were balanced by decreases of genital cancer (RR . 0.2), pancreatic cancer (RR . 0.9), lymphoma (RR . 0.6), and all other cancers (RR . 0.1). Average cumulative absorbed doses were 110 rads for the lungs, 33 rads for the trunk, 13 rads for the active bone marrow, and 7 rads for the stomach. The following upper levels of excess risk could be excluded with 95% confidence: 3.5 deaths/10(6) woman-year (WY)-rad for lung cancer, 4.8 deaths/10(6) WY-rad for lymphoma, and 12 deaths/10(6) WY-rad for leukemia. These findings indicated that the carcinogenic effect of multiple low-dose X-ray exposures was not greater than that currently assumed

  2. Embodying Experience: A video-based examination of visitors' conduct and interaction in museums.

    OpenAIRE

    vom Lehn, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to argue that social interaction fundamentally underpins how people examine, experience and make sense of museum exhibits. It seeks to reveal how people collaboratively view and make sense of artwork and other kinds of exhibit, and in particular how the ways of looking at and responding to exhibits arise in social interaction. Design/methodology/approach-The analysis inspects in detail video-recordings of visitors' conduct and interaction at exhibits. It d...

  3. A Qualitative Examination of Two Year-Olds Interaction with Tablet Based Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe children naturally interacting with these touch screen devices. Little direct instruction was given to the children on the use of the devices however an adult did assist when needed. The device was introduced to the children as would be any other educational material such as play-dough, new items in the…

  4. The interaction between informal cancer caregivers and health care professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In order to meet the caregiving challenges, informal caregivers often need a substantial level of interaction with health care professionals (HCPs). This study investigated to which extent the cancer caregivers' needs regarding the interaction with HCPs are met and the associations between...... dissatisfaction with the interaction and socio-demographic and disease-related variables. METHODS: In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, cancer patients with various diagnoses and disease stages were invited to pass on the 'cancer caregiving tasks, consequences and needs questionnaire' (CaTCoN) to up to three...... optimal involvement of the caregivers in the patients' disease, treatment and/or care (30 % were dissatisfied), attention to the caregivers' wellbeing (e.g., 51 % of the caregivers reported that HCPs only sometimes or rarely/never had shown interest in how the caregivers had been feeling), and provision...

  5. SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuanyuan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer predisposition genes identified to date (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for less than 5% of all breast cancer cases. Many studies have shown that the cancer risks associated with individual commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are incremental. However, polygenic models suggest that multiple commonly occurring low to modestly penetrant SNPs of cancer related genes might have a greater effect on a disease when considered in combination. Methods In an attempt to identify the breast cancer risk conferred by SNP interactions, we have studied 19 SNPs from genes involved in major cancer related pathways. All SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan 5'nuclease assay. The association between the case-control status and each individual SNP, measured by the odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval, was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. At the second stage, two-way interactions were investigated using multivariate logistic models. The robustness of the interactions, which were observed among SNPs with stronger functional evidence, was assessed using a bootstrap approach, and correction for multiple testing based on the false discovery rate (FDR principle. Results None of these SNPs contributed to breast cancer risk individually. However, we have demonstrated evidence for gene-gene (SNP-SNP interaction among these SNPs, which were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our study suggests cross talk between the SNPs of the DNA repair and immune system (XPD-[Lys751Gln] and IL10-[G(-1082A], cell cycle and estrogen metabolism (CCND1-[Pro241Pro] and COMT-[Met108/158Val], cell cycle and DNA repair (BARD1-[Pro24Ser] and XPD-[Lys751Gln], and within carcinogen metabolism (GSTP1-[Ile105Val] and COMT-[Met108/158Val] pathways. Conclusion The importance of these pathways and their communication in breast cancer predisposition has been emphasized previously, but their

  6. SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer predisposition genes identified to date (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2) are responsible for less than 5% of all breast cancer cases. Many studies have shown that the cancer risks associated with individual commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are incremental. However, polygenic models suggest that multiple commonly occurring low to modestly penetrant SNPs of cancer related genes might have a greater effect on a disease when considered in combination. In an attempt to identify the breast cancer risk conferred by SNP interactions, we have studied 19 SNPs from genes involved in major cancer related pathways. All SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan 5'nuclease assay. The association between the case-control status and each individual SNP, measured by the odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval, was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. At the second stage, two-way interactions were investigated using multivariate logistic models. The robustness of the interactions, which were observed among SNPs with stronger functional evidence, was assessed using a bootstrap approach, and correction for multiple testing based on the false discovery rate (FDR) principle. None of these SNPs contributed to breast cancer risk individually. However, we have demonstrated evidence for gene-gene (SNP-SNP) interaction among these SNPs, which were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our study suggests cross talk between the SNPs of the DNA repair and immune system (XPD-[Lys751Gln] and IL10-[G(-1082)A]), cell cycle and estrogen metabolism (CCND1-[Pro241Pro] and COMT-[Met108/158Val]), cell cycle and DNA repair (BARD1-[Pro24Ser] and XPD-[Lys751Gln]), and within carcinogen metabolism (GSTP1-[Ile105Val] and COMT-[Met108/158Val]) pathways. The importance of these pathways and their communication in breast cancer predisposition has been emphasized previously, but their biological interactions through SNPs have not been described

  7. Immunohormonal interactions in patients with vulvar cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nerodo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A parallel study of some parameters of the endocrine and immune systems was conducted in 120 patients with vulvar cancer prior to treatment.Most patients were found to have impaired immunogenesis: the reduced count and function of T and B lymphocytes, decreased natu- ral killer cells, suppressed macrophageal transformation of monocytes, higher percentage of immunocomplexes, insufficient production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG, which was induced by the elevated level of cortisol in its slower metabolism at the periphery, reduced function of the pituitary-thyroid system, the balance of sex steroids shifted towards testosterone, a predominance of luteiniz- ing hormone over follicle-stimulating hormone, and inhibited growth hormone production.

  8. Testicular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Friman, P C; Finney, J W; Glasscock, S G; Weigel, J W; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Testicular self-examination (TSE) can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer, the third leading cause of death in young men. We evaluated the effectiveness of a brief and specific checklist for teaching TSE skills. Ten men were videotaped while performing testicular self-examinations before and after training. The TSE training resulted in large and significant increases in the number of TSE steps completed and duration of the TSE. Two urological validation measures support...

  9. Knowledge on breast cancer and practice of breast self examination among selected female university students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnoosh Akhtari-Zavare; Muhamad Hanafiah Juni; Rosliza Abdul Manaf; Irmi Zarina Ismail; Salmiah Said

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in most parts of the world including Malaysia. Even though breast self examination (BSE) is not seen as a relevant cancer screening tool anymore, it still plays an important role in the breast health awareness programme. Aim of the study to determine the knowledge of respondents on breast cancer regarding the risk factors, symptoms, and to determine respondents’ practice of breast self-examination. A cross sectional study was carried out...

  10. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinkaya Aynur; Özmen Dilek; Karayurt Özgül

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cro...

  11. Biophysics of selectin-ligand interactions in inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu-Lun Cheung, Luthur; Raman, Phrabha S.; Balzer, Eric M.; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-02-01

    Selectins (l-, e- and p-selectin) are calcium-dependent transmembrane glycoproteins that are expressed on the surface of circulating leukocytes, activated platelets, and inflamed endothelial cells. Selectins bind predominantly to sialofucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids (e-selectin only) present on the surface of apposing cells, and mediate transient adhesive interactions pertinent to inflammation and cancer metastasis. The rapid turnover of selectin-ligand bonds, due to their fast on- and off-rates along with their remarkably high tensile strengths, enables them to mediate cell tethering and rolling in shear flow. This paper presents the current body of knowledge regarding the role of selectins in inflammation and cancer metastasis, and discusses experimental methodologies and mathematical models used to resolve the biophysics of selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Understanding the biochemistry and biomechanics of selectin-ligand interactions pertinent to inflammatory disorders and cancer metastasis may provide insights for developing promising therapies and/or diagnostic tools to combat these disorders.

  12. Prediction of cancer drugs by chemical-chemical interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    Full Text Available Cancer, which is a leading cause of death worldwide, places a big burden on health-care system. In this study, an order-prediction model was built to predict a series of cancer drug indications based on chemical-chemical interactions. According to the confidence scores of their interactions, the order from the most likely cancer to the least one was obtained for each query drug. The 1(st order prediction accuracy of the training dataset was 55.93%, evaluated by Jackknife test, while it was 55.56% and 59.09% on a validation test dataset and an independent test dataset, respectively. The proposed method outperformed a popular method based on molecular descriptors. Moreover, it was verified that some drugs were effective to the 'wrong' predicted indications, indicating that some 'wrong' drug indications were actually correct indications. Encouraged by the promising results, the method may become a useful tool to the prediction of drugs indications.

  13. 77 FR 31041 - Draft Standards and Best Practices for Interaction Between Medical Examiner/Coroner and Organ and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... of Justice Programs Draft Standards and Best Practices for Interaction Between Medical Examiner... for comments on the draft document titled ``Organ and Tissue Procurement Committee Standards and Best Practices for Interaction Between Medical Examiner/Coroner Offices and Organ Tissue...

  14. Estimating Development Cost for a Tailored Interactive Computer Program to Enhance Colorectal Cancer Screening Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of deve...

  15. Research and development of the system for group examination of lung cancer by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the ultimate purpose of heavy particle therapy of lung cancer at an early stage, the system in the title with low dose radiation has been investigated by cooperation of NIRS (as a leading part) and medical/industrial facilities all over the country. The project started essentially in 1984 and has been continuing at 2003. This book described Results hitherto and Materials for application to medical care at disaster (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster in 1995) together with reference materials. Results contain all fields of nuclear medicine and of imaging involved in examination/diagnosis of lung cancer, achieved by NIRS, by Health management center and Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University and Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association in Chiba, by the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Fac. Med., Chiba Univ., by Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, by Nippon Med. School, Arakawa-ku cancer protection center and Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences, by Hitachi health management center, by Fukui Med. College, by Hitachi Medical Corp., by NTT research laboratories, and by Toyohashi Univ. of Technology. The Materials involve Process and summary of conducting the medical care activities, Improvement of the examination automobile, Supplementary equipments and measures for legal problems, System for the medical care activities, Record of the examination automobile activities, Problems in future, and Completion of the medical activities. Reference materials are related with the Materials above. (N.I.)

  16. The results of screening examinations of breast cancer conducted from 2004 to 2005 in Sierpc poviat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among women in Poland. 11733 new cases were registered in 2003. Well organized screening examinations are the most effective method of fighting against breast cancer. Aim of study: The main objective of this work was a preliminary analysis of a prophylactic examination programme for breast cancer in Sierpc district performed by the Independent Unit of Public Health Care Centres in Sierpc during the period of 2004 to 2005. Material and methods: The research was performed based on retrospective analysis of files obtained from the Department of Radiology of the Independent Unit of Public Health Care Centres in Sierpc. Prophylactic examination for detection of breast cancer includes physical examination of the breast as well as mammography. Results: The research includes 1291 women, most of them at age 50-55 years (57.1 years on average). City residents represent the biggest group of women. Nearly half of women had their first menstruation at the age of 14 to 15 years. The last menstruation occurred at age between 46 and 50 years old most frequently. The average number of labours was 2.3 and 2.5 during the analyzed period. The first labour occurred most frequently in women at the age of 21 to 25 years old. Most of the women never took previously and still do not take hormonal medicines. 80% of women have done breast self examination but over half of them (60.8%) did it occasionally. Breast examination done by a gynaecologist was performed in 22% of women during the last year. Breast cancer did not occur among family members in most of the analyzed women. Breast pain was the most frequent complaint. Over half of women (64.6%) previously underwent mammography. The biggest group among them (31.1%) includes women who had mammography between 2003 and 2004. Adipose glandular breast texture was detected in near half of women (43.5%). The result of mammography was normal in most analyzed women (87.1%). A

  17. Results of mass endoscopic examination for gastric cancer in Kamigoto Hospital, Nagasaki Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine how the introduction of endoscopy to gastric cancer screening affected survival prognosis in a regional population.METHODS: The subjects comprised 4261 residents of Kamigoto, Nagasaki Prefecture, who underwent gastric X-ray examination for gastric cancer screening from 1991 to 1995, and all 7178 residents who underwent endoscopic examination for the same purpose from 1996to 2003. The analysis evaluated trends in age-adjusted gastric cancer mortality rates and standard mortality ratios (SMRs) among the Kamigoto residents.RESULTS: According to demographic statistics, the 1995 and 2000 age-adjusted gastric cancer mortality rates in Nagasaki Prefecture (per 100000 population) were 42.6 and 37.3 for males and 18.6 and 16.0 for females, while the corresponding rates in Kamigoto before and after the introduction of endoscopic screening were respectively 51.9 and 28.0, and 26.6 and 6.9. The data obtained in this study were divided into those for two periods,1990-1996 and 1997-2006, and SMRs were calculated separately for males and females. For the first period,the SMR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.50-1.58) for males and 1.54(95% CI 0.71-2.38) for females, while for the second period the SMR was 0.71 (95% CI 0.33-1.10) for males and 0.62 (95% CI 0.19-1.05) for females.CONCLUSION: Following the introduction of endoscopic examination, gastric cancer death rates decreased in Kamigoto.

  18. Women and Cancer: Examining Breast Cancer-Screening Behaviors and Survival

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-24

    This podcast features Siran Koroukian, PhD, associate professor in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of one of PCD’s most recent articles. Dr. Koroukian answers questions about the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCP) in Ohio and discusses the effectiveness of the program among low-income women enrolled Medicare.  Created: 7/24/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/24/2015.

  19. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (age volleyball, soccer, and basketball sessions at a community recreation center were observed and their interactive behavior coded. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of psychological characteristics (competence, confidence, character). Descriptive analyses examined the interaction patterns of young athletes in these contexts. Multiple regression analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between peer interactive behavior and athlete psychological characteristics. Results point to the social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts. PMID:27144843

  20. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Erickson

    Full Text Available Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (<25 years old, Mage = 19.84 participating in informal mixed-age volleyball, soccer, and basketball sessions at a community recreation center were observed and their interactive behavior coded. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of psychological characteristics (competence, confidence, character. Descriptive analyses examined the interaction patterns of young athletes in these contexts. Multiple regression analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between peer interactive behavior and athlete psychological characteristics. Results point to the social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts.

  1. Receptor-interacting protein-1 promotes the growth and invasion in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangwei; Ye, Jianxin; Huang, Yongjian; Zheng, Wei; Hua, Jin; Yang, Shugang; Zhuang, Jinfu; Wang, Jinzhou

    2016-06-01

    The receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP-1) is an important molecular in inflammation signaling pathways, but the role of RIP-1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we tested the expression of RIP-1 in gastric cancer samples and analyzed the effects of expression of RIP-1 on the prognosis in gastric cancer patients. We analyzed the role of the RIP-1 in gastric cancer cells and addressed the functional role of RIP-1 using a xenograft mouse model. A lentivirus-based effective RIP-1 siRNA vector was infected into HGC and AGS cells. The effect of RIP-1 siRNA on HGC and AGS cells were investigated by cell proliferation assay and invasion assay. Furthermore, we examined the role of RIP-1-siRNA on HGC cells in the mice with subcutaneous xenograft tumor, and preliminarily analyzed the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that the expression of RIP-1 in the gastric cancer tissues was significantly higher than the expression in the normal gastric tissues. Additionally, RIP-1 immunoreactivity was positive at the site of invasion, but little or no immunoreactivity was detected at the gastric cancer parts of interstitial substance. Gastric cancer patients with high expression of RIP-1 had a poor survival rate. RIP-1 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines were general. HGC-R-1-RNAi-LV inhibited HGC and AGS cell proliferation and invasion ability in vitro. RIP-NF-κB/AP-1-VEGF-C signaling pathways have a crucial role in the regulate the biological functions of HGC cells. HGC-R-1-RNAi-LV suppressed tumor growth in the HGC cell subcutaneous xenograft model. In conclusion, our data indicate that RIP-1 promote the growth and invasion of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo, additionally providing evidence that targeting RIP-1 may be useful in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27035122

  2. Mortality from breast cancer after irradiation during fluoroscopic examinations in patients being treated for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of mammography to screen asymptomatic women makes it important to know the risk of breast cancer associated with exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. We examined the mortality from breast cancer in a cohort of 31,710 women who had been treated for tuberculosis at Canadian sanatoriums between 1930 and 1952. A substantial proportion (26.4 percent) had received radiation doses to the breast of 10 cGy or more from repeated fluoroscopic examinations during therapeutic pneumothoraxes. Women exposed to greater than or equal to 10 cGy of radiation had a relative risk of death from breast cancer of 1.36, as compared with those exposed to less than 10 cGy (95 percent confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.67; P = 0.001). The data were most consistent with a linear dose-response relation. The risk was greatest among women who had been exposed to radiation when they were between 10 and 14 years of age; they had a relative risk of 4.5 per gray, and an additive risk of 6.1 per 10(4) person-years per gray. With increasing age at first exposure, there was substantially less excess risk, and the radiation effect appeared to peak approximately 25 to 34 years after the first exposure. Our additive model for lifetime risk predicts that exposure to 1 cGy at the age of 40 increases the number of deaths from breast cancer by 42 per million women. We conclude that the risk of breast cancer associated with radiation decreases sharply with increasing age at exposure and that even a small benefit to women of screening mammography would outweigh any possible risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

  3. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer physical examination by Helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 1996 to March 1999, 2570 men and 816 women received lung cancer examination by Helical CT. Helical CT was carried on, voltage =120 kV, current =50 mA, X-ray tube rotation rate =1 round/sec, table moving speed =20 mm/sec, WL =-700, WW =2000. On Helical CT, sixteen patients (12 males and 4 females) (0.47%) had early stage lung cancer which could not be detected by radiography. These cancers belonged to type A, type B and type C in the classification of Noguchi. Survival rate of these cancers is high, and care cost is low. Helical CT for lung cancer screening is expensive. And in patients with 50% in five-year survival rate, the cost-effectiveness was not found even sensitivity was 0.7, however, with 80% in five-year survival rate, the cost-effectiveness may be found when sensitivity was 1.0. (K.H.)

  4. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  5. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  6. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF BREAST SELF EXAMINATION AND BREAST CANCER AWARENESS AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejaswi Vittal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer appears to be a disease of both developing and developed country. Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in most cities in India, and 2nd most common in the rural areas. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of self breast examination am ong health care professionals. 2. To assess breast cancer awareness among health care professionals. METHODOLOGY : A questionnaire based cross sectional study in which 133 women belonging to various medical and allied specialties were included. RESULTS: It was found that most (91% respondents were aware of BSE. The electronic media were the major sources of information followed by information from co - health workers. The attitude of health professionals on BSE was positive, with a fairly high degree of accep tability of the idea. Despite the positive attitude to BSE, its practice was low (73.7%. CONCLUSION: BSE is a cost effective screening modality. In view of worldwide rising trends in the incidence of breast cancer rates, importance of BSE should be popula rised through mass media.

  7. Micropatterned Surfaces to Study Hyaluronic Acid Interactions with Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Laura E.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Cancer invasion and progression involves a motile cell phenotype, which is under complex regulation by growth factors/cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components within the tumor microenvironment. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is one stromal ECM component that is known to facilitate tumor progression by enhancing invasion, growth, and angiogenesis1. Interaction of HA with its cell surface receptor CD44 induces signaling events that promote tumor cell growth, survival, and migration, thereby in...

  8. Hyaluronan-CD44 Interactions in Cancer: Paradoxes and Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Toole, Bryan P.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a prominent component of the micro-environment in most malignant tumors and can be prognostic for tumor progression. Extensive experimental evidence in animal models implicates hyaluronan interactions in tumor growth and metastasis, but it is also evident that a balance of synthesis and turnover by hyaluronidases is critical. CD44, a major hyaluronan receptor, is commonly but not uniformly associated with malignancy, and is frequently used as a marker for cancer stem cells in hu...

  9. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  10. Jointly they edit: examining the impact of community identification on political interaction in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Neff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase 'divided they blog', referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a 'Wikipedian' even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of 'being Wikipedian' may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.

  11. Yazd Breast Cancer Project Profile; A Community Based Trial for the Evaluation of Self-Examination and Physical Examination of the Breast Cancer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anthony B; Harirchi, Iraj; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Noori, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Jafarizadea, Majid; Sadeghian, Mohammad Reza; Minosepehr, Mojgan

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that a benefit might be derived from a program that incorporated both annual physical examination of the breast (BPx) and the teaching of breast self-examination (BSE). Current investigation presents the profile of a multicenter community based intervention for evaluating the effect of BSE+BPx on the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer amongst women residing in urban areas of Yazd (Iran) from 2008 to 2018. There were three distinctive phases in this trial with 10 years duration: pilot phase with the duration of 1 year, active intervention phase with 4 rounds of annual screening of BPx+BSE and follow up phase with 5 years duration. Tools of enquiry included a pre-tested questionnaire, repeated annual physical examination of the breast and more importantly mammography, sonography, and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percent, mean (SD), tests of chi-square and student t-test with 95% confidence level. Comparison of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as age, age at marriage, family size, number of live births, occupation, education level, total family income and marital status showed that no significant difference was seen between the groups (P>0.05). A response rate of 84.5% was seen by participants of the experiment group visiting the health centers for the first BPx. Our results showed that except for the education and marital status, the difference in other main demographic and socio-economic factors between the groups were not significant, and the response rate of individuals in the experiment group was at an acceptable level. PMID:26538783

  12. Yazd Breast Cancer Project Profile; A Community Based Trial for the Evaluation of Self-Examination and Physical Examination of the Breast Cancer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B Miller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that a benefit might be derived from a program that incorporated both annual physical examination of the breast (BPx and the teaching of breast self-examination (BSE. Current investigation presents the profile of a multicenter community based intervention for evaluating the effect of BSE+BPx on the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer amongst women residing in urban areas of Yazd (Iran from 2008 to 2018. There were three distinctive phases in this trial with 10 years duration: pilot phase with the duration of 1 year, active intervention phase with 4 rounds of annual screening of BPx+BSE and follow up phase with 5 years duration. Tools of enquiry included a pre-tested questionnaire, repeated annual physical examination of the breast and more importantly mammography, sonography, and fine needle aspiration (FNA. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percent, mean (SD, tests of chi-square and student t-test with 95% confidence level. Comparison of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as age, age at marriage, family size, number of live births, occupation, education level, total family income and marital status showed that no significant difference was seen between the groups (P>0.05. A response rate of 84.5% was seen by participants of the experiment group visiting the health centers for the first BPx. Our results showed that except for the education and marital status, the difference in other main demographic and socio-economic factors between the groups were not significant, and the response rate of individuals in the experiment group was at an acceptable level.

  13. The interaction between early-life body size and physical activity on risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-08-01

    While early-life body leanness is associated with increased breast cancer risk, early-life physical activity may protect against breast cancer. We examined whether the excess risk among lean girls is modified by their levels of prior, concurrent, or future physical activity. We conducted an analysis among 74,723 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (follow-up 1997-2011). Participants recalled their body size at ages 5, 10 and 20 years in 1989 using a 9-level pictogram (Level 1 most lean). In 1997, they reported adolescent levels of physical activity (ages 12-13 and 14-17 years). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the overall association of body size with breast cancer risk and assessed interactions of adolescent physical activity with body size at three different age periods (5-10, 10-20 and 20 years), adjusting for early-life and adult risk factors for breast cancer. Regardless of levels of adolescent physical activity, early-life body leanness (level 1-2 vs. 4.5+) was significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk. The association was slightly attenuated among those who were active (60+ MET-hr/wk) during adolescence compared to those who were inactive (confidence interval = 1.04-1.81 vs. 1.66, 1.29-2.12), but the interaction was not significant (p = 0.72). The results were similar for body size at three different age periods. Being lean during early life is a risk factor for breast cancer among both inactive and active girls. Adolescent physical activity did not significantly modify the association, although some interaction cannot be excluded. PMID:25335465

  14. Breast Cancer Screening Coverage with clinical examination and Mammography Among insured women in Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to determine the coverage of clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography for screening of breast cancer among a group of insured women in Bogota. Methods: A telephone survey was carried out with 4,526 women between the ages of 50 and 69, residing in Bogota or its suburbs, who were insured by one of three commercial health plans. Women with a history of breast cancer were excluded. Screening coverage was estimated as the proportion of women who had had a mammography or CBE. Estimates were established for lifetime frequency, two years prior the survey, and one year prior the survey. Factors associated with screening procedures were analyzed with calculations based on adjusted OR. Results: Lifetime frequency of CBE was 59.3% and 79.8% for mammography; and 49.7% and 65.6% of women respectively underwent the tests for screening purposes; the remainder, for diagnostic purposes (breast symptoms). CBE reported a 34.2% one year coverage and mammography reported a 54% two years coverage. Screening was associated to cancer education and family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Coverage of CBE for screening purposes is low. Mammography coverage is above that required by the Colombian Health Ministry, but below that reported by developed countries.

  15. Evaluating a Web-Based Educational Module on Oral Cancer Examination Based on a Behavioral Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G; Zimmerman, Lani M; Pullen, Carol H; Allen, Carl M; Lambert, Paul M; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-03-01

    Patients at risk of developing oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are more likely to see primary care providers (PCPs) than a dentist. Many PCPs do not regularly perform oral cancer examination (OCE). The purpose of this study was to design a web-based educational program based on a behavioral framework to encourage PCPs to conduct OCE. PCPs were solicited to provide feedback on the program and to evaluate their short-term knowledge. The integrated behavioral model was used to design the program. Fifteen PCPs (five in each group: physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) reviewed the program and took a posttest: (1) index of knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer (RiskOC) and (2) index of knowledge of diagnostic procedures for oral cancer (DiagOC). Findings from the process evaluation were mainly positive, with comments on the length of the program comprising the ten negative comments. No significant difference among groups of PCPs (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) was detected for DiagOC (p = 0.43) or RiskOC (p = 0.201). A program on OPC for PCPs should be less than 40 min. Postviewing knowledge outcomes were similar for all PCPs. The web-based program on OPC based on a behavioral framework could have similar short-term knowledge outcomes for all PCPs and may increase the number of PCPs performing OCEs. PMID:25572460

  16. Value of ultrasound examination in differential diagnosis of pancreatic lymphoma and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiu; Yan Luo; Yu-Lan Peng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the value of clinical manifestations and ultrasound examination in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic lymphoma and pancreatic cancer.METHODS:The clinical and ultrasonic characteristics of 12 cases of pancreatic lymphoma and 30 cases of pancreatic cancer were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS:Statistically significant differences were found in the course of disease,back pain,jaundice,carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 increase,palpable abdominal lump,superficial lymph node enlargement,fever and night sweats,lesion size,bile duct expansion,pancreatic duct expansion,vascular involvement,retroperitoneal (below the renal vein level)lymph node enlargement,and intrahepatic metastasis between pancreatic lymphoma and pancreatic cancer.There were no significant differences in age of onset,gender ratio,weight loss,nausea and vomiting,lesion position,the echo of the lesion,and the blood flow of the lesion.CONCLUSION:Pancreatic lymphoma should be considered for patients with long lasting symptoms,superficial lymph node enlargement,palpable abdominal lump,fever and night sweats,relatively large lesions,and retroperitoneal (below the level of the renal vein) lymph node enlargement.A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer should be considered more likely in the patients with relatively short disease course,jaundice,back pain,CEA and CA19-9 increase,relatively small lesions,bile duct expansion,obvious pancreatic duct expansion,peripheral vascular wrapping and involvement,or intrahepatic metastases.

  17. Alteration of pancreatic cancer cell functions by tumor-stromal cell interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Shin eHamada; Atsushi eMasamune; Tooru eShimosegawa

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a characteristic tissue structure called desmoplasia, which consists of dense fibrotic stroma surrounding cancer cells. Interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and stromal cells promote invasive growth of cancer cells and establish a specific microenvironment such as hypoxia which further aggravates the malignant behavior of cancer cells. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play pivotal role in the development of fibrosis within the pancreatic cancer tissue, and also...

  18. Alteration of pancreatic cancer cell functions by tumor-stromal cell interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a characteristic tissue structure called desmoplasia, which consists of dense fibrotic stroma surrounding cancer cells. Interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and stromal cells promote invasive growth of cancer cells and establish a specific microenvironment such as hypoxia which further aggravates the malignant behavior of cancer cells. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a pivotal role in the development of fibrosis within the pancreatic cancer tissue, and al...

  19. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetinkaya Aynur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.

  20. 77 FR 24537 - Draft Standards and Best Practices for Interaction Between Medical Examiner/Coroner and Organ and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft Standards and Best Practices for Interaction Between Medical Examiner... entitled, ``Organ and Tissue Procurement Committee Standards and Best Practices for Interaction...

  1. Union examination of AFP,AFU,AFPL3 and γ-GT in early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of union examination of blood serum liver cancer tracers in the early diagnosis of liver cancer. Methods We observed and compared the level of blood serum liver cancer tracers armor embryo protein (AFP),crag algae glycosidase (AFU),armor embryo protein heteroplasmon (AFPL3) and γ-Gu Anxian transferase (γ-GT) in early time for primary liver cancer patients and hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients who had liver cancer family history. R...

  2. Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Tung-Sung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10-0.57 were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

  3. Deciphering The Complex Biological Interactions Of Nitric Oxide In Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perwez Hussain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NO• is a free radical and is involved in a number of critical physiological processes including vasodilation, neurotransmission, immune regulation and inflammation. There are convincing evidence suggesting a role of NO• in the development and progression of different cancer types. However, the role of NO• in tumorigenesis is highly complex and both pro- and anti-neoplastic functions have been reported, which largely depends on the amount of NO•, cell types, cellular microenvironment, its interaction with other reactive species and presence of metals. An interesting interaction occurs between NO• and p53 tumor suppressor, in which NO•-induced DNA damage causes the stabilization and accumulation of p53, which in turn, transrepresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 in a negative feedback loop. In chronic inflammatory diseases, for example ulcerative colitis, NO• induces p53 stabilization and the initiation of DNA-damage response pathway, and also generation of p53 mutation and subsequent clonal selection of p53 mutant cells. Genetic deletion of NOS2 in p53-deficient mice can either suppress or enhance lymphomagenesis depending on the inflammatory microenvironment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the complex biological interaction of NO• in the context of the molecular makeup of each individual cancer to design NO•-targeted treatment strategies.

  4. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease. PMID:25103095

  5. Evaluation of mouth self-examination in the control of oral cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Wesley, R.; Nair, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the feasibility of mouth self-examination (MSE). Some 450 college students distributed to 9000 households a brochure describing the risk factors of oral cancer, the appearance of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and the methods of MSE with pictures. All subjects with tobacco habits and/or aged 30 years or over were asked to read the brochure carefully and to report to the clinic conducted in their locality on fixed days, if they suspecte...

  6. Mortalin-p53 interaction in cancer cells is stress dependent and constitutes a selective target for cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, W-J; Lee, N. P.; Kaul, S C; Lan, F.; Poon, R T P; Wadhwa, R; Luk, J M

    2011-01-01

    Stress protein mortalin is a multifunctional protein and is highly expressed in cancers. It has been shown to interact with tumor suppressor protein-p53 (both wild and mutant types) and inactivates its transcriptional activation and apoptotic functions in cancer cells. In the present study, we found that, unlike most of the cancer cells, HepG2 hepatoma lacked mortalin-p53 interaction. We demonstrate that the mortalin-p53 interaction exists in cancer cells that are either physiologically stres...

  7. Examining elementary school children's level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William

    2014-01-01

    Enjoyment has been implicated as a determinant of physical activity among children and adolescents. However, the effect of different sport activities on children's enjoyment remains largely unexplored. This study examined whether children's enjoyment in physical education (PE) varied as a function of learning activities. Participants were 210 third- through sixth-grade children who had a 30 min PE class every week. Participants responded to a standardized self-report enjoyment survey measuring their enjoyment level in a PE class during which they participated in tag games. Students completed the same questionnaire when involved in interactive dance games in PE. The results revealed that children reported significantly higher scores in enjoyment toward interactive dance games than they did toward traditional games (p dance games than boys did (p dance games into PE. PMID:24111947

  8. Radiation dose and cancer risk from pediatric CT examinations on 64-slice CT: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To measure the radiation dose from CT scans in an anthropomorphic phantom using a 64-slice MDCT, and to estimate the associated cancer risk. Materials and methods: Organ doses were measured with a 5-year-old phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Four protocols; head CT, thorax CT, abdomen CT and pelvis CT were studied. Cancer risks, in the form of lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence, were estimated by linear extrapolation using the organ radiation doses and the LAR data. Results: The effective doses for head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis CT, were 0.7 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 3.0 mSv, 1.3 mSv respectively. The organs with the highest dose were; for head CT, salivary gland (22.33 mGy); for thorax CT, breast (7.89 mGy); for abdomen CT, colon (6.62 mGy); for pelvis CT, bladder (4.28 mGy). The corresponding LARs for boys and girls were 0.015-0.053% and 0.034-0.155% respectively. The organs with highest LARs were; for head CT, thyroid gland (0.003% for boys, 0.015% for girls); for thorax CT, lung for boys (0.014%) and breast for girls (0.069%); for abdomen CT, colon for boys (0.017%) and lung for girls (0.016%); for pelvis CT, bladder for both boys and girls (0.008%). Conclusion: The effective doses from these common pediatric CT examinations ranged from 0.7 mSv to 3.5 mSv and the associated lifetime cancer risks were found to be up to 0.16%, with some organs of higher radiosensitivity including breast, thyroid gland, colon and lungs.

  9. Targeting the Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network by Structural Genomics*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Hang, Dehua; Lu, Long Jason; Tong, Liang; Gerstein, Mark B; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2008-01-01

    Structural genomics provides an important approach for characterizing and understanding systems biology. As a step toward better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, we have constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as “hubs” or “b...

  10. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  11. Ratio of Metastatic to Examined Lymph Nodes, a Helpful Staging System and Independent Prognostic Factor of Esophagogastric Junction Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Dongmei DIAO; Cheng, Yao; SONG, YONGCHUN; Zhu, Kun; DANG, CHENGXUE

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of the esophagogastric junction cancer is growing rapidly. The purpose of this study is to clarify the outcome of the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes in esophagogastric junction cancer patients with or without 7 examined lymph nodes. Methods A total of 3,481 patients who underwent operation are identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Different lymph nodes resected groups are analyzed to test the lymph nodes ratio fac...

  12. Significance of pelvic CT examination for the diagnosis of the distal colonic and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic CT examination was performed in preoperative 40 patients and postoperrative 51 patients of the distal colonic and rectal carcinoma. CT study expect for the decision of the depth of invasion and the detection of lymphnode metastasis, or the location of recurrence. Diagnostic accuracy rate of the depth of invasion was 68.6% in tumors of sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum, and 78.9% in lower rectum, and anal canal. These rate were superior to those of selective angiographic examination. Diagnostic accuracy rate for lymphnode metastasis was 73.0%. CT examination could define the lymphnode swelling, but could not define if those were metastasis or not. Furthermore, CT-angiography was beneficial for the estimation of the depth of invasion. The differentiation between local recurrent tumor and granulomatous mass in the perineum after abdomino-perineal resection is the most important problem, however, the further studies are necessary to obtain the definite criteria of differential diagnosis. Above results support that CT examination should be used routinely in the distal colonic and rectal cancer patients. (author)

  13. Significance of pelvic CT examination for the diagnosis of the distal colonic and rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Takeshi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-05-01

    Pelvic CT examination was performed in preoperative 40 patients and postoperrative 51 patients of the distal colonic and rectal carcinoma. CT study expect for the decision of the depth of invasion and the detection of lymph node metastasis, or the location of recurrence. Diagnostic accuracy rate of the depth of invasion was 68.6% in tumors of sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum, and 78.9% in lower rectum, and anal canal. These rates were superior to those of selective angiographic examination. Diagnostic accuracy rate for lymph node metastasis was 73.0%. CT examination could define the lymph node swelling, but could not define if those were metastasis or not. Furthermore, CT-angiography was beneficial for the estimation of the depth of invasion. The differentiation between local recurrent tumor and granulomatous mass in the perineum after abdomino-perineal resection is the most important problem. However, further studies are necessary to obtain the definite criteria of differential diagnosis. Above results support that CT examination should be used routinely in the distal colonic and rectal cancer patients.

  14. Cancer Stem Cells and Their Interaction with the Tumor Microenvironment in Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan F. Garner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from neural crest cells, accounts for over 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. The interaction of neuroblastoma cancer-initiating cells with their microenvironment likely plays an integral role in the maintenance of resistant disease and tumor relapse. In this review, we discuss the interaction between neuroblastoma cancer-initiating cells and the elements of the tumor microenvironment and how these interactions may provide novel therapeutic targets for this difficult to treat disease.

  15. Union examination of AFP, AFU, AFPL3 andγ-GT in early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Shao; Zuo-ren Wang; Lei Shi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of union examination of blood serum liver cancer tracers in the early diagnosis of liver cancer. Methods We observed and compared the level of blood serum liver cancer tracers armor embryo protein (AFP), crag algae glycosidase (AFU), armor embryo protein heteroplasmon (AFPL3) andγ-Gu Anxian transferase (γ-GT) in early time for primary liver cancer patients and hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients who had liver cancer family history. Results Finally among the 30 patients in the early liver cancer group, 23 were positive with AFP, 20 with AFU, 15 with AFPL3 and 21 with γ-GT. Five were found positive with blood serum AFP, AFPL3, AFU and γ-GT at the same time; 5 with AFP, AFPL3 and γ-GT; 5 with AFP, AFU and AFPL3; 7 with AFP, AFU andγ-GT. By contrast, in the control group, among the 30 hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients with liver cancer family history, 11 were found positive with AFP, 3 with AFPL3, 12 with AFU and 14 with γ-GT. None of the patients were found positive with union examination of AFP, AFPL3, AFU and γ-GT in the blood serum at the same time. Conclusion The union examination of AFP, AFU, AFPL3 and γ-GT is significant to the early diagnosis of primary liver cancer.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination training for patient care personnel: intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebiş, Hatice

    2014-12-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled intervention study. The study included 96 patient care staff divided into two groups of 48 participants each: Group I, the interactive education group, and Group II, the pamphlet education group. The results demonstrated that TSE practice and TC knowledge significantly increased in both Group I and Group II. Significant differences were observed between the groups pre and post education. TSE and TC knowledge levels were higher for participants in Group I than those in Group II. There was a significant difference in the performance of TSEs between groups: the rates were 83.3% in Group I and 54.2% in Group II. Perceived confidence and perceived barriers increased significantly for both groups. Interactive education sessions should be used to train men at risk for TC to perform TSEs. PMID:25248831

  17. PKM2 enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin through interaction with the mTOR pathway in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Cheng, Huihui; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key driver of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and has been shown to be up-regulated by mTOR in vitro. Our previous proteomic profiling studies showed that PKM2 was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues after treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Whether PKM2 expression predicts cisplatin-based NACT sensitivity and is mTOR dependent in cervical cancer patients remains unclear. Using paired tumor samples (pre- and post-chemotherapy) from 36 cervical cancer patients, we examined mTOR, HIF-1α, c-Myc, and PKM2 expression in cervical cancer samples and investigated the response to cisplatin-based NACT. In addition, we established PKM2 suppressed cervical cancer cell lines and evaluated their sensitivity to cisplatin in vitro. We found that the mTOR/HIF-1α/c-Myc/PKM2 signaling pathway was significantly downregulated in post-chemotherapy cervical cancer tissues. High levels of mTOR, HIF-1α, c-Myc, and PKM2 were associated with a positive chemotherapy response in cervical cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based NACT. In vitro, PKM2 knockdown desensitized cervical cancer cells to cisplatin. Moreover, PKM2 had complex interactions with mTOR pathways. mTOR, HIF1α, c-Myc, and PKM2 expression in cervical cancer may serve as predictive biomarkers to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PKM2 enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin through interaction with the mTOR pathway in cervical cancer. PMID:27492148

  18. Knowledge, attitude & practice towards breast cancer & breast self examination in Kirkuk University, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nada AS Alwan; Jwad KA Al-Diwan; Wafa M Al-Attar; Raghad A Eliessa

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice towards breast cancer and breast self examination (BSE) among a sample of educated Iraqi population affiliated to Kirkuk University in Iraq. Methods:The total number of participants was 304 (256 females and 48 males);comprising students (85.2%;n=259), teaching staff (8.2%;n=25) and administrative university staff (6.6%;n=20). The mean age of the participants was (23.8±8.3) years. .Each was asked to complete a pre-coded standardized questionnaire. Variables were dichotomized and multiple logistic regressions were applied to test the association of independent variables with practicing BSE. Results:It was observed that 177 (69.1%) of females have heard about the BSE. One hundred and nine of the female respondents (42.6%) reported that they have practiced BSE. Of those who have heard about BSE only 57.4%were in fact practicing the technique. Multiple logistic regression revealed that age of the respondents and knowledge on the means of early detection, the effect of nulliparity on the probability of contacting the disease and factors that could decrease the incidence of breast cancer were significantly associated with practicing BSE (P=0.019, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.007 respectively).Overall, it has been demonstrated that 89.7%of the female participants in this study presented a positive attitude towards learning the correct procedure of BSE with an intention to instruct others on the technique. Conclusions:although the knowledge about breast cancer and practice of BSE was relatively weak in Kirkuk, probably attributable to the long standing conflicts in the city, yet the positive attitude towards learning the screening techniques and the intention to teach others were fairly encouraging. Knowledge and practice can be endorsed by promoting nationwide public health awareness campaigns and establishing sustained educational framework and policy guidelines.

  19. Inflexibility as an interactional phenomenon: Using conversation analysis to re-examine a symptom of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy; Body, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) imply that the condition's behavioural 'symptoms' are direct reflexes of underlying deficits. In doing so, however, they invariably overlook the social contexts in which symptomatic behaviours occur and are identified as pathological. This study addresses this issue, using conversation analysis (CA) to examine the emergence of inflexibility, a behavioural trait symptomatic of ASD, during play involving an adult and diagnosed child. We argue that 'inflexibility' is the product of the child's strategic attempts to retain control over the unfolding interaction, within a context where such attempts breach normative expectations about adult-child play. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the adult does not resist these attempts, on occasion even explicitly providing opportunity for subsequent inflexibility. This challenges the assumption that ASD's behavioural profile solely represents the endpoint of underlying deficit, and demonstrates how 'non-impaired' speakers can be implicated in the manifestation of symptomatic behaviours. PMID:20030550

  20. Breast Self-Examination and breast cancer awareness in women in developing countries: a survey of women in Buea, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Mary Atanga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cameroon, breast cancer causes as many as 10.7 deaths per 100,000 women making it the second cause of cancer mortality. Better documenting women’s knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-exam (BSE would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer. This study sought to 1. describe Cameroonian women’s knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE; 2. assess their impression on the practice of BSE and 3. describe their perceptions on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a volunteer sample of 120 consenting women in Buea, Cameroon. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire self-administered by study participants. Results The sample was fairly educated with close to three quarters (70.83% having completed high school. Nearly three quarters (74.17% of participants had previously heard about BSE, however as many as 40% had never done a BSE. Although 95% of participants believed that breast cancer could be prevented, only 36.67% recognized breast examination as a prevention method. A substantial 13.33% thought that breast cancer could be prevented with a vaccine while 45% thought that dieting or exercising would prevent breast cancer. Similarly, 70% of participants thought that breast cancer could be treated, with 35.83% thinking that it could be treated medically while 34.17% thought it could be treated traditionally or spiritually. Conclusions The practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequent in these women in Buea, Cameroon. Health education campaigns are imperative to elucidate the public on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Further studies need to explore what interventions could be best used to improve the uptake and practice of BSE.

  1. Target Volume Delineation in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Impact of PET, MRI, and Physical Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Sole utilization of computed tomography (CT) scans in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for head-and-neck cancers is subject to inaccuracies. This study aims to evaluate contributions of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and physical examination (PE) to GTV delineation in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: Forty-one patients with OPC were studied. All underwent contrast-enhanced CT simulation scans (CECTs) that were registered with pretreatment PETs and MRIs. For each patient, three sets of primary and nodal GTV were contoured. First, reference GTVs (GTVref) were contoured by the treating radiation oncologist (RO) using CT, MRI, PET, and PE findings. Additional GTVs were created using fused CT/PET scans (GTVctpet) and CT/MRI scans (GTVctmr) by two other ROs blinded to GTVref. To compare GTVs, concordance indices (CI) were calculated by dividing the respective overlap volumes by overall volumes. To evaluate the contribution of PE, composite GTVs derived from CT, MRI, and PET (GTVctpetmr) were compared with GTVref. Results: For primary tumors, GTVref was significantly larger than GTVctpet and GTVctmr (p 0.75), indicating that although the modalities were complementary, the added benefit was small in the context of CECTs. In addition, PE did not aid greatly in nodal GTV delineation. Conclusion: PET and MRI are complementary and combined use is ideal. However, the low CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) particularly for primary tumors underscores the limitations of defining GTVs using imaging alone. PE is invaluable and must be incorporated.

  2. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N V; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health-related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health-related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. PMID:26867802

  3. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  4. The criteria for further examination in breast cancer screening using combined mammography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the favorable criteria in breast cancer screening using mammography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US). We examined 1,542 females who had never undergone combined screening, and evaluated the following criteria: Need to recall due to category 3 in either MMG or US. To evaluate MMG and US films together. To estimate the next time recall rate. We identified the benefit of combined screening, which is able to rule out benign lesions in category 3 of MMG. So, it is important to evaluate MMG and US films together. It is also necessary to interpret results in comparison with previous films. Our results showed that the recall rate was 8% in the first screening, and it was 4-5% in the repeat screening. Therefore, the target recall rate on combined screening would be less than 5%. (author)

  5. Interjoint dynamic interaction during constrained human quiet standing examined by induced acceleration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Shun; Shinya, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that human quiet standing is a multijoint movement, whereby the central nervous system (CNS) is required to deal with dynamic interactions among the joints to achieve optimal motor performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the CNS deals with such interjoint interaction during quiet standing by examining the relationship between the kinetics (torque) and kinematics (angular acceleration) within the multi-degree of freedom system. We modeled quiet standing as a double-link inverted pendulum involving both ankle and hip joints and conducted an "induced acceleration analysis." We found that the net ankle and hip torques induced angular accelerations of comparable magnitudes to the ankle (3.8 ± 1.4°/s(2) and 3.3 ± 1.2°/s(2)) and hip (9.1 ± 3.2°/s(2) and 10.5 ± 3.5°/s(2)) joints, respectively. Angular accelerations induced by the net ankle and hip torques were modulated in a temporally antiphase pattern to one another in each of the two joints. These quantitative and temporal relationships allowed the angular accelerations induced by the two net torques to countercompensate one another, thereby substantially (∼70%) reducing the resultant angular accelerations of the individual joints. These results suggest that, by taking advantage of the interjoint interaction, the CNS prevents the net torques from producing large amplitudes of the resultant angular accelerations when combined with the kinematic effects of all other torques in the chain. PMID:24089399

  6. Study design: Evaluating gene–environment interactions in the etiology of breast cancer – the WECARE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deficiencies in cellular responses to DNA damage can predispose to cancer. Ionizing radiation can cause cluster damage and double-strand breaks (DSBs) that pose problems for cellular repair processes. Three genes (ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2) encode products that are essential for the normal cellular response to DSBs, but predispose to breast cancer when mutated. To examine the joint roles of radiation exposure and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of breast cancer, we designed a case-control study nested within five population-based cancer registries. We hypothesized that a woman carrying a mutant allele in one of these genes is more susceptible to radiation-induced breast cancer than is a non-carrier. In our study, 700 women with asynchronous bilateral breast cancer were individually matched to 1400 controls with unilateral breast cancer on date and age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer, race, and registry region, and counter-matched on radiation therapy. Each triplet comprised two women who received radiation therapy and one woman who did not. Radiation absorbed dose to the contralateral breast after initial treatment was estimated with a comprehensive dose reconstruction approach that included experimental measurements in anthropomorphic and water phantoms applying patient treatment parameters. Blood samples were collected from all participants for genetic analyses. Our study design improves the potential for detecting gene–environment interactions for diseases when both gene mutations and the environmental exposures of interest are rare in the general population. This is particularly applicable to the study of bilateral breast cancer because both radiation dose and genetic susceptibility have important etiologic roles, possibly by interactive mechanisms. By using counter-matching, we optimized the informativeness of the collected dosimetry data by increasing the variability of radiation dose within the case–control sets and enhanced our ability to

  7. Knowledge on breast cancer and practice of breast self examination among selected female university students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Akhtari-Zavare

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in most parts of the world including Malaysia. Even though breast self examination (BSE is not seen as a relevant cancer screening tool anymore, it still plays an important role in the breast health awareness programme. Aim of the study to determine the knowledge of respondents on breast cancer regarding the risk factors, symptoms, and to determine respondents’ practice of breast self-examination. A cross sectional study was carried out in University Putra Malaysia, data were collected using validated questionnaire developed for this study. Among respondents 197(83.1% were single, 100 were Malay (42.3% and 49(20.7% of the respondents reported having a family history of breast cancer. eighty-seven respondents (36.7% claimed they had practice BSE. There were statistically significant differences between those who practice and did not practice BSE in term of knowledge regarding risk factors, symptoms of breast cancer, total knowledge of breast cancer and knowledge score of BSE (p-value <0.05. The findings showed that knowledge of breast cancer and the practice of BSE is inadequate among young Malaysian female.

  8. Zodiac: A Comprehensive Depiction of Genetic Interactions in Cancer by Integrating TCGA Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yitan; Xu, Yanxun; Helseth, Donald L.; Gulukota, Kamalakar; Yang, Shengjie; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Mitra, Riten; Muller, Peter; Sengupta, Subhajit; Guo, Wentian; Foster, Ian; Bullock, JaQuel A.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Genetic interactions play a critical role in cancer development. Existing knowledge about cancer genetic interactions is incomplete, especially lacking evidences derived from large-scale cancer genomics data. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) produces multimodal measurements across genomics and features of thousands of tumors, which provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the interplays of genes in cancer. Methods: We introduce Zodiac, a computational tool and resource to integrate existing knowledge about cancer genetic interactions with new information contained in TCGA data. It is an evolution of existing knowledge by treating it as a prior graph, integrating it with a likelihood model derived by Bayesian graphical model based on TCGA data, and producing a posterior graph as updated and data-enhanced knowledge. In short, Zodiac realizes “Prior interaction map + TCGA data → Posterior interaction map.” Results: Zodiac provides molecular interactions for about 200 million pairs of genes. All the results are generated from a big-data analysis and organized into a comprehensive database allowing customized search. In addition, Zodiac provides data processing and analysis tools that allow users to customize the prior networks and update the genetic pathways of their interest. Zodiac is publicly available at www.compgenome.org/ZODIAC. Conclusions: Zodiac recapitulates and extends existing knowledge of molecular interactions in cancer. It can be used to explore novel gene-gene interactions, transcriptional regulation, and other types of molecular interplays in cancer.

  9. Cancer type-dependent genetic interactions between cancer driver alterations indicate plasticity of epistasis across cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Solip; Lehner, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Cancers, like many diseases, are normally caused by combinations of genetic alterations rather than by changes affecting single genes. It is well established that the genetic alterations that drive cancer often interact epistatically, having greater or weaker consequences in combination than expected from their individual effects. In a stringent statistical analysis of data from > 3,000 tumors, we find that the co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity relationships between cancer driver alterations change quite extensively in different types of cancer. This cannot be accounted for by variation in tumor heterogeneity or unrecognized cancer subtypes. Rather, it suggests that how genomic alterations interact cooperatively or partially redundantly to driver cancer changes in different types of cancers. This re-wiring of epistasis across cell types is likely to be a basic feature of genetic architecture, with important implications for understanding the evolution of multicellularity and human genetic diseases. In addition, if this plasticity of epistasis across cell types is also true for synthetic lethal interactions, a synthetic lethal strategy to kill cancer cells may frequently work in one type of cancer but prove ineffective in another. PMID:26227665

  10. Interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles examined by using lipophilic photoreagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different lipophilic photoreagents, [3H]adamantane diazirine and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID), have been utilized to examine the interactions of blood coagulation factor Va with calcium, prothrombin, factor Xa, and, in particular, phospholipid vesicles. With each of these structurally dissimilar reagents, the extent of photolabeling of factor Va was greater when the protein was bound to a membrane surface than when it was free in solution. Specifically, the covalent photoreaction with Vl, the smaller subunit of factor Va, was 2-fold higher in the presence of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS, 3:1) vesicles, to which factor Va binds, than in the presence of 100% PC vesicles, to which the protein does not bind. However, the magnitude of the PC/PS-dependent photolabeling was much less than has been observed previously with integral membrane proteins. It therefore appears that the binding of factor Va to the membrane surface exposes Vl to the lipid core of the bilayer, but that only a small portion of the Vl polypeptide is exposed to, or embedded in, the bilayer core. Addition of either prothrombin or active-site-blocked factor Xa to PC/PS-bound factor Va had little effect on the photolabeling of Vl with TID, but reduced substantially the covalent labeling of Vh, the larger subunit of factor Va. This indicates that prothrombin and factor Xa each cover nonpolar surfaces on Vh when the macromolecules associate on the PC/PS surface. It therefore seems likely that the formation of the prothrombinase complex involves a direct interaction between Vh and factor Xa and between Vh and prothrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. TP53 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with lifestyle factors and lung cancer risk: a case control study in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pathway-based genotyping analysis suggested rs2078486 was a novel TP53 SNP, but very few studies replicate this association. TP53 rs1042522 is the most commonly studied SNP, but very few studies examined its potential interaction with environmental factors in relation to lung cancer risk. This study aims to examine associations between two TP53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2078486, rs1042522), their potential interaction with environmental factors and risk of lung cancer. A case–control study was conducted in Taiyuan, China. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multiplicative and additive interactions between TP53 SNPs and lifestyle factors were evaluated. Variant TP53 rs2078486 SNP was significantly associated with elevated lung cancer risk among smokers (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.67) and individuals with high indoor air pollution exposure (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.00-2.30). Significant or borderline significant multiplicative and additive interactions were found between TP53 rs2078486 polymorphism with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure. The variant genotype of TP53 SNP rs1042522 significantly increased lung cancer risk in the total population (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), but there was no evidence of heterogeneity among individuals with different lifestyle factors. This study confirmed that TP53 rs2078486 SNP is potentially a novel TP53 SNP that may affect lung cancer risk. Our study also suggested potential synergetic effects of TP53 rs2078486 SNP with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure on lung cancer risk

  12. An examination of disparities in cancer incidence in Texas using Bayesian random coefficient models

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in cancer risk exist between ethnic groups in the United States. These disparities often result from differential access to healthcare, differences in socioeconomic status and differential exposure to carcinogens. This study uses cancer incidence data from the population based Texas Cancer Registry to investigate the disparities in digestive and respiratory cancers from 2000 to 2008. A Bayesian hierarchical regression approach is used. All models are fit using the INLA method of B...

  13. Examining reference frame interaction in spatial memory using a distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Whitney N; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2016-02-01

    Previous research showed competition among reference frames in spatial attention and language. The present studies developed a new distribution analysis to examine reference frame interactions in spatial memory. Participants viewed virtual arrays of colored pegs and were instructed to remember them either from their own perspective or from the perspective aligned with the rectangular floor. Then they made judgments of relative directions from their respective encoding orientation. Those taking the floor-axis perspective showed systematic bias in the signed errors toward their egocentric perspective, while those taking their own perspective showed no systematic bias, both for random and symmetrical object arrays. The bias toward the egocentric perspective was observed when learning a real symmetric regular object array with strong environmental cues for the aligned axis. These results indicate automatic processing of the self reference while taking the floor-axis perspective but not vice versa, and suggest that research on spatial memory needs to consider the implications of competition effects in reference frame use. PMID:26032226

  14. An examination of the interactions between mothers and children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar, Natalie S; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the association between parenting styles and mother and child anxiety. Maternal overinvolvement and negativity/criticism were evaluated during a speech preparation task (N=135 dyads) and a Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) from mothers (N=155). During the speech task interaction, mothers of anxious children (aged 4-16 years), regardless of their own anxiety, were observed to be more overinvolved than mothers of nonanxious children. Similarly, the FMSS showed that mothers of anxious children (aged 4-17 years) were more overprotective, self-sacrificing, or nonobjective than mothers of nonanxious children, irrespective of maternal anxiety status. No differences in maternal negativity were found on the speech task between any of the groups. However, the FMSS showed that mothers of anxious children were more critical than mothers of nonanxious children, regardless of maternal anxiety status. These results support the relationship between overinvolved, critical parenting and child anxiety, but suggest that maternal anxiety is not associated with increased overinvolvement or criticism. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:18851844

  15. Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindstrom

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10⁻²⁸. Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P = 0.0001 and rs266849, P = 0.0004; case-only test, where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade < 8 tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined.

  16. Estimation of breast doses and breast cancer risk associated with repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations of women with tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented to estimate cumulative breast dose and breast cancer risk for women exposed to repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations during air collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Medical record abstraction, physician interview, patient contact, machine exposure measurements, and absorbed dose computations were combined to estimate average breast doses for 1047 Massachusetts women who were treated between 1930 and 1954. The methodology presented considers breast size and composition, patient orientation, x-ray field size and location, beam quality, type of examination, machine exposure rate, and exposure time during fluoroscopic examinations. The best estimate for the risk of radiation-induced cancer for the women living longer than 10 years after initial fluoroscopic exposure is 6.2 excess breast cancers per million woman-year-rad with 90% confidence limits of 2.8 and 10.7 cancers/106 WY-rad. When breast cancer risk is considered as a function of absorbed dose in the breast, instead of as a function of the number of fluoroscopic examinations, a linear dose--response relationship over the range of estimated doses is consistent with the data. However, because of the uncertainty due to small-sample variability and because of the wide range of assumptions regarding certain fluoroscopy conditions, other dose--response relationships are compatible with the data

  17. CT-guided brachytherapy of prostate cancer: reduction of effective dose from X-ray examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Dmitriy B.; Biryukov, Vitaliy A.; Rusetskiy, Sergey S.; Sviridov, Pavel V.; Volodina, Tatiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most effective and informative diagnostic method. Though the number of CT scans among all radiographic procedures in the USA and European countries is 11% and 4% respectively, CT makes the highest contribution to the collective effective dose from all radiographic procedures, it is 67% in the USA and 40% in European countries [1-5]. Therefore it is necessary to understand the significance of dose value from CT imaging to a patient . Though CT dose from multiple scans and potential risk is of great concern in pediatric patients, this applies to adults as well. In this connection it is very important to develop optimal approaches to dose reduction and optimization of CT examination. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its publications recommends radiologists to be aware that often CT image quality is higher than it is necessary for diagnostic confidence[6], and there is a potential to reduce the dose which patient gets from CT examination [7]. In recent years many procedures, such as minimally invasive surgery, biopsy, brachytherapy and different types of ablation are carried out under guidance of computed tomography [6;7], and during a procedures multiple CT scans focusing on a specific anatomic region are performed. At the Clinics of MRRC different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer are used, incuding conformal CT-guided brachytherapy, implantation of microsources of I into the gland under guidance of spiral CT [8]. So, the purpose of the study is to choose optimal method to reduce radiation dose from CT during CT-guided prostate brachytherapy and to obtain the image of desired quality.

  18. Cohort study examining tamoxifen adherence and its relationship to mortality in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, C.; Shearer, J.; Donnan, P T; Dewar, J.A.; Crilly, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Fahey, T P

    2008-01-01

    Increasing duration of tamoxifen therapy improves survival in women with breast cancer but the impact of adherence to tamoxifen on mortality is unclear. This study investigated whether women prescribed tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer adhered to their prescription and whether adherence influenced survival. A retrospective cohort study of all women with incident breast cancer in the Tayside region of Scotland between 1993 and 2002 was linked to encashed prescription records to calcula...

  19. Changes in frequency of recall recommendations of examinations depicting cancer with the availability of either priors or digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christiane M.; Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Catullo, Victor J.; Chough, Denise M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Shinde, Dilip D.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Wallace, Luisa P.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Gur, David

    2016-03-01

    Performance changes in a binary environment when using additional information is affected only when changes in recommendations are made due to the additional information in question. In a recent study, we have shown that, contrary to general expectation, introducing prior examinations improved recall rates, but not sensitivity. In this study, we assessed cancer detection differences when prior examinations and/or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) were made available to the radiologist. We identified a subset of 21 cancer cases with differences in the number of radiologists who recalled these cases after reviewing either a prior examination or DBT. For the cases with differences in recommendations after viewing either priors or DBT, separately, we evaluated the total number of readers that changed their recommendations, regardless of the specific radiologist in question. Confidence intervals for the number of readers and a test for the hypothesis of no difference was performed using the non-parameteric bootstrap approach addressing both case and reader-related sources of variability by resampling cases and readers. With the addition of priors, there were 14 cancer cases (out of 15) where the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased. With the addition of DBT, the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased in only five cases (out of 15) while increasing in the remaining 9 cases. Unlike most new approaches to breast imaging DBT seems to improve both recall rates and cancer detection rates. Changes in recommendations were noted by all radiologists for all cancers by type, size, and breast density.

  20. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eshini Perera; Neiraja Gnaneswaran; Marlon Perera; Rodney Sinclair

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA) rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiol...

  1. Lung Cancer and Human Papilloma Viruses (HPVs: Examining the Molecular Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya R. Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV, known to be an etiological agent for genital cancers, has been suggested also to be a possible contributory agent for lung cancer. Alternatively, lung cancer, formerly considered to be solely a smoker's disease, may now be more appropriately categorised into never smoker's and smoker's lung cancer. Through this paper we attempt to bring forth the current knowledge regarding mechanisms of HPV gaining access into the lung tissue, various strategies involved in HPV-associated tumorigenesis in lung tissue.

  2. Comparisons of predictive values of breast cancer pathology response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy between physical examination, ultrasound and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the method for predicting breast cancer pathology response through comparisons between application value of physical examination, ultrasound and mammography in measuring the size of tumor before and after chemotherapy and the results of pathological Miller and Payne (MP) grade. Methods: 65 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in our department were selected. All patients received one to six cycles of TAC (Docetaxel, Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide) regimen or other regimen after being diagnosed as breast cancer by mammotomy biopsy. The following operation was undergone within 3 weeks after the last chemotherapy. The tumor sizes of all patients were examined by physical examination, ultrasound and mammography before NAC and before the operation. The pathological responses were evaluated by MP grading system criteria by comparing the changes of cancer tissues in biopsy tissues before NAC and after te operation. ROC curve and Spearman correlation analysis were used for the analysis between the changes of tumor sizes examined by physical examination, ultrasound and mammography and the results of MP grade. Results: There was a significant correlation between MP grade and the results of physical examination, ultrasound and mammography (r=0.487, P=0.000; r=0.251, P=0.004). The area of pathology complete response (pCR) of MP grade 5 under the ROC curve (Az value) was 0.703 for physical examination, 0.531 for ultrasound, 0.712 for mammography, and 0.727 for combining three techniques. Conclusion: Physical examination and mammography are more useful than ultrasound in predicting the pathologic results of NAC. Combining three techniques has predictive value in pathology response of breast cancer after NAC. (authors)

  3. Re-examination of the Natural History of High-grade T1 Bladder Cancer using a Large Contemporary Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Canter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHigh-grade T1 (HGT1 bladder cancer represents a clinical challenge in that the urologist must balance the risk of disease progression against the morbidity and potential mortality of early radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Using two non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC databases, we re-examined the rate of progression of HG T1 bladder cancer in our bladder cancer populations.Materials and MethodsWe queried the NMIBC databases that have been established independently at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center (AVAMC and the University of Pennsylvania to identify patients initially diagnosed with HGT1 bladder cancer. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were examined as well as rates of recurrence and progression.ResultsA total of 222 patients were identified; 198 (89.1% and 199 (89.6% of whom were male and non-African American, respectively. Mean patient age was 66.5 years. 191 (86.0% of the patients presented with isolated HG T1 disease while 31 (14.0% patients presented with HGT1 disease and CIS. Induction BCG was utilized in 175 (78.8% patients. Recurrence occurred in 112 (50.5% patients with progression occurring in only 19 (8.6% patients. At a mean follow-up of 51 months, overall survival was 76.6%. Fifty two patients died, of whom only 13 (25% patient deaths were bladder cancer related.ConclusionsIn our large cohort of patients, we found that the risk of progression at approximately four years was only 8.6%. While limited by its retrospective nature, this study could potentially serve as a starting point in re-examining the treatment algorithm for patients with HG T1 bladder cancer.

  4. S100P interacts with integrin α7 and increases cancer cell migration and invasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Hung, Jen-Yu; Liang, Yung-Yu; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Lu, Chi-Yu; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2015-10-01

    S100P, a Ca2+ binding protein, has been shown to be overexpressed in various cancers. However, its functional character in lung cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that S100P increases cancer migration, invasion and metastasis in lung cancer cells. Ectopic expression of S100P increases migration, invasion and EMT in less invasive CL1-0 lung cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of S100P suppressed migration and invasion, and caused a reversion of EMT in highly invasive lung cancer cells. These effects were transduced by increasing the interaction of S100P with integrin α7, which activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT. Blocking FAK significantly decreased S100P-induced migration by decreasing Src and AKT activation, whereas inhibiting AKT reduced S100P upregulation on ZEB1 expression. Further study has indicated that S100P knockdown prevents the spread of highly metastatic human lung cancer in animal models. This study therefore suggests that S100P represents a critical activator of lung cancer metastasis. Detection and targeted treatment of S100P-expressing cancer is an attractive therapeutic strategy in treating lung cancer. PMID:26320193

  5. Identifying functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Nafiseh; Fathy, Mahmood; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaie, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged between 15 and 35 and more than 90% of testicular neoplasms are originated at germ cells. Recent research has shown the impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) in different types of cancer, including testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which affect the development and progression of cancer cells by binding to mRNAs and regulating their expressions. The identification of functional miRNA-mRNA interactions in cancers, i.e. those that alter the expression of genes in cancer cells, can help delineate post-regulatory mechanisms and may lead to new treatments to control the progression of cancer. A number of sequence-based methods have been developed to predict miRNA-mRNA interactions based on the complementarity of sequences. While necessary, sequence complementarity is, however, not sufficient for presence of functional interactions. Alternative methods have thus been developed to refine the sequence-based interactions using concurrent expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs. This study aims to find functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in TGCT. To this end, the sequence-based predicted interactions are first refined using an ensemble learning method, based on two well-known methods of learning miRNA-mRNA interactions, namely, TaLasso and GenMiR++. Additional functional analyses were then used to identify a subset of interactions to be most likely functional and specific to TGCT. The final list of 13 miRNA-mRNA interactions can be potential targets for identifying TGCT-specific interactions and future laboratory experiments to develop new therapies. PMID:27235586

  6. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the p

  7. Opportunities of radiological methods for examination in diagnostics of urinary bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Popkov V.M.; Zuev V.V.; Glybochko P.V.; Ponukalin A.N.

    2011-01-01

    The research goal is the comparative analysis of Russian and foreign studies concerned the possibility of radiological methods of diagnostics of cancer of urinary bladder. The problem of early diagnostics of initial tumor and tumor recurrence, determination of stages of bladder cancer, its prognosis and outcome remains an actual one

  8. Prioritizing cancer-related genes with aberrant methylation based on a weighted protein-protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Jie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an important epigenetic modification, DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the development of mammals and in the occurrence of complex diseases. Genes that interact directly or indirectly may have the same or similar functions in the biological processes in which they are involved and together contribute to the related disease phenotypes. The complicated relations between genes can be clearly represented using network theory. A protein-protein interaction (PPI network offers a platform from which to systematically identify disease-related genes from the relations between genes with similar functions. Results We constructed a weighted human PPI network (WHPN using DNA methylation correlations based on human protein-protein interactions. WHPN represents the relationships of DNA methylation levels in gene pairs for four cancer types. A cancer-associated subnetwork (CASN was obtained from WHPN by selecting genes associated with seed genes which were known to be methylated in the four cancers. We found that CASN had a more densely connected network community than WHPN, indicating that the genes in CASN were much closer to seed genes. We prioritized 154 potential cancer-related genes with aberrant methylation in CASN by neighborhood-weighting decision rule. A function enrichment analysis for GO and KEGG indicated that the optimized genes were mainly involved in the biological processes of regulating cell apoptosis and programmed cell death. An analysis of expression profiling data revealed that many of the optimized genes were expressed differentially in the four cancers. By examining the PubMed co-citations, we found 43 optimized genes were related with cancers and aberrant methylation, and 10 genes were validated to be methylated aberrantly in cancers. Of 154 optimized genes, 27 were as diagnostic markers and 20 as prognostic markers previously identified in literature for cancers and other complex diseases by searching Pub

  9. Social anhedonia and affiliation: examining behavior and subjective reactions within a social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Katiah; Park, Stephanie G; Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J

    2012-12-30

    Social anhedonia is a promising indicator for the vulnerability towards developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and is an important determinant of the social impairment associated with these disorders. It is unknown if social anhedonia is associated with true deficits in experiential reactions or if lower social functioning in social anhedonia reflects behavioral deficits in social skill or initiation of social contact. Using a novel social interaction task, the current study compared controls (n=60) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=49) on observer-rated social skill and facial affect and participant self-reports of their experiential reactions to an affiliative interaction. Compared to the control group, the social anhedonia group was rated as behaviorally less affiliative and less socially skilled during the affiliative interaction. In response to the social interaction, the social anhedonia group reported less change in positive affect, less willingness to engage in future social interactions with the interaction partner, and less positive reactions toward the interaction partner compared to controls. There were no group differences in facial displays of emotion. Using a standardized affiliative stimulus, it was demonstrated that individuals high in social anhedonia have alterations in both their social skill and in their self-reported experiential reactions during a social interaction. PMID:22884310

  10. Communication skills of nurses during interactions with simulated cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijver, I.P.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.; van de Wiel, H.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the balance of affective and intrumental communication employed by nurses during the admission interview with recently diagnosed cancer patients was investigated. Rationale: The balance of affective and instrumental communication employed by nurses appears to be important, especially during the admission interview with cancer patients. Methods: For this purpose, admission interviews between 53 ward nurses and simulated cancer patients were videotaped and analysed using the Roter...

  11. Examination of the Impact of Using an Interactive Electronic Textbook on the Affective Learning of Prospective Mathematics Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Sakine Öngöz; Adnan Baki

    2011-01-01

    This semi-experimental study aims to examine the impact of a learning environment that uses interactive electronic textbook on the affective learning of prospective mathematics teachers. The study group consisted of 64 prospective teachers attending the Mathematics Teaching program at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey. For 14 weeks, experimental group received the Development and Learning course in a blended learning environment, in which an interactive e-textbook was used inside and out...

  12. Genome-wide search for gene-gene interactions in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jiao

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. However, these susceptibility loci known today explain only a small fraction of the genetic risk. Gene-gene interaction (GxG is considered to be one source of the missing heritability. To address this, we performed a genome-wide search for pair-wise GxG associated with CRC risk using 8,380 cases and 10,558 controls in the discovery phase and 2,527 cases and 2,658 controls in the replication phase. We developed a simple, but powerful method for testing interaction, which we term the Average Risk Due to Interaction (ARDI. With this method, we conducted a genome-wide search to identify SNPs showing evidence for GxG with previously identified CRC susceptibility loci from 14 independent regions. We also conducted a genome-wide search for GxG using the marginal association screening and examining interaction among SNPs that pass the screening threshold (p<10(-4. For the known locus rs10795668 (10p14, we found an interacting SNP rs367615 (5q21 with replication p = 0.01 and combined p = 4.19×10(-8. Among the top marginal SNPs after LD pruning (n = 163, we identified an interaction between rs1571218 (20p12.3 and rs10879357 (12q21.1 (nominal combined p = 2.51×10(-6; Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.03. Our study represents the first comprehensive search for GxG in CRC, and our results may provide new insight into the genetic etiology of CRC.

  13. Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone

    OpenAIRE

    Roato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recen...

  14. Knowledge and Beliefs of Breast Self-Examination and Breast Cancer among Market Women in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechi Elizabeth Oladimeji

    Full Text Available In most resource constrained settings like Nigeria, breast self-examination self-breast examination (BSE is culturally acceptable, religious friendly and attracts no cost. Women's knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer and its management may contribute significantly to medical help-seeking behaviours. This study aimed to assess knowledge and beliefs of BSE among market women.A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 603 market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistical methods.The mean age of the respondents was 34.6±9.3 years with 40% of the women aged between 30-39years. The proportion of married women was 339 (68.5% with 425 (70.8% respondents reporting that they do not know how to perform BSE. However, 372 (61.7% women strongly agreed that BSE is a method of screening for breast cancer. Highest proportion 219 (36.3% reported that the best time for a woman to perform BSE was 'anytime'. Most of the respondents believed breast cancer is a dangerous disease that kills fast and requires a lot of money for treatment.More efforts are needed in creating awareness and advocacy campaigns in the grassroots in order to detect early breast cancer and enhance prevention strategies that would reduce the burden of breast cancer in Nigeria.

  15. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts. In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose. In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific glycoproteins that may constitute exosome markers. This work contributes to

  16. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevogt Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. Methods SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts. Results In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose. Conclusions In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific

  17. Novel therapeutic strategies targeting tumor-stromal interactions in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ShinHamada

    2013-01-01

    Therapy-resistance and postoperative recurrence are causes of the poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Conventional therapies have a limited impact on the control of pancreatic cancer, resulting in the rapid re-growth of the tumor. The indispensable role of tumor-stromal interaction, which acts as a defender of cancer cells and enhances malignant potential, is being uncovered now. For example, specific signaling pathways for desmoplasia induction have been identified, such as sonic hedgehog (...

  18. IMAGING OF THE INTERACTION OF CANCER CELLS AND THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Cao, Hop S.; McElroy, Michele; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Robert M. Hoffman; Bouvet, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system and its interaction with cancer cells is crucial to our ability to fight cancer metastasis. Efforts to study the lymphatic system had previously been limited by the inability to visualize the lymphatic system in vivo in real time. Fluorescence imaging can address these limitations and allow for visualization of lymphatic delivery and trafficking of cancer cells and possibly therapeutic agents as well. Here, we review recent articles in which an...

  19. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 - 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 - 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  20. Comparative evaluation of interactive digital radiography and fluorography diagnostic efficiency in chest screening examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative evaluation of the informative value of interactive digital X-ray study and routing enlargement fluorography. Study covered 316 patients without the complaints typical for lung diseases. Three roentgenologists assessed X-ray images by 7 major signs. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the methods in question were defined. The final stage was the construction of routine operating curves (ROC). When there were diffuse changes in the lung, the sensitivity of interactive digital X-ray study was 14% higher. Higher informative value of interactive digital X-ray study is also attested by the higher position of a respective ROC. The fact that lung tissue function in combination with low radiation load may be estimated assumes the use of interactive digital X-ray study in patients with pneumosclerosis and emphysema

  1. A case series examination of interaction-focused therapy for aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the application and outcomes of Conversation Analysis (CA)-motivated interaction-focused therapy for a case series of eight couples managing the impact of aphasia on their conversations. It builds on previously reported interaction-focused therapy case studies (e.g. Lock, Wilkinson, & Bryan, 2001, Wilkinson, Bryan, Lock & Sage, 2010; Wilkinson, Lock, Bryan & Sage, 2011). Therapy was individualised for each couple, based on CA findings, but taking account of language, cognit...

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Examination of Particle-particle Interactions Using Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kim, Hae-Won; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy (CPN), the study of the nano-scale interactive forces between a specifically prepared colloidal probe and any chosen substrate using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), can provide key insights into physical interactions present within colloidal systems. Colloidal systems are widely existent in several applications including, pharmaceuticals, foods, paints, paper, soil and minerals, detergents, printing and much more.1-3 Furthermore, colloids can exist in many states ...

  3. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F(2) mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F(2) mice either a v...

  4. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer: II. Tumors and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Merrill, Michele La;

    2008-01-01

    High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase the risk of susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F2 mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F2 mice ei...

  5. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  6. Conducting oral examinations for cancer in general practice: what are the barriers?

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, J; Smith, Helen; Hankins, Matthew; Llewellyn, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Background. The incidence of oral (mouth) cancer in the UK is continuing to rise. Individuals who are at greatest risk rarely visit a dentist but do consult general medical practitioners (GMPs). Therefore, GMPs could have an important role in the early detection of oral cancer. Research has shown that GMPs do not opportunistically screen high-risk individuals; however, the barriers to screening are poorly understood. Objectives. To understand the reasons why GMPs may not screen for oral cance...

  7. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O.; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F.; Jennifer J Hu; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Sue A Ingles; Michael F. Press

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American wome...

  8. Effective dose estimation and cancer risk assessment due to some selected CT examinations at Sweden Ghana Medical Centre (SGMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effective dose and its associated cancer risk were estimated for adult patients undergoing the five most common types of CT examinations (head, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis) at Sweden Ghana Medical Centre (SGMC) in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Two main methods were employed in the study: patients' data collection and phantom measurement to verify the patient data. The effective dose were estimated using the dose lenght product (DLP) from the control console of the CT machine and the anatomic region specific conversion factors. The lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for each patients for a particular examination were both determined from the effective dose, age and sex of each patient with the help of BEIR VII report. The effective dose were all within the range of typical effective dose (1-10mSv) for CT examinations. The abdominal scan recorded the highest mean effective dose of 7.01mSv with minimum effective dose of 1.00mSv and maximum effective dose of 24.46mSv. The average risk for all examination was observed to be low (1 in 10 000 to 1 in 1000). The average lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence was 0.049% (1 in 2041) and in the range of 0.004% (1 in 25000) and 0.267% (1 in 375). For the lifetime attributable risk of cancer mortality, the average was also 0.030% (1 in 3333) in the range of 0.003% (1 in 33333) and 0.124% (1 in 807). (author)

  9. Social tagging in support of cancer patients’ information interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ådland, Marit Kristine; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how social tagging can be useful in an information website for cancer patients and their relatives. Methodology/approach: Three studies have been carried out in order to investigate the research questions. Firstly, we reviewed and...... analyzed literature about cancer patients’ information needs and seeking behavior, and about social tagging and patient terminology. Secondly, we analyzed tags applied to blog postings at Blogomkraeft.dk, a blog site at the Danish information web site Cancer.dk. The tags were compared with the formal...... browsing structure of Cancer.dk. Results from the two studies were used to develop a prototype for social tagging at Cancer.dk. Thus thirdly, we evaluated the prototype in a usability study. Findings: We found that tags have the potential to describe and provide access to web site content from the users...

  10. Key players in pancreatic cancer-stroma interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive type of common cancers, and in 2014, nearly 40000 patients died from the disease in the United States. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which accounts for the majority of PC cases, is characterized by an intense stromal desmoplastic reaction...... surrounding the cancer cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main effector cells in the desmoplastic reaction, and pancreatic stellate cells are the most important source of CAFs. However, other important components of the PC stroma are inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. The aim...... of PC cells. However, in animal studies, experimental depletion of the desmoplastic stroma and CAFs has led to more aggressive cancers. Hence, the precise role of the tumour stroma in PC remains to be elucidated. However, it is likely that a context-dependent therapeutic modification, rather than pure...

  11. Discovering Distinct Functional Modules of Specific Cancer Types Using Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ru Shen; Xiaosheng Wang; Chittibabu Guda

    2015-01-01

    Background. The molecular profiles exhibited in different cancer types are very different; hence, discovering distinct functional modules associated with specific cancer types is very important to understand the distinct functions associated with them. Protein-protein interaction networks carry vital information about molecular interactions in cellular systems, and identification of functional modules (subgraphs) in these networks is one of the most important applications of biological networ...

  12. Potential of Drug Interactions among Hospitalized Cancer Patients in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli-Ardakani, Maria; Kazemian, Kaveh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Mehdizadeh, Mahshid

    2013-01-01

    Cancer patients are more susceptible to adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) due to receiving multiple medications especially chemotherapy medications, hormonal agents and supportive care drugs. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of potential DDIs and to identify risk factors for these potential interactions in hospitalized cancer patients in a developing country. A cross-sectional study conducted by reviewing charts of 224 consecutive in hospitalized patients in hematology-...

  13. Seriously clowning: Medical clowning interaction with children undergoing invasive examinations in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna; Ofir, Shoshi; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Franco, Nessia L; On, Avi

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study examined the subjective experience of children undergoing an invasive examination in the hospital when accompanied by a medical clown. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine such children and nine of their accompanying parents. The children were patients in two outpatient departments (Pediatric Gastroenterology and a Center for the Sexually Abused) in a hospital in Israel. Interviews were coded thematically using an Atlas.ti software program. Analysis of the interviews indicated that the intervention of the clown positively changed the children's perceptions of the hospital, of experiencing the examination, and of their life narrative. Medical clowns thus appear to be a central, meaningful, and therapeutic source for children undergoing invasive examinations in hospital, as well as for their parents. Therefore, it may be advisable to incorporate medical clowns as an integral part of medical teams performing invasive procedures and to include the clowns in all stages of the hospital visit. PMID:27123686

  14. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts. PMID:27144843

  15. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  16. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  17. What Residents Say About Communicating with Patients: A Preliminary Examination of Doctor-to-Doctor Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James D; Turner, Jeanine W; Morris, Elise; Roett, Michelle; Liao, Yuting

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the implementation and initial assessment of a training blog created within a family medicine department and used as a feedback mechanism for residents. First-year residents (n = 7) at a large private East Coast university hospital had an interaction with a patient recorded and posted to a training blog. The residents then watched this, and posted a reaction to their interaction with the patient. Within this reaction the residents offered self-reflection on the experience and were provided an opportunity to solicit advice from their colleagues to improve their communicative strategies and style. Once the reaction was posted to the blog, other residents watched the videotaped interaction, read the self-assessment written by the resident, and responded as part of their communication training. Content analysis of the messages suggests that the residents are socially skilled. They offer each other advice, provide each other with emotional and esteem social support, and use techniques such as self-deprecation in what appears to be a strategic manner. Perhaps most interesting is that they tend to identify the problems and difficulties they experience during patient-physician interactions in an apparent effort to deflect responsibility from the practicing physician. Patient challenges raised by residents included talkativeness, noncompliance, health literacy, and situational constraints. PMID:27050397

  18. Biaxial Dielectrophoresis Force Spectroscopy: A Stoichiometric Approach for Examining Intermolecular Weak Binding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Soo; Kwak, Tae Joon; Lee, Gyudo; Son, Myeonggu; Choi, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seungyeop; Nam, Kihwan; Lee, Sei-Young; Chang, Woo-Jin; Eom, Kilho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sangyoup; Bashir, Rashid; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-04-26

    The direct quantification of weak intermolecular binding interactions is very important for many applications in biology and medicine. Techniques that can be used to investigate such interactions under a controlled environment, while varying different parameters such as loading rate, pulling direction, rupture event measurements, and the use of different functionalized probes, are still lacking. Herein, we demonstrate a biaxial dielectrophoresis force spectroscopy (BDFS) method that can be used to investigate weak unbinding events in a high-throughput manner under controlled environments and by varying the pulling direction (i.e., transverse and/or vertical axes) as well as the loading rate. With the BDFS system, we can quantitatively analyze binding interactions related to hydrogen bonding or ionic attractions between functionalized microbeads and a surface within a microfluidic device. Our BDFS system allowed for the characterization of the number of bonds involved in an interaction, bond affinity, kinetic rates, and energy barrier heights and widths from different regimes of the energy landscape. PMID:27007455

  19. The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children: An Examination of Convergent and Incremental Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Emily H.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Mattson, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Many treatment programs for individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) target social skills, and there is growing attention directed toward the development of specific interventions to improve social skills and social interactions in this population (Hestenes & Carroll, 2000; Strain & Hoyson, 2000). However, there are limited tools…

  20. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Erickson; Jean Côté

    2016-01-01

    Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (

  1. An examination of cancer-related fatigue through proposed diagnostic criteria in a sample of cancer patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Wei-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue among cancer patients has often been reported in the literature; however, great variations have been documented, ranging from 15% to 90%, probably due to the lack of a widely accepted definition and established diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proposed International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision (ICD-10 criteria in a sample of cancer patients from a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. More accurate prevalence estimates of CRF may result in improved diagnoses and management of one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. Methods Since self-reporting from patients is the most effective and efficient method to measure fatigue, the ICD-10 criteria for fatigue were used. The ICD-10 criteria questionnaire was translated into Chinese and was approved by experts. Patients were recruited from outpatient palliative and oncology clinics and from palliative and oncology inpatient units. Results Of the 265 cancer patients that were interviewed between 21 October 2008 and 28 October 2009, 228 (86% reported having at least 2 weeks of fatigue in the past month, and further evaluation with the ICD-10 criteria showed that 132 (49.8% had cancer-related fatigue. Internal consistency was very good, which was indicated by a Cronbach alpha of 0.843. Conclusion The prevalence of diagnosable CRF in the patients in this sample, of whom most were under palliative treatment, was 49.8%, which was probably somewhat lower than in some of the previous reports that have used less-strict criteria. In addition, among the various criteria of the proposed diagnostic criteria, the most frequently reported symptoms in our sample populations were regarding sleep disturbance and physical factors. Although they will require further replication in other samples, these formal diagnostic

  2. Prediction of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks based on network topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luis Acencio

    Full Text Available Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI. This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved

  3. Communication skills of nurses during interactions with simulated cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, I.P.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.; Wiel, H.B.M. van der

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the balance of affective and intrumental communication employed by nurses during the admission interview with recently diagnosed cancer patients was investigated. Rationale: The balance of affective and instrumental communication employed by nurses appears to be important, especially

  4. Usual Dietary Intake Among Female Breast Cancer Survivors is Not Significantly Different From Women With No Cancer History: Results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Tooze, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in ...

  5. Senior students\\\\\\' and Dentists’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer examination in Isfahan, Iran in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Razavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : Dentists have usually a critical role in diagnosing oral cancer lesions in their early stages. In this study we aimed to assess the senior dental student’ and dentists’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors regarding oral cancer in Isfahan.   Materials and Methods: A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed to assess the current practice, knowledge and attitude of general dentists working in Isfahan-Iran and senior dental students regarding oral cancer lesions. The questionnaire was consisted of questions to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis of oropharyngeal cancerous lesions. The frequencies of answers to questions in sections of practice and attitude (just for dentists and sum score of questions in knowledge section were calculated and compared using statistical analysis regarding age, sex, duration of experience and practice setting p ublic/private of participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, linear regression and logistic regression.   Results: 139 questionnaires from dentists and 57 questionnaires from students were returned. The mean score of dentists’ knowledge was 5.41 out of 13 (CI95%=5.03-7.79 . Significant differences were observed among dentists regarding their experience (P=0.001. Only one fifth of the dentists in our survey reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and just about 34% of dentists gained acceptable level of knowledge. Among senior dental students, the status of knowledge was better as about 58% of them gained the level of acceptance (P=0.01.   Conclusion: Although dentists were willing to follow the diagnostic protocol for oral cancer, they were mostly unsatisfied with the level of their knowledge. Therefore, this study highlights the need for educational planning and training activities in general dentists with regard to the risk factors and early

  6. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices Among Female University Students in Kampala, Uganda: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katende Godfrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess female university students’ knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and identify breast self-examination (BSE practices. Using this information we aimed to design an education intervention tailored to address any knowledge and practice gaps identified.  Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 204 female Makerere University students. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire over a period of two months (1 April 2013 to 30 May 2013.  Results: Our study revealed a high awareness of breast cancer (98.0% and BSE practices (76.5% among female students. Over half the students (61.3% had an intermediate level of knowledge about risk factors related to breast cancer and the signs and symptoms of the disease. Skills related to BSE practices were found to be low (43.6%. The majority (56.9% of students received information about breast cancer via mass media.  Conclusion: Pre- post-education intervention studies need to be conducted to evaluate the intervention outcomes related to breast cancer knowledge and BSE practices among female students in Uganda.

  7. Examination of resectable and borderline pancreatic cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and chemoradiation therapy (NAC-RT) for the treatment of potentially resectable (PR) and borderline resectable (BR) pancreatic cancer. Patients with PR (n=14) and BR (n=13) pancreatic cancer who received NAC (n=15) or NAC-RT (n=12) were enrolled in our study. NAC comprised 2 cycles of S-1 or S-1 plus gemcitabine, and NAC-RT comprised hyperaccelerated radiation therapy and S-1 chemotherapy. According to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), partial response was observed in 10 patients (37%); stable disease (SD), in 11 patients (41%); and progressive disease (PD), in 6 patients (22%). The rates of curative surgery in patients with PR and BR pancreatic cancer were 57% and 38%, respectively. Curative surgery was performed in 8 patients with PR pancreatic cancer. Downstaging was observed in 3 patients and upstaging was observed in 1 patient. During the postoperative course, peritoneal dissemination was detected in 2 patients at 4 months after surgery. One patient survived for more than 3 years. Curative surgery was performed in 5 patients with BR pancreatic cancer. Downstaging was observed in 4 patients, and upstaging was observed in 1 patient. During the postoperative course, recurrence was detected in 3 patients and the remaining 2 patients survived with a recurrence-free status. The results of the present study indicate that NAC-RT may be useful for the treatment of patients with PR or BR pancreatic cancer. However, this protocol has disadvantages in that the possibility of resectability might be compromised and early recurrence might occur, Thus, this protocol warrants further evaluation. (author)

  8. Comparative Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Genes 25

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Purnima Guda; Sridar V. Chittur; Chittibabu Guda

    2009-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been widely studied to understand the bi-ological processes or molecular functions associated with different disease systems like cancer. While focused studies on individual cancers have generated valuable in-formation, global and comparative analysis of datasets from different cancer types has not been done. In this work, we carried out bioinformatic analysis of PPIs corresponding to differentially expressed genes from microarrays of various tumor tissues (belonging to bladder, colon, kidney and thyroid cancers) and compared their associated biological processes and molecular functions (based on Gene On-tology terms). We identified a set of processes or functions that are common to all these cancers, as well as those that are specific to only one or partial cancer types. Similarly, protein interaction networks in nucleic acid metabolism were compared to identify the common/specific clusters of proteins across different cancer types. Our results provide a basis for further experimental investigations to study protein interaction networks associated with cancer. The methodology developed in this work can also be applied to study similar disease systems.

  9. Exploring mechanisms of diet-colon cancer associations through candidate molecular interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, David; Li, Jun; Jensen, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    -nutrient interactions. Here, we used colon cancer as a proof-of-concept for understanding key regulatory sites of diet on the disease pathway. Results: We started from a unique vantage point by having a database of 158 plants positively associated to colon cancer reduction and their molecular composition (similar to 3......,500 unique compounds). We generated a comprehensive picture of the interaction profile of these edible and non-edible plants with a predefined candidate colon cancer target space consisting of similar to 1,900 proteins. This knowledge allowed us to study systematically the key components in colon cancer that...... are targeted synergistically by phytochemicals and identify statistically significant and highly correlated protein networks that could be perturbed by dietary habits. Conclusion: We propose here a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer processes and identifying plant...

  10. Perspectives of breast cancer etiology: synergistic interaction between smoking and exogenous hormone use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Hong Zhu; Cao-Hui Hu; Paul Strickland

    2011-01-01

    To explore breast cancer etiology, literature was searched using Medline. We explored the (1)plausibility of smoking in breast carcinogenesis; (2) physiological properties, susceptibility windows, and exposure timing of breast cells; (3) role of exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; (4) biological mechanism of synergistic interactions between smoking and exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; and (5) evidence from epidemiologic studies and the fitted secular trend between smoking rate, exogenous hormone use, and breast cancer incidence in past decades. We deduced that exogenous hormone use per se is not a significant cause and its association with breast cancer is distorted by chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens, especially smoking. We hypothesize that smoking is one of the causes of breast cancer and that this causality is strengthened by synergistic interaction between smoking and exogenous hormone use. Physicians should be cautious of prescribing exogenous hormones for those with chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens to prevent breast cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices Among Female University Students in Kampala, Uganda: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Katende Godfrey; Tukamuhebwa Agatha; Joyce Nankumbi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess female university students’ knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and identify breast self-examination (BSE) practices. Using this information we aimed to design an education intervention tailored to address any knowledge and practice gaps identified.  Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 204 female Makerere University students. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire over a peri...

  12. Towards Space Solar Power - Examining Atmospheric Interactions of Power Beams with the HAARP Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, M

    2014-01-01

    In the most common space solar power (SSP) system architectures, solar energy harvested by large satellites in geostationary orbit is transmitted to Earth via microwave radiation. Currently, only limited information about the interactions of microwave beams with energy densities of several tens to hundreds of W/m$^2$ with the different layers of the atmosphere is available. Governmental bodies will likely require detailed investigations of safety and atmospheric effects of microwave power beams before issuing launch licenses for SSP satellite systems. This paper proposes to collect representative and comprehensive data of the interaction of power beams with the atmosphere by extending the infrastructure of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. Estimates of the transmission infrastructure performance as well as measurement devices and scientific capabilities of possible upgrade scenarios will be discussed. The proposed upgrade of the HAARP facility is expected to d...

  13. Interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and menopausal hormone therapy in relationship to breast cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Barrdahl, Myrto; Lindström, Sara; Travis, Ruth C; Auer, Paul L; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Eliassen, A Heather; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Gunter, Marc; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Peeters, Petra H M; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Yang, Xiaohong R; Prentice, Ross L; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Canzian, Federico; Kraft, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Current use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has important implications for postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and observed associations might be modified by known breast cancer susceptibility loci. To provide the most comprehensive assessment of interactions of prospectively collected data on MHT and 17 confirmed susceptibility loci with invasive breast cancer risk, a nested case-control design among eight cohorts within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium was used. Based on data from 13,304 cases and 15,622 controls, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Effect modification of current and past use was evaluated on the multiplicative scale. P values <1.5 × 10(-3) were considered statistically significant. The strongest evidence of effect modification was observed for current MHT by 9q31-rs865686. Compared to never users of MHT with the rs865686 GG genotype, the association between current MHT use and breast cancer risk for the TT genotype (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.43-2.24; P interaction = 1.2 × 10(-4)) was less than expected on the multiplicative scale. There are no biological implications of the sub-multiplicative interaction between MHT and rs865686. Menopausal hormone therapy is unlikely to have a strong interaction with the common genetic variants associated with invasive breast cancer. PMID:26802016

  14. Correlation between clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography with histopathological exam in the determination of tumor size in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate which method is the best to determine pre-surgically the size of breast cancer: clinical examination, mammography or ultrasonography, using as a reference the anatomopathological exam. Methods: this study has included 184 patients with palpable-or-not breast lesions, detected by mammography and ultrasonography, that were submitted to surgical resection of the tumor, with histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer. The same examiner evaluated clinically the largest tumoral diameter, through clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography, and the measurements obtained by each method were correlated with the maximum diameter obtained by the anatomopathological exam. The comparative analysis has been done by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient between the anatomopathological and the clinical exams was 0.8; between the anatomopathological exam and the mammography, 0.7; and between anatomopathological exam and ultrasonography 0.7 (p<0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficients among the methods evaluated were also calculated and r=0.7 was obtained between clinical exam and mammography, r=0.8 between clinical examination and ultrasonography, and r=0.8 between mammography and ultrasonography (p<0.05). Conclusions: clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography have presented high correlation with the anatomopathological measures, besides high correlations among themselves, what seems to show that they may be used as equivalent methods in the pre-surgical evaluation of the breast tumoral size. Nevertheless, due to specific limitations of each method, clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography should be seen as complementary to each other, in order to obtain a more accurate measurement of the breast cancer tumor.(author)

  15. Towards Space Solar Power - Examining Atmospheric Interactions of Power Beams with the HAARP Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Leitgab, M.; Cowley, A

    2014-01-01

    In the most common space solar power (SSP) system architectures, solar energy harvested by large satellites in geostationary orbit is transmitted to Earth via microwave radiation. Currently, only limited information about the interactions of microwave beams with energy densities of several tens to hundreds of W/m$^2$ with the different layers of the atmosphere is available. Governmental bodies will likely require detailed investigations of safety and atmospheric effects of microwave power bea...

  16. Dielectrophoretic tweezers for examining particle-surface interactions within microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S. W.; LI, HAIBO; Bashir, Rashid

    2007-01-01

    The authors present dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based tweezers that can be used to characterize the interactions between a particle and the surface it is attached to, within a microfluidic device. As a proof of concept, 5.4 mu m polystyrene beads functionalized by carboxyl group were attached on a bare and poly-L-lysine functionalized oxide surface. Negative dielectrophoresis force was generated using interdigitated electrodes and the peak dielectrophoresis voltage where the beads were repelled a...

  17. Social anhedonia and affiliation: Examining behavior and subjective reactions within a social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Llerena, Katiah; Park, Stephanie G.; Couture, Shannon M.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Social anhedonia is a promising indicator for the vulnerability towards developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and is an important determinant of the social impairment associated with these disorders. It is unknown if social anhedonia is associated with true deficits in experiential reactions or if lower social functioning in social anhedonia reflects behavioral deficits in social skill or initiation of social contact. Using a novel social interaction task, the current study compared con...

  18. A Sex-Based Examination of Violence and Aggression Perceptions among Adolescents: An Interactive Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the critical factors and themes that are identified as salient influencers of overt and relational aggression among youth. Sex differences and similarities associated with such adolescent perceptions are assessed. Forty-eight ethnically diverse youth between the ages of 14 and 16 years participated in sex-specific focus…

  19. Syndrome Specificity and Mother-Child Interactions: Examining Positive and Negative Parenting across Contexts and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Kaladjian, Araksia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which child syndromes and observation context related to mothers' parenting behaviors. Longitudinal observations were conducted of parenting behavior across ages 3, 4, and 5 years during structured and unstructured activities. The 183 participants included mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders,…

  20. A multimethod examination of negative behaviors during couples interactions and problem drinking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cranford, James A

    2016-08-01

    Models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are increasingly conceptualizing social and relationship factors as being critical to the understanding of problem drinking. Close relationships involving conflict have been a particular research focus, and partners' expressions of negative emotion are theorized to affect drinking among those with AUD. Although it has long been presumed that behaviors during couples interactions influence drinking-and this assumption has informed many modern treatments for AUD-this hypothesis has not been directly tested. We bring multiple methods to bear on this question, combining laboratory-based behavioral observation with a longitudinal design. Forty-eight individuals with AUD (probands), together with their partners, completed a laboratory-based conflict interaction. Their behavior was coded with the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System. Longitudinal follow-ups of drinking behaviors were completed at 6 and 12 months. Results showed that, above and beyond the proband's own behaviors, partner negative behaviors moderated probands' drinking trajectories, with drinkers whose partners displayed higher levels of hostility at baseline reporting slower declines in frequency of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems over time and higher levels of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems at follow-up. Results emphasize the importance of considering close relationships in the study of AUD and further indicate the utility of combining multiple methods in alcohol research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362489

  1. Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaper, Harry; Velders, Guus J. M.; Daniel, John S.; de Gruijl, Frank R.; van der Leun, Jan C.

    1996-11-01

    DEPLETION of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale1, and is probably related to halocarbon emissions. Ozone depletion increases the biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, which leads to a variety of adverse effects, including an increase in the incidence of skin cancer. The 1985 Vienna Convention provided the framework for international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances. The consequences of such restrictions have not yet been assessed in terms of effects avoided. Here we present a new method of estimating future excess skin cancer risks which is used to compare effects of a 'no restrictions' scenario with two restrictive scenarios specified under the Vienna Convention: the Montreal Protocol, and the much stricter Copenhagen Amendments. The no-restrictions and Montreal Protocol scenarios produce a runaway increase in skin cancer incidence, up to a quadrupling and doubling, respectively, by the year 2100. The Copenhagen Amendments scenario leads to an ozone minimum around the year 2000, and a peak relative increase in incidence of skin cancer of almost 10% occurring 60 years later. These results demonstrate the importance of the international measures agreed upon under the Vienna Convention.

  2. Determination of doses and cancer risk to patients undergoing digital x-ray examinations at the Tamale Teaching Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrance surface and effective doses as well as cancer risk to patients for three common radiological examinations were estimated at the radiology department of the Tamale Teaching Hospital. The quality control assessment indicated that the digital x-ray equipment used, performed self-consistently in line with acceptable performance criteria. The study included eighty-two (82) adult patients undergoing three x-ray imaging modalities; Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis Examinations. From the study the mean entrance dose to abdomen and pelvis were found to be 0.6 ± 0.2 mGy whiles that of chest was found to be 0.2 ± 0.1 mGy. These were found to be lower than results of studies carried out elsewhere. The effective dose to patient was computed using PCXMC 2.0 software. The results shows an average effective dose of 0.036 mSv, 0.084 mSv and 0.067 mSv for chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations respectively. The risk of radiation induced cancer as a result to entrance surface dose was found to be 5.68 x 10-5 %, 1.58 x 10-4 % and 1.49 x 10-4 % for Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis examinations respectively. The third quartile values of the entrance surface dose were found to be lower than recommended diagnostic reference levels published by NRPB, UK and the IAEA for the examinations under study. (author)

  3. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Accardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules 1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  4. The centrality of cancer proteins in human protein-protein interaction network: a revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Xie, Luyu; Zhou, Shuigeng; Liu, Hui; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has been widely applied to the investigation on cancer mechanisms. However, there is still a debate on whether cancer proteins exhibit more topological centrality compared to the other proteins in the human PPI network. To resolve this debate, we first identified four sets of human proteins, and then mapped these proteins into the yeast PPI network by homologous genes. Finally, we compared these proteins' properties in human and yeast PPI networks. Experiments over two real datasets demonstrated that cancer proteins tend to have higher degree and smaller clustering coefficient than non-cancer proteins. Experimental results also validated that cancer proteins have larger betweenness centrality compared to the other proteins on the STRING dataset. However, on the BioGRID dataset, the average betweenness centrality of cancer proteins is larger than that of disease and control proteins, but smaller than that of essential proteins. PMID:24878726

  5. Clinically-relevant chemotherapy interactions with complementary and alternative medicines in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; See, Cheng Shang; Chan, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), in particular herbal medicines, are commonly used by cancer patients in conjunction with chemotherapy treatment for their anticancer properties and supportive care. However, the effects of many of these herbs are not well-documented due to limited studies done on them. Severe herb-drug interactions (HDIs) have been recorded in some cases, and failure to recognize these harmful HDIs can lead to dire consequences in cancer patients. This study discusses clinically-relevant interactions between anticancer drugs (ACDs) and herbs classified into 7 categories: cancer treatment and prevention, immune-system-related, alopecia, nausea and vomiting, peripheral neuropathy and pain, inflammation, and fatigue. Some promising patents which contain these herbs and thus may manifest these interactions are also presented in this article. Pharmacokinetic interactions involved mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoprotein, while pharmacodynamic interactions were related to increased risks of central nervous system-related effects, hepatotoxicity and bleeding, among others. Clinicians should be vigilant when treating cancer patients who take CAMs with concurrent chemotherapy since they face a high risk of HDIs. These HDIs can be minimized or avoided by selecting herb-drug pairs which are less likely to interact. Furthermore, close monitoring of pharmacological effects and plasma drug levels should be carried out to avoid toxicity and ensure adequate chemotherapeutic coverage in patients with cancer. PMID:20653549

  6. Interactions between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and smoking and intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GST) are weakly associated with risk for lung cancer. We examined gene-environment interactions in relation to lung cancer in 430 cases and 767 comparison persons identified within a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons. We used assays capable of...... discriminating heterozygous individuals from those with two functional alleles and homozygous deletions in GSTM1 and GSTT1. There was no overall association between the GST polymorphisms and lung cancer. We found that fruit and vegetables reduced the risk of lung cancer only among carriers of at least one...... functional GSTM1 allele, and among carriers of two GSTP1 Val alleles. There were no significant interactions between the GST polymorphisms and smoking....

  7. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamshidi, Maral; Fagerholm, Rainer; Khan, Sofia;

    2015-01-01

    extensive dataset (n = 30,431) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, we investigated the association of 917 SNPs in 75 genes in the NF-κB pathway with breast cancer prognosis. We explored SNP-SNP interactions on survival using the likelihood-ratio test comparing multivariate Cox' regression models...... of SNP pairs without and with an interaction term. We found two interacting pairs associating with prognosis: patients simultaneously homozygous for the rare alleles of rs5996080 and rs7973914 had worse survival (HRinteraction 6.98, 95% CI=3.3-14.4, P=1.42E-07), and patients carrying at least one...

  8. Role of mammography in evaluating residual cancer of locally advanced breast carcinoma after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy : compared with clinical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Min; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To compare the usefulness of mammography and clinical examination in the evaluation of residual cancer of locally-advanced breast carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among 67 patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 18, aged 35-67 (mean, 48) years, underwent mammography before and after this therapy. The 18 sets of mammographs were analyzed retrospectively and compared with the results of clinical examination based on histologic diagnosis. On histologic examinations, 16 of 18 patients (89%) were found to have residual cancer, but in one of these 16, mammography did not show this same result. On mammography, residual cancer was found in 16 patients, but in one of this group, histologic examination did not reveal the same finding. Clinically, a complete response was shown by four patients, and a partial response by 11 ; three showed no response. On histolgogic examination, three of the four patients with complete clinical response were found to have residual cancer. Post-treatment mammographic findings showed that 11 patients had measurable mass ; all of these had residual cancer (positive predictive value : 100%). However, five of seven patients in whom no measurable mass was evident also had residual cancer. Seven of 8 patients in whom microcalcifications were seen on mammography were found to have residual cancer (positive predictive value : 88%). The sensitivity of mammography in predicting residual cancer was greater than that of clinical examination (94% vs 81%), even when microscopic residual cancer was considered as a complete response (92% vs 77%). The specificity of mammography was the same as that of clinical examination(50% vs 50%, 20% vs 20%). In evaluating residual cancer of locally-advanced breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotheragy, mammography is more accurate and informative than clincal examination. In predicting residual cancer, however, it is not accurate enough to replace

  9. Syndrome specificity and mother-child interactions: Examining positive and negative parenting across contexts and time

    OpenAIRE

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Kaladjian, Araksia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which child syndromes and observation context related to mothers’ parenting behaviors. Longitudinal observations were conducted of parenting behavior across ages 3, 4, and 5 years during structured and unstructured activities. The 183 participants included mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, undifferentiated developmental delay, or typical cognitive development. Negative parenting behaviors were higher in structu...

  10. Examination of the interaction of different lighting conditions and chronic mild stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p examination confirm that the changes of lighting conditions evocate anxiety more prominently than CMS. No significant differences were found between the results of the low rotating group and the control group, supposing that this schedule is the least harmful to health. Our results on the association between the use of lighting regimens and the level of CMS provide evidence that the fast rotating shift work schedule puts the heaviest load on the organism of animals. PMID:26551746

  11. Procedural justice climate and group power distance: an examination of cross-level interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jixia; Mossholder, Kevin W; Peng, T K

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the authors extend research on the cross-level effects of procedural justice climate by theorizing and testing its interaction with group power distance. The results indicated that group power distance moderated the relationships between procedural justice climate and individual-level outcomes (organizational commitment and organization-directed citizenship behavior). More specifically, a larger group power distance was found to attenuate the positive cross-level effects of procedural justice climate. Implications for procedural justice climate research are discussed. PMID:17484550

  12. Cancer risk assessment of patients undergoing computed tomography examination at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to estimate the effective dose and assess the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence of patients undergoing computed tomography scan at the korle-bu Teaching Hospital. Data on volume CT dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP ) displayed on the scanner control console was recorded after confirmation of the results by performing independent checks on a phantom. The effective doses were estimated using the displayed and the anatomic region specific conversion factors (K ). The average effective dose for the head, abdomen, chest, neck, and pelvis were 3.63± 2.39mSv, 15.37±8.49 mSv, 12.72 ± 13.97 mSv, 4.04 ± 1.47 mSv and 15.8 ± 3.59 mSv respectively. Effective doses for the head and neck were within the typical range of (1-10mSv) for CT examinations whilst abdomen, chest and pelvis were above 10mSv. The average life attributable risk of cancer incidence for each region of examination were determined from the effective dose, sex and age using the model proposed in BEIR VII report . The average cancer risk incidence for head, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations were low in the range 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 1,000. There were wide variations in the effective dose values obtained for the same region under examination. This trend calls for the optimization of CT examination protocols to be established to ensure that patient doses are as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. (author)

  13. Molecular Principles of Gene Fusion Mediated Rewiring of Protein Interaction Networks in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Oates, Matt E; Maddox, Louis; Flock, Tilman; Gough, Julian; Buljan, Marija; Weatheritt, Robert J; Babu, M Madan

    2016-08-18

    Gene fusions are common cancer-causing mutations, but the molecular principles by which fusion protein products affect interaction networks and cause disease are not well understood. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of the structural, interactomic, and regulatory properties of thousands of putative fusion proteins. We demonstrate that genes that form fusions (i.e., parent genes) tend to be highly connected hub genes, whose protein products are enriched in structured and disordered interaction-mediating features. Fusion often results in the loss of these parental features and the depletion of regulatory sites such as post-translational modifications. Fusion products disproportionately connect proteins that did not previously interact in the protein interaction network. In this manner, fusion products can escape cellular regulation and constitutively rewire protein interaction networks. We suggest that the deregulation of central, interaction-prone proteins may represent a widespread mechanism by which fusion proteins alter the topology of cellular signaling pathways and promote cancer. PMID:27540857

  14. Quantitative and qualitative examination of particle-particle interactions using colloidal probe nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kim, Hae-Won; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy (CPN), the study of the nano-scale interactive forces between a specifically prepared colloidal probe and any chosen substrate using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), can provide key insights into physical interactions present within colloidal systems. Colloidal systems are widely existent in several applications including, pharmaceuticals, foods, paints, paper, soil and minerals, detergents, printing and much more.1-3 Furthermore, colloids can exist in many states such as emulsions, foams and suspensions. Using colloidal probe nanoscopy one can obtain key information on the adhesive properties, binding energies and even gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of the colloids present within. Additionally, colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used with biological cells to aid in drug discovery and formulation development. In this paper we describe a method for conducting colloidal probe nanoscopy, discuss key factors that are important to consider during the measurement, and show that both quantitative and qualitative data that can be obtained from such measurements. PMID:25080136

  15. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal and Sodium: Examination of the Fragmentation Mechanism of Molten Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the mechanism of thermal fragmentation of a molten jet dropped into a sodium pool at instantaneous contact interface temperatures below its freezing point, a basic experiment was carried out using molten copper and sodium. Copper was melted in a crucible with an electrical heater and was dropped through a short nozzle into a sodium pool, in the form of a jet column. Thermal fragmentation originating inside the molten copper jet with a solid crust was clearly observed in all runs. It is verified that a small quantity of sodium, which is locally entrained inside the molten jet due to the organized motion between the molten jet and sodium, is vaporized by the sensible heat and the latent heat of molten copper, and the high internal pressure causes the molten jet with a solid crust to fragment. It is also concluded that the thermal fragmentation is more dominant than the hydrodynamic fragmentation, in the present range of Weber number and superheating of molten jet. Furthermore, it can be explained that the thermal fragmentation caused by the molten copper jet - sodium interaction is severer than that caused by the molten uranium alloy jet - sodium interaction, which was reported by Gabor et al., because the latent heat and the thermal diffusivity of molten copper, which are the physical properties that dominate the degree of fragmentation, are much higher than those of molten uranium alloy jets. (authors)

  16. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use. PMID:25621672

  17. Improved branch and bound algorithm for detecting SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes derived from distinct pathways are associated with a breast cancer risk. Identifying possible SNP-SNP interactions in genome-wide case–control studies is an important task when investigating genetic factors that influence common complex traits; the effects of SNP-SNP interaction need to be characterized. Furthermore, observations of the complex interplay (interactions) between SNPs for high-dimensional combinations are still computati...

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: an examination of person-situation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdeh, Sami; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined Intrinsic Motivation Orientation and Extrinsic Motivation Orientation (Work Preference Inventory; Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe, 1994) as potential trait-level moderators of the way Internet chess players responded to the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of the chess games they played. On the basis of the defining characteristics of these 2 types of motivational orientations, we predicted that (a) Intrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a stronger curvilinear relationship between challenge and enjoyment and (b) Extrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a heightened affective responsivity to competitive outcome (i.e., winning vs. losing). Results supported the predictions. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19678872

  19. Interaction of tRNA with MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Chow, Christina R.; Ebine, Kazumi; Lee, Jiyoung; Rosner, Marsha R.; Pan, Tao; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the translational function of tRNA has long been established, extra translational functions of tRNA are still being discovered. We previously developed a computational method to systematically predict new tRNA-protein complexes and experimentally validated six candidate proteins, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2), that interact with tRNA in HEK293T cells. However, consequences of the interaction between tRNA and these proteins remain to be elucidated. Here we tested the consequence of the interaction between tRNA and MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also generated disease and drug resistance-derived MEK2 mutants (Q60P, P128Q, S154F, E207K) to evaluate the function of the tRNA-MEK2 interaction. Our results demonstrate that tRNA interacts with the wild-type and mutant MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells; furthermore, the MEK2 inhibitor U0126 significantly reduces the tRNA-MEK2 interaction. In addition, tRNA affects the catalytic activity of the wild type and mutant MEK2 proteins in different ways. Overall, our findings demonstrate the interaction of tRNA with MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells and suggest that tRNA may impact MEK2 activity in cancer cells. PMID:27301426

  20. Communication skills of nurses during interactions with simulated cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, IPM; Kerkstra, A; Bensing, JM; van de Wiel, HBM

    2001-01-01

    Aim. In this paper the balance of affective and instrumental communication employed by nurses during the admission interview with recently diagnosed cancer patients was investigated. Rationale. The balance of affective and instrumental communication employed by nurses appears to be important, especi

  1. Network of microRNAs-mRNAs Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Naderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of certain genes through interaction with mRNA targets and are mainly involved in human cancer. This study was conducted to make the network of miRNAs-mRNAs interactions in pancreatic cancer as the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Methods. 56 miRNAs that were exclusively expressed and 1176 genes that were downregulated or silenced in pancreas cancer were extracted from beforehand investigations. MiRNA–mRNA interactions data analysis and related networks were explored using MAGIA tool and Cytoscape 3 software. Functional annotations of candidate genes in pancreatic cancer were identified by DAVID annotation tool. Results. This network is made of 217 nodes for mRNA, 15 nodes for miRNA, and 241 edges that show 241 regulations between 15 miRNAs and 217 target genes. The miR-24 was the most significantly powerful miRNA that regulated series of important genes. ACVR2B, GFRA1, and MTHFR were significant target genes were that downregulated. Conclusion. Although the collected previous data seems to be a treasure trove, there was no study simultaneous to analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs interaction. Network of miRNA-mRNA interactions will help to corroborate experimental remarks and could be used to refine miRNA target predictions for developing new therapeutic approaches.

  2. Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer: Advanced Research in the Neuro-cancer Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong SHEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic Cancer (PCa is characterized by prominently local nerve alterations and perineural invasion (PNI, which frequently affects the extrapancreatic nerve plexus, causing severe pain and retropancreatic tumor extension. It precludes curative resection, promotes local recurrence, and at the last negatively influences the prognosis of patients. Recent research on PNI in PCa has revealed the critical involvement of numerous nerve- or cancer cell-derived molecules in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms contributing to alteration and invasion of intrapancreatic nerves and the spread of cancer cells along extrapancreatic nerves in pancreatic cancer patients are still poorly understood. This review focuses on perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer and provides an outline of the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

  3. Examining the role of climate, carbon and nitrogen interactions in the terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan

    There is compelling evidence showing that terrestrial biosphere has acted as a net carbon (C) sink in recent decades. However there is large uncertainty regarding the magnitude and location of the C sink predominantly due to large uncertainties associated with C emissions from land use change and C sinks due to other processes such as the CO2 fertilization effect, the effect of climate change and the effect of nitrogen (N) deposition. This thesis focuses on understanding and assessing the interactions between the C cycle, N cycle and climate and how they might impact terrestrial C sources and sinks in the context of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO 2]), climate change, N deposition and land use change by using a global terrestrial C-N cycle model in the modeling framework of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In the first part of this thesis, the geographically explicit terrestrial C cycle component of ISAM is first developed and used to study the C emissions from land use change and the impacts of changes in [CO2] on C sequestration through no-till cropland management. It is shown that C emissions during the 1980's due to land cover changes for cropland and pastureland varied between 1.6 and 2.06 GtC yr-1 globally. The divergence in the estimated land use emissions from two sets of land use change data was primarily due to the differences in the rates of changes in the amount of land area for croplands, and not a result of pastureland emissions or global land use practices. It is also shown that changes in climate and [CO2] were responsible for about 11 Tg or 3% of the soil C sequestered under no-till land management in U.S. and Canada, with the impacts in cold regions are relatively small compared to that in warm and tropical regions. In the second part of this thesis, a comprehensive model of terrestrial nitrogen (N) dynamics is developed and coupled with the geographically explicit terrestrial C cycle model of ISAM. Observations from

  4. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Mingyue; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then...

  5. Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway influences breast cancer-specific mortality through interaction with cigarette smoking and use of aspirin/NSAIDs: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Hines, Lisa M; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Wolff, Roger K; Stern, Mariana C; John, Esther M

    2014-08-01

    The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is involved in immune function and cell growth; genetic variation in this pathway could influence breast cancer risk. We examined 12 genes in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1,481 cases, 1,585 controls) women. Associations were assessed by Indigenous American (IA) ancestry. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, JAK1 (three of ten SNPs) and JAK2 (4 of 11 SNPs) interacted with body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women, while STAT3 (four of five SNPs) interacted significantly with BMI among post-menopausal women to alter breast cancer risk. STAT6 rs3024979 and TYK2 rs280519 altered breast cancer-specific mortality among all women. Associations with breast cancer-specific mortality differed by IA ancestry; SOCS1 rs193779, STAT3 rs1026916, and STAT4 rs11685878 associations were limited to women with low IA ancestry, and associations with JAK1 rs2780890, rs2254002, and rs310245 and STAT1 rs11887698 were observed among women with high IA ancestry. JAK2 (5 of 11 SNPs), SOCS2 (one of three SNPs), and STAT4 (2 of 20 SNPs) interacted with cigarette smoking status to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. SOCS2 (one of three SNPs) and all STAT3, STAT5A, and STAT5B SNPs significantly interacted with use of aspirin/NSAIDs to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway was associated with breast cancer-specific mortality. The proportion of SNPs within a gene that significantly interacted with lifestyle factors lends support for the observed associations. PMID:25104439

  6. Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) Spectroscopy - An Enhanced Method for Examining Protein Conformations and Protein Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B Wallace; R Janes

    2011-12-31

    CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy is a well-established technique in structural biology. SRCD (synchrotron radiation circular dichroism) spectroscopy extends the utility and applications of conventional CD spectroscopy (using laboratory-based instruments) because the high flux of a synchrotron enables collection of data at lower wavelengths (resulting in higher information content), detection of spectra with higher signal-to-noise levels and measurements in the presence of absorbing components (buffers, salts, lipids and detergents). SRCD spectroscopy can provide important static and dynamic structural information on proteins in solution, including secondary structures of intact proteins and their domains, protein stability, the differences between wild-type and mutant proteins, the identification of natively disordered regions in proteins, and the dynamic processes of protein folding and membrane insertion and the kinetics of enzyme reactions. It has also been used to effectively study protein interactions, including protein-protein complex formation involving either induced-fit or rigid-body mechanisms, and protein-lipid complexes. A new web-based bioinformatics resource, the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB), has been created which enables archiving, access and analyses of CD and SRCD spectra and supporting metadata, now making this information publicly available. To summarize, the developing method of SRCD spectroscopy has the potential for playing an important role in new types of studies of protein conformations and their complexes.

  7. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershagen, G.; Wall, S.; Taube, A.; Linnman, L.

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be explained by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them.

  8. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershagen, G; Wall, S; Taube, A; Linnman, L

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be "explained" by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them. PMID:7347915

  9. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer progression: reciprocal tumor–microenvironment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive overview of breast cancer development and progression suggests that the process is influenced by intrinsic properties of the tumor cells, as well as by microenvironmental factors. Indeed, in breast carcinoma, an intensive interplay exists between the tumor cells on one hand, and inflammatory cells/cytokines/chemokines on the other. The purpose of the present review is to outline the reciprocal interactions that exist between these different elements, and to shed light on their potential involvement in breast cancer development and progression

  10. The physics of cancer: the role of physical interactions and mechanical forces in metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Searson, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis is a complex, multistep process responsible for >90% of cancer-related deaths. In addition to genetic and external environmental factors, the physical interactions of cancer cells with their microenvironment, as well as their modulation by mechanical forces, are key determinants of the metastatic process. We reconstruct the metastatic process and describe the importance of key physical and mechanical processes at each step of the cascade. The emerging insight into these physical in...

  11. Quantitative Chemical-Genetic Interaction Map Connects Gene Alterations to Drug Responses | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent Cancer Discovery report, CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a new quantitative chemical-genetic interaction mapping approach to evaluate drug sensitivity or resistance in isogenic cell lines. Performing a high-throughput screen with isogenic cell lines allowed the researchers to explore the impact of a panel of emerging and established drugs on cells overexpressing a single cancer-associated gene in isolation.

  12. Mutational analysis of STE5 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Application of a differential interaction trap assay for examining protein-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, C.; Dhillon, N.; Durfee, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Ste5 is essential for the yeast mating pheromone response pathway and is thought to function as a scaffold that organized the components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAKP) cascade. A new method was developed to isolate missense mutations in Ste5 that differentially affect the ability of Ste5 to interact with either of two MAPK cascade constituents, the MEKK (Ste11) and the MEK (Ste7). Mutations that affect association with Ste7 or with Ste11 delineate discrete regions of Ste5 that are critical for each interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis, examining the binding in vitro of Ste5 to Ste11, Ste7, Ste4 (G protein {beta} subunit), and Fus3 (MAPK), confirmed that each mutation specifically affects the interaction of Ste5 with only one protein. When expressed in a ste5{delta} cell, mutant Ste5 proteins that are defective in their ability to interact with either Ste11 or Ste7 result in a markedly reduced mating proficiency. One mutation that clearly weakened (but did not eliminate) interaction of Ste5 with Ste7 permitted mating at wild-type efficiency, indicating that an efficacious signal is generated even when Ste5 associates with only a small fraction of (or only transiently with) Ste7. Ste5 mutants defective in association with Ste11 or Ste7 showed strong interallelic complementation when co-expressed, suggesting that the functional form of Ste5 in vivo is an oligomer. 69 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Plasma Proteins Interaction with Curcumin Nanoparticles: Implications in Cancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural bioactive polyphenol, has been widely investigated as a conventional medicine for centuries. Over the past two decades, major pre-clinical and clinical trials have demonstrated its safe therapeutic profile but clinical translation has been hampered due to rapid degradation, poor water solubility, bioavailability and pharmaco-kinetics. To overcome such translational issues, many laboratories have focused on developing curcumin nanoformulations for cancer therapeutics. In th...

  14. Modification of BRCA1-Associated Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk by BRCA1 Interacting Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Domchek, Susan M.; Wan, Fei; Friebel, Tara M.; Tran, Teo V.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng Maria; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Garber, Judy E.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited BRCA1 mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Recent studies have identified genes that encode proteins that interact with BRCA1 as modifiers of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. We evaluated a comprehensive set of genes that encode most known BRCA1 interactors to evaluate the role of these genes as modifiers of cancer risk. A cohort of 2,825 BRCA1 mutation carriers was used to evaluate the association of haplotypes at ATM, BRCC36, BRCC45 (BRE), BRIP1 (BACH1/FANCJ), CTIP, ABRA1 ...

  15. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. PMID:25097749

  16. Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C Figueiredo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3 and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09, which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78. The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03. Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.

  17. Yes to early detection of cancer - no to routine mammography examinations. Parting from wishful thinking, turning to new strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Dersee, T; Koehnlein, W; Kuni, H; Lengfelder, E; Pflugbeil, S; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I

    2002-01-01

    Many experts find it difficult to accept what experience has shown, namely that routine mammography examinations have lowered neither the breast cancer fatality rate nor the crude death rate. One aspect that has been neglected in propagating screenings is the high radiation sensitivity of genetically predisposed females (0.5% - 1.0%). These females should not be exposed to repeated X-rays for screening purposes. True preventive measures, which promise significant effects, include the avoidance of radiation exposure, especially during the early stages of life, and a restrictive use of oestrogen substitution therapies.

  18. Yes to early detection of cancer - no to routine mammography examinations. Parting from wishful thinking, turning to new strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experts find it difficult to accept what experience has shown, namely that routine mammography examinations have lowered neither the breast cancer fatality rate nor the crude death rate. One aspect that has been neglected in propagating screenings is the high radiation sensitivity of genetically predisposed females (0.5% - 1.0%). These females should not be exposed to repeated X-rays for screening purposes. True preventive measures, which promise significant effects, include the avoidance of radiation exposure, especially during the early stages of life, and a restrictive use of oestrogen substitution therapies

  19. Interaction of ribosomal protein L22 with casein kinase 2α: a novel mechanism for understanding the biology of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxia; Sun, Haibo; He, Ji; Wang, Hong; Yu, Xiaowei; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-07-01

    Dysfunction of ribosomal proteins (RPs) may play an important role in molecular tumorigenesis, such as lung cancer, acting in extraribosomal functions. Many protein-protein interaction studies and genetic screens have confirmed the extraribosomal capacity of RPs. As reported, ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) dysfunction could increase cancer risk. In the present study, we examined RPL22-protein complexes in lung cancer cells. Tandem affinity purification (TAP) was used to screen the RPL22-protein complexes, and GST pull-down experiments and confocal microscopy were used to assess the protein-protein interaction. The experiment of kinase assay was used to study the function of the RPL22-protein complexes. The results showed that several differentially expressed proteins were isolated and identified by LC-MS/MS, which revealed that one of the protein complexes included casein kinase 2α (CK2α). RPL22 and CK2α interact in vitro. RPL22 also inhibited CK2α substrate phosphorylation in vitro. This is the first report of the RPL22-CK2α relationship in lung cancer. Dysregulated CK2 may impact cell proliferation and apoptosis, key features of cancer cell biology. Our results indicate that RPL22 may be a candidate anticancer agent due to its CK2α-binding and -inhibitory functions in human lung cancer. PMID:24840952

  20. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in prostate, breast and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov

    The incidence of cancer in the western world has increased steeply during the last 50 years. For three of the most prevalent cancer types in Denmark, prostate, breast and colorectal cancer (PC, BC and CRC, respectively), only a small fraction (1-15%) of the incidences are caused by highly penetrant...... as having strong influence on carcinogenesis. Therefore, very frequent, low effect polymorphisms may have a greater contribution on a population level in combination with environmental factors. Indeed, several dietary and life style factors are now well-established risk factors for different cancer types...... and lifestyle factors may provide information about the underlying mechanisms and reveal new biological pathways. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate relevant risk factors in relation to the three major cancer types in Denmark: PC, BC and CRC, respectively. The two major risk factors examined...

  1. Digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography in staging of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Staging of rectal carcinoma before surgical treatment was performed in a prospective blind study, comparing digital rectal exploration and transrectal linear ultrasonography (TRUS) with the resulting pathological examination. TRUS underestimated depth of penetration in 3 of 33 patients and overes...... surgery for cure....

  2. Extending pathways and processes using molecular interaction networks to analyse cancer genome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnogor Natalio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular processes and pathways, whose deregulation may contribute to the development of cancers, are often represented as cascades of proteins transmitting a signal from the cell surface to the nucleus. However, recent functional genomic experiments have identified thousands of interactions for the signalling canonical proteins, challenging the traditional view of pathways as independent functional entities. Combining information from pathway databases and interaction networks obtained from functional genomic experiments is therefore a promising strategy to obtain more robust pathway and process representations, facilitating the study of cancer-related pathways. Results We present a methodology for extending pre-defined protein sets representing cellular pathways and processes by mapping them onto a protein-protein interaction network, and extending them to include densely interconnected interaction partners. The added proteins display distinctive network topological features and molecular function annotations, and can be proposed as putative new components, and/or as regulators of the communication between the different cellular processes. Finally, these extended pathways and processes are used to analyse their enrichment in pancreatic mutated genes. Significant associations between mutated genes and certain processes are identified, enabling an analysis of the influence of previously non-annotated cancer mutated genes. Conclusions The proposed method for extending cellular pathways helps to explain the functions of cancer mutated genes by exploiting the synergies of canonical knowledge and large-scale interaction data.

  3. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  4. Short-Form Ron Promotes Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis through Interaction with Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhao, Ling; DeRose, Yoko S.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Bieniasz, Magdalena; Eyob, Henok; Buys, Saundra S.; Neumayer, Leigh; Welm, Alana L.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been the subject of intense investigation due to their widespread deregulation in cancer and the prospect of developing targeted therapeutics against these proteins. The Ron RTK has been implicated in tumor aggressiveness and is a developing target for therapy, but its function in tumor progression and metastasis is not fully understood. We examined Ron activity in human breast cancers and found striking predominance of an activated Ron isoform known as s...

  5. Framing medical tourism: an examination of appeal, risk, convalescence, accreditation, and interactivity in medical tourism web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia; Wright, Kevin B

    2011-02-01

    This exploratory study analyzed the content of medical tourism Web sites in an attempt to examine how they convey information about benefits and risks of medical procedures, how they frame credibility, and the degree to which these Web sites include interactive features for consumers. Drawing upon framing theory, the researchers content analyzed a sample of 66 medical tourism Web sites throughout the world. The results indicated that medical tourism Web sites largely promote the benefits of medical procedures while downplaying the risks, and relatively little information regarding the credibility of these services appears. In addition, the presentation of benefits/risks, credibility, and Web site interactivity were found to differ by region and type of facility. The authors discuss the implications of these findings concerning the framing of medical tourism Web site content, future directions for research, and limitations. PMID:21161812

  6. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT

  7. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xian-Ying; Chen, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Fan, Jun-Ting [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Song, Ran; Wang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zeng, Guang-Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Shen, Yan; Wu, Xue-Feng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Tan, Ning-Hua, E-mail: nhtan@mail.kib.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China)

    2013-02-15

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT.

  8. Antagonists of IGF:Vitronectin Interactions Inhibit IGF-I-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Abhishek S; Shooter, Gary K; Shokoohmand, Ali; McGovern, Jacqui; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Croll, Tristan I; Cane, Gaëlle; Leavesley, David I; Söderberg, Ola; Upton, Zee; Hollier, Brett G

    2016-07-01

    We provide proof-of-concept evidence for a new class of therapeutics that target growth factor:extracellular matrix (GF:ECM) interactions for the management of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) forms multiprotein complexes with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) and the ECM protein vitronectin (VN), and stimulates the survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. For the first time we provide physical evidence for IGFBP-3:VN interactions in breast cancer patient tissues; these interactions were predominantly localized to tumor cell clusters and in stroma surrounding tumor cells. We show that disruption of IGF-I:IGFBP:VN complexes with L(27)-IGF-II inhibits IGF-I:IGFBP:VN-stimulated breast cancer cell migration and proliferation in two- and three-dimensional assay systems. Peptide arrays screened to identify regions critical for the IGFBP-3/-5:VN and IGF-II:VN interactions demonstrated IGFBP-3/-5 and IGF-II binds VN through the hemopexin-2 domain, and VN binds IGFBP-3 at residues not involved in the binding of IGF-I to IGFBP-3. IGFBP-interacting VN peptides identified from these peptide arrays disrupted the IGF-I:IGFBP:VN complex, impeded the growth of primary tumor-like spheroids and, more importantly, inhibited the invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells in 3D assay systems. These studies provide first-in-field evidence for the utility of small peptides in antagonizing GF:ECM-mediated biologic functions and present data demonstrating the potential of these peptide antagonists as novel therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1602-13. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196774

  9. Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Meat intake is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in order to identify biological pathways involved in meat carcinogenesis. We performed a literature search of PubMed and...... Embase using "interaction", "meat", "polymorphisms", and "colorectal cancer", and data on meat-gene interactions were extracted. The studies were divided according to whether information on meat intake was collected prospectively or retrospectively. In prospective studies, interactions between meat...... polymorphism in XPC and meat was found in one prospective and one case-control study; however, the directions of the risk estimates were opposite. Thus, none of the findings were replicated. The results from this systematic review suggest that genetic variation in the inflammatory response and DNA repair...

  10. Examining Perceived Distance and Personal Authenticity as Mediators of the Effects of Ghost-Tweeting on Parasocial Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elizabeth L; Tyler, William J

    2016-05-01

    A number of high-profile public figures hire ghost-tweeters to post to their social media accounts on their behalf, but no research has examined how this social media practice can affect followers' feelings of connection to the public figures. College students (n = 132) participated in an online experiment to examine the effect of ghost-tweeting practices on parasocial interaction (PSI) with social media figures. Tweet authorship (use of a ghost-tweeter or not) was manipulated. Ghost-tweeting resulted in reduced PSI. Perceptions of distance, but not personal authenticity mediated this effect. However, authenticity and distance did serially mediate the relationship between ghost-tweeting and PSI. These findings shed light on the process of PSI with celebrities and other media figures on social network sites. PMID:27186899

  11. Mutual interactions between P53 and growth factors in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asschert, JGW; Vellenga, E; De Jong, S; De Vries, EGE

    1998-01-01

    The function of p53 armour suppressor protein is determined by various intrinsic properties of the protein. The effect of p53 DNA-binding, and platein-protein interactions are determined by the conformation of the protein. Thus p53 fulfils its role in cell cycle control and the onset of apoptotic ce

  12. Interactions between Adipocytes and Breast Cancer Cells Stimulate Cytokine Production and Drive Src/Sox2/miR-302b-Mediated Malignant Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon-Ruiz, Manuel; Pan, Chendong; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Jang, Kibeom; Besser, Alexandra H; Zhao, Dekuang; Morata-Tarifa, Cynthia; Kim, Minsoon; Ince, Tan A; Azzam, Diana J; Wander, Seth A; Wang, Bin; Ergonul, Burcu; Datar, Ram H; Cote, Richard J; Howard, Guy A; El-Ashry, Dorraya; Torné-Poyatos, Pablo; Marchal, Juan A; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2016-01-15

    Consequences of the obesity epidemic on cancer morbidity and mortality are not fully appreciated. Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers, but the mechanisms by which it contributes to cancer development and patient outcome have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of coculturing human-derived adipocytes with established and primary breast cancer cells on tumorigenic potential. We found that the interaction between adipocytes and cancer cells increased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Prolonged culture of cancer cells with adipocytes or cytokines increased the proportion of mammosphere-forming cells and of cells expressing stem-like markers in vitro. Furthermore, contact with immature adipocytes increased the abundance of cancer cells with tumor-forming and metastatic potential in vivo. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that cancer cells cultured with immature adipocytes or cytokines activated Src, thus promoting Sox2, c-Myc, and Nanog upregulation. Moreover, Sox2-dependent induction of miR-302b further stimulated cMYC and SOX2 expression and potentiated the cytokine-induced cancer stem cell-like properties. Finally, we found that Src inhibitors decreased cytokine production after coculture, indicating that Src is not only activated by adipocyte or cytokine exposures, but is also required to sustain cytokine induction. These data support a model in which cancer cell invasion into local fat would establish feed-forward loops to activate Src, maintain proinflammatory cytokine production, and increase tumor-initiating cell abundance and metastatic progression. Collectively, our findings reveal new insights underlying increased breast cancer mortality in obese individuals and provide a novel preclinical rationale to test the efficacy of Src inhibitors for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26744520

  13. Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Vibeke; Vogel, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Meat intake is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in order to identify biological pathways involved in meat carcinogenesis. We performed a literature search of PubMed and Embase using “interaction”, “meat”, “polymorphisms”, and “colorectal cancer”, and data on meat–gene interactions were extracted. The studies were divided according to whether information on meat intake w...

  14. Public awareness of testis cancer and the prevalence of testicular self-examination-changing patterns over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Rowan G

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Delay in treatment of testis cancer (TC) has a proven negative impact on disease stage, treatment outcome, and mortality. Poor public awareness of the disease and lack of testis self-examination (TSE) may account for late presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of TC and performance of TSE in a group of men over 2 time periods 20 years apart. METHODS: In the current study, 677 men from a banking institution were surveyed on their knowledge of TC and their performance of TSE. Comparisons were made from the current data and those from the original study in 1986. RESULTS: This study demonstrates an increase in public awareness and modest concomitant increase in TSE since first studied in this country in 1986. There was no difference in knowledge across age groups in this study. Furthermore, men who demonstrate a superior degree of knowledge were more likely to perform TSE. Limitations included possible selection bias in the 2 studies conducted in a banking institution. CONCLUSIONS: Increased testicular cancer knowledge combined with TSE may have a role in improving detection of significant testicular pathology.

  15. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  16. Interaction between Capecitabine and Gemcitabine with Warfarin in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Gemcitabine is the only chemotherapeutic agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer [1]. It is also indicated for use in non-small-cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, and is commonly used in other gastrointestinal malignancies. Patients with cancer, specifically pancreatic carcinoma, are at increased risk for thrombosis requiring anticoagulation. In addition, due to aging and common risk factors, cardiac ailments such as atrial fibrillation are also common in this group. In such cases, warfarin is generally the agent of choice In 1999, a potential interaction between gemcitabine and warfarin was reported [2]. In 2002, the manufacturer of gemcitabine, Eli Lilly, reported four similar cases, indicating an incidence of 0.04% suspected drug interaction between gemcitabine and an anticoagulant [3]. They also reported that overall 5.4% of patients undergoing gemcitabine therapy received concomitant anticoagulants [3] Moreover, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Roche have added a "Black Box" warning and strengthened the "Precautions" section on the label of capecitabine, which is indicated for the treatment of colorectal and breast cancer [4, 5]. We present the seventh case of a patient with pancreatic cancer complicated by an elevated INR following treatment with concomitant gemcitabine-capecitabinewarfarin first and then gemcitabine-warfarin later.

  17. Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S.; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A.; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W.; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A.; Haddad, Robert I.; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J. G.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Dean; Chu, Andy; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Wong, Tina; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Lee, Semin; Parfenov, Michael; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Haseley, Psalm; Zeng, Dong; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Bristow, Christopher; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Casasent, Tod; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Motter, Thomas; Weinstein, John; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Fan, You Hong; Liu, Jinze; Wang, Kai; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buda, Elizabeth; Hayes, D. Neil; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kimes, Patrick K.; Marron, J.S.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Singh, Darshan; Soloway, Mathew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Walter, Vonn; Waring, Scot; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wu, Junyuan; Zhao, Ni; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Tward, Aaron D.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Carter, Scott L.; Zack, Travis I.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Freeman, Samuel S.; Meyerson, Matthew; Cho, Juok; Chin, Lynda; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael S.; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Hailei; Heiman, David I.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Voet, Doug; Lin, Pei; Frazer, Scott; Stojanov, Petar; Liu, Yingchun; Zou, Lihua; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Sougnez, Carrie; Lichtenstein, Lee; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Muzny, Donna; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Kovar, Christie; Reid, Jeff; Morton, Donna; Han, Yi; Hale, Walker; Chao, Hsu; Chang, Kyle; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kakkar, Nipun; Wheeler, David; Xi, Liu; Ciriello, Giovanni; Ladanyi, Marc; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Shen, Ronglai; Sinha, Rileen; Weinhold, Nils; Taylor, Barry S.; Aksoy, B. Arman; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Reva, Boris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Chan, Timothy; Morris, Luc; Stuart, Joshua; Benz, Stephen; Ng, Sam; Benz, Christopher; Yau, Christina; Baylin, Stephen B.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Herman, James G.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Laird, Peter W.; Triche, Timothy; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Agrawal, Nishant; Bishop, Justin; Boutros, Paul C.; Bruce, Jeff P; Byers, Lauren Averett; Califano, Joseph; Carey, Thomas E.; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hui; Chiosea, Simion I.; Cohen, Ezra; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ferris, Robert L.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Guo, Yan; Haddad, Robert I.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Harris, Thomas; Hayes, D. Neil; Hui, Angela BY; Lee, J. Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Liu, Fei-Fei; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Myers, Jeff; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Pickering, Curtis R.; Prystowsky, Michael; Romkes, Marjorie; Saleh, Anthony D.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Seethala, Raja; Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Si, Han; Tward, Aaron D.; Van Waes, Carter; Waggott, Daryl M.; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Yarbrough, Wendell; Zhang, Jiexin; Zuo, Zhixiang; Burnett, Ken; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candance; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Frick, Jessica; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Harper, Hollie A.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Baboud, Julien; Jensen, Mark A.; Kahn, Ari B.; Pihl, Todd D.; Pot, David A.; Srinivasan, Deepak; Walton, Jessica S.; Wan, Yunhu; Burton, Robert; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L.; Shaw, Kenna R. Mills; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Saller, Charles; Tarvin, Katherine; Chen, Chu; Bollag, Roni; Weinberger, Paul; Golusiński, Wojciech; Golusiński, Paweł; Ibbs, Matthiew; Korski, Konstanty; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Burnett, Ken; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Mallery, David; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Yena, Peggy; Beard, Christina; Mitchell, Colleen; Sandusky, George; Agrawal, Nishant; Ahn, Julie; Bishop, Justin; Califano, Joseph; Khan, Zubair; Bruce, Jeff P; Hui, Angela BY; Irish, Jonathan; Liu, Fei-Fei; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Waldron, John; Boutros, Paul C.; Waggott, Daryl M.; Myers, Jeff; Lippman, Scott M.; Egea, Sophie; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Herbert, Lynn; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Haddad, Andrea S.; Jones, Tamara R.; Komarck, Christine M.; Malakh, Mayya; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Nguyen, Ariane; Peterson, Lisa A.; Prince, Mark E.; Rozek, Laura S.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Taylor, Evan G.; Walline, Heather M.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Boice, Lori; Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Funkhouser, William K.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Hackman, Trevor G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Hayward, Michele C.; Huang, Mei; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Salazar, Ashley H.; Shockley, William W.; Shores, Carol G.; Thorne, Leigh; Weissler, Mark C.; Wrenn, Sylvia; Zanation, Adam M.; Chiosea, Simion I.; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; Ferris, Robert L.; Romkes, Marjorie; Seethala, Raja; Brown, Brandee T.; Guo, Yan; Pham, Michelle; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

  18. Interactions between intakes of alcohol and postmenopausal hormones on risk of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol and postmenopausal hormone use are well-established modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Alcohol may decrease the metabolic clearance of estradiol, whereby the risk of breast cancer associated with hormone use may depend on blood alcohol levels. The objective is to determine whether...... breast cancer (HR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.52-2.61) compared to nonhormone users. We found an interaction between these 2 factors; those who had an intake of more than 2 drinks per day and took hormones had a risk of 4.74 (95% CI: 2.61-8.59) for breast cancer compared to abstainers who did not use hormones...... alcohol interacts with hormone use on risk of breast cancer. The 5,035 postmenopausal women who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their alcohol intake and hormone use at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until 2002 in the Danish cancer registry, with <0.1% loss to...

  19. Different fractionation schemes tested by histological examination of autopsy specimens from lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of different fractionation schemes have been evaluated by the histological examination of bronchial carcinomas removed at operation or autopsy following radiotherapy. Radiation was given in daily, small fractions (200 cGy (rad)), large fractions (600 cGy (rad)) every fifth day, or a single high dose followed by daily low-dose treatment. The highest proportion of tumours free of viable cells was found in patients who had received small daily fractions in both operable and inoperable tumours. A hypothesis is put forward to explain this apparent change in radio-sensitivity with different fractionation schemes. (author)

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Koichi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133 and A1298C (rs1801131 polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P Conclusions The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development.

  1. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Altevogt Peter; Keller Sascha; Escrevente Cristina; Costa Júlia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. Methods SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated w...

  2. Identification of new genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer through consideration of gene-environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,47...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN OLDER PERSONS: AN EXAMINATION OF INTERACTION PROCESSES IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John

    2015-12-01

    Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed. PMID:26595293

  4. Interaction between IGF-1 polymorphisms and overweight for the risk of pancreatic cancer in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Makoto; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yamao, Kenji; Ueda, Ryuzo; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2011-01-01

    Although several reports have described a possible association between insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk, this association has not been evaluated in the non-Caucasian population. To assess the impact of IGF-1 polymorphisms on PC risk in Japanese, we conducted a case-control study which compared the frequency of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of IGF-1. SNPs were investigated using the TaqMan method in 176 patients with PC and 1402 control subjects. Exposure to risk factors was assessed from the results of a self-administered questionnaire. Associations and gene-environment interactions were examined using an unconditional logistic regression model. We did not observe any significant main effect of IGF-1 loci, but did find interactions between rs5742714 and past and/or current body-mass index (BMI) status. Among patients with BMI > 25 at age 20, an increased PC risk was observed with the addition of the minor allele for rs5742714 (trend P = 0.048) and rs6214 (P = 0.043). Among patients with current BMI > 25, an increased or decreased PC risk was observed with the addition of the minor allele for rs5742714 (trend P = 0.046), rs4764887 (P = 0.031) and rs5742612 (P = 0.038). Haplotype analysis of IGF-1 showed a significant association among patients who were either or both previously or currently overweight. These findings suggest that IGF-1 polymorphisms may affect the development of PC in the Japanese population in combination with obesity. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted. PMID:22199998

  5. Comparison between CT mass survey and CT close examination of X-P mass survey for lung cancer, results of 5-year experience. Found outed diseases except lung cancer and demerit of CT mass survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 5 years experience for lung cancer mass survey with first-step helical CT examination and CT close examination after X-ray photographic survey were reported. The pathological reports of resected small lung cancers have been declined to postpone. And then at this time found outed diseases except lung cancer were discussed. At CT mass survey, 47 lung cancers, 3 other cancers, 4 operated benign diseases, medicated 6 tuberculoses, 26 pneumonias, 9 bronchiectases, 4 emphysemas and 19 other diseases were detected out of 7,788 cases (1,502 cases out of 100,000). On the other hand at CT close examination, 82 lung cancers, 10 other cancers, 18 operated benign diseases, 37 medicated tuberculoses, 63 treated pneumonia, 21 bronchiectases, 29 sarcoidoses and 26 cases of others were found outed out of 1,729 examined patients. 290 cases out of 1,729. The patients who had lung cancer suspected CT-images and were examined or operated, must be demerit or adverse reaction of mass survey. Twenty cases in CT mass survey and 41 cases in CT close examination were found in this study. The results should be discussed in the future. (author)

  6. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach to examining stereoselective interaction of human plasma proteins with soman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, David T; Smith, J Richard; Sweeney, Richard E; Lenz, David E; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent soman (GD) contains two chiral centers (a carbon and a phosphorus atom), resulting in four stereoisomers (C+P+, C-P+, C+P-, and C-P-); the P- isomers exhibit a mammalian toxicity that is approximately 1000-fold greater than that of the P+ isomers. The capacity to assess the binding or hydrolysis of each of the four stereoisomers is an important tool in the development of enzymes with the potential to protect against GD intoxication. Using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach, we have examined the capacity of plasma-derived human serum albumin, plasma-purified human butyrylcholinesterase, goat milk-derived recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase, and recombinant human paraoxonase 1 to interact with each of the four stereoisomers of GD in vitro at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. Under these experimental conditions, the butyrylcholinesterase samples were found to bind GD with a relative preference for the more toxic stereoisomers (C-P- > C+P- > C-P+ > C+P+), while human serum albumin and paraoxonase 1 interacted with GD with a relative preference for the less toxic isomers (C-P+/C+P+ > C+P-/C-P-). The results indicate that these human proteins exhibit distinct stereoselective interactions with GD. The approach described presents a means to rapidly assess substrate stereospecificity, supporting future efforts to develop more effective OP bioscavenger proteins. PMID:18269799

  7. Examination of the Impact of Using an Interactive Electronic Textbook on the Affective Learning of Prospective Mathematics Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Öngöz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study aims to examine the impact of a learning environment that uses interactive electronic textbook on the affective learning of prospective mathematics teachers. The study group consisted of 64 prospective teachers attending the Mathematics Teaching program at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey. For 14 weeks, experimental group received the Development and Learning course in a blended learning environment, in which an interactive e-textbook was used inside and outside the classroom. In this period, only face to face education was conducted with the control group in the classroom environment. A course attitude scale and a blended learning environment satisfaction scale were employed for the purpose of data collection. In addition, observations were conducted with both of the groups during the application. The analysis of the findings indicated that there was a significant increase between pre- and post-course attitude scores of experimental group students, the students were satisfied with the learning environment formed, and the electronic text book increased interest in the course.Key Words: Interactive electronic textbook, prospective mathematics teachers, blended learning model, affective learning

  8. Identification of New Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Breast Cancer Through Consideration of Gene-Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Dunning, Alison M.; Milne, Roger L.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Andrulis, Irene; Brenner, Hermann; Behrens, Sabine; Orr, Nicholas; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Li, Jingmei; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Knight, Julia; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M.; Dumont, Martine; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Moisse, Matthieu; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Spurdle, Amanda; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Malats, Núria; Arias Perez, JoséI.; Benítez, Javier; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Truong, Théresè; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Braaf, Linde; Atsma, Femke; van den Broek, Alexandra J.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Cox, Angela; Simard, Jacques; Giles, Graham G.; Lambrechts, Diether; Mannermaa, Arto; Brauch, Hiltrud; Guénel, Pascal; Peto, Julian; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Couch, Fergus; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10−07), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 × 10−05). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G × E interaction and the utility of using G × E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci. PMID:24248812

  9. Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John L.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; The GENICA Network; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Management; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors

  10. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nickels

    Full Text Available Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6 and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4. Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16 in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10 in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37 in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98 in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85 in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5, with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17 in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05 in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  11. Interaction of pathology and molecular characterization of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of joint studies of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age between departments in Cambridge, Brussels, Naples and Munich in the European Union, and departments in Minsk, Kiev and Obninsk in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe. The pathology of 264 cases of childhood thyroid cancer out of 430 that have occurred since 1990 in the 3 countries in which high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident occurred has been restudied by NIS and EU pathologists. The overall level of agreement reached was about 97%. The diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and ISH for the differentiation markers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and the tumors were classified according to the WHO, with papillary carcinomas being further subclassified. 99% of the 134 Belarussian cases were papillary carcinomas, as were 94% of the 114 Ukrainian tumors. All 9 of the Russian cases available for study were papillary in type. 76 of 154 cases of childhood thyroid cancer reviewed over a 30 year period in England and Wales and were also studied, 68% of these were papillary carcinoma. Histological study showed that a subtype of papillary carcinoma, rarely found in adults, with a solid/follicular architecture occurred in children. It was found in 72% of the Belarussian papillary carcinomas, 76% of the Ukrainian cases, but only 40% of the England and Wales cases. Molecular biological studies showed that the proportion of cases of papillary carcinoma expressing the ret gene was not significantly different in the exposed and the unexposed tumors, studies of the type of translocation leading to ret gene expression are not yet conclusive. Ras gene mutations were found as expected in follicular carcinoma, but were absent from any papillary carcinoma, whether from exposed or unexposed cases. TSH receptor mutations, normally found in follicular tumors were not found in any papillary carcinomas, nor were any p53 mutations identified. All these results

  12. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 – 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A St. Hill

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP, and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 – 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1% and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029 and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336. Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031. Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate

  13. An examination of clinical differences between carriers and non-carriers of chromosome 8q24 risk alleles in a New Zealand Caucasian population with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Karen S; Han, Dug Yeo; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Goudie, Megan; Masters, Jonathan G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer makes up approximately 15% of all cancers diagnosed in men in developed nations and approximately 4% of cases in developing nations. Although it is clear that prostate cancer has a genetic component and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can contribute to prostate cancer risk, detecting associations is difficult in multi-factorial diseases, as environmental and lifestyle factors also play a role. In this study, specific clinical characteristics, environmental factors and genetic risk factors were assessed for interaction with prostate cancer. Methods. A total of 489 prostate cancer cases and 427 healthy controls were genotyped for SNPs found on chromosome 8q24 and a genetic risk score was calculated. In addition the SNPs were tested for an association with a number of clinical and environmental factors. Results. Age and tobacco use were positively associated, whilst alcohol consumption was negatively associated with prostate cancer risk. The following SNPs found on chromosome 8q24 were statistically significantly associated with prostate cancer: rs10086908, rs16901979; rs1447295and rs4242382. No association between Gleason score and smoking status, or between Gleason score and genotype were detected. Conclusion. A genetic risk score was calculated based on the 15 SNPs tested and found to be significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. Smoking significantly contributed to the risk of developing prostate cancer, and this risk was further increased by the presence of four SNPs in the 8q24 chromosomal region. PMID:26966665

  14. Interaction of celecoxib with different anti-cancer drugs is antagonistic in breast but not in other cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, is being investigated for enhancement of chemotherapy efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study investigates the ability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to sensitize cells from different origins to several chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of the drug's mechanism of action and sequence of administration are also investigated. The sensitivity, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage of five different cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, HepG2, MCF7 and U251) to 5-FU, cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide ± celecoxib following different incubation schedules were analyzed. We found antagonism between celecoxib and the four drugs in the breast cancer cells MCF7 following all incubation schedules and between celecoxib and doxorubicin in all cell lines except for two combinations in HCT116 cells. Celecoxib with the other three drugs in the remaining four cell lines resulted in variable interactions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that celecoxib exerts different molecular effects in different cells. In some lines, it abrogates the drug-induced G2/M arrest enhancing pre-mature entry into mitosis with damaged DNA thus increasing apoptosis and resulting in synergism. In other cells, it enhances drug-induced G2/M arrest allowing time to repair drug-induced DNA damage before entry into mitosis and decreasing cell death resulting in antagonism. In some synergistic combinations, celecoxib-induced abrogation of G2/M arrest was not associated with apoptosis but permanent arrest in G1 phase. These results, if confirmed in-vivo, indicate that celecoxib is not a suitable chemosensitizer for breast cancer or with doxorubicin for other cancers. Moreover, combination of celecoxib with other drugs should be tailored to the tumor type, drug and administration schedule. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Celecoxib may enhance effects of anticancer drugs. → Its combination with four drugs was tested in five cancer cell

  15. Blood magnesium, and the interaction with calcium, on the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ionized calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg compete as essential messengers to regulate cell proliferation and inflammation. We hypothesized that inadequate Mg levels, perhaps relative to Ca levels (e.g. a high Ca/Mg ratio are associated with greater prostate cancer risk. STUDY DESIGN: In this biomarker sub-study of the Nashville Men's Health Study (NMHS, we included 494 NMHS participants, consisting of 98 high-grade (Gleason≥7 and 100 low-grade cancer cases, 133 prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN cases, and 163 controls without cancer or PIN at biopsy. Linear and logistic regression were used to determine associations between blood Ca, Mg, and the Ca/Mg ratio across controls and case groups while adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Serum Mg levels were significantly lower, while the Ca/Mg ratio was significantly higher, among high-grade cases vs. controls (p = 0.04, p = 0.01, respectively. Elevated Mg was significantly associated with a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 0.26 (0.09, 0.85. An elevated Ca/Mg ratio was also associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 2.81 (1.24, 6.36 adjusted for serum Ca and Mg. In contrast, blood Ca levels were not significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN.Mg, Ca, or Ca/Mg levels were not associated with low-grade cancer, PIN, PSA levels, prostate volume, or BPH treatment. CONCLUSION: Low blood Mg levels and a high Ca/Mg ratio were significantly associated with high-grade prostate cancer. These findings suggest Mg affects prostate cancer risk perhaps through interacting with Ca.

  16. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in the exploration of breast cancer bone metastases (analysis of 311 examinations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium pyrophosphate was chosen for its ease of application and the quality of the images it gives. The aim of this study, in the context of breast cancer exploration, is to examine: - its reliability for the detection of bone metastases, - the correlation of its results with other factors. The first part reviews the properties of sup(99m)Tc-labelled sodium pyrophosphate and the current hypotheses on the mechanism of its bone fixation, essential for an understanding of the image formation mechanism and for the interpretation of anomalies. Part two gives an analysis of 311 examinations carried out on 223 patients, obtained by the use of a coded file and modern data processing methods. The following are dealt with in turn: - material and methods, - the results themselves and especially their reliability for the whole skeleton and for one bone at a time, - discussion and comparison with published data. Sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy is a simple examination easy to interpret and allows the whole skeleton to be explored. Abnormal scintigraphic images are: - seldom hypofixing lacunae, - usually 'hyperfixing centres' which point to a perilesional bone reaction and depend on: vascular factors, the affinity of technetium for the immature collagen fibres of the forming bone matrix, the affinity of pyrophosphate for the bone mineral substance

  17. Spatial Evolutionary Games of Interaction among Generic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lars Arve; Sumpter, David J.T.; Alsner, Jan; Loeschcke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary game models of cellular interactions have shown that heterogeneity in the cellular genotypic composition is maintained through evolution to stable coexistence of growth-promoting and non-promoting cell types. We generalise these mean-field models and relax the assumption of perfect...... mixing of cells by instead implementing an individual-based model that includes the stochastic and spatial effects likely to occur in tumours. The scope for coexistence of genotypic strategies changed with the inclusion of explicit space and stochasticity. The spatial models show some interesting...... deviations from their mean-field counterparts, for example the possibility of altruistic (paracrine) cell strategies to thrive. Such effects can however, be highly sensitive to model implementation and the more realistic models with semi-synchronous and stochastic updating do not show evolution of altruism...

  18. Potential drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions among ambulatory cancer patients: a prevalence study using an advanced screening method

    OpenAIRE

    Schuitenmaker Martin S; Boom Frits A; Swart Eleonora L; van Leeuwen Roelof WF; Hugtenburg Jacqueline G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The pharmacotherapeutic treatment of patients with cancer is generally associated with multiple side-effects. Drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions between anti-cancer drugs or interactions with medication to treat comorbidity can reinforce or intensify side-effects. The aim of the present study is to gain more insight into the prevalence of drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions among patients being treated in the outpatient day care departments for oncolog...

  19. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-09

    Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2) levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation\\/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p < 0.05) and plasma (p < 0.01) NSCLC samples respectively. TXS tissue expression was higher in adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001) and female patients (p < 0.05). No significant correlation with patient survival was observed. Selective TXS inhibition significantly reduced tumour cell growth and increased apoptosis, while TXS over-expression stimulated cell proliferation and invasiveness, and was protective against apoptosis. Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

  20. Nanopharmaceutical Approach for Enhanced Anti-cancer Activity of Betulinic Acid in Lung-cancer Treatment via Activation of PARP: Interaction with DNA as a Target -Anti-cancer Potential of Nano-betulinic Acid in Lung Cancer-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Das

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the relative efficacies of a derivative of betulinic acid (dBA and its poly (lactide- co-glycolide (PLGA nano-encapsulated form in A549 lung cancer cells in vivo and in co-mutagen [sodium arsenite (SA + benzo]undefined[a]pyrene (BaP]-induced lung cancer in mice in vivo. Methods: dBA was loaded with PLGA nanoparticles by using the standard solvent displacement method. The sizes and morphologies of nano-dBA (NdBA were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their intracellular localization was verified by using confocal microscopy. The binding and interaction of NdBA with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA as a target were analyzed by using conventional circular dichroism (CD and melting temperature (Tm profile data. Apoptotic signalling cascades in vitro and in vivo were studied by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ability of NdBA to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB was also examined. The stage of cell cycle arrest was confirmed by using a fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS data analysis. Results: The average size of the nanoparticles was ~ 110 nm. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the presence of NdBA in the cellular cytoplasm. The bio-physical properties of dBA and NdBA ascertained from the CD and the Tm profiles revealed that NdBA had greater interaction with the target DNA than dBA did. Both dBA and NdBA arrested cell proliferation at G0/G1, NdBA showing the greater effect. NdBA also induced a greater degree of cytotoxicity in A549 cells, but it had an insignificant cytotoxic effect in normal L6 cells. The results of flow cytometric, cytogenetial and histopathological studies in mice revealed that NdBA caused less nuclear condensation and DNA damage than dBA did. TEM images showed the presence of NdBA in brain samples of NdBA fed mice, indicating its ability to cross the BBB. Conclusion: Thus, compared to dBA, NdBA appears to have greater

  1. Depressed immune surveillance against cancer: role of deficient T cell: extracellular matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, A; Castronovo, V; Stepień-Sopniewska, B; Grieb, P; Ryba, M; Mrowiec, T; Korczak-Kowalska, G; Wierzbicki, P; Matysiak, W; Dybowska, B

    1994-07-01

    Although T cells infiltrate malignant tumors, the local immune response is usually inefficient and tumors escape destruction. While extracellular matrix proteins strongly costimulate T cell responses in normal individuals, our studies indicate that peripheral blood T cells from cancer patients and tumor infiltrating cells respond poorly or are resistant to stimulative signals mediated by collagen I and IV and fibronectin. Moreover, the adhesive properties of cancer T cells are markedly depressed. Those functional deficiencies are paralleled by variable deficits in integrin and non-integrin T cell receptors for extracellular matrix. Immunotherapy with BCG causes a dramatic but transient increase in T cell: ECM interactions. PMID:7827959

  2. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown on the basis of retrospective investigation of 500 workers at a nuclear enterprise (162 cases of lung cancer, 338 persons as matching control) that the interaction of external gamma-irradiation (> 2.0 Gy) and the body - burden of 239Pu (> 9.3 kBq) at lung cancer is characterized as the multiplicative effect. Combined influence of smoking and radiation factors dependent on smoking index (SI): it changed from additive up to multiplicative and than to antagonistic with the increase of the smoking effect. The received results could be explained on the basis of a two - mutation model of radiation carcinogenesis

  3. Dynamic protein-protein interaction subnetworks of lung cancer in cases with smoking history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer and is linked to 85% of lung cancer cases. However, how lung cancer develops in patients with smoking history remains unclear. Systems approaches that combine human protein-protein interaction (PPI networks and gene expression data are superior to traditional methods. We performed these systems to determine the role that smoking plays in lung cancer development and used the support vector machine (SVM model to predict PPIs. By defining expression variance (EV, we found 520 dynamic proteins (EV>0.4 using data from the Human Protein Reference Database and Gene Expression Omnibus Database, and built 7 dynamic PPI subnetworks of lung cancer in patients with smoking history. We also determined the primary functions of each subnetwork: signal transduction, apoptosis, and cell migration and adhesion for subnetwork A; cell-sustained angiogenesis for subnetwork B; apoptosis for subnetwork C; and, finally, signal transduction and cell replication and proliferation for subnetworks D-G. The probability distribution of the degree of dynamic protein and static protein differed, clearly showing that the dynamic proteins were not the core proteins which widely connected with their neighbor proteins. There were high correlations among the dynamic proteins, suggesting that the dynamic proteins tend to form specific dynamic modules. We also found that the dynamic proteins were only correlated with the expression of selected proteins but not all neighbor proteins when cancer occurred.

  4. Complementary or competing climates? Examining the interactive effect of service and ethical climates on company-level financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Adam T; Thoroughgood, Christian N; Mohammed, Susan

    2016-08-01

    By bending rules to please their customers, companies with high service climates may be less ethical but ultimately more profitable. In this article, we pose the question of whether being ethical comes at a cost to profits in customer-oriented firms. Despite the organizational reality that multiple climates coexist at a given time, research has largely ignored these types of questions, and the simultaneous analysis of multiple climate dimensions has received little empirical attention to date. Given their scientific and practical importance, this study tested complementary and conflicting perspectives regarding interactions between service (outcome-focused) and ethical (process-focused) climates on company-level financial performance. Drawing on a sample of 16,862 medical sales representatives spread across 77 subsidiary companies of a large multinational corporation in the health care product industry, we found support for a complementary view. More precisely, results revealed that profitability was enhanced, not diminished, in service-oriented firms that also stressed the importance of ethics. Results suggest studying the interactive effects of multiple climates is a more fruitful approach than examining main effects alone. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149606

  5. Cancer stem cell-vascular endothelial cell interactions in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aman; Shiras, Anjali

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a higher grade glial tumor, is highly aggressive, therapy resistant and often shows poor patient prognosis due to frequent recurrence. These features of GBM are attributed to presence of a significantly smaller proportion of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are endowed with self-renewal ability, multi-potent nature and show resistance to therapy in patients. GSCs preferably take shelter close to tumor vasculature due to paracrine need of soluble factors secreted by endothelial cells (ECs) of vasculature. The physical proximity of GSCs to ECs creates a localized perivascular niche where mutual GSC-EC interactions regulate GSC stemness, migration, therapy resistance, and cellular kinetics during tumor growth. Together, perivascular niche presents a therapeutically targetable tumor structure for clinical management of GBM. Thus, understanding cellular and non-cellular components in perivascular niche is vital for designing in vitro and in vivo GBM tumor models. Here, we discuss the components and structure of tumor vascular niche and its impact on tumor progression. PMID:26692486

  6. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life. PMID:27366010

  7. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Can-cer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hyun KIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP and differences in screening rates by gender.Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined.Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78, one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71, and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203 after multivariate adjustment.Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs.

  8. A single-molecule force spectroscopy study of the interactions between lectins and carbohydrates on cancer and normal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weidong; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Wang, Hongda

    2013-03-01

    The interaction forces between carbohydrates and lectins were investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy on both cancer and normal cells. The binding kinetics was also studied, which shows that the carbohydrate-lectin complex on cancer cells is less stable than that on normal cells.The interaction forces between carbohydrates and lectins were investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy on both cancer and normal cells. The binding kinetics was also studied, which shows that the carbohydrate-lectin complex on cancer cells is less stable than that on normal cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00553d

  9. Laughing in the Face of Fear (of Disease Detection): Using Humor to Promote Cancer Self-Examination Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the possible benefit of using humor to reduce anxiety associated with performing cancer self-examination behaviors. In Study 1, 187 undergraduates read a humorous public service announcement (PSA) script promoting either breast or testicular self-exams. Results suggest that perception of humor reduced anxiety about self-exams, which, in turn, related to more positive self-exam attitudes. Simultaneously, humor perception associated with greater message processing motivation, which, in turn, associated with more supportive self-exam attitudes. Self-exam attitudes also positively associated with self-exam intentions. These results were largely replicated in Study 2. Further, self-exam intentions predicted self-exam behavior 1 week later. However, consistent with past research, the humorous and serious messages did not generate differences in subsequent self-exam behavior, though the intention-behavior relationship was stronger and significant for those exposed to the humorous versus the serious messages. In light of these findings, and given that humor has the advantage of attracting and holding attention in real message environments, the use of carefully constructed humor appeals may be a viable message strategy to promote health detection behaviors. PMID:26652312

  10. Identification of new candidate drugs for lung cancer using chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions and a K-means clustering algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Yi; Kong, Xiangyin; Zheng, Mingyue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue, is the leading cause of global cancer deaths. Until now, effective treatment of this disease is limited. Many synthetic compounds have emerged with the advancement of combinatorial chemistry. Identification of effective lung cancer candidate drug compounds among them is a great challenge. Thus, it is necessary to build effective computational methods that can assist us in selecting for potential lung cancer drug compounds. In this study, a computational method was proposed to tackle this problem. The chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-protein interactions were utilized to select candidate drug compounds that have close associations with approved lung cancer drugs and lung cancer-related genes. A permutation test and K-means clustering algorithm were employed to exclude candidate drugs with low possibilities to treat lung cancer. The final analysis suggests that the remaining drug compounds have potential anti-lung cancer activities and most of them have structural dissimilarity with approved drugs for lung cancer. PMID:26849843

  11. A Novel Biomarker Panel Examining Response to Gemcitabine with or without Erlotinib for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy in NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Shultz

    Full Text Available NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3 was a randomized control trial that demonstrated improved overall survival (OS in patients receiving erlotinib in addition to gemcitabine for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Prior to therapy, patients had plasma samples drawn for future study. We sought to identify biomarkers within these samples.Using the proximity ligation assay (PLA, a probe panel was built from commercially available antibodies for 35 key proteins selected from a global genetic analysis of pancreatic cancers, and used to quantify protein levels in 20 uL of patient plasma. To determine if any of these proteins levels independently associated with OS, univariate and mulitbaraible Cox models were used. In addition, we examined the associations between biomarker expression and disease stage at diagnosis using Fisher's exact test. The correlation between Erlotinib sensitivity and each biomarkers was assessed using a test of interaction between treatment and biomarker.Of the 569 eligible patients, 480 had samples available for study. Samples were randomly allocated into training (251 and validation sets (229. Among all patients, elevated levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with lower OS, while IL-8, CEA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and mucin-1 were associated with metastatic disease. Patients with elevated levels of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2 expression had improved OS when treated with erlotinib compared to placebo. In conclusion, PLA is a powerful tool for identifying biomarkers from archived, small volume serum samples. These data may be useful to stratify patient outcomes regardless of therapeutic intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00040183.

  12. Interactive effects of antifungal and antineoplastic agents on yeasts commonly prevalent in cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannoum, M. A.; Motawy, M S; Abu Hatab, M A; Abu Elteen, K H; Criddle, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of combinations of antifungal and antineoplastic drugs on inhibition of the growth of yeasts which commonly infect cancer patients have been analyzed. It was shown that (i) inhibitory drug combinations could be selected in which all drugs were at levels far below their individual MICs; (ii) interactive effects among antineoplastic and antifungal drugs may be very large; (iii) optimum combinations of drugs for inhibition of yeast growth depended upon both the relative and absolute ...

  13. From 'omics' to complex disease: a systems biology approach to gene-environment interactions in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Knox Sarah S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer is a complex disease that involves a sequence of gene-environment interactions in a progressive process that cannot occur without dysfunction in multiple systems, including DNA repair, apoptotic and immune functions. Epigenetic mechanisms, responding to numerous internal and external cues in a dynamic ongoing exchange, play a key role in mediating environmental influences on gene expression and tumor development. Hypothesis The hypothesis put forth in this paper add...

  14. Detecting Susceptibility to Breast Cancer with SNP-SNP Interaction Using BPSOHS and Emotional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Fan, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Studies for the association between diseases and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have received great attention. However, most of them just use the whole set of useful SNPs and fail to consider the SNP-SNP interactions, while these interactions have already been proven in biology experiments. In this paper, we use a binary particle swarm optimization with hierarchical structure (BPSOHS) algorithm to improve the effective of PSO for the identification of the SNP-SNP interactions. Furthermore, in order to use these SNP interactions in the susceptibility analysis, we propose an emotional neural network (ENN) to treat SNP interactions as emotional tendency. Different from the normal architecture, just as the emotional brain, this architecture provides a specific path to treat the emotional value, by which the SNP interactions can be considered more quickly and directly. The ENN helps us use the prior knowledge about the SNP interactions and other influence factors together. Finally, the experimental results prove that the proposed BPSOHS_ENN algorithm can detect the informative SNP-SNP interaction and predict the breast cancer risk with a much higher accuracy than existing methods. PMID:27294121

  15. Detecting Susceptibility to Breast Cancer with SNP-SNP Interaction Using BPSOHS and Emotional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Qinke; Fan, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Studies for the association between diseases and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have received great attention. However, most of them just use the whole set of useful SNPs and fail to consider the SNP-SNP interactions, while these interactions have already been proven in biology experiments. In this paper, we use a binary particle swarm optimization with hierarchical structure (BPSOHS) algorithm to improve the effective of PSO for the identification of the SNP-SNP interactions. Furthermore, in order to use these SNP interactions in the susceptibility analysis, we propose an emotional neural network (ENN) to treat SNP interactions as emotional tendency. Different from the normal architecture, just as the emotional brain, this architecture provides a specific path to treat the emotional value, by which the SNP interactions can be considered more quickly and directly. The ENN helps us use the prior knowledge about the SNP interactions and other influence factors together. Finally, the experimental results prove that the proposed BPSOHS_ENN algorithm can detect the informative SNP-SNP interaction and predict the breast cancer risk with a much higher accuracy than existing methods. PMID:27294121

  16. Case-only study of interactions between metabolic enzymes and smoking in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions involved in the metabolism of carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer. Our objective was to measure the interactions between common polymorphisms of P450 (CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1), GSTM1 and T1, SULT1A1 and cigarette smoking in colorectal cancer (CRC). A case-only design was conducted in a Chinese population including 207 patients with sporadic CRC. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for age, gender, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. The interaction odds ratio (COR) for the gene-gene interaction between CYP1B1 1294G and SULT1A1 638A allele was 2.68 (95% CI: 1.16–6.26). The results of the gene-environment analyses revealed that an interaction existed between cigarette smoking and the CYP1B1 1294G allele for CRC (COR = 2.62, 95%CI: 1.01–6.72), the COR for the interaction of CYP1B1 1294G and smoking history > 35 pack-years was 3.47 (95%CI: 1.12–10.80). No other significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were observed. Our results showed that the interaction between polymorphisms in CYP1B1 1294G and SULT1A1*2 may play a significant role on CRC in the Chinese population. Also, it is suggested that the association between cigarette smoking and CRC could be differentiated by the CYP1B1 1294G allele

  17. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Hofmanová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined.

  18. Synthetic lethal interaction between oncogenic KRAS dependency and STK33 suppression in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan; Dunn, Ian F; Schinzel, Anna C; Barbie, David A; Kim, So Young; Silver, Serena J; Tamayo, Pablo; Wadlow, Raymond C; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Sandy, Peter; Boehm, Jesse S; Root, David E; Jacks, Tyler; Hahn, William C; Gilliland, D Gary

    2009-05-29

    An alternative to therapeutic targeting of oncogenes is to perform "synthetic lethality" screens for genes that are essential only in the context of specific cancer-causing mutations. We used high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) to identify synthetic lethal interactions in cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS, the most commonly mutated human oncogene. We find that cells that are dependent on mutant KRAS exhibit sensitivity to suppression of the serine/threonine kinase STK33 irrespective of tissue origin, whereas STK33 is not required by KRAS-independent cells. STK33 promotes cancer cell viability in a kinase activity-dependent manner by regulating the suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis mediated through S6K1-induced inactivation of the death agonist BAD selectively in mutant KRAS-dependent cells. These observations identify STK33 as a target for treatment of mutant KRAS-driven cancers and demonstrate the potential of RNAi screens for discovering functional dependencies created by oncogenic mutations that may enable therapeutic intervention for cancers with "undruggable" genetic alterations. PMID:19490892

  19. Early Prostate Cancer: Hedonic Prices Model of Provider-Patient Interactions and Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the relative influence of treatment features and treatment availabilities on final treatment decisions in early prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We describe and apply a model, based on hedonic prices, to understand provider-patient interactions in prostate cancer. This model included four treatments (observation, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and prostatectomy) and five treatment features (one efficacy and four treatment complication features). We performed a literature search to estimate (1) the intersections of the 'bid' functions and 'offer' functions with the price function along different treatment feature axes, and (2) the treatments actually rendered in different patient subgroups based on age. We performed regressions to determine the relative weight of each feature in the overall interaction and the relative availability of each treatment modality to explain differences between observed vs. predicted use of different modalities in different patient subpopulations. Results: Treatment efficacy and potency preservation are the major factors influencing decisions for young patients, whereas preservation of urinary and rectal function is much more important for very elderly patients. Referral patterns seem to be responsible for most of the deviations of observed use of different treatments from those predicted by idealized provider-patient interactions. Specifically, prostatectomy is used far more commonly in young patients and radiotherapy and observation used far more commonly in elderly patients than predicted by a uniform referral pattern. Conclusions: The hedonic prices approach facilitated identifying the relative importance of treatment features and quantification of the impact of the prevailing referral pattern on prostate cancer treatment decisions

  20. Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy. Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions

  1. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  2. Signaling through urokinase and urokinase receptor in lung cancer cells requires interactions with beta1 integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chi-Hui; Hill, Marla L; Brumwell, Alexis N; Chapman, Harold A; Wei, Ying

    2008-11-15

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is upregulated upon tumor cell invasion and correlates with poor lung cancer survival. Although a cis-interaction with integrins has been ascribed to uPAR, whether this interaction alone is critical to urokinase (uPA)- and uPAR-dependent signaling and tumor promotion is unclear. Here we report the functional consequences of point mutations of uPAR (H249A-D262A) that eliminate beta1 integrin interactions but maintain uPA binding, vitronectin attachment and association with alphaV integrins, caveolin and epidermal growth factor receptor. Disruption of uPAR interactions with beta1 integrins recapitulated previously reported findings with beta1-integrin-derived peptides that attenuated matrix-dependent ERK activation, MMP expression and in vitro migration by human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The uPAR mutant cells acquired enhanced capacity to adhere to vitronectin via uPAR-alphaVbeta5-integrin, rather than through the uPAR-alpha3beta1-integrin complex and they were unable to initiate uPA signaling to activate ERK, Akt or Stat1. In an orthotopic lung cancer model, uPAR mutant cells exhibited reduced tumor size compared with cells expressing wild-type uPAR. Taken together, the results indicate that uPAR-beta1-integrin interactions are essential to signals induced by integrin matrix ligands or uPA that support lung cancer cell invasion in vitro and progression in vivo. PMID:18940913

  3. Factors Associated with Use of Interactive Cancer Communication System: An Application of the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Wise, Meg; Kim, Eunkyung; Pingree, Ray; Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne; McTAVISH, FIONA; Gustafson, David H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide insights about cancer patients’ online information seeking behaviors, the present study analyzes individuals’ transaction log data and reports on how demographics, disease-related factors, and psychosocial needs predict patterns of service use within a particular Interactive Cancer Communication System (ICCS). Study sample included 294 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included pretest survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors an...

  4. Risk Assessment of Drug Interaction Potential and Concomitant Dosing Pattern on Targeted Toxicities in Pediatric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Patel, Dimple; Dombrowsky, Erin; Bajaj, Gaurav; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the impact of potential drug interactions on the incidence of reported toxicities seen with common dosing patterns in children with cancer, with the intent of being able to screen and reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the future. Toxicity reported in pediatric cancer patients treated at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2004 to 2010 were abstracted from a cancer tumor registry and merged with drug order profiles from the medical r...

  5. Breast Cancer Risk, Fungicide Exposure and CYP1A1*2A Gene-Environment Interactions in a Province-Wide Case Control Study in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Read Guernsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI Canada. Specific objectives were: (1 to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2 to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46–1.17. Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  6. A cancer derived mutation in the Retinoblastoma gene with a distinct defect for LXCXE dependent interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demone Jordan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between viral oncoproteins such as Simian virus 40 TAg, adenovirus E1A, and human papilloma virus E7, and the retinoblastoma protein (pRB occurs through a well characterized peptide sequence, LXCXE, on the viral protein and a well conserved groove in the pocket domain of pRB. Cellular proteins, such as histone deacetylases, also use this mechanism to interact with the retinoblastoma protein to repress transcription at cell cycle regulated genes. For these reasons this region of the pRB pocket domain is thought to play a critical role in growth suppression. Results In this study, we identify and characterize a tumor derived allele of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1 that possesses a discrete defect in its ability to interact with LXCXE motif containing proteins that compromises proliferative control. To assess the frequency of similar mutations in the RB1 gene in human cancer, we screened blood and tumor samples for similar alleles. We screened almost 700 samples and did not detect additional mutations, indicating that this class of mutation is rare. Conclusions Our work provides proof of principal that alleles encoding distinct, partial loss of function mutations in the retinoblastoma gene that specifically lose LXCXE dependent interactions, are found in human cancer.

  7. The Augmented Cognitive Mediation Model: Examining Antecedents of Factual and Structural Breast Cancer Knowledge Among Singaporean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edmund W J; Shin, Mincheol; Kawaja, Ariffin; Ho, Shirley S

    2016-05-01

    As knowledge acquisition is an important component of health communication research, this study examines factors associated with Singaporean women's breast cancer knowledge using an augmented cognitive mediation model. We conducted a nationally representative study that surveyed 802 women between the ages of 30 and 70 using random-digit dialing. The results supported the augmented cognitive mediation model, which proposes the inclusion of risk perception as a motivator of health information seeking and structural knowledge as an additional knowledge dimension. There was adequate support for the hypothesized paths in the model. Risk perception was positively associated with attention to newspaper, television, Internet, and interpersonal communication. Attention to the three media channels was associated with interpersonal communication, but only newspaper and television attention were associated with elaboration. Interpersonal communication was positively associated with structural knowledge, whereas elaboration was associated with both factual and structural knowledge. Differential indirect effects between media attention and knowledge dimensions via interpersonal communication and elaboration were found. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27128006

  8. Interaction among apoptosis-associated sequence variants and joint effects on aggressive prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Nicole A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular and epidemiological evidence demonstrate that altered gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway are linked to many cancers. Yet, few studies emphasize the interaction of variant apoptotic genes and their joint modifying effects on prostate cancer (PCA outcomes. An exhaustive assessment of all the possible two-, three- and four-way gene-gene interactions is computationally burdensome. This statistical conundrum stems from the prohibitive amount of data needed to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Methods To address this issue, we systematically prioritized and evaluated individual effects and complex interactions among 172 apoptotic SNPs in relation to PCA risk and aggressive disease (i.e., Gleason score ≥ 7 and tumor stages III/IV. Single and joint modifying effects on PCA outcomes among European-American men were analyzed using statistical epistasis networks coupled with multi-factor dimensionality reduction (SEN-guided MDR. The case-control study design included 1,175 incident PCA cases and 1,111 controls from the prostate, lung, colo-rectal, and ovarian (PLCO cancer screening trial. Moreover, a subset analysis of PCA cases consisted of 688 aggressive and 488 non-aggressive PCA cases. SNP profiles were obtained using the NCI Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data portal. Main effects were assessed using logistic regression (LR models. Prior to modeling interactions, SEN was used to pre-process our genetic data. SEN used network science to reduce our analysis from > 36 million to Results Following LR modeling, eleven and thirteen sequence variants were associated with PCA risk and aggressive disease, respectively. However, none of these markers remained significant after we adjusted for multiple comparisons. Nevertheless, we detected a modest synergistic interaction between AKT3 rs2125230-PRKCQ rs571715 and disease aggressiveness using SEN-guided MDR (p = 0

  9. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer

  10. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses. PMID:22661264

  11. TSC22D2 interacts with PKM2 and inhibits cell growth in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Li, Qiao; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Gong, Zhaojian; Deng, Hao; Xiang, Bo; Zhou, Ming; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Xiong, Wei

    2016-09-01

    We previously identified TSC22D2 (transforming growth factor β-stimulated clone 22 domain family, member 2) as a novel cancer-associated gene in a rare multi-cancer family. However, its role in tumor development remains completely unknown. In this study, we found that TSC22D2 was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) and that TSC22D2 overexpression inhibited cell growth. Using a co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay combined with mass spectrometry analysis to identify TSC22D2-interacting proteins, we demonstrated that TSC22D2 interacts with pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2). These findings were confirmed by the results of immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, overexpression of TSC22D2 reduced the level of nuclear PKM2 and suppressed cyclin D1 expression. Collectively, our study reveals a growth suppressor function of TSC22D2 that is at least partially dependent on the TSC22D2-PKM2-cyclinD1 regulatory axis. In addition, our data provide important clues that might contribute to future studies evaluating the role of TSC22D2. PMID:27573352

  12. Communication in cancer care: psycho-social, interactional, and cultural issues. A general overview and the example of India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Strohschein, Fay J.; Saraf, Gayatri; Loiselle, Carmen G

    2014-01-01

    Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication i...

  13. Examination of the sensitivity to resolution and to the interaction between dynamics and parameterizations in high resolution CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David

    2014-05-01

    We consider the sensitivity of persistent CAM5 biases to horizontal, vertical and temporal (time step) resolution. We also consider the sensitivity of the interaction between the dynamical core and the parameterization suite, and between the components of the suite to changes in resolution and to changes in the components themselves. We illustrate these sensitivities by considering the biases in the Tropical Eastern Pacific where the model precipitation is too strong and the precipitable water is too large. The same behaviors occur elsewhere. These biases increase with increasing horizontal resolution but are not affected by increased vertical resolution. In addition to these mean biases, at high resolution (0.25 degree) standard CAM5.2 produces erroneous slowly propagating, strong, small scale precipitation events lasting several days. Such events do not occur at lower resolution (1 degree). The sensitivity of these events has been commonly attributed to increased horizontal resolution. We show that they are primarily due to temporal resolution, with horizontal resolution playing only a secondary role. They can be avoided by making assumed time scales in the parameterizations consistent with the time step. These events, however, are not responsible for the mean precipitation bias. We demonstrate via short forecasts and examination of conditionally averaged heat and water budgets that the mean biases are due to a strong local interaction between the dynamics and the parameterizations which occurs on a very fast time scale. We identify the cause of this interaction by introducing idealized modifications to parameterized heating which shift a fraction of the parameterized heating to higher elevation more consistent with observed Q1 profiles. Unfortunately we have not yet successfully modified the parameterizations themselves to create such heating profiles, and perhaps we cannot with the CAM5.2 parameterization suite. Eliminating the bias is difficult because of

  14. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande; Yelikar; Andurkar; Dahitankar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biops...

  15. Examining the Role of Electronic Medical Record Generated Provider Reminders on Provider Offering of Breast Cancer Screening Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverley, Charles St. Clare, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer affects the lives of millions of women each year in the United States. Early detection by mammography screening can reduce the risk for advanced stages of breast cancer and improve the probability of long-term survival in women. Electronic medical records (EMRs) have been identified as a successful approach for…

  16. Oncogenic intra-p53 family member interactions in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eFerraiuolo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The p53 gene family members p53, p73 and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologues but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73 and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic gain of function (GOF activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53 with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor (VDR, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response (DDR, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs response, enhanced invasion and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild type p53 (wt-p53 protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73 and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers.

  17. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions in Cancer Cell Lines and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigbeder, Alice; Vélot, Lauriane; James, D Andrew; Bisson, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    A precisely controlled network of protein-protein interactions constitutes the basis for functional signaling pathways. This equilibrium is more often than not disrupted in cancer cells, by the aberrant expression or activation of oncogenic proteins. Therefore, the analysis of protein interaction networks in cancer cells has become crucial to expand our comprehension of the molecular underpinnings of tumor formation and progression. This protocol describes a sample preparation method for the analysis of signaling complexes by mass spectrometry (MS), following the affinity purification of a protein of interest from a cancer cell line or a solid tumor. In particular, we provide a spin tip-based protease digestion procedure that offers a more rapid and controlled alternative to other gel-based and gel-free methods. This sample preparation protocol represents a useful strategy to identify protein interactions and to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that contribute to a given cancer phenotype. PMID:27581032

  18. Examining Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening of Rural Nebraskans Using Data from Clinics Participating in an Accountable Care Organization: A Study Protocol [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufei Young

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC can be significantly reduced through increased screening, rural communities are still experiencing lower rates of screening compared to urban counterparts. Understanding and eliminating barriers to cancer screening will decrease cancer burden and lead to substantial gains in quality and quantity of life for rural populations. However, existing studies have shown inconsistent findings and fail to address how contextual and provider-level factors impact CRC screening in addition to individual-level factors.  Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine multi-level factors related to CRC screening, and providers’ perception of barriers and facilitators of CRC screening in rural patients cared for by accountable care organization (ACO clinics. Methods/Design: This is a convergent mixed method design. For the quantitative component, multiple data sources, such as electronic health records (EHRs, Area Resource File (ARF, and provider survey data, will be used to examine patient-, provider-, clinic-, and county-level factors. About 21,729 rural patients aged between 50 and 75 years who visited the participating ACO clinics in the past 12 months are included in the quantitative analysis. The qualitative methods include semi-structured in-depth interviews with healthcare professionals in selected rural clinics. Both quantitative and qualitative data will be merged for result interpretation. Quantitative data identifies “what” factors influence CRC screening, while qualitative data explores “how” these factors interact with CRC screening. The study setting is 10 ACO clinics located in nine rural Nebraska counties. Discussion: This will be the first study examining multi-level factors related to CRC screening in the new healthcare delivery system (i.e., ACO clinics in rural communities. The study findings will enhance our understanding of how the ACO model, particularly in rural

  19. Molecular fundamentals of drug interactions in the therapy of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Regulska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in the field of chemotherapy have resulted in the introduction of numerous antineoplastic drugs into clinical practice, which increased the efficiency of patient management. Also the prevalent use of combination treatment based on drug action synergy contributed to the improved clinical effect associated with cytotoxic drug administration. It seems, however, obvious that the multidirectional pharmacotherapy in oncology requires a thorough knowledge of drugs’ pharmaceutical behavior in order to maximize their collective action and prevent the occurrence of unintended drug interactions that could potentially impair treatment effectiveness. In fact, drug interactions constitute a serious problem for current oncology primarily resulting from a narrow therapeutic index specific for the majority of anticancer drugs. This, in turn, indicates that even slight deviations of their pharmacokinetics could cause significant clinical consequences, manifested by alteration of the toxicological profile or reduction of therapeutic efficiency. Hence, the investigation of molecular aspects underlying the mechanisms of various drug interactions seems to be essential for proper and safe patient management. The present article is devoted to the extensive subject of drug interactions occurring in the therapy of colorectal cancer. It presents the available literature data on both positive and negative effects of interactions and it discusses their mechanisms complying with their classification into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic ones.

  20. Water-light interaction: A novel pathway for multi hallmark therapy in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Santana-Blank; Elizabeth Rodriguez-Santana; Heberto Reyes; Jesus Santana-Rodriguez; Karin Santana-Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Laser photobiomodulation (LPBM) has been proposed as a multi-target (multi-hallmark) therapy for cancer and other complex diseases based on an approach that aims to substitute and/or complement metabolic energy pathways through oxygen-dependent (e.g., cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)) and/or oxygen-independent (e.g., light-water interactions (e.g., F0-F1 motors)) mechanisms with critical signaling pathways in primarily aqueous media. Cellular and molecular bases for water-mediated, long-range, ener...

  1. Polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors alter protein-protein interactions involving estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T; Shah, N; Klinge, C M; Faaland, C A; Adihkarakunnathu, S; Gallo, M A; Thomas, T J

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibition on the estrogenic signaling pathway of MCF-7 breast cancer cells using a protein-protein interaction system. Estrogen receptor (ER) linked to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was used to examine the effects of two polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and CGP 48664. ER was specifically associated with a 45 kDa protein in control cells. In cells treated with estradiol, nine proteins were associated with ER. Cells treated with polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors in the absence of estradiol retained the binding of their ER with a 45 kDa protein and the ER also showed low-affinity interactions with a number of cellular proteins; however, these associations were decreased by the presence of estradiol and the inhibitors. When samples from the estradiol+DFMO treatment group were incubated with spermidine prior to GST-ER pull down assay, an increased association of several proteins with ER was detected. The intensity of the ER-associated 45 kDa protein increased by 10-fold in the presence of 1000 microM spermidine. These results indicate a specific role for spermidine in ER association of proteins. Western blot analysis of samples eluted from GST-ER showed the presence of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor, an orphan nuclear receptor, and the endogenous full-length ER. These results show that multiple proteins associate with ER and that the binding of some of these proteins is highly sensitive to intracellular polyamine concentrations. Overall, our results indicate the importance of the polyamine pathway in the gene regulatory function of estradiol in breast cancer cells. PMID:10194516

  2. Interactions of black cohosh, a traditional herbal medicine, with therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbal medicines based on extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) are widely used by breast cancer patients, but the effects of these extracts have not been rigorously studied. We examined the effects of standardized commercial extracts of black cohosh on the cytotoxicity of radiation, Adriamycin, Taxotere, and Cisplatin to breast cancer cells in vitro. Exponentially growing cultures of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells were exposed to black cohosh extracts continuously for 24 h, beginning 4 hours before irradiation or the 2 h drug treatment. Full dose-response curves were determined for radiation and for each drug under three conditions: alone, in combination with black cohosh extract, and in combination with the vehicle used to prepare the extract. Cell survival was assayed using a colony formation assay. The herbal extracts alone had no significant effect on the growth or viability of these breast cancer cells. The effects of the extracts on the outcome of treatment varied with the treatment agent. Black cohosh protected cells slightly from Cisplatin, had no effect on the dose-response curve for radiation, and sensitized cells to Adriamycin and Taxotere. The vehicle had no discernable effect. These findings show that black cohosh extracts are not simply 'harmless herbs' that can be ignored by physicians treating cancer patients, but instead contain active agents which can modulate the effects of therapy with conventional therapeutic agents. Further cell culture studies are needed to determine the mechanism underlying this effect. Studies with tumors and normal tissues in mice are needed to assess whether black cohosh extracts alter the effectiveness of radiation and drugs in treating breast cancer or alter the toxicities of these therapies

  3. Combining New Satellite Tools and Models to Examine Role of Mesoscale Interactions in Formation and Intensification of Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joanne; Pierce, H.; Ritchie, L.; Liu, T.; Brueske, K.; Velden, C.; Halverson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to start filling the mesoscale gap to improve understanding and probability forecasts of formation and intensity variations of tropical cyclones. Sampling by aircraft equipped to measure mesoscale processes is expensive, thus confined in place and time. Hence we turn to satellite products. This paper reports preliminary results of a tropical cyclone genesis and early intensification study. We explore the role of mesoscale processes using a combination of products from TRMM, QuikSCAT, AMSU, also SSM/I, geosynchronous and model output. Major emphasis is on the role of merging mesoscale vortices. These initially form in midlevel stratiform cloud. When they form in regions of lowered Rossby radius of deformation (strong background vorticity) the mesoscale vortices can last long enough to interact and merge, with the weaker vortex losing vorticity to the stronger, which can then extend down to the surface. In an earlier cyclongenesis case (Oliver 1993) off Australia, intense deep convection occurred when the stronger vortex reached the surface; this vortex became the storm center while the weaker vortex was sheared out as the major rainband. In our study of Atlantic tropical cyclones originating from African waves, we use QuikSCAT to examine surface winds in the African monsoon trough and in the vortices which move westward off the coast, which may or may not undergo genesis (defined by NHC as reaching TD, or tropical depression, with a west wind to the south of the surface low). We use AMSU mainly to examine development of warm cores. TRMM passive microwave TMI is used with SSM/I to look at the rain structure, which often indicates eye formation, and to look at the ice scattering signatures of deep convection. The TRMM precipitation radar, PR, when available, gives precipitation cross sections. So far we have detailed studies of two African-origin cyclones, one which became severe hurricane Floyd 1999, and the other reached TD2 in June

  4. Combining New Satellite Tools and Models to Examine Role of Mesoscale Interactions in Formation and Intensification of Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joanne; Pierce, H.; Ritchie, L.; Liu, T.; Brueske, K.; Velden, C.; Halverson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to start filling the mesoscale gap to improve understanding and probability forecasts of formation and intensity variations of tropical cyclones. Sampling by aircraft equipped to measure mesoscale processes is expensive, thus confined in place and time. Hence we turn to satellite products. This paper reports preliminary results of a tropical cyclone genesis and early intensification study. We explore the role of mesoscale processes using a combination of products from TRMM, QuikSCAT, AMSU, also SSM/I, geosynchronous and model output. Major emphasis is on the role of merging mesoscale vortices. These initially form in midlevel stratiform cloud. When they form in regions of lowered Rossby radius of deformation (strong background vorticity) the mesoscale vortices can last long enough to interact and merge, with the weaker vortex losing vorticity to the stronger, which can then extend down to the surface. In an earlier cyclongenesis case (Oliver 1993) off Australia, intense deep convection occurred when the stronger vortex reached the surface; this vortex became the storm center while the weaker vortex was sheared out as the major rainband. In our study of Atlantic tropical cyclones originating from African waves, we use QuikSCAT to examine surface winds in the African monsoon trough and in the vortices which move westward off the coast, which may or may not undergo genesis (defined by NHC as reaching TD, or tropical depression, with a west wind to the south of the surface low). We use AMSU mainly to examine development of warm cores. TRMM passive microwave TMI is used with SSM/I to look at the rain structure, which often indicates eye formation, and to look at the ice scattering signatures of deep convection. The TRMM precipitation radar, PR, when available, gives precipitation cross sections. So far we have detailed studies of two African-origin cyclones, one which became severe hurricane Floyd 1999, and the other reached TD2 in June

  5. Identifying the common interaction networks of amoeboid motility and cancer cell metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Zeitoun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently analyzed genome of Naegleria gruberi, a free-living amoeboflagellate of the Heterolobosea clade, revealed a remarkably complex ancestral eukaryote with a rich repertoire of cytoskeletal-, motility- and signaling-genes. This protist, which diverged from other eukaryotic lineages over a billion years ago, possesses the ability for both amoeboid and flagellar motility. In a phylogenomic comparison of two free living eukaryotes with large proteomic datasets of three metastatic tumour entities (malignant melanoma, breast- and prostate-carcinoma, we find common proteins with potential importance for cell motility and cancer cell metastasis. To identify the underlying signaling modules, we constructed for each tumour type a protein-protein interaction network including these common proteins. The connectivity within this interactome revealed specific interactions and pathways which constitute prospective points of intervention for novel anti-metastatic tumour therapies.

  6. Structural Decoding of the Netrin-1/UNC5 Interaction and its Therapeutical Implications in Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Mélodie; Meier, Markus; Delcros, Jean Guy; Nikodemus, Denise; Reuten, Raphael; Patel, Trushar R; Goldschneider, David; Orriss, George; Krahn, Natalie; Boussouar, Amina; Abes, Riad; Dean, Yann; Neves, David; Bernet, Agnes; Depil, Stephane; Schneiders, Fiona; Poole, Kate; Dante, Robert; Koch, Manuel; Mehlen, Patrick; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2016-02-01

    Netrin-1 has been shown to be up-regulated in a fraction of human cancers as a mechanism to allow these tumors to escape the pro-apoptotic activity of some of its main dependence receptors, the UNC5 homologs (UNC5H). Here we identify the V-2 domain of netrin-1 to be important for its interaction with the Ig1/Ig2 domains of UNC5H2. We generate a humanized anti-netrin-1 antibody that disrupts the interaction between netrin-1 and UNC5H2 and triggers death of netrin-1-expressing tumor cells in vitro. We also present evidence that combining the anti-netrin-1 antibody with epidrugs such as decitabine could be effective in treating tumors showing no or modest netrin-1 expression. These results support that this antibody is a promising drug candidate. PMID:26859457

  7. The effect of the computer-assisted interactive video training interact-cancer on the communication skills of medical specialists in oncology.

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsman, R.L.; Ros, W.J.G.; Winnubst, J.A.M.; Bensing, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction. INTERACT-CANCER is an interactive course for training communication skills of medical specialists in oncology. The course aims at teaching patient-centred behaviour. It includes four main topics in doctor-patient communication: basic skills, communicating bad news, informing patients, and dealing with emotional reactions of the patient. The course program was developed to facilitate the access to learning of post-graduate physicians. Methods. The course is tested in and evaluate...

  8. Interaction between examination type, anxiety state, and academic achievement in college science; an action-oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri; Ben-Chaim, David

    The trait anxiety profile of future science teachers, as well as their preferences concerning types of examinations in science and mathematics, have been surveyed prior to the administration - within the various science courses - of several traditional and nontraditional types of examinations and the assessment of students' state anxieties as well as their respective performance, i.e., their academic achievements. Our major findings are that(a)Our students prefer by far examinations in which the emphasis is on understanding and analyzing rather than on knowing and remembering, that the use of any relevant material during the examinations be permitted, and that the time duration be practically unlimited (e.g., take-home-type examinations).(b)Students' state anxiety correlates with the type of the examination, with a tendency towards somewhat higher anxiety for females. The preferred types of examinations reduce test anxiety significantly, and result in higher grades accordingly.(c)The reduction of anxiety and the improvement in achievements as a function of the examination type are far more significant for low achievers compared with medium and high achievers.(d)Although teachers are aware of the student preferences, they persist in giving their students their own pet-type examinations.These results are discussed in terms of the implications for upgrading both science education and college student testing and assessment mechanisms.

  9. A study of drug-drug interactions in cancer patients of a south Indian tertiary care teaching hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, G.; R. Anitha; Vanitha N Rani; Thennarasu, P.; J Alosh; J Vasantha; Martin, J.R.; MRC Uma

    2011-01-01

    Background : Drug interactions in oncology are of particular importance owing to the narrow therapeutic index and the inherent toxicity of anticancer agents. Interactions with other medications can cause small change in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of chemotherapeutic agents that could significantly alter their safety and efficacy. Aim : To identify and document the potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions of patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Settings and Design : A ter...

  10. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-01

    Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease.

  11. Psychological Distress during Ovarian Cancer Treatment: Improving Quality by Examining Patient Problems and Advanced Practice Nursing Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Kline O'Sullivan; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Sangchoon Jeon; Elizabeth Ercolano; Ruth McCorkle

    2011-01-01

    Background/Significance. Ovarian cancer patients are prone to psychological distress. The clinical significance and best practices for distress among this population are poorly understood. Method. Secondary analysis of research records from a six month randomized control trial included 32 women with primary ovarian cancer. All received 18 advanced practice nurse (APN) visits over six months. Three sub-samples were determined by distress level (high/low) and mental health service consent for h...

  12. Communication in cancer care: Psycho social, interactional, and cultural issues. A general overview and the example of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTOSH K CHATURVEDI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication in India include beliefs about health and illness, societal values, integration of spiritual care, family roles, and expectations concerning disclosure of cancer information, and rituals around death and dying. The rapidly emerging area of e-health significantly impacts cancer communication and support globally. In view of current globalization, understanding these multidimensional psychosocial, and cultural factors that shape communication are essential for providing comprehensive, appropriate and sensitive cancer care.

  13. Focal adhesion kinase regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Baotran; Huang, Grace; Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Previous microarray gene profiling study detected inverse regulation between expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and FAK, where down-regulation of FAK by siRNA in MCF-7 cells caused up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA level, and in contrast up-regulation of doxycyclin- induced FAK caused repression of TXNIP. In the present report, we show that overexpression of FAK in MCF-7 cells repressed TXNIP promoter activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) down-regulated endogenous FAK and up-regulated TXNIP protein level, and treatment with 5-FU decreased FAK protein expression and up-regulated TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. Moreover, silencing of FAK with siRNA increased TXNIP protein expression, while overexpression of FAK inhibited TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. In addition, treatment of DBTRG glioblastoma cells with FAK inhibitor Y15 increased TXNIP mRNA, decreased cancer cell viability and increased apoptosis. These results for the first time demonstrate FAK-regulated TXNIP expression which is important for apoptotic, survival and oxidative stress signaling pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23387972

  14. The Complex Interaction of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Migration of Cancer Cells through Breast Tissue Stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J. Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality is directly linked to metastatic spread. The metastatic cell must exhibit a complex phenotype that includes the capacity to escape from the primary tumour mass, invade the surrounding normal tissue, and penetrate into the circulation before proliferating in the parenchyma of distant organs to produce a metastasis. In the normal breast, cellular structures change cyclically in response to ovarian hormones leading to regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases. Their primary function is degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix to allow ductal progression through the basement membrane. A complex balance between matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors regulate these changes. These proteinases interact with cytokines, growth factors, and tumour necrosis factors to stimulate branching morphologies in normal breast tissues. In breast cancer this process is disrupted facilitating tumour progression and metastasis and inhibiting apoptosis increasing the life of the metastatic cells. This paper highlights the role of matrix metalloproteinases in cell progression through the breast stroma and reviews the complex relationships between the different proteinases and their inhibitors in relation to breast cancer cells as they metastasise.

  15. Interactive Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation: An Examination among Individuals in Residential Substance Use Treatment with Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Lauren M.; Jones, Rachel E.; Bordieri, Michael J.; Dixon, Laura J.; May, Anna C.; Malkin, Mallory L.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit deficits in cognitive and emotional processes. PTSD severity is positively associated with anxiety sensitivity (AS) and difficulties in emotion regulation, and difficulties in emotion regulation mediate the relation between AS and PTSD. However, previous research has not examined the interactive nature of these variables. Associations between PTSD, AS, and difficulties in emotion regulation were examined in patients with PTSD in a ...

  16. Intersubjectivity and groupwork in school mathematics: examining year 7 students’ interactions from a perspective of communicative action

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores how small group interactions around problem-solving in secondary school mathematics can be understood using a theoretical framework of Communicative Action inspired by Habermasian Critical Theory. How does cognition express itself socially? What are the technical features of communicative acts that afford access to the development of mutual understanding? A case study approach was used to investigate episodes of interactive speech acts. Participants inc...

  17. PIAS1-FAK Interaction Promotes the Survival and Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerfiz D. Constanzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of genomic alterations acquired by cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis is poorly understood. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that integrates cytoskeleton remodeling, mitogenic signaling and cell survival. FAK has previously been reported to undergo nuclear localization during cell migration, cell differentiation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism behind FAK nuclear accumulation and its contribution to tumor progression has remained elusive. We report that amplification of FAK and the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 gene loci frequently co-occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells, and that both gene products are enriched in a subset of primary NSCLCs. We demonstrate that endogenous FAK and PIAS1 proteins interact in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus of NSCLC cells. Ectopic expression of PIAS1 promotes proteolytic cleavage of the FAK C-terminus, focal adhesion maturation and FAK nuclear localization. Silencing of PIAS1 deregulates focal adhesion turnover, increases susceptibility to apoptosis in vitro and impairs tumor xenograft formation in vivo. Nuclear FAK in turn stimulates gene transcription favoring DNA repair, cell metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Consistently, ablation of FAK by CRISPR/Cas9 editing, results in basal DNA damage, susceptibility to ionizing radiation and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings provide insight into a mechanism regulating FAK cytoplasm-nuclear distribution and demonstrate that FAK activity in the nucleus promotes NSCLC survival and progression by increasing cell-ECM interaction and DNA repair regulation.

  18. A web-based interactive tool to improve breast cancer patient centredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mazzocco, Ketti; Kondylakis, Haridimos; McVie, Gordon; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The uniqueness of a patient as determined by the integration of clinical data and psychological aspects should be the aspired aim of a personalized medicine approach. Nevertheless, given the time constraints usually imposed by the clinical setting, it is not easy for physicians to collect information about the patient's unique mental dimensions and needs related to her illness. Such information may be useful in tailoring patient-physician communication, improving the patient's understanding of provided information, her involvement in the treatment process, and in general her empowerment during and after the therapeutic journey. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an interactive empowerment tool (IEm) on enhancing the breast cancer patient-physician experience, in terms of increasing empowerment, i.e. by providing physicians with a personalised patient's profile, accompanied by specific recommendations to advise them how to interact with each individual patient on the basis of her personal profile. The study will be implemented as a two-arm randomised controlled trial with 100 adult breast cancer patients who fill in the ALGA-BC questionnaire, a computerised validated instrument to evaluate the patient's physical and psychological characteristics following a breast cancer diagnosis. The IEm tool will collect and analyse the patient's answers in real time and send them, together with specific recommendations to the physician's computer immediately before physician's first encounter with the patient. Patients will be randomised to either the intervention group using the IEm tool or to a control group who will only fill in the questionnaire without taking advantage of the tool (physicians will not receive the patient's profile). The proposed approach is supposed to improve the patient-physician communication leading to increased patient participation in the therapeutic process as a consequence leading to improvement in patient empowerment

  19. Signal interaction of Hedgehog/GLI and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this PhD thesis is based on the cooperation of Hedgehog (HH)/GLI with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling synergistically promoting oncogenic transformation and cancer growth. In previous studies we have demonstrated that the HH/GLI and EGFR signaling pathways interact synergistically resulting not only in selective induction of HH/GLI-EGFR target genes, but also in the onset of oncogenic transformation and tumor formation (Kasper, Schnidar et al. 2006; Schnidar, Eberl et al. 2009). However, the molecular key mediators acting downstream of HH/GLI and EGFR signal cooperation were largely unknown and the in vivo evidence for the therapeutic relevance of HH/GLI and EGFR signal cooperation in HH-associated cancers was lacking. During my PhD thesis I could demonstrate that the integration of EGFR and HH/GLI signaling involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK and JUN/AP1 signaling in response to EGFR activation. Furthermore I succeeded in identifying genes, including stem cell- (SOX2, SOX9), tumor growth- (JUN, TGFA, FGF19) and metastasis-associated genes (SPP1/osteopontin, CXCR4) that showed synergistic transcriptional activation by HH/GLI-EGFR signal integration. Importantly, I could demonstrate that these genes arrange themselves within a stable interdependent signaling network, which is required for in vivo growth of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and tumor-initiating pancreatic cancer cells. These data validate EGFR signaling as additional drug target in HH/GLI driven cancers and provide new therapeutic strategies based on combined targeting of cooperative HH/GLI-EGFR signaling and selected downstream target genes (Eberl, Klingler et al. 2012). (author)

  20. Does an asymmetric lobe in digital rectal examination include any risk for prostate cancer? results of 1495 biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ömer; Kurul, Özgür; Ates, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Aktas, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Despite the well-known findings related to malignity in DRE such as nodule and induration, asymmetry of prostatic lobes, seen relatively, were investigated in a few studies as a predictor of prostate cancer so that there is no universally expected conclusion about asymmetry. We aimed to compare cancer detection rate of normal, asymmetric or suspicious findings in DRE by using biopsy results. Materials and Methods: Data of 1495 patients underwent prostate biopsy between 2006-2014 were searched retrospectively. Biopsy indications were abnormal DRE and or elevated PSA level(>4ng/mL). DRE findings were recorded as Group 1: Benign DRE, Group 2: Asymmetry and Group 3: Nodule/induration. Age, prostatic volume, biopsy results and PSA levels were recorded. Results: Mean age, prostate volume and PSA level were 66.72, 55.98 cc and 18.61ng/ mL respectively. Overall cancer detection rate was 38.66 % (575 of 1495). PSA levels were similar in group 1 and 2 but significantly higher in group 3. Prostatic volume was similar in group 1 and 2 and significantly lower in Group 3. Malignity detection rate of group 1,2 and 3 were 28.93%, 34.89% and 55.99% respectively. Group 1 and 2 were similar (p=0.105) but 3 had more chance for cancer detection. Conclusion: Nodule is the most important finding in DRE for cancer detection. Only an asymmetric prostate itself does not mean malignity. PMID:27564280

  1. Identification of Lung-Cancer-Related Genes with the Shortest Path Approach in a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Qing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In this work, a computational method was proposed for identifying lung-cancer-related genes with a shortest path approach in a protein-protein interaction (PPI network. Based on the PPI data from STRING, a weighted PPI network was constructed. 54 NSCLC- and 84 SCLC-related genes were retrieved from associated KEGG pathways. Then the shortest paths between each pair of these 54 NSCLC genes and 84 SCLC genes were obtained with Dijkstra’s algorithm. Finally, all the genes on the shortest paths were extracted, and 25 and 38 shortest genes with a permutation P value less than 0.05 for NSCLC and SCLC were selected for further analysis. Some of the shortest path genes have been reported to be related to lung cancer. Intriguingly, the candidate genes we identified from the PPI network contained more cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. Furthermore, these genes possessed more functional similarity with the known cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. This study proved the efficiency of the proposed method and showed promising results.

  2. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  3. Examining the Impact of Interaction Project with Students with Special Needs on Development of Positive Attitude and Awareness of General Education Teachers towards Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a project developed to promote interaction of teacher candidates from different areas with individuals with special needs within the scope of a Special Education course and examine the impact of this project on developing positive attitude and awareness on teacher candidates. In this study, a mixed…

  4. Patterns and determinants of receipt of follow-up mammography and/or clinical examination in a cohort of Italian breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Orietta; Mancini, Silvia; Puliti, Donella; Caranci, Nicola; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Vattiato, Rosa; Palumbo, Monica; Colamartini, Americo; Biggeri, Annibale; Bucchi, Lauro; Amadori, Dino; Falcini, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding the use of mammography by breast cancer survivors is limited. This study aimed at evaluating the compliance to surveillance mammography and/or clinical breast examination and the associated factors among patients living in northern Italy. A cancer registry-based cohort of 1304 patients living in the Health Care District of Forlì was followed up for 10 years. Eighty percent of patients had a mammogram and/or clinical breast examination during the first year after treatment. The proportion decreased to 67 % at 10 years of follow-up. Three demographic characteristics were independently associated with lower odds of having an annual mammogram and/or clinical breast examination: age at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 0.51, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.63 for patients aged 65-74 years; and OR 0.14, 95 % CI 0.11-0.18, for patients ≥75 years versus patients aged travel time greater than 30 min (OR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.29-0.68 versus ≤15 min). With respect to clinical and disease characteristics, lower odds were observed for patients treated with mastectomy (OR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.65-0.97), for patients diagnosed with in situ breast cancer (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.46-0.99) as well as with stage II + breast cancer (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.63-0.94), and for patients with ≥3 Elixhauser comorbidities (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.26-0.71). Adherence to follow-up declined over time. Knowledge of associated factors may assist in improving access to care for breast cancer survivors. PMID:27393619

  5. Using the theory of coevolution to predict protein-protein interactions in non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Zhang; Man-Him Chan; Wen-Jian Tu; Li-Ran He; Chak-Man Lee; Miao He

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology has become an effective approach for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer. In this study, sequences of 100 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-related proteins were downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases. The Theory of Coevolution was then used to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of NSCLC. Adopting the reverse thinking approach, we analyzed the NSCLC proteins one at a time. ...

  6. Interaction of alcohol and smoking in the pathogenesis of upper digestive tract cancers - possible chemoprevention with cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Salaspuro, Ville

    2006-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption and smoking are the main causes of upper digestive tract cancers. These risk factors account for over 75% of all cases in developed countries. Epidemiological studies have shown that alcohol and tobacco interact in a multiplicative way to the cancer risk, but the pathogenetic mechanism behind this is poorly understood. Strong experimental and human genetic linkage data suggest that acetaldehyde is one of the major factors behind the carcinogenic effect. In the ...

  7. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J.; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkg...

  8. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4 was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no.AF325503. ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Methods In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and transmembrane protease, serine 11A (TMPRSS11A, also known as ECRG1, GenBank accession no. AF 071882. Then, p21 protein expression, cell cycle and cell proliferation regulations were examined after ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-transfection in ESCC cells. Results We revealed for the first time that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 phase block in ESCC. Binding affinity and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 in ESCC cells. Furthermore, the ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-expression remarkably upregulatd p21 protein level by Western blot (P Conclusions ECRG4 interacts directly with ECRG1 to upregulate p21 protein expression, induce cell cycle G1 phase block and inhibit cancer cells proliferation in ESCC.

  9. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1) to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4) was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no. AF325503). ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and transmembrane protease, serine 11A (TMPRSS11A, also known as ECRG1, GenBank accession no. AF071882). Then, p21 protein expression, cell cycle and cell proliferation regulations were examined after ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-transfection in ESCC cells. We revealed for the first time that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 phase block in ESCC. Binding affinity and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 in ESCC cells. Furthermore, the ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-expression remarkably upregulatd p21 protein level by Western blot (P < 0.001), induced cell cycle G1 phase block by flow cytometric analysis (P < 0.001) and suppressed cell proliferation by MTT and BrdU assay (both P < 0.01) in ESCC cells. ECRG4 interacts directly with ECRG1 to upregulate p21 protein expression, induce cell cycle G1 phase block and inhibit cancer cells proliferation in ESCC

  10. Functional examination of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 intronic mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S. M.; Dandanell, M.; Rasmussen, L. J.;

    2013-01-01

    /MSH2 mutations as pathogenic, whereas four MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 mutations are classified as neutral. This study supports the notion that in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assays are important for the classification of intronic variants, and thereby crucial for the genetic counseling of patients and......Background: Germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 predispose to the development of colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). These mutations include disease-causing frame-shift, nonsense, and splicing mutations as well as...... asses the effect on splicing. Results: We describe in silico and in vitro characterization of nine intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients, of which four mutations are novel. The analysis revealed aberrant splicing of five mutations (MLH1 c. 588 + 5G > A...

  11. Quality of life and mental health among women with ovarian cancer: examining the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26549407

  12. A prospective study of XRCC1 haplotypes and their interaction with plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrenweiser, H W; Han, J; Hankinson, S E; De Vivo, I; Spiegelman, D; Tamimi, R M; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J

    2004-01-15

    The XRCC1 protein is involved in the base excision repair pathway through interactions with other proteins. Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene may lead to variation in repair proficiency and confer inherited predisposition to cancer. We prospectively assessed the associations between polymorphisms and haplotypes in XRCC1 and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (incident cases, n 1004; controls, n 1385). We further investigated gene-environment interactions between the XRCC1 variations and plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk. We genotyped four haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms Arg {sup 194}Trp, C26602T, Arg{sup 399}Gln, and Gln{sup 632}Gln in the XRCC1 gene. Five common haplotypes accounted for 99% of the chromosomes in the present study population of mostly Caucasian women. We observed a marginally significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer among {sup 194}Trp carriers. As compared with no-carriers, women with at least one {sup 194}Trp allele had a multivariate odds ratio of 0.79 (95% of the confidence interval, 0.60 -1.04). The inferred haplotype harboring the {sup 194}Trp allele was more common in controls than in cases (6.6 versus 5.3%, P 0.07). We observed that the Arg {sup 194}Trp modified the inverse associations of plasma -carotene level (P, ordinal test for interaction 0.02) and plasma -carotene level (P, ordinal test for interaction 0.003) with breast cancer risk. No suggestion of an interaction was observed between the Arg {sup 194}Trp and cigarette smoking. Our results suggest an inverse association between XRCC1 {sup 194}Trp allele and breast cancer risk. The findings of the effect modification of the Arg {sup 194}Trp on the relations of plasma -and -carotene levels with breast cancer risk suggest a potential protective effect of carotenoids in breast carcinogenesis by preventing oxidative DNA damage.

  13. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample.   Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA. Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed.   Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995. When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975.   Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends.

  14. In vivo examination of 188Re(I)-tricarbonyl-labeled trastuzumab to target HER2-overexpressing breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of the HER2 protein, acts as an immunotherapeutic agent for HER2-overexpressing human breast cancers. Radiolabeled trastuzumab with β- or α emitters can be used as radioimmunotherapeutic agent for the similar purpose but with additional radiation effect. Methods: In this study, trastuzumab was labeled with 188Re for radioimmunotherapy of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer. 188Re(I)-tricarbonyl ion, [188Re(OH2)3(CO)3]+, was employed as a precursor for directly labeling the monoclonal antibody with 188Re. The immunoreactivity of 188Re(I)-trastuzumab was estimated by competition receptor-binding assay using HER2/neu-overexpressive BT-474 human breast cancer cells. The localization properties of 188Re(I)-trastuzumab within both tumor and normal tissues of athymic mice bearing BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts (HER2/neu-overexpressive) and similar mice bearing MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts (HER2/neu-low expressive) were investigated. Results: When incubated with human serum albumin and histidine at 25oC, 188Re(I)-trastuzumab was found to be stable within 24 h. The IC50 of 188Re(I)-trastuzumab was found to be 22.63±4.57 nM. 188Re(I)-trastuzumab was shown to accumulate specifically in BT-474 tumor tissue in in vivo biodistribution studies. By microSPECT/CT, the image of 188Re localized BT-474 tumor was clearly visualized within 24 h. In contrast, 188Re(I)-trastuzumab uptake in HER2-low-expressing MCF-7 tumor was minimal, and the 188Re image at the localization of the tumor was dim. Conclusion: These results reveal that 188Re(I)-trastuzumab could be an appropriate radioimmunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HER2/neu-overexpressing cancers.

  15. Interactions of short-acting, intermediate-acting and pre-mixed human insulins with free radicals--Comparative EPR examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Paweł; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Ramos, Paweł; Mencner, Łukasz; Olczyk, Krystyna; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-07-25

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to examine insulins interactions with free radicals. Human recombinant DNA insulins of three groups were studied: short-acting insulin (Insuman Rapid); intermediate-acting insulins (Humulin N, Insuman Basal), and pre-mixed insulins (Humulin M3, Gensulin M50, Gensulin M40, Gensulin M30). The aim of an X-band (9.3GHz) study was comparative analysis of antioxidative properties of the three groups of human insulins. DPPH was used as a stable free radical model. Amplitudes of EPR lines of DPPH as the paramagnetic free radical reference, and DPPH interacting with the individual tested insulins were compared. For all the examined insulins kinetics of their interactions with free radicals up to 60 min were obtained. The strongest interactions with free radicals were observed for the short-acting insulin - Insuman Rapid. The lowest interactions with free radicals were characteristic for intermediate-acting insulin - Insuman Basal. The pre-mixed insulins i.e. Humulin M3 and Gensulin M50 revealed the fastest interactions with free radicals. The short acting, intermediate acting and premixed insulins have been found to be effective agents in reducing free radical formation in vitro and should be further considered as potential useful tools in attenuation of oxidative stress in diabetic patients. PMID:25975232

  16. 99mTc labeled plumbagin. Estrogen receptor dependent examination against breast cancer cells and comparison with PLGA encapsulated form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant origin products having anticancer properties come into prominence due to widespread of cancer. Plumbagin has various biological activities like anticancer activity. Estrogen receptor (ER) specificity of plumbagin (PL) and radiolabeled PL investigated by in vitro studies on ER+ and ER- adenocarcinoma cells. Additionally, PLGA encapsulation was carried out to reduce toxicity of plumbagin and encapsulation effect was investigated. Plumbagin radiolabeled with 100 % in yields and had ER specificity. Furthermore, PLGA encapsulation effected positively on properties of plumbagin; reduced toxicity, increased stability and ER specificity. A promising agent for the diagnosis of ER+ breast cancer is suggested. (author)

  17. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  18. Interaction Involvement in Cross-Culture Computer-Mediated Communication: Examination of a Communication Process in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thao Duyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores how participants express and interpret verbal cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via text-based Instant Messaging (IM). Moreover, it seeks to discover differences in the way American participants and Chinese participants use verbal cues when they are highly, or lowly involved. Based on previous…

  19. Social Interaction and Cognitive Growth: An Examination through the Role-Taking Skills of Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Mary; Howe, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Recent research using theory-of-mind tasks has rekindled interest in the possibility that social interaction makes a significant contribution to cognitive development. It is proposed here that this contribution may be most pronounced with phenomena that, like belief or affective states, are internal and abstract. A more modest contribution is…

  20. The effect of folate on the methotrexate/indomethacin interaction in a murine cancer cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, S J; Anderson, E. M.; Bennett, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of folate on the interaction between methotrexate (a folate analogue) and indomethacin has been examined in murine NC carcinoma cells. 2. Conditioning of NC cells to a physiological (20 nM) folate concentration after culture in a high folate concentration increased the response to methotrexate. The sensitivity of these conditioned cells to methotrexate related inversely to the folate concentration. 3. At 20 nM and 2 microM folate, indomethacin 1 micrograms ml-1 potentiated the c...

  1. Radiation Exposure of Ovarian Cancer Patients: Contribution of CT Examinations Performed on Different MDCT (16 and 64 Slices) Scanners and Image Quality Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, S; D. Origgi; Brambilla, S.; Maria, F.; Foà, R; Raimondi, S; N. Colombo; Bellomi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to compare radiation doses given to ovarian cancer patients by different computed tomographies (CTs) and to evaluate association between doses and subjective and objective image quality. CT examinations included were performed either on a 16-slice CT, equipped with automatic z-axis tube current modulation, or on a 64-slice CT, equipped with z-axis, xy-axis modulation, and adaptive statistical iterative algorithm (ASIR). Evaluation of dose included the f...

  2. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  3. False positive PET–CT scan and clinical examination in a patient with locally advanced vulvar cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, LaToya J; Guralp, Onur; Al-Niaimi, Ahmed; Zucker, Noah A.; Kushner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    ► PET–CT scan was positive for metastasis of vulvar cancer to lymph nodes however they were histologically negative. ► Frozen section analysis should be performed at the time of surgery to confirm status of suspicious lymph nodes.

  4. Improving Psychological Adjustment among Late-Stage Ovarian Cancer Patients: Examining the Role of Avoidance in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Ann D.; Wilson, Kelly; Buchanan, Erin; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J.; Mutch, David

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that individuals dealing with a cancer diagnosis are less likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, and psychological distress when they cope with their condition from a stance of emotional and cognitive acceptance (e.g. Dunkel, et al., 1992; Stanton, et al., 2000). Although traditional CBT often includes some acceptance-oriented…

  5. Interactive dedicated training curriculum improves accuracy in the interpretation of MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of interactive dedicated training on radiology fellows' accuracy in assessing prostate cancer on MRI. Eleven radiology fellows, blinded to clinical and pathological data, independently interpreted preoperative prostate MRI studies, scoring the likelihood of tumour in the peripheral and transition zones and extracapsular extension. Each fellow interpreted 15 studies before dedicated training (to supply baseline interpretation accuracy) and 200 studies (10/week) after attending didactic lectures. Expert radiologists led weekly interactive tutorials comparing fellows' interpretations to pathological tumour maps. To assess interpretation accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted, using pathological findings as the reference standard. In identifying peripheral zone tumour, fellows' average area under the ROC curve (AUC) increased from 0.52 to 0.66 (after didactic lectures; p < 0.0001) and remained at 0.66 (end of training; p < 0.0001); in the transition zone, their average AUC increased from 0.49 to 0.64 (after didactic lectures; p = 0.01) and to 0.68 (end of training; p = 0.001). In detecting extracapsular extension, their average AUC increased from 0.50 to 0.67 (after didactic lectures; p = 0.003) and to 0.81 (end of training; p < 0.0001). Interactive dedicated training significantly improved accuracy in tumour localization and especially in detecting extracapsular extension on prostate MRI. (orig.)

  6. Examining Student Satisfaction of Interaction in Online Learning: Analyzing Student Satisfaction Using the Community of Inquiry Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacino Thiessen, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of an online learner at a community college. The purpose of the study was to investigate community college students' perception of online courses through an examination of their experiences with online learning. The community of inquiry theory was used as a guide to better understand the importance…

  7. Toward a Social Conflict Evolution Model: Examining the Adverse Power of Conflictual Social Interaction in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kui; Miller, Nicole C.; Allison, Justin R.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined an authentic online learning phenomenon where social conflict, including harsh critique and negative tone, weaved throughout peer-moderated online discussions in an online class. Opening coding and content analysis were performed on 1306 message units and course artifacts. The results revealed that a model of social…

  8. Weak interactions in clobazam–lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril–lactose system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. ► Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. ► Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. ► Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. ► Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous α-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril–lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  9. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-35703 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous {alpha}-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril-lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  10. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic studies of oncogenesis have demonstrated that either the elevated production of particular oncogene proteins or the occurrence of qualitative abnormalities in oncogenes can contribute to neoplastic cellular transformation. The purpose of our study was to identify an unique gene that shows cancer-associated expression, and characterizes its function related to human carcinogenesis. We used the differential display (DD) RT-PCR method using normal cervical, cervical cancer, metastatic cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines to identify genes overexpressed in cervical cancers and identified gremlin 1 which was overexpressed in cervical cancers. We determined expression levels of gremlin 1 using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical study in various types of human normal and cancer tissues. To understand the tumorigenesis pathway of identified gremlin 1 protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen, GST pull down assay, and immunoprecipitation to identify gremlin 1 interacting proteins. DDRT-PCR analysis revealed that gremlin 1 was overexpressed in uterine cervical cancer. We also identified a human gremlin 1 that was overexpressed in various human tumors including carcinomas of the lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells exhibited growth stimulation and increased telomerase activity. Gremlin 1 interacted with homo sapiens tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (14-3-3 eta; YWHAH). YWHAH protein binding site for gremlin 1 was located between residues 61–80 and gremlin 1 binding site for YWHAH was found to be located between residues 1 to 67. Gremlin 1 may play an oncogenic role especially in carcinomas of the uterine cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. Over-expressed gremlin 1 functions by interaction with YWHAH. Therefore, Gremlin 1 and its binding protein YWHAH could be good targets for developing diagnostic and

  11. Find out The Thyroid Micro - Cancer in the Physical examination%在健康体检中发现甲状腺微小癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟; 郑星; 金俊杰; 曹远征; 陈秀萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:探计在健康体检中发现甲状腺微小癌的方法.方法:选取我院2009年5月-2011年5月甲状腺受检者43200人,男女各半,行触诊、彩超检查,发现问题者进一步行CT、ECT、化验、细针穿刺细胞学检查等.结果:甲状腺微小癌7例,直径最大0.95cm,最小0.43cm,其中2例原发癌,5例分别并发于结节性甲状腺肿、甲亢、甲状腺腺瘤和桥本氏病.触诊发现1例,彩超7例.结论:在健康体检中,彩色多普勒超声是发现甲状腺微小癌的首选方法.%Objectif To explore the method to find out The Thyroid Micro - Cancer in the physical examintion.Methods To choose 43200 people,man 21600 and women 21600 ,they were be examined by palpation and color Doppler,The will be checked by CT, ECT, liboratory test and fine - needl aspiration biopsy when their body have some problem.Results There are Thyroid Micro - Cancer 7 cases, The longist diameter is 0.95cm, The shortist diameter is 0.43cm.,There are primary cancer 2 cases, There are 5 Thyroid Micro - Cancer begins at the same time whith other Thyroid disease.Palpation find 1 case, Color Dopplor find 7 cases.Conclusion Color Doppler is the fist selected examine to find out the Thyroid Micro - Cancer.

  12. The complex interactions between radiation induced non-targeted effects and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Maria; Dini, Valentina; Esposito, Giuseppe; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Radiation induced non-targeted effects have been widely investigated in the last two decades for their potential impact on low dose radiation risk. In this paper we will give an overview of the most relevant aspects related to these effects, starting from the definition of the low dose scenarios. We will underline the role of radiation quality, both in terms of mechanisms of interaction with the biological matter and for the importance of charged particles as powerful tools for low dose effects investigation. We will focus on cell communication, representing a common feature of non-targeted effects, giving also an overview of cancer models that have explicitly considered such effects. PMID:24139968

  13. Recent advances in understanding of interactions between genes and diet in the etiology of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R Ferguson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, colorectal cancer (CRC is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Diet plays a major etiologic role, and a range of putative dietary carcinogens have been identified. The probability with which these lead to mutations, and thereby cause cancer, is strongly impacted by variants in genes coding for xenobiotic metabolizing or DNA repair enzymes. Nutrient deficiencies also play a role, which will be exacerbated by variants in metabolic genes. However, many of the causal genes in sporadic CRC have hitherto proved elusive. The power of large international collaborations, coupled with genome-wide association studies, has implicated a major functional role of the tumour growth factor-β pathway in CRC susceptibility. Nutrient regulation of gene expression may be especially important here. Future large collaborative studies must consider gene-gene and gene-diet interactions, coupled with high throughput genomic technologies, in order to uncover the relative roles of genetic variants, mutagenic xenobiotics, nutrient imbalance and gene expression in the etiology of CRC.

  14. Effect of UV irradiation on Echinaceae purpureae interactions with free radicals examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The effect of UVA (315–400 nm) irradiation on Echinaceae purpureae interactions with free radicals was examined by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The changes of antioxidant properties of E. purpureae with time of UV irradiation from 10 to 110 min (10 min steps) were determined. DPPH as the paramagnetic reference was used in this study. Changes of EPR signals of the reference after interactions with nonirradiated and UV-irradiated E. purpureae were detected. Int...

  15. Examining the relationship between face processing and social interaction behavior in children with and without autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Newsom, Cassandra; Key, Alexandra P.; Qualls, Lydia R.; Edmiston, E Kale

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairment in reciprocal social communication, which includes deficits in social cognition and behavior. Since social cognition and social behavior are considered to be interdependent, it is valuable to examine social processes on multiple levels of analysis. Neuropsychological measures of face processing often reveal deficits in social cognition in ASD including the ability to identify and remember facial information. However, the ...

  16. Macrophage traits in cancer cells are induced by macrophage-cancer cell fusion and cannot be explained by cellular interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Shabo, Ivan; Midtbö, Kristine Maria; Andersson, Henrik; Åkerlund, Emma; Olsson, Hans; Wegman, Pia; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lindström, Annelie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cell fusion is a natural process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages generates metastatic hybrids with genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. However, there are no clinical markers for detecting cell fusion in clinical context. Macrophage-specific antigen CD163 expression in tumor cells is reported in breast and colorectal cancers and proposed being caused by macrophages-cancer cell fusion in tumor st...

  17. Radiotherapy for oncologic emergencies on weekends: examining reasons for treatment and patterns of practice at a Canadian cancer centre

    OpenAIRE

    Mitera, G.; Swaminath, A.; Wong, S.; Goh, P.; Robson, S.; Sinclair, E.; Danjoux, C.; Chow, E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy for oncologic emergencies is an important aspect of the management of cancer patients. These emergencies—which include malignant spinal cord compression, brain metastases, superior vena cava obstruction, and uncontrolled tumour hemorrhage —may require treatment outside of hospital hours, particularly on weekends and hospital holidays. To date, there remains no consensus among radiation oncologists regarding the indications and appropriateness of radiotherapy treatment on ...

  18. Cancer Biochemistry and Host-Tumor Interactions: A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John H.

    This is a hierarchical decimal classification of information related to cancer biochemistry, to host-tumor interactions (including cancer immunology), and to occurrence of cancer in special types of animals and plants. It is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of many fields of biomedical information. Because the…

  19. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X2-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  20. Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    H Billur Engin; Emre Guney; Ozlem Keskin; Baldo Oliva; Attila Gursoy

    2013-01-01

    Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer H. Billur Engin1, Emre Guney2, Ozlem Keskin1, Baldo Oliva2, Attila Gursoy1* 1 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Structural Bioinformatics Group (GRIB), Universitat Pompeu Fabra Abstract Blocking specific protein interactions can lead to human diseases. Accordingly, protein i...

  1. Integrating structure to protein-protein interaction networks that drive metastasis to brain and lung in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, H Billur; G??ney, Emre, 1983-; Keskin, Ozlem; Oliva Miguel, Baldomero; Gursoy, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer H. Billur Engin1, Emre Guney2, Ozlem Keskin1, Baldo Oliva2, Attila Gursoy1* 1 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Structural Bioinformatics Group (GRIB), Universitat Pompeu Fabra Abstract Blocking specific protein interactions can lead to human diseases. Accordingly, protein i...

  2. Crystallographic analysis of NHERF1–PLCβ3 interaction provides structural basis for CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuo; Holcomb, Joshua; Trescott, Laura; Guan, Xiaoqing; Hou, Yuning [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Brunzelle, Joseph [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL (United States); Sirinupong, Nualpun [Nutraceuticals and Functional Food Research and Development Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla (Thailand); Li, Chunying, E-mail: cl@med.wayne.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Yang, Zhe, E-mail: zyang@med.wayne.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • CXCR2–NHERF1–PLCβ3 complex regulates CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. • The crystal structure of the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain in complex with PLCβ3. • The structure reveals specificity determinants of PDZ1–PLCβ3 interaction. • Endogenous PLCβ3 in pancreatic cancer cells interacts with both PDZ1 and PDZ2. • Structural basis of the PDZ1–PLCβ3 interaction is valuable in selective drug design. - Abstract: The formation of CXCR2–NHERF1–PLCβ3 macromolecular complex in pancreatic cancer cells regulates CXCR2 signaling activity and plays an important role in tumor proliferation and invasion. We previously have shown that disruption of the NHERF1-mediated CXCR2–PLCβ3 interaction abolishes the CXCR2 signaling cascade and inhibits pancreatic tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Here we report the crystal structure of the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain in complex with the C-terminal PLCβ3 sequence. The structure reveals that the PDZ1–PLCβ3 binding specificity is achieved by numerous hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts with the last four PLCβ3 residues contributing to specific interactions. We also show that PLCβ3 can bind both NHERF1 PDZ1 and PDZ2 in pancreatic cancer cells, consistent with the observation that the peptide binding pockets of these PDZ domains are highly structurally conserved. This study provides an understanding of the structural basis for the PDZ-mediated NHERF1–PLCβ3 interaction that could prove valuable in selective drug design against CXCR2-related cancers.

  3. Crystallographic analysis of NHERF1–PLCβ3 interaction provides structural basis for CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CXCR2–NHERF1–PLCβ3 complex regulates CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. • The crystal structure of the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain in complex with PLCβ3. • The structure reveals specificity determinants of PDZ1–PLCβ3 interaction. • Endogenous PLCβ3 in pancreatic cancer cells interacts with both PDZ1 and PDZ2. • Structural basis of the PDZ1–PLCβ3 interaction is valuable in selective drug design. - Abstract: The formation of CXCR2–NHERF1–PLCβ3 macromolecular complex in pancreatic cancer cells regulates CXCR2 signaling activity and plays an important role in tumor proliferation and invasion. We previously have shown that disruption of the NHERF1-mediated CXCR2–PLCβ3 interaction abolishes the CXCR2 signaling cascade and inhibits pancreatic tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Here we report the crystal structure of the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain in complex with the C-terminal PLCβ3 sequence. The structure reveals that the PDZ1–PLCβ3 binding specificity is achieved by numerous hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts with the last four PLCβ3 residues contributing to specific interactions. We also show that PLCβ3 can bind both NHERF1 PDZ1 and PDZ2 in pancreatic cancer cells, consistent with the observation that the peptide binding pockets of these PDZ domains are highly structurally conserved. This study provides an understanding of the structural basis for the PDZ-mediated NHERF1–PLCβ3 interaction that could prove valuable in selective drug design against CXCR2-related cancers

  4. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  5. Longitudinal Associations of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cancer Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1986–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyati Parekh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and overall cancer mortality were evaluated within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–2006; n=15,535. Mortality status was ascertained using the National Death Index. Self-reported LTPA was divided into inactive, regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity. A frequency-weighted metabolic equivalents (METS/week variable was also computed. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for overall cancer mortality in the whole sample, by body mass index categories and insulin resistance (IR status. Nonsignificant protective associations were observed for regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity, and for the highest quartile of METS/week (HRs range: 0.66–0.95. Individuals without IR engaging in regular vigorous activity had a 48% decreased risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28–0.98 in multivariate analyses. Conversely, nonsignificant positive associations were observed in people with IR. In conclusion, regular vigorous activity may reduce risk of cancer mortality among persons with normal insulin-glucose metabolism in this national sample.

  6. Water-light interaction: A novel pathway for multi hallmark therapy in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santana-Blank

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser photobiomodulation (LPBM has been proposed as a multi-target (multi-hallmark therapy for cancer and other complex diseases based on an approach that aims to substitute and/or complement metabolic energy pathways through oxygen-dependent (e.g., cytochrome c oxidase (CcO and/or oxygen-independent (e.g., light-water interactions (e.g., F0-F1 motors mechanisms with critical signaling pathways in primarily aqueous media. Cellular and molecular bases for water-mediated, long-range, energy supplementation aimed at inducing and modulating physiologically reparative processes, including apoptosis, have been previously presented through a mechanism termed Photo Infrared Pulsed Biomodulation (PIPBM. Water’s role as an oscillator in LPBM has also been documented. These ideas were recently complemented by integrating the role of the quasi-crystalline exclusion zone (EZ described by Pollack as the fourth phase of water. This is retrospective analysis of experimental and clinical data using an infrared pulsed laser device (IPLD. It found photo-induced effects over the water dynamics of burned rat tissue monitored by 1H-NMR transverse relaxation times (1/T2, indicating significantly greater structuring of water. In addition, a microdensitometry study of T2 weighted tumor heterogeneities from a phase I clinical trial of the IPLD in patients with advanced neoplasias and an algorithm for tumor characterization indicated significantly increased structuring of water, possibly proving a photobiomodulation effect over the EZ associated with histologically-confirmed selective photo-induced tumor cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical demonstration of light-induced effects over the EZ. It supports our premise that LPBM can increase potential energy in the EZ, which then acts as a rechargeable electrolytic bio-battery for the external selective supplementation of the energy demand required for cellular work, signaling pathways and

  7. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk in computed tomography examinations in some selected CT facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective dose and cancer risk were determined for patients undergoing seven different types of CT examinations in two CT facilities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The two facilities, namely; the Diagnostic Centre Ltd and Cocoa Clinic were chosen because of their significant patient throughput. The effective dose was from patient data namely age, sex, height, weight and technique factors; namely scan length, KVp (Kilovolts peak), mAs (milliamperes per second) and CTDIv from the control console of the CT machines. The effective dose was also estimated using the dose length product (DLP) and k Coefficients which is the anatomic region specific conversion factors. The cancer risk for each patient for a particular examination was determined from the effective dose, age and sex of each patient with the help of BEIR VII. In all, a total number of 800 adult patients with 400 from each of the two CT facilities were compiled. From Diagnostic Centre Ltd, the average effective dose was 5.61mSv in the range of 1.41mSv to 13.34mSv with average BMI of 26.19kg/m2 in the range of 16.90kg/m2 to 48.28kg/m2 for all types of examinations. The average cancer risk was 0.0458 Sv-1 for 400 patients in the range of 0.0001 Sv-1 to 0.3036 Sv-1 compared with a population of 900 patients undergoing CT examination per year. From Cocoa Clinic, the average effective dose was 3.91MSv in the range of 0.54mSv to 27.32mSv with an average BMI of 25.59 kg/m2 in the range of 17.18kg/m2 to 35.34kg/m2 and the average cancer risk was 0.0371 Sv-1 in the range of 0.0001 Sv-1 and 0.7125 Sv-1. Some of the values were within the range of values of typical for typical effective dose for CT examinations reported by the ICRP. It was evident from this study that the variations in scanning parameters had significant impact on the effective doses to patient for similar CT examinations among the two facilities.(au)

  8. Interaction between fragile histamine triad and protein kinase C alpha in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-hui Zhuang; Zhao-hui Liu; Xiao-gang Jiang; Cheng-en Pan

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interaction between fragile histamine triad (FHIT) and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Methods FHIT and PKC伪 double positive samples were screened by immunohistochemical staining from 13 human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed by using anti-FHIT and anti-PKCα. The immune precipitate was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results Immune precipitate staining detection showed that 3 samples out of the 13 cases were double positive for FHIT and PKCα. FHIT protein was present in the immune precipitate of anti-PKCα while there was PKCα in the immune precipitate of anti-FHITmAb. Conclusion FHIT and PKCα exist as a complex in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues, which will provide a new route for studying the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer.

  9. Gene-by-Environment Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer: Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick J; Tan, Xiang-Lin; Petersen, Gloria M

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) has been estimated to have higher incidence and correspondingly higher mortality rates in more developed regions worldwide. Overall, the age-adjusted incidence rate is 4.9/10(5) and age-adjusted mortality rate is at 4.8/10(5). We review here our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors (cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and alcohol) for PC, genetic variants implicated by genome-wide association studies, possible genetic interactions with risk factors, and prevention strategies to provide future research directions that may further our understanding of this complex disease. Cigarette smoking is consistently associated with a two-fold increased PC risk. PC associations with dietary intake have been largely inconsistent, with the potential exception of certain unsaturated fatty acids decreasing risk and well-done red meat or meat mutagens increasing risk. There is strong evidence to support that obesity (and related measures) increase risk of PC. Only the heaviest alcohol drinkers seem to be at an increased risk of PC. Currently, key prevention strategies include avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption and adopting a healthy lifestyle. Screening technologies and PC chemoprevention are likely to become more sophisticated, but may only apply to those at high risk. Risk stratification may be improved by taking into account gene environment interactions. Research on these modifiable risk factors is key to reducing the incidence of PC and understanding who in the population can be considered high risk. PMID:26029010

  10. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  11. HSD3B and gene-gene interactions in a pathway-based analysis of genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S Andrew

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the 4(th most common cancer among men in the U.S. We analyzed variant genotypes hypothesized to modify major biological processes involved in bladder carcinogenesis, including hormone regulation, apoptosis, DNA repair, immune surveillance, metabolism, proliferation, and telomere maintenance. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between genetic variation affecting these processes and susceptibility in 563 genotyped urothelial cell carcinoma cases and 863 controls enrolled in a case-control study of incident bladder cancer conducted in New Hampshire, U.S. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and Statistical Epistasis Network analysis. The 3'UTR flanking variant form of the hormone regulation gene HSD3B2 was associated with increased bladder cancer risk in the New Hampshire population (adjusted OR 1.85 95%CI 1.31-2.62. This finding was successfully replicated in the Texas Bladder Cancer Study with 957 controls, 497 cases (adjusted OR 3.66 95%CI 1.06-12.63. The effect of this prevalent SNP was stronger among males (OR 2.13 95%CI 1.40-3.25 than females (OR 1.56 95%CI 0.83-2.95, (SNP-gender interaction P = 0.048. We also identified a SNP-SNP interaction between T-cell activation related genes GATA3 and CD81 (interaction P = 0.0003. The fact that bladder cancer incidence is 3-4 times higher in males suggests the involvement of hormone levels. This biologic process-based analysis suggests candidate susceptibility markers and supports the theory that disrupted hormone regulation plays a role in bladder carcinogenesis.

  12. Interactions between environmental factors and melatonin receptor type 1A polymorphism in relation to oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer.Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis.These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  13. Examining the interaction of parental involvement and parenting style in predicting adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Sara E.; Friedrich, Elizabeth A.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Miller, Victoria A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study examined whether aspects of parenting style (specifically, warmth, autonomy support, and coercion) moderated the association between parental involvement and adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Children ages 8–16 years with type 1 diabetes and a parent completed assessments of parental involvement, parenting style, and adherence. Results Parent autonomy support and coercion were associated with adherence but warmth was not. Child report of more parental involvement was associated with better adherence. Warmth, autonomy support, and coercion were not moderators. Discussion The findings underscore the importance of parental involvement, operationalized as responsibility for diabetes tasks, and parenting style, specifically coercion and autonomy support, for adherence in pediatric chronic illness management. Longitudinal research is needed to better understand how and why dimensions of involvement (e.g., responsibility, monitoring, support) vary over time and whether they impact outcomes differentially. PMID:26866945

  14. The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Gill, Verena A.; Hoyt, Zachary N.; Doroff, Angela; Nichol, Linda; Bodkin, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Because population histories, relative densities, and habitat characteristics vary widely among sites, we could examine the effects of intraspecific competition and habitat on the prevalence of individual diet specialization. Using observed diet data, we classified half of our sites as rocky substrate habitats and the other half containing a mixture of rocky and unconsolidated (soft) sediment substrates. We used stable isotope data to quantify population- and individual-level diet variation. Among rocky substrate sites, the slope [±standard error (SE)] of the positive significant relationship between the within-individual component (WIC) and total isotopic niche width (TINW) was shallow (0.23 ± 0.07) and negatively correlated with sea otter density. In contrast, the slope of the positive WIC/TINW relationship for populations inhabiting mixed substrate habitats was much higher (0.53 ± 0.14), suggesting a low degree of individuality, irrespective of intraspecific competition. Our results show that the potential for individuality to occur as a result of increasing intraspecific competition is context-dependent and that habitat characteristics, which ultimately influence prey diversity, relative abundance, and the range of skillsets required for efficient prey procurement, are important in determining when and where individual diet specialization occurs in nature.

  15. The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D; Tinker, M Tim; Gill, Verena A; Hoyt, Zachary N; Doroff, Angela; Nichol, Linda; Bodkin, James L

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Because population histories, relative densities, and habitat characteristics vary widely among sites, we could examine the effects of intraspecific competition and habitat on the prevalence of individual diet specialization. Using observed diet data, we classified half of our sites as rocky substrate habitats and the other half containing a mixture of rocky and unconsolidated (soft) sediment substrates. We used stable isotope data to quantify population- and individual-level diet variation. Among rocky substrate sites, the slope [±standard error (SE)] of the positive significant relationship between the within-individual component (WIC) and total isotopic niche width (TINW) was shallow (0.23 ± 0.07) and negatively correlated with sea otter density. In contrast, the slope of the positive WIC/TINW relationship for populations inhabiting mixed substrate habitats was much higher (0.53 ± 0.14), suggesting a low degree of individuality, irrespective of intraspecific competition. Our results show that the potential for individuality to occur as a result of increasing intraspecific competition is context-dependent and that habitat characteristics, which ultimately influence prey diversity, relative abundance, and the range of skillsets required for efficient prey procurement, are important in determining when and where individual diet specialization occurs in nature. PMID:25645269

  16. The role of human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon interaction and architecture in maximal vertical jumping examined in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A; Brown, Nicholas A T; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles was used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles during jumping. Our results highlighted that both GAS and SOL utilised stretch and recoil of their series elastic elements (SEEs) in a catapult-like fashion, which likely serves to maximise ankle joint power. The resistance of supporting of body weight allowed initial stretch of both GAS and SOL SEEs. A proximal-to-distal sequence of joint moments and decreasing effective mechanical advantage early in the extension phase of the jumping movement were observed. This facilitated a further stretch of the SEE of the biarticular GAS and delayed recoil of the SOL SEE. However, effective mechanical advantage did not increase late in the jump to aid recoil of elastic tissues. PMID:26685172

  17. Lectin binding and effects in culture on human cancer and non-cancer cell lines: examination of issues of interest in drug design strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrossian, Karineh; Banner, Lisa R; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2007-01-01

    By using a non-cancer and a cancer cell line originally from the same tissue (colon), coupled with testing lectins for cell binding and for their effects on these cell lines in culture, this study describes a simple multi-parameter approach that has revealed some interesting results that could be useful in drug development strategies. Two human cell lines, CCL-220/Colo320DM (human colon cancer cells, tumorigenic in nude mice) and CRL-1459/CCD-18Co (non-malignant human colon cells) were tested for their ability to bind to agarose microbeads derivatized with two lectins, peanut agglutinin (Arachis hypogaea agglutinin, PNA) and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and the effects of these lectins were assessed in culture using the MTT assay. Both cell lines bound to DBA-derivatized microbeads, and binding was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, but not by L-fucose. Neither cell line bound to PNA-derivatized microbeads. Despite the lack of lectin binding using the rapid microbead method, PNA was mitogenic in culture at some time points and its mitogenic effect displayed a reverse-dose response. This was also seen with effects of DBA on cells in culture. While this is a simple study, the results were statistically highly significant and suggest that: (1) agents may not need to bind strongly to cells to exert biological effects, (2) cell line pairs derived from diseased and non-diseased tissue can provide useful comparative data on potential drug effects and (3) very low concentrations of potential drugs might be initially tested experimentally because reverse-dose responses should be considered. PMID:17706752

  18. Combined effect of radon exposure and smoking and their interaction in Czech studies of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to compare lung cancer risks from radon in smoking categories in Czech residential radon and uranium miners studies and to evaluate interactions between smoking and radon exposure. The residential and occupational studies are based on one hospital based case-control study and three case-control studies nested within cohort studies, two among uranium miners and one in the general population in a radon prone area. Controls in the nested studies are individually matched by sex, age and year of birth. Smoking data were collected in person or from relatives of deceased subjects. In the occupational studies, some smoking data were obtained from medical files. Radon exposures were based on measurements of radon in houses by open track detectors LR115 in the radon prone area and by closed detectors and electrets in the hospital based study. Exposures in uranium mines were based on extensive measurements and personal dosimetry. The analyses are based on conditional logistic regression with linear dependence of the risk on radon exposure adjusted for smoking. The study resulted in 300 cases and 1035 controls in the residential study and 672 cases and 1491 controls in the study of uranium miners. The dependence of lung cancer risk on radon exposure adjusted for smoking was not substantially different from analyses when smoking was ignored and reflected mainly the risk among smokers. However, the excess relative risk per unit exposure among non-smokers was 3-10 fold higher in comparison to that in smokers. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers was consistently higher in the occupational and residential studies, reflecting probably differences in lung morphometry, clearence and unattached fraction of radon progeny in houses of non-smokers. Risks from combined effects are substantially lower than the risk derived from the multiplicative model, but consistent with the additive model. (author)

  19. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits. PMID:25863125

  20. Temporal Patterns of Lung Cancer Risk from Radon, Smoking and their Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The objective of the work is to study temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from occupational and residential radon and from smoking. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model, where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 1 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. Temporal patterns of smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. for both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. In comparison to period with exposure before 5-19 years, the risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% for smoking and randon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (Author) 13 refs

  1. Interactive effect of genetic susceptibility with height, body mass index, and hormone replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlid Sophia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and height, body mass index (BMI and hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Methods We analyzed samples from three different study populations: two prospectively followed Swedish cohorts and one Icelandic case–control study. Totally 2884 invasive breast cancer cases and 4508 controls were analysed in the study. Genotypes were determined using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-TOF and phenotypic variables were derived from measurements and/or questionnaires. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with the inclusion of an interaction term in the logistic regression model. Results One SNP (rs851987 in ESR1 tended to interact with height, with an increasingly protective effect of the major allele in taller women (p = 0.007 and rs13281615 (on 8q24 tended to confer risk only in non users of HRT (p-for interaction = 0.03. There were no significant interactions after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions We conclude that much larger sample sets would be necessary to demonstrate interactions between low-risk genetic polymorphisms and the phenotypic variables height, BMI and HRT on the risk for breast cancer. However the present hypothesis-generating study has identified tendencies that would be of interest to evaluate for gene-environment interactions in independent materials.

  2. Intercellular interactions and progression of hormonal resistance of breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Semina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study is the analysis of the role of cell-cell interactions in the formation of the tumor cell resistance to hormonal drugs. About 70 % of breast tumors contain estrogen receptor (ER, a key molecular target for hormone (endocrine therapy. However, the efficiency of endocrine therapy of breast cancer is limited by the development of hormone resistance which leads to progression of tumor cells to hormone-independent phenotype, increase in tumor malignancy and worse prognosis. Hormonal independence may be accompanied with the loss of the receptors, as well as with the another mechanisms including ligand-independent receptor activation, disbalance between receptor activators and repressors, stimulation of hormone-independent pathways. It is less known about the role of the intercellular interactions in the progression of hormonal resistance. Several studies demonstrate the involvement of cell junctions in the mediating of cell response to (anti estrogens, however the significance of cell-cell contacts in the formation of hormonal resistance still not clear. Here we have hypothesized that the formation of the hormone resistance of tumors may be based, at least in part, on the transferring of the resistant phenotype from the resistant to hormone-sensitive cells – as a result of the secretion of the specific factors acting in the paracrine manner or via the direct cell-cell contacts. Using the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells MCF-7 and the resistant subline MCF-7 / T developed by long-term cultivation of MCF-7 cells in the presence of antiestrogen tamoxifen, we investigated the possible changes in the hormonal sensitivity of these cells caused by the co-cultivation in vitro. To discern the cell cultures, the MCF-7 / T cells were previously transfected with the plasmid containing the gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, and GFP-positive hormone-resistant subline MCF-7 / T / GFP+ was developed. We showed that the co

  3. Relationships between Signaling Pathway Usage and Sensitivity to a Pathway Inhibitor: Examination of Trametinib Responses in Cultured Breast Cancer Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Euphemia Y.; Kim, Ji Eun; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan; Rewcastle, Gordon W.; Finlay, Graeme J.; Baguley, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling pathways involving mTOR, PI3K and ERK have dominated recent studies of breast cancer biology, and inhibitors of these pathways have formed a focus of numerous clinical trials. We have chosen trametinib, a drug targeting MEK in the ERK pathway, to address two questions. Firstly, does inhibition of a signaling pathway, as measured by protein phosphorylation, predict the antiproliferative activity of trametinib? Secondly, do inhibitors of the mTOR and PI3K pathways synergize with trametinib in their effects on cell proliferation? A panel of 30 human breast cancer cell lines was chosen to include lines that could be classified according to whether they were ER and PR positive, HER2 over-expressing, and “triple negative”. Everolimus (targeting mTOR), NVP-BEZ235 and GSK2126458 (both targeting PI3K/mTOR) were chosen for combination experiments. Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by IC50 values and pathway utilization was measured by phosphorylation of signaling kinases. Overall, no correlation was found between trametinib IC50 values and inhibition of ERK signaling. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed at trametinib concentrations not affecting proliferation, and sensitivity of cell proliferation to trametinib was found in cell lines with low ERK phosphorylation. Evidence was found for synergy between trametinib and either everolimus, NVP-BEZ235 or GSK2126458, but this was cell line specific. The results have implications for the clinical application of PI3K/mTOR and MEK inhibitors. PMID:25170609

  4. Assessing SNP-SNP interactions among DNA repair, modification and metabolism related pathway genes in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sapkota

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified low-penetrance common variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Although GWASs are primarily focused on single-locus effects, gene-gene interactions (i.e., epistasis are also assumed to contribute to the genetic risks for complex diseases including breast cancer. While it has been hypothesized that moderately ranked (P value based weak single-locus effects in GWASs could potentially harbor valuable information for evaluating epistasis, we lack systematic efforts to investigate SNPs showing consistent associations with weak statistical significance across independent discovery and replication stages. The objectives of this study were i to select SNPs showing single-locus effects with weak statistical significance for breast cancer in a GWAS and/or candidate-gene studies; ii to replicate these SNPs in an independent set of breast cancer cases and controls; and iii to explore their potential SNP-SNP interactions contributing to breast cancer susceptibility. A total of 17 SNPs related to DNA repair, modification and metabolism pathway genes were selected since these pathways offer a priori knowledge for potential epistatic interactions and an overall role in breast carcinogenesis. The study design included predominantly Caucasian women (2,795 cases and 4,505 controls from Alberta, Canada. We observed two two-way SNP-SNP interactions (APEX1-rs1130409 and RPAP1-rs2297381; MLH1-rs1799977 and MDM2-rs769412 in logistic regression that conferred elevated risks for breast cancer (P(interaction<7.3 × 10(-3. Logic regression identified an interaction involving four SNPs (MBD2-rs4041245, MLH1-rs1799977, MDM2-rs769412, BRCA2-rs1799943 (P(permutation = 2.4 × 10(-3. SNPs involved in SNP-SNP interactions also showed single-locus effects with weak statistical significance, while BRCA2-rs1799943 showed stronger statistical significance (P

  5. Turning-Off Signaling by Siglecs, Selectins, and Galectins: Chemical Inhibition of Glycan-Dependent Interactions in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoni, Alejandro J.; Pérez Sáez, Juan M.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Mariño, Karina V.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation, a common feature associated with malignancy, has been implicated in important events during cancer progression. Our understanding of the role of glycans in cancer has grown exponentially in the last few years, concurrent with important advances in glycomics and glycoproteomic technologies, paving the way for the validation of a number of glycan structures as potential glycobiomarkers. However, the molecular bases underlying cancer-associated glycan modifications are still far from understood. Glycans exhibit a natural heterogeneity, crucial for their diverse functional roles as specific carriers of biologically relevant information. This information is decoded by families of proteins named lectins, including sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and galectins. Siglecs are primarily expressed on the surface of immune cells and differentially control innate and adaptive immune responses. Among CLRs, selectins are a family of cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between cancer cells and platelets, leukocytes, and endothelial cells, thus facilitating tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Galectins, a family of soluble proteins that bind β-galactoside-containing glycans, have been implicated in diverse events associated with cancer biology such as apoptosis, homotypic cell aggregation, angiogenesis, cell migration, and tumor-immune escape. Consequently, individual members of these lectin families have become promising targets for the design of novel anticancer therapies. During the past decade, a number of inhibitors of lectin–glycan interactions have been developed including small-molecule inhibitors, multivalent saccharide ligands, and more recently peptides and peptidomimetics have offered alternatives for tackling tumor progression. In this article, we review the current status of the discovery and development of chemical lectin inhibitors and discuss novel strategies to

  6. Interactions between Paraoxonase 1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Smoking and Their Effects on Oxidative Stress and Lung Cancer Risk in a Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin Young; Lee, Kye Young; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies in epidemiology have evaluated the effects of gene-environment interaction on oxidative stress, even though this interaction is an important etiologic factor in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the effects of the genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), smoking, and the interaction between the two on lung cancer risk and oxidative stress. Methods This study’s subjects consisted of 416 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and an equal number of matched controls...

  7. Interaction between fragile histamine triad and protein kinase C alpha in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interaction between fragile histamine triad (FHIT) and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Methods FHIT and PKCα double positive samples were screened by immunohistochemical staining from 13 human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed by using anti-FHIT and anti-PKCα. The immune precipitate was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results Immune precipitate staining detection showed that 3 samples out of...

  8. Akt kinase-interacting protein1, a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer with EGFR-activating and gatekeeper mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tadaaki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fujita, Naoya; Nakamura, Akito; Wang, Wei; Li, Qi; Oda, Makoto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Junji; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Noguchi, Masayuki; Uehara, Hisanori; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Despite initial dramatic response, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancer patients always acquire resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent genetic alteration underlying acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, and EGFR mutant lung cancer cells are reported to be addictive to EGFR/Akt signaling even after acquired T790M mutation. Here, we focused on Akt kinase-interacting protein1 (Aki1), a scaffold protein of PI3...

  9. Interaction between Capecitabine and Gemcitabine with Warfarin in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Nawal Wasif

    2008-01-01

    Gemcitabine is the only chemotherapeutic agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer [1]. It is also indicated for use in non-small-cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, and is commonly used in other gastrointestinal malignancies. Patients with cancer, specifically pancreatic carcinoma, are at increased risk for thrombosis requiring anticoagulation. In addition, due to aging and common risk factors, cardiac ailments such as at...

  10. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J. G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  11. CYP17 and breast cancer: no overall effect, but what about interactions?

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Julian; Simard, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Three large studies published in recent issues of Breast Cancer Research reported no overall evidence of an association between the CYP17 5'-untranslated region MspA1 polymorphism and breast cancer. The present commentary briefly highlights a few important observations and discusses some additional approaches to further assessment of associations between CYP17 common variants and breast cancer risk. In particular, the evolution of evidence on breast cancer and the CYP17 MspA1 variant suggests...

  12. Targeting the interaction of Aurora kinases and SIRT1 mediated by Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Boopathi; Jagadeesan, Kaviya; Ramakrishnan, Sabitha; Mathan, Ganeshan

    2016-08-01

    The Aurora kinases belong to the family of serine/threonine kinase, a central regulator of mitosis and their expression increased during G2/M phase. It is classified into Aurora A, B and C, each has distinct roles in cellular processes, which includes regulation of spindle assembly, function of centrosomes, cytoskeleton and cytokinesis. During cancer growth, their rapid increase makes most attractive marker for cancer treatment at present. However Aurora A kinase is known to be a marker for cancer therapy, the most important serine/threonine kinase of Aurora B kinase involvement in cancer is still inadequate. Subsequently, the recent findings revealed that the class III histone deacetylase of SIRT1 is a key regulator to activate Aurora kinases from S phase damaged DNA through Wnt signaling pathway. Even if both Aurora A kinase and SIRT1 serve as a marker for cancer therapy, the present review reveals it is interaction in Wnt signaling pathway that solely for colorectal cancer. PMID:27470380

  13. High mobility group A-interacting proteins in cancer: focus on chromobox protein homolog 7, homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 and PATZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fedele

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Mobility Group A (HMGA proteins, a family of DNA architectural factors, by interacting with different proteins play crucial roles in neoplastic transformation of a wide range of tissues. Therefore, the search for HMGA-interacting partners was carried out by several laboratories in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying HMGA-dependent tumorigenesis. Three of the several HMGA-binding proteins are discussed in this review. These are the Chromobox family protein (chromobox protein homolog 7, CBX7, the homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2 and the POZ/domain and Kruppel zinc finger family member, PATZ. All of them play a critical role in tumorigenesis, and may also be independent markers of cancer. Their activities are linked to cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. In this review, we discuss the properties of each protein, including their effect on HMGA1 functions, and propose a model accounting for how their activities might be coordinated.

  14. Bioinformatic analysis of cis-regulatory interactions between progesterone and estrogen receptors in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matloob Khushi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin factors interact with each other in a cell and sequence-specific manner in order to regulate transcription and a wealth of publically available datasets exists describing the genomic locations of these interactions. Our recently published BiSA (Binding Sites Analyser database contains transcription factor binding locations and epigenetic modifications collected from published studies and provides tools to analyse stored and imported data. Using BiSA we investigated the overlapping cis-regulatory role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and progesterone receptor (PR in the T-47D breast cancer cell line. We found that ERα binding sites overlap with a subset of PR binding sites. To investigate further, we re-analysed raw data to remove any biases introduced by the use of distinct tools in the original publications. We identified 22,152 PR and 18,560 ERα binding sites (<5% false discovery rate with 4,358 overlapping regions among the two datasets. BiSA statistical analysis revealed a non-significant overall overlap correlation between the two factors, suggesting that ERα and PR are not partner factors and do not require each other for binding to occur. However, Monte Carlo simulation by Binary Interval Search (BITS, Relevant Distance, Absolute Distance, Jaccard and Projection tests by Genometricorr revealed a statistically significant spatial correlation of binding regions on chromosome between the two factors. Motif analysis revealed that the shared binding regions were enriched with binding motifs for ERα, PR and a number of other transcription and pioneer factors. Some of these factors are known to co-locate with ERα and PR binding. Therefore spatially close proximity of ERα binding sites with PR binding sites suggests that ERα and PR, in general function independently at the molecular level, but that their activities converge on a specific subset of transcriptional targets.

  15. Predictors of breast self-examination as cancer prevention practice among women of reproductive age-group in a rural town in Nigeria

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    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of breast cancer plays an important role in decreasing its morbidity and mortality. This study therefore examines the factors influencing breast self-examination (BSE awareness and practices among women in Ogun state, Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between 22 April and 13 May 2013 using a semi- structured questionnaire. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select one participant per household into the study. Results: A total of 495 women were interviewed in this study, the mean age of the respondents was 36.45 ± 5.12 years. About half (58.2% of respondents have heard of BSE and 24.4% have ever perform BSE. Only 5.3% of our respondents perform BSE regularly (monthly as recommended. Barrier to non-performance of BSE were perception of not being at risk (47.6%, lack of knowledge of how to perform BSE (47.6%. Only 18.5% of respondents have ever had their breast examined by physicians for lump and all of them had continued to perform BSE afterwards. The only predictor of awareness and practice of breast self-examination was tertiary level of education [odds ratio (OR = 1.43 cumulative incidence (CI = 1.12-2.18]. Conclusion: The study shows level of education, smoking habits and history of breast exam by health professional and were the factors found associated with BSE practice. Training on BSE should be given to women especially during antenatal care in order to increase the practice of BSE thus averting the severe morbidity and mortality of breast cancer in developing countries.

  16. Comparison of Physical Examination and Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography 4–6 Months After Radiotherapy to Assess Residual Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and physical examination 4–6 months after radiotherapy for assessing residual head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: From July 2002 through March 2006, 52 HNC patients underwent definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Categoric assessments of residual tumor by PET/CT and physical examination 4–6 months after therapy were correlated and compared with clinical outcomes. Pretreatment data, including tumor stage and primary site standardized uptake value, were also gathered retrospectively and correlated with clinical outcomes. Median follow-up time was 58 months. Results: Twenty-one patients had either locoregionally “positive” (17 of 21) or “equivocal” (4 of 21) PET/CT scans, whereas 31 patients had locoregionally negative scans. Four patients failed treatment and had biopsy-confirmed residual or recurrent local disease. All patients, including patients with locally suspicious scans or examinations who refused biopsies, were followed clinically for a minimum of 29 months after therapy, with no other cases of treatment failure detected during this time. No patient had residual nodal disease after therapy. Sensitivities of PET/CT vs. physical examination for early detection of treatment failure were 100% vs. 50%, whereas the specificities of the two modalities were 64.6% vs. 89.6%, respectively. Higher initial T stage and American Joint Commission on Cancer stage correlated with increased incidence of positive/equivocal PET/CT results and treatment failure. Maximal standardized uptake value was not predictive of any clinical outcome. Conclusions: A negative result on PET/CT obtained 4–6 months after radiotherapy is highly sensitive and correlates with successful locoregional control. Patients with negative scans may reasonably be spared invasive diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy and neck dissection, unless recurrent

  17. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity Examined by High-Sensitivity Quantification of PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, and BRAF Mutations in Normal Breast and Ductal Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Meagan B; Banda, Malathi; McKim, Karen L; Wang, Yiying; Powell, Michael J; Parsons, Barbara L

    2016-04-01

    Mutant cancer subpopulations have the potential to derail durable patient responses to molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics, yet the prevalence and size of such subpopulations are largely unexplored. We employed the sensitive and quantitative Allele-specific Competitive Blocker PCR approach to characterize mutant cancer subpopulations in ductal carcinomas (DCs), examining five specific hotspot point mutations (PIK3CA H1047R, KRAS G12D, KRAS G12V, HRAS G12D, and BRAF V600E). As an approach to aid interpretation of the DC results, the mutations were also quantified in normal breast tissue. Overall, the mutations were prevalent in normal breast and DCs, with 9/9 DCs having measureable levels of at least three of the five mutations. HRAS G12D was significantly increased in DCs as compared to normal breast. The most frequent point mutation reported in DC by DNA sequencing, PIK3CA H1047R, was detected in all normal breast tissue and DC samples and was present at remarkably high levels (mutant fractions of 1.1 × 10(-3) to 4.6 × 10(-2)) in 4/10 normal breast samples. In normal breast tissue samples, PIK3CA mutation levels were positively correlated with age. However, the PIK3CA H1047R mutant fraction distributions for normal breast tissues and DCs were similar. The results suggest PIK3CA H1047R mutant cells have a selective advantage in breast, contribute to breast cancer susceptibility, and drive tumor progression during breast carcinogenesis, even when present as only a subpopulation of tumor cells. PMID:27108388

  18. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity Examined by High-Sensitivity Quantification of PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, and BRAF Mutations in Normal Breast and Ductal Carcinomas12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Meagan B.; Banda, Malathi; McKim, Karen L.; Wang, Yiying; Powell, Michael J.; Parsons, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Mutant cancer subpopulations have the potential to derail durable patient responses to molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics, yet the prevalence and size of such subpopulations are largely unexplored. We employed the sensitive and quantitative Allele-specific Competitive Blocker PCR approach to characterize mutant cancer subpopulations in ductal carcinomas (DCs), examining five specific hotspot point mutations (PIK3CA H1047R, KRAS G12D, KRAS G12V, HRAS G12D, and BRAF V600E). As an approach to aid interpretation of the DC results, the mutations were also quantified in normal breast tissue. Overall, the mutations were prevalent in normal breast and DCs, with 9/9 DCs having measureable levels of at least three of the five mutations. HRAS G12D was significantly increased in DCs as compared to normal breast. The most frequent point mutation reported in DC by DNA sequencing, PIK3CA H1047R, was detected in all normal breast tissue and DC samples and was present at remarkably high levels (mutant fractions of 1.1 × 10− 3 to 4.6 × 10− 2) in 4/10 normal breast samples. In normal breast tissue samples, PIK3CA mutation levels were positively correlated with age. However, the PIK3CA H1047R mutant fraction distributions for normal breast tissues and DCs were similar. The results suggest PIK3CA H1047R mutant cells have a selective advantage in breast, contribute to breast cancer susceptibility, and drive tumor progression during breast carcinogenesis, even when present as only a subpopulation of tumor cells. PMID:27108388

  19. An examination of the utility of high-precise radiation therapies for the recurrence of postoperative esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed 16 cases (23 therapeutic sites) of post-operative recurrence of esophageal cancers that were treated with high-precise radiation therapies. The recurrence sites were cervical lymph nodes (5 cases), superior mediastinal lymph nodes (5 cases), posterior mediastinal lymph nodes (3 cases), regional lymph nodes with anastomosis (2 cases), abdominal para-aortic lymph node (3 cases), and regions with hematogenous metastasis (5 cases: liver, lung, spleen, and dissemination to the diaphragm bottom). By recurrence number, 10 cases presented with a single lesion, and 6 cases had multiple lesions. The effect of the treatment was complete response (CR) in all cases, and 6 cases maintained CR. The median of the overall survival after radiotherapy was 562 (132-1,231) days. Analysis of the prognostic factors for the overall survival from a recurrence revealed that the metastatic number (single) (p=0.003), and the metastatic pattern (hematogenous metastasis) (p=0.004), significantly improved prognosis. We conclude that radiotherapy is an option to extend prognosis in some recurrence cases. (author)

  20. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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    Elizabeth Singer

    Full Text Available Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127 than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2

  1. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

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    Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biopsies were obtained from the abnormal areas. In women with normal colposcopic findings four quadrant biopsies from squamo - columnar junction were taken .Eight women were excluded from analysis owing to unsatisfactory colp oscopy. Results of colposcopy were validated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value in diagnosing histopathologically confirmed lesions which served as gold standard. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of colposcopy in all grades of lesions is around 90% or more, touching 100% in high order of histological lesions.Overall specificity is also high.It does have an excellent negative predictive value but comparatively lower positive predictive value especially in high order lesions with fair degree of accuracy in all grades of lesions in the hands of an experienced operator. CONCLUSION: Colposcopy using Modified Reid’s Index with high sensitivity and specificity is a good screening tool for cervical cancer

  2. Redesign of a computerized clinical reminder for colorectal cancer screening: a human-computer interaction evaluation

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    Saleem Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on barriers to the use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS learned in an earlier field study, we prototyped design enhancements to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's colorectal cancer (CRC screening clinical reminder to compare against the VHA's current CRC reminder. Methods In a controlled simulation experiment, 12 primary care providers (PCPs used prototypes of the current and redesigned CRC screening reminder in a within-subject comparison. Quantitative measurements were based on a usability survey, workload assessment instrument, and workflow integration survey. We also collected qualitative data on both designs. Results Design enhancements to the VHA's existing CRC screening clinical reminder positively impacted aspects of usability and workflow integration but not workload. The qualitative analysis revealed broad support across participants for the design enhancements with specific suggestions for improving the reminder further. Conclusions This study demonstrates the value of a human-computer interaction evaluation in informing the redesign of information tools to foster uptake, integration into workflow, and use in clinical practice.

  3. FDG-PET-CT for staging of high-risk breast cancer patients reduces the number of further examinations: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim. To determine the additional value of FDG-PET-CT as compared to conventional staging (CS) in high-risk breast cancer patients. Patients and methods. Thirty-one high-risk breast cancer patients, 14 of whom had recurrent breast cancer, were included in this study, which took place between June 2005 and March 2008. None of the patients had clinical signs of distant metastases. FDG-PET-CT scanning was added to CS, which consisted of a chest x-ray, liver ultrasonography or CT, and bone scintigraphy. Median follow-up was 17 months (6-41 months). FDG-PET-CT was considered to have additional value to CS if it led to a change in treatment plan or if it made additional examinations to confirm or deny findings on CS unnecessary. Results. FDG-PET-CT was considered to have additional value to CS in 13 patients (42% [95% CI: 23-61]). In five patients (16% [95% CI: 1-31]), FDG-PET-CT led to a change in treatment plan by identifying nodal metastases in the internal mammary chain (IMC; N = 3) or in the mediastinum (N = 2). In nine patients (29% [95% CI: 11-47]), FDG-PET-CT would have prevented the need for additional examinations; in seven of these nine patients, distant metastases were suggested in bone or liver on CS, but these did not show FDG uptake. Conclusions. FDG-PET-CT was found to have additional value to CS in 42% of the patients. To optimize cost-effectiveness, the main challenge now is to improve the selection of patients in whom FDG-PET-CT has additional value to CS

  4. Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: Epidermal growth factor receptor and c-Src interactions in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Src, and members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family are overexpressed in high percentages of human breast cancers. Because these molecules are plasma membrane-associated and involved in mitogenesis, it has been speculated that they function in concert with one another to promote breast cancer development and progression. Evidence to date supports a model wherein c-Src potentiates the survival, proliferation and tumorigenesis of EGF receptor family members, in part by associating with them. Phosphorylation of the EGF receptor by c-SRC is also critical for mitogenic signaling initiated by the EGF receptor itself, as well as by several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a cytokine receptor, and the estrogen receptor. Thus, c-Src appears to have pleiotropic effects on cancer cells by modulating the action of multiple growth-promoting receptors

  5. Factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services by women aged ≥ 40 years in Korea: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III)

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Hyung; Lee Kiheon; Park Sang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, until recently most women have not undergone regular mammogram examinations in Korea. We aimed to identify factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services. Methods The Health Promotion Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey (HP-KAP survey) is part of the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III), a nationwide health survey in Korea. Of 7,802...

  6. Genomic distance entrained clustering and regression modelling highlights interacting genomic regions contributing to proliferation in breast cancer

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    Dexter Tim J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic copy number changes and regional alterations in epigenetic states have been linked to grade in breast cancer. However, the relative contribution of specific alterations to the pathology of different breast cancer subtypes remains unclear. The heterogeneity and interplay of genomic and epigenetic variations means that large datasets and statistical data mining methods are required to uncover recurrent patterns that are likely to be important in cancer progression. Results We employed ridge regression to model the relationship between regional changes in gene expression and proliferation. Regional features were extracted from tumour gene expression data using a novel clustering method, called genomic distance entrained agglomerative (GDEC clustering. Using gene expression data in this way provides a simple means of integrating the phenotypic effects of both copy number aberrations and alterations in chromatin state. We show that regional metagenes derived from GDEC clustering are representative of recurrent regions of epigenetic regulation or copy number aberrations in breast cancer. Furthermore, detected patterns of genomic alterations are conserved across independent oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer datasets. Sequential competitive metagene selection was used to reveal the relative importance of genomic regions in predicting proliferation rate. The predictive model suggested additive interactions between the most informative regions such as 8p22-12 and 8q13-22. Conclusions Data-mining of large-scale microarray gene expression datasets can reveal regional clusters of co-ordinate gene expression, independent of cause. By correlating these clusters with tumour proliferation we have identified a number of genomic regions that act together to promote proliferation in ER+ breast cancer. Identification of such regions should enable prioritisation of genomic regions for combinatorial functional studies to pinpoint

  7. Monoclonal antibody 4C5 prevents activation of MMP2 and MMP9 by disrupting their interaction with extracellular HSP90 and inhibits formation of metastatic breast cancer cell deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Patsavoudi Evangelia; El Hamidieh Avraam; Stellas Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is considered a new target for the treatment of cancer. Increasing data reveal an extracellular chaperoning activity for HSP90. Here we investigate the interaction of the secreted isoforms of HSP90 with matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover we examine the role of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against HSP90, mAb 4C5, regarding these interactions and its value as a potential inhibitor of human breast...

  8. A nested case-control approach to interactions between radiation dose and other factors as causes of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Often a nested case-control study is the most practicable approach to estimating the interaction of two cancer risk factors in a large cohort. If one of the factors has already been evaluated for the entire cohort, however, more information is already available about its relationship to risk than could be obtained from a nested study. A modified case-control approach is proposed, in which information about the second, unknown factor is sought for cases and controls matched on the first factor. The approach requires, for interaction models other than the multiplicative, a nonstandard analytical approach incorporating cohort-based information about the first factor. The problem is discussed in the context of breast cancer risk in a defined cohort of female Japanese atomic bomb survivors, in relation to radiation dose and reproductive history. (author)

  9. Genetic Evidence for XPC-KRAS Interactions During Lung Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; He, Nonggao; Gu, Dongsheng; Wickliffe, Jeff; Salazar, James; Boldogh, Istavan; Xie, Jingwu

    2015-10-20

    Lung cancer causes more deaths than breast, colorectal and prostate cancers combined. Despite major advances in targeted therapy in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas, the overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer worldwide has not significantly changed for the last few decades. DNA repair deficiency is known to contribute to lung cancer development. In fact, human polymorphisms in DNA repair genes such as xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) are highly associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the direct genetic evidence for the role of XPC for lung cancer development is still lacking. Mutations of the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) or its downstream effector genes occur in almost all lung cancer cells, and there are a number of mouse models for lung cancer with these mutations. Using activated Kras, Kras(LA1), as a driver for lung cancer development in mice, we showed for the first time that mice with Kras(LA1) and Xpc knockout had worst outcomes in lung cancer development, and this phenotype was associated with accumulated DNA damage. Using cultured cells, we demonstrated that induced expression of oncogenic KRAS(G12V) led to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as DNA damage, and both can be suppressed by anti-oxidants. Our results suggest that XPC may help repair DNA damage caused by KRAS-mediated production of ROS. PMID:26554912

  10. Clinically significant drug–drug interactions involving opioid analgesics used for pain treatment in patients with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlinska-Lemieszek A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,1 Pål Klepstad,2,3,6 Dagny Faksvåg Haugen2,4,5 1Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, University Hospital of the Lord’s Transfiguration, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2European Palliative Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 4Regional Centre of Excellence for Palliative Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 5Department of Clinical Medicine K1, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 6Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: Opioids are the most frequently used drugs to treat pain in cancer patients. In some patients, however, opioids can cause adverse effects and drug–drug interactions. No advice concerning the combination of opioids and other drugs is given in the current European guidelines. Objective: To identify studies that report clinically significant drug–drug interactions involving opioids used for pain treatment in adult cancer patients. Design and data sources: Systematic review with searches in Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the start of the databases (Embase from 1980 through January 2014. In addition, reference lists of relevant full-text papers were hand-searched. Results: Of 901 retrieved papers, 112 were considered as potentially eligible. After full-text reading, 17 were included in the final analysis, together with 15 papers identified through hand-searching of reference lists. All of the 32 included publications were case reports or case series. Clinical manifestations of drug–drug interactions involving opioids were grouped as follows: 1 sedation and respiratory depression, 2 other central nervous system symptoms, 3 impairment of pain

  11. Investigating mathematical models of immuno-interactions with early-stage cancer under an agent-based modelling perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Figueredo, Grazziela P.; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in research regarding immuno-interactions with cancer were developed with the help of ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. These models, however, are not effectively capable of representing problems involving individual localisation, memory and emerging properties, which are common characteristics of cells and molecules of the immune system. Agent-based modelling and simulation is an alternative paradigm to ODE models that overcomes these limitations. In this paper we in...

  12. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

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    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  13. GAIP interacting protein C-terminus regulates autophagy and exosome biogenesis of pancreatic cancer through metabolic pathways.

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    Santanu Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular shedding, and observed that GIPC status determines the loading of cellular cargo in the exosome. Furthermore, we have shown the overexpression of the drug resistance gene ABCG2 in exosomes from GIPC-depleted pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrated that depletion of GIPC from cancer cells sensitized them to gemcitabine treatment, an avenue that can be explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer.

  14. Developing a fluorescence-coupled capillary electrophoresis based method to probe interactions between QDs and colorectal cancer targeting peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Wang, Jianhao; Yang, Li; Liu, Li; Ding, Shumin; Fu, Minli; Deng, Linhong; Gao, Li-Qian

    2016-08-01

    As is well known, quantum dots (QDs) have become valuable probes for cancer imaging. In particular, QD-labeled targeting peptides are capable of identifying cancer or tumors cells. A new colorectal cancer targeting peptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHC, has strong targeting ability and also shows great potential in the identification and treatment of colon cancer. Herein, we synthesized a dual functional polypeptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHCD2 G2 DP9 G3 H6 (H6 -TCP), to investigate its interaction with QDs inside the capillary. Fluorescence-coupled CE was adopted and applied to characterize the self-assembly of H6 -TCP onto QDs. It was indicated that the formation of the assembly was affected by H6 -TCP/QD molar ratio and sampling time. This novel in-capillary assay greatly reduced the sample consumption and the detection time, which was beneficial for the environment. It is expected that this kind of detection method could find more applications to provide more useful information for cancer diagnosis and detection of harm and hazardous substances/organisms in the environment in the future. PMID:27159348

  15. A synthetic interaction screen identifies factors selectively required for proliferation and TERT transcription in p53-deficient human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xie

    Full Text Available Numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations render cancer cells selectively dependent on specific genes and regulatory pathways, and represent potential vulnerabilities that can be therapeutically exploited. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi-based synthetic interaction screen to identify genes preferentially required for proliferation of p53-deficient (p53- human cancer cells. We find that compared to p53-competent (p53+ human cancer cell lines, diverse p53- human cancer cell lines are preferentially sensitive to loss of the transcription factor ETV1 and the DNA damage kinase ATR. In p53- cells, RNAi-mediated knockdown of ETV1 or ATR results in decreased expression of the telomerase catalytic subunit TERT leading to growth arrest, which can be reversed by ectopic TERT expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that ETV1 binds to a region downstream of the TERT transcriptional start-site in p53- but not p53+ cells. We find that the role of ATR is to phosphorylate and thereby stabilize ETV1. Our collective results identify a regulatory pathway involving ETV1, ATR, and TERT that is preferentially important for proliferation of diverse p53- cancer cells.

  16. Promising antioxidant and anticancer (human breast cancer) oxidovanadium(IV) complex of chlorogenic acid. Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic examination on the transport mechanism with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naso, Luciana G; Valcarcel, María; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Kortazar, Danel; Salado, Clarisa; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo; González-Baró, Ana C; Williams, Patricia A M; Ferrer, Evelina G

    2014-06-01

    A new chlorogenate oxidovanadium complex (Na[VO(chlorog)(H2O)3].4H2O) was synthesized by using Schlenk methodology in the course of a reaction at inert atmosphere in which deprotonated chlorogenic acid ligand binds to oxidovanadium(IV) in a reaction experiment controlled via EPR technique and based in a species distribution diagram. The compound was characterized by FTIR, EPR, UV-visible and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and thermogravimetric, differential thermal and elemental analyses. The ligand and the complex were tested for their antioxidant effects on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), ABTS(+) (radical cation of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), O2(-), OH and ROO radicals and their cytotoxic activity on different cancer cell lines (SKBR3, T47D and MDAMB231) and primary human mammary epithelial cells. The complex behaved as good antioxidant agent with strongest inhibitory effects on O2(-), OH and ROO radicals and exhibited selective cytotoxicity against SKBR3 cancer cell line. Albumin interaction experiments denoted high affinity toward the complex and its calculated binding constant was indicative of a strong binding to the protein. Based on this study, it is hypothesized that Na[VO(chlorog)(H2O)3].4H2O would be a promising candidate for further evaluation as an antioxidant and anticancer agent. PMID:24681549

  17. Akt kinase-interacting protein1, a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer with EGFR-activating and gatekeeper mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Takeuchi, S; Fujita, N; Nakamura, A; Wang, W; Li, Q; Oda, M; Mitsudomi, T; Yatabe, Y; Sekido, Y; Yoshida, J; Higashiyama, M; Noguchi, M; Uehara, H; Nishioka, Y; Sone, S; Yano, S

    2013-09-12

    Despite initial dramatic response, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancer patients always acquire resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent genetic alteration underlying acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, and EGFR mutant lung cancer cells are reported to be addictive to EGFR/Akt signaling even after acquired T790M mutation. Here, we focused on Akt kinase-interacting protein1 (Aki1), a scaffold protein of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase)/Akt that determines receptor signal selectivity for non-mutated EGFR, and assessed its role in EGFR mutant lung cancer with or without gatekeeper T790M mutation. Cell line-based assays showed that Aki1 constitutively associates with mutant EGFR in lung cancer cells with (H1975) or without (PC-9 and HCC827) T790M gatekeeper mutation. Silencing of Aki1 induced apoptosis of EGFR mutant lung cancer cells. Treatment with Aki1 siRNA dramatically inhibited growth of H1975 cells in a xenograft model. Moreover, silencing of Aki1 further potentiated growth inhibitory effect of new generation EGFR-TKIs against H1975 cells in vitro. Aki1 was frequently expressed in tumor cells of EGFR mutant lung cancer patients (53/56 cases), including those with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment (7/7 cases). Our data suggest that Aki1 may be a critical mediator of survival signaling from mutant EGFR to Akt, and may therefore be an ideal target for EGFR mutant lung cancer patients, especially those with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance due to EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation. PMID:23045273

  18. Associations of two common genetic variants with breast cancer risk in a chinese population: a stratified interaction analysis.

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    Yuxiang Lin

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a series of new genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer (BC. However, the correlations between these variants and breast cancer are still not clear. In order to explore the role of breast cancer susceptibility variants in a Southeast Chinese population, we genotyped two common SNPs at chromosome 6q25 (rs2046210 and in TOX3 (rs4784227 in a case-control study with a total of 702 breast cancer cases and 794 healthy-controls. In addition, we also evaluated the multiple interactions among genetic variants, risk factors, and tumor subtypes. Associations of genotypes with breast cancer risk was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. The results indicated that both polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer, with per allele OR = 1.35, (95%CI = 1.17-1.57 for rs2046210 and per allele OR = 1.24 (95%CI = 1.06-1.45 for rs4784227. Furthermore, in subgroup stratified analyses, we observed that the T allele of rs4784227 was significantly associated with elevated OR among postmenopausal populations (OR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.11-1.87 but not in premenopausal populations, with the heterogeneity P value of P = 0.064. These findings suggest that the genetic variants at chromosome 6q25 and in the TOX3 gene may play important roles in breast cancer development in a Chinese population and the underlying biological mechanisms need to be further elucidated.

  19. Molecular Basis of Drug Interactions of Methotrexate, Cyclophosphamide and 5-Fluorouracil as Chemotherapeutic Agents in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sarder; Md. Golam Rabbani; A. S. M. Homaun Kabir Chowdhury; Mahbub-E-Sobhani

    2015-01-01

    At present, chemotherapy is one of the principal methods of treatment of cancer. For many years, chemotherapy is possibly the only way to control cancers that do not respond to either surgery or radiation. To date a good number of chemotherapeutic drugs have been developed which are effective in the treatment of human cancers. But, A few drugs have been known to be safe and promising. The most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs include methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouraci...

  20. CXCR4-SDF-1 interaction potentially mediates trafficking of circulating tumor cells in primary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mego, M.; Cholujova, D.; Minarik, G.; Sedlackova, T.; Gronesova, P.; Karaba, M.; Benca, J.; Cingelova, S.; Cierna, Z.; Manasova, D.; Pindak, D.; Sufliarsky, J.; Cristofanilli, M; Reuben, J. M.; Mardiak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytokines are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play key role in tumor dissemination and are an independent survival predictor in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between CTCs and plasma cytokines in primary breast cancer (PBC) patients. Methods This study included 147 chemotherapy naïve PBC patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were depleted of hematopoetic cells using RossetteSep™ negati...

  1. Interactive statistical packages to assist in radiotherapy management of prostate cancer. 148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the treatment most likely to produce a satisfactory outcome is one of the major challenges in managing disease. Treatment decisions are influenced by institutional policy, personal experience, and patient characteristics. Expert systems based on a priori if-then rules are not suitable for the management of prostate cancer because of (1) a lack of general agreement among experts, (2) the large number of patient parameter possibilities that must be covered by rules, and (3) the difficulty for a clinician to state (even fuzzy) rules for each patient variable or variable combination. In this paper we describe an interactive statistical package that (1) learns an expert's decisions on cases generated by a random case simulator, (2) analyzes and explains new cases in the manner of the teaching expert, (3) can be individualized for each physician, (4) can be setup, modified, or verified quickly, and (5) can be networked with the individualized systems of other experts. An expert can use the system as a memory aid or to compare his decisions with those of his colleagues. A non-expert physician can inform his patient of the expert's likely approach. An institution can determine the domains of patient parameter space about which experts disagree and focus research resources there. Based on sampling statistics, the system weighs the relative preference for each decision path in a tree of questions specified by the expert and then integrates this information. Only statistically significant patient parametes are used for each question. The final result is a probability of each treatment option being selected by the expert. The use of the ISP will be shown for the management of prostate carcinoma. 5 refs.; 1 figure

  2. Interactions between cells with distinct mutations in c-MYC and Pten in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In human somatic tumorigenesis, mutations are thought to arise sporadically in individual cells surrounded by unaffected cells. This contrasts with most current transgenic models where mutations are induced synchronously in entire cell populations. Here we have modeled sporadic oncogene activation using a transgenic mouse in which c-MYC is focally activated in prostate luminal epithelial cells. Focal c-MYC expression resulted in mild pathology, but prostate-specific deletion of a single allele of the Pten tumor suppressor gene cooperated with c-MYC to induce high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN/cancer lesions. These lesions were in all cases associated with loss of Pten protein expression from the wild type allele. In the prostates of mice with concurrent homozygous deletion of Pten and focal c-MYC activation, double mutant (i.e. c-MYC+;Pten-null cells were of higher grade and proliferated faster than single mutant (Pten-null cells within the same glands. Consequently, double mutant cells outcompeted single mutant cells despite the presence of increased rates of apoptosis in the former. The p53 pathway was activated in Pten-deficient prostate cells and tissues, but c-MYC expression shifted the p53 response from senescence to apoptosis by repressing the p53 target gene p21(Cip1. We conclude that c-MYC overexpression and Pten deficiency cooperate to promote prostate tumorigenesis, but a p53-dependent apoptotic response may present a barrier to further progression. Our results highlight the utility of inducing mutations focally to model the competitive interactions between cell populations with distinct genetic alterations during tumorigenesis.

  3. Interactions between carbo-platin, cisplatin and ionising radiation in an human ovarian cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisplatin (CDDP) and radiotherapy are frequently used concomitantly in the treatment of various malignant conditions. Because of its toxicity, cisplatin tends to be replaced by carbo-platin (CBDCA) in several indications. Available data regarding the combined effects of cisplatin and carbo-platin with ionising radiation are contradictory. Various concentrations of cisplatin and carbo-platin and various timing of association with radiation have been tested in vitro in a human ovarian cancer cell line. The parental cell line (AOvC-0) and a cisplatin-resistant stable sub-line (AOvC-CDDP/O) (De Pooter et al., Cn Res, 1991) were exposed to carbo-platin (2.5, 5 and 10 M) and to CDDP (1, 2.5 and 5 M), 16 h and 4 h before and 4 h and 16 h after irradiation, respectively. Cell survival was evaluated by a classical clonogenic assay. Exposure of AOvC-0 to 5M CBDCA and of AOvC-CDDDP/O to 10 M CBDCA, before or shortly after radiation exposure, increased cell lethality in a clear supra-additive way, with the highest DEF in the shoulder region of the survival curve and at radiation doses relevant to clinical radiotherapy. In the sensitive cell line, 5 M carbo-platin resulted in an additional lethality equivalent to 4.5 Gy; in the resistant cells, 10M carbo-platin was equivalent to 3.6 Gy. Replacing carbo-platin by cisplatin in an identical set-up demonstrated exclusively simple additivity (DEF = 1). These data suggest that carbo-platin and cisplatin delivered at equi-toxic doses interact with radiation a different way and that, in the present set-up, only carbo-platin enhanced the effects of radiation. Carbo-platin might consequently be a better candidate than cisplatin in some concomitant combinations with radiotherapy. (authors)

  4. Construction and analysis of protein-protein interaction networks based on proteomics data of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Li-Guo; Liu, Jian; Cao, Xiao-Ge; Yao, An-Liang; Kang, Shao-San; Gao, Wei-Xing; Han, Hui; Cao, Feng-Hong; Li, Zhi-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Currently, using human prostate cancer (PCa) tissue samples to conduct proteomics research has generated a large amount of data; however, only a very small amount has been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we manually carried out the mining of the full text of proteomics literature that involved comparisons between PCa and normal or benign tissue and identified 41 differentially expressed proteins verified or reported more than 2 times from different research studies. We regarded these proteins as seed proteins to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The extended network included one giant network, which consisted of 1,264 nodes connected via 1,744 edges, and 3 small separate components. The backbone network was then constructed, which was derived from key nodes and the subnetwork consisting of the shortest path between seed proteins. Topological analyses of these networks were conducted to identify proteins essential for the genesis of PCa. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (SLC2A4) had the highest closeness centrality located in the center of each network, and the highest betweenness centrality and largest degree in the backbone network. Tubulin, beta 2C (TUBB2C) had the largest degree in the giant network and subnetwork. In addition, using module analysis of the whole PPI network, we obtained a densely connected region. Functional annotation indicated that the Ras protein signal transduction biological process, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), neurotrophin and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathway may play an important role in the genesis and development of PCa. Further investigation of the SLC2A4, TUBB2C proteins, and these biological processes and pathways may therefore provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of PCa. PMID:27121963

  5. A nomogram based on age,prostate-specific antigen level,prostate volume and digital rectal examination for predicting risk of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Hui Chen; Matthew Uhlman; Yu-Rong Lin; Xiang-Rong Deng; Bin Wang; Wen-Jun Yang; Ke-Ji Xie

    2013-01-01

    Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort.In the present study,we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population.A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included.Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy.Age,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),prostate volume (PV),digital rectal examination (DRE) status,% free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis.A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy.A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy.The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535).The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age,PSA,PV and DRE status.The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%,respectively.Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram.The nomogram can be used to identify and Counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy,ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.

  6. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium: a combined case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Couch, Fergus J.; Benitez, Javier; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Malats, Nuria; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna J.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of liv...

  7. Effect of short message service as a reminder on breast self-examination in breast cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il Yong; Kang, Eunyoung; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Dongwon; Sun, Young; Hwang, Yoonsun; Jang, Jin Youn; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-04-01

    This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of SMS as a reminder for breast self-examination (BSE). Participants who underwent surgery for breast cancer were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or the control group. Subjects in the intervention group received one text message on the first day of every month that reminded them to complete monthly BSE and the other text message on the fifteenth day of every month that contained information about breast cancer. Primary and secondary outcomes were self-reported BSE adherence and the frequency of BSE over 6 months. Between August 2010 and December 2011, 216 patients were randomly assigned to the SMS group (n = 110) or the control group (n = 106). A total of 202 patients were included in the final analysis. Self-reported BSE adherence and the frequency of BSE over the past six months were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that the SMS was the only significant factor for BSE adherence (p < 0.001). The short-term results of our study suggest that SMS is an effective and low-cost method to enhance adherence to BSE with existing information technology infrastructure. PMID:25697492

  8. MAPK genes interact with diet and lifestyle factors to alter risk of breast cancer: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L Slattery; Lundgreen, Abbie; John, Esther M.; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa; Giuliano, Anna R.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Stern, Mariana C.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are integration points for multiple biochemical signals. We evaluated 13 MAPK genes with breast cancer risk and determined if diet and lifestyle factors mediated risk. Data from three population-based case-control studies conducted in Southwestern United States, California, and Mexico included 4183 controls and 3592 cases. Percent Indigenous American (IA) ancestry was determined from 104 Ancestry Informative Markers. The adaptive rank truncated product...

  9. Interaction between Gemcitabine and Warfarin Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saif, M. Wasif

    2005-01-01

    Gemcitabine (Gemzar) is the only chemotherapeutic agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Thromboembolism requiring anticoagulation is a common paraneoplastic complication in these patients. We report a case of patient with pancreatic cancer, complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding following therapy with concomitant gemcitabine-warfarin (Coumadin).

  10. Online interaction. Effects of storytelling in an internet breast cancer support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Johansen, Christoffer; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2005-01-01

    The internet provides new ways of forming social relationships among people with breast cancer and is increasingly used for this purpose. This qualitative study, using ethnographic case-study method, aimed to explore how support groups on the internet can break the social isolation that follows...... cancer and chronic pain, by analysing the storytelling emerging on the Scandinavian Breast Cancer Mailing list. Using participant observation and face-to-face or online interviews of participants, we investigated the motivations of 15 women who chose the internet to counteract social isolation after...... breast cancer. The results showed that the women were empowered by the exchanges of knowledge and experience within the support group. The internet was considered a means for finding ways of living with breast cancer. Our study suggests that internet support groups have important potential...

  11. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  12. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  13. Grb7 SH2 domain structure and interactions with a cyclic peptide inhibitor of cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Stephanie C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7 is an adapter protein that mediates the coupling of tyrosine kinases with their downstream signaling pathways. Grb7 is frequently overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human cancers and is implicated in cancer progression via its interaction with the ErbB2 receptor and focal adhesion kinase (FAK that play critical roles in cell proliferation and migration. It is thus a prime target for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Recently, an inhibitory peptide (G7-18NATE has been developed which binds specifically to the Grb7 SH2 domain and is able to attenuate cancer cell proliferation and migration in various cancer cell lines. Results As a first step towards understanding how Grb7 may be inhibited by G7-18NATE, we solved the crystal structure of the Grb7 SH2 domain to 2.1 Å resolution. We describe the details of the peptide binding site underlying target specificity, as well as the dimer interface of Grb 7 SH2. Dimer formation of Grb7 was determined to be in the μM range using analytical ultracentrifugation for both full-length Grb7 and the SH2 domain alone, suggesting the SH2 domain forms the basis of a physiological dimer. ITC measurements of the interaction of the G7-18NATE peptide with the Grb7 SH2 domain revealed that it binds with a binding affinity of Kd = ~35.7 μM and NMR spectroscopy titration experiments revealed that peptide binding causes perturbations to both the ligand binding surface of the Grb7 SH2 domain as well as to the dimer interface, suggesting that dimerisation of Grb7 is impacted on by peptide binding. Conclusion Together the data allow us to propose a model of the Grb7 SH2 domain/G7-18NATE interaction and to rationalize the basis for the observed binding specificity and affinity. We propose that the current study will assist with the development of second generation Grb7 SH2 domain inhibitors, potentially leading to novel inhibitors of

  14. AMP18 interacts with the anion exchanger SLC26A3 and enhances its expression in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stadio, Chiara Stella; Altieri, Filomena; Miselli, Giuseppina; Elce, Ausilia; Severino, Valeria; Chambery, Angela; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Villano, Valentina; de Dominicis, Gianfranco; Rippa, Emilia; Arcari, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    AMP18 is a stomach-specific secreted protein expressed in normal gastric mucosa but absent in gastric cancer. AMP18 plays a major role in maintaining gastric mucosa integrity and is characterized by the presence of a BRICHOS domain consisting of about 100 amino acids, present also in several unrelated proteins, and probably endowed with a chaperon-like activity. In this work, we exploited a functional proteomic strategy to identify potential AMP18 interactors with the aim to add knowledge on its functional role within gastric cell lines and tissues. To this purpose, recombinant biotinylated AMP18 was purified and incubated with protein extract from human normal gastric mucosa by applying an affinity chromatography strategy. The interacting proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The pool of interacting proteins contained SLC26A3, a protein expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, supposed to play a critical role in Cl(-) absorption and fluid homeostasis. The interaction was also confirmed by Western blot with anti-SLC26A3 on transfected AGS cell extract following AMP18 pull-down. Furthermore, the interaction between AMP18 and SLC26A3 was also validated by confocal microscopy that showed a co-localization of both proteins at plasma membrane level. More importantly, for the first time, we showed that SLC26A3 is down-regulated in gastric cancer and that the overexpression of AMP18 in AMP-transfected gastric cancer cells up-regulated the expression of SLC26A3 both at transcriptional and translational level, the latter probably through the activation of the MAP kinases pathway. These findings strongly suggest that AMP18 might play an anti-inflammatory role in maintaining mucosal integrity also by regulating SLC26A3 level. PMID:26700142

  15. Gel-based chemical cross-linking analysis of 20S proteasome subunit-subunit interactions in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai; Xiong, Hua; Che, Jing; Xi, Qing-Song; Huang, Liu; Xiong, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a pivotal role in breast tumorigenesis by controlling transcription factors, thus promoting cell cycle growth, and degradation of tumor suppressor proteins. However, breast cancer patients have failed to benefit from proteasome inhibitor treatment partially due to proteasome heterogeneity, which is poorly understood in malignant breast neoplasm. Chemical crosslinking is an increasingly important tool for mapping protein three-dimensional structures and proteinprotein interactions. In the present study, two cross-linkers, bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)) and its water-insoluble analog disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), were used to map the subunit-subunit interactions in 20S proteasome core particle (CP) from MDA-MB-231 cells. Different types of gel electrophoresis technologies were used. In combination with chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we applied these gel electrophoresis technologies to the study of the noncovalent interactions among 20S proteasome subunits. Firstly, the CP subunit isoforms were profiled. Subsequently, using native/SDSPAGE, it was observed that 0.5 mmol/L BS(3) was a relatively optimal cross-linking concentration for CP subunit-subunit interaction study. 2-DE analysis of the cross-linked CP revealed that α1 might preinteract with α2, and α3 might pre-interact with α4. Moreover, there were different subtypes of α1α2 and α3α4 due to proteasome heterogeneity. There was no significant difference in cross-linking pattern for CP subunits between BS(3) and DSS. Taken together, the gel-based characterization in combination with chemical cross-linking could serve as a tool for the study of subunit interactions within a multi-subunit protein complex. The heterogeneity of 20S proteasome subunit observed in breast cancer cells may provide some key information for proteasome inhibition strategy. PMID:27465334

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  18. Wild-type EGFR Is Stabilized by Direct Interaction with HSP90 in Cancer Cells and Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarif Ahsan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been targeted for inhibition using tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, with improvement in outcome in subsets of patients with head and neck, lung, and colorectal carcinomas. We have previously found that EGFR stability plays a key role in cell survival after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 is known to stabilize mutant EGFR and ErbB2, but its role in cancers with wild-type (WT WT-EGFR is unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that fully mature, membrane-bound WT-EGFR interacts with HSP90 independent of ErbB2. Further, the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin (GA and AT13387 cause a decrease in WT-EGFR in cultured head and neck cancer cells. This decrease results from a significantly reduced half-life of WT-EGFR. WT-EGFR was also lost in head and neck xenograft specimens after treatment with AT13387 under conditions that inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of the mice. Our findings demonstrate that WT-EGFR is a client protein of HSP90 and that their interaction is critical for maintaining both the stability of the receptor as well as the growth of EGFR-dependent cancers. Furthermore, these findings support the search for specific agents that disrupt HSP90's ability to act as an EGFR chaperone.

  19. Essential roles of the interaction between cancer cell-derived chemokine, CCL4, and intra-bone CCR5-expressing fibroblasts in breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Soichiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Nishimura, Tatsunori; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Gotoh, Noriko; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2016-08-01

    From a murine breast cancer cell line, 4T1, we established a subclone, 4T1.3, which consistently metastasizes to bone upon its injection into the mammary fat pad. 4T1.3 clone exhibited similar proliferation rate and migration capacity as the parental clone. However, the intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused larger tumors than that of the parental cells, accompanied with increases in fibroblast, but not osteoclast or osteoblast numbers. 4T1.3 clone displayed an enhanced expression of a chemokine, CCL4, but not its specific receptor, CCR5. CCL4 shRNA-transfection of 4T1.3 clone had few effects on its in vitro properties, but reduced the tumorigenicity arising from the intra-bone injection. Moreover, intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused smaller tumors in mice deficient in CCR5 or those receiving CCR5 antagonist than in wild-type mice. The reduced tumor formation was associated with attenuated accumulation of CCR5-positive fibroblasts expressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/CCN2. Tumor cell-derived CCL4 could induce fibroblasts to express CTGF/CCN2, which could support 4T1.3 clone proliferation under hypoxic culture conditions. Thus, the CCL4-CCR5 axis can contribute to breast cancer metastasis to bone by mediating the interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts in bone cavity. PMID:27177471

  20. Interaction of CDCP1 with HER2 Enhances HER2-Driven Tumorigenesis and Promotes Trastuzumab Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alajati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the aggressive behavior of HER2-positive breast cancers may aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that CDCP1 and HER2 are frequently co-overexpressed in metastatic breast tumors and associated with poor patient prognosis. HER2 and CDCP1 co-overexpression leads to increased transformation ability, cell migration, and tumor formation in vivo, and enhanced HER2 activation and downstream signaling in different breast cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CDCP1 binds to HER2 through its intracellular domain, thereby increasing HER2 interaction with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-SRC (SRC, leading to trastuzumab resistance. Taken together, our findings establish that CDCP1 is a modulator of HER2 signaling and a biomarker for the stratification of breast cancer patients with poor prognosis. Our results also provide a rationale for therapeutic targeting of CDCP1 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

  1. Structure-based Engineering of Species Selectivity in the Interaction Between Urokinase and its Receptor: Implication for Preclinical Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored receptor (uPAR) is decisive for cell surface-associated plasminogen activation. Because plasmin activity controls fibrinolysis in a variety of pathological conditions, including cancer and wound healing, several intervention studies have focused on targeting the uPA · uPAR interaction in vivo. Evaluations of such studies in xenotransplanted tumor models are, however, complicated by the pronounced species selectivity in this interaction. We now report the molecular basis underlying this difference by solving the crystal structure for the murine uPA · uPAR complex and demonstrate by extensive surface plasmon resonance studies that the kinetic rate constants for this interaction can be swapped completely between these orthologs by exchanging only two residues. This study not only discloses the structural basis required for a successful rational design of the species selectivity in the uPA · uPAR interaction, which is highly relevant for functional studies in mouse models, but it also suggests the possible development of general inhibitors that will target the uPA · uPAR interaction across species barriers.

  2. Examination of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Mechanisms controlling survival and induction of apoptosis following selective inhibition

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary Clare

    2011-06-01

    Background: Platelet-type 12-LOX is an arachidonic acid metabolising enzyme resulting in the formation of 12(S)-HETE, which stimulates tumour cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to examine the expression profile and role of this enzyme in NSCLC, and determine if it is a potential target for intervention. Methods: A panel of retrospective resected lung tumours was stained for 12-LOX expression by IHC. Levels of the 12-LOX metabolite, 12(S)-HETE, were examined in 50 NSCLC serum samples, and correlated with serum VEGF. A panel of NSCLC cell lines were treated with baicalein (10 uM), a selective inhibitor of 12-LOX, or 12(S)-HETE (100 ng\\/ml) and cell survival\\/proliferation examined by BrdU. Apoptosis following 12-LOX inhibition was examined by HCS and validated by FACS and DNA laddering. The effect of 12-LOX inhibition on NSCLC tumour growth and survival was examined in-vivo using an athymic nude mouse model. Gene alterations following 12-LOX inhibition in NSCLC cell lines were assessed by qPCR arrays and validated by RT-PCR. Transient transfection methods were used to examine the effects of 12-LOX overexpression in NSCLC cells. Results: 12-LOX expression was observed to a varying degree in human lung cancers of varying histological subtypes. 12(S)-HETE levels were correlated (p<0.05) with those of VEGF. Baicalein inhibited proliferation\\/survival in all cell lines, while 12(S)-HETE increased proliferation. 12-LOX inhibition increased apoptosis, indicated by a reduction in f-actin content and mitochondrial mass potential. Treatment with baicalein significantly reduced the growth of NSCLC tumours and increased overall survival in athymic nude mice. qPCR array data implicated a number of apoptosis\\/angiogenesis genes regulating these effects, including bcl-2, VEGF, integrin A2 and A4. 12-LOX overexpression resulted in an increase in VEGF secretion, confirming qPCR observations. Conclusions: 12-LOX is a survival factor\\/potential target in

  3. Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Using CT in Combination with a PET Examination to Minimize the Clinical Target Volume of the Mediastinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusheng Shi; Xiaogang Deng; Longhua Chen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To decrease radiation injury of the esophagus and lungs by utilizing a CT scan in combination with PET tumor imaging in order to minimize the clinical target area of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, without preventive radiation on the lymphatic drainage area. METHODS Of 76 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 32 received a PET examination before radiotherapy. Preventive radiation was not conducted in the mediastinum area without lymphatic metastasis, which was confirmed by CT and PET. For the other 44 patients, preventive radiation was performed in the lymphatic drainage area. PET examinations showed that the clinical target volume of the patients was decreased on average to about one third. The radiation therapy for patients of the two groups was the same, I.e. The dose for accelerated fractionated irradiation was 3 Gy/time and 5 time/week. The preventive dose was 42 to 45 Gy/time, 14 to 15 time/week, with 3-week treatment, and the therapeutic dose was 60 to 63 Gy/time, 20 to 21 time/week, with a period of 4 to 5 weeks.RESULTS The rate of missed lymph nodes beyond the irradiation field was 6.3% and 4.5% respectively in the group with and without PET examination (P = 0.831). The incidence of acute radioactive esophagitis was 15.6 % and 45.5% in the two groups respectively (P = 0.006). The incidence of acute radiation pneumonia and long-term pulmonary fibrosis in the two groups was 6.3% and 9.1%, and 68.8% and 75.0%, respectively (P = 0.982 and P = 0.547).CONCLUSION The recurrence rate in the lymph nodes beyond the target area was not increased after minimizing the clinical target volume (CTV), whereas radioactive injury to the lungs and esophageal injury was reduced, and especially with a significant decrease in the rate of acute radioactive esophagitis. The method of CT in combination with PET for minimizing the mediastinal CTV is superior to the conventional preventive radiation of the mediastinum.

  4. Human Subperitoneal Fibroblast and Cancer Cell Interaction Creates Microenvironment That Enhances Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Motohiro; Higuchi, Youichi; Yokota, Mitsuru; Ishii, Genichiro; Saito, Norio; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds Peritoneal invasion in colon cancer is an important prognostic factor. Peritoneal invasion can be objectively identified as periotoneal elastic laminal invasion (ELI) by using elastica stain, and the cancer microenvironment formed by the peritoneal invasion (CMPI) can also be observed. Cases with ELI more frequently show distant metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, CMPI may represent a particular milieu that facilitates tumor progression. Pathological and biological investigation...

  5. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment: Development of an Interactive Patient Education Website

    OpenAIRE

    DUNBAR Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. ...

  6. Blood Magnesium, and the Interaction with Calcium, on the Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qi; Motley, Saundra S.; Smith, Joseph A.; Concepcion, Raoul; Barocas, Daniel; Byerly, Susan; Fowke, Jay H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ionized calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) compete as essential messengers to regulate cell proliferation and inflammation. We hypothesized that inadequate Mg levels, perhaps relative to Ca levels (e.g. a high Ca/Mg ratio) are associated with greater prostate cancer risk. Study Design In this biomarker sub-study of the Nashville Men's Health Study (NMHS), we included 494 NMHS participants, consisting of 98 high-grade (Gleason≥7) and 100 low-grade cancer cases, 133 prostate intraepithe...

  7. The synergistic apoptotic interaction of panaxadiol and epigallocatechin gallate in human colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible synergistic anticancer effects of PD and EGCG on human colorectal cancer cells and explored the potential role of apoptosis in the synergistic activities. Effects of selected compounds on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were evaluated by an...

  8. Interacting Inflammatory and Growth Factor Signals Underlie the Obesity-Cancer Link12

    OpenAIRE

    Lashinger, Laura M.; Ford, Nikki A.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk factor for many chronic diseases (including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer), has risen steadily for the past several decades in the United States and many parts of the world. Today, ∼70% of U.S. adults and 30% of children are at an unhealthy weight. The evidence on key biologic mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link, with an emphasis on local and systemic inflammatory processes and their crosstalk wit...

  9. The Interactions of Obesity, Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obese postmenopausal women have an increased breast cancer risk, the principal mechanism for which is elevated estrogen production by adipose tissue; also, regardless of menstrual status and tumor estrogen dependence, obesity is associated with biologically aggressive breast cancers. Type 2 diabetes has a complex relationship with breast cancer risk and outcome; coexisting obesity may be a major factor, but insulin itself induces adipose aromatase activity and estrogen production and also directly stimulates breast cancer cell growth and invasion. Adipose tissue inflammation occurs frequently in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2 produced by cyclooxygenase-2 in the associated infiltrating macrophages also induce elevated aromatase expression. In animal models, the same proinflammatory mediators, and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, also stimulate tumor cell proliferation and invasion directly and promote tumor-related angiogenesis. We postulate that chronic adipose tissue inflammation, rather than body mass index-defined obesity per se, is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and postmenopausal estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Also, notably before the menopause, obesity and type 2 diabetes, or perhaps the associated inflammation, promote estrogen-independent, notably triple-negative, breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis by mechanisms that may involve macrophage-secreted cytokines, adipokines and insulin.

  10. Wind-Snow Interactions and Treeline Advance in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming: A Coupled Examination Using Dendroecology and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G.; Crawford, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that broad-scale increases in temperature facilitated an abrupt initiation of upper treeline advance beginning in the 1950s at climatic treelines throughout a large portion of the southern and central Rocky Mountains. Despite this regional trend, patterns of finer scale variability often imply the likely influence of both wind-snow interactions and temperature on driving regeneration dynamics in these climatically-sensitive ecotones. This is particularly true for mountain ranges subject to consistently strong winds, such as the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming. A rich history of treeline work exists for this area, yet questions remain regarding how influential wind and snowpack variability are in governing climate-vegetation interactions within upper treeline ecotones and whether this varies according to the level of wind exposure. Here we present a coupled examination using dendroecology and remote sensing to test the hypothesis that sufficient snow cover is required in order for the ecological manifestation of increasing temperatures to appear at upper treeline; namely treeline advance. We used dendroecological methods to reconstruct the history of colonization on the two highest peaks in the range (Medicine Bow Peak Massif and Kannaday Peak). We sampled a total of six sites by placing nested-belt transects on two south-facing and one north-facing site for each peak. To gauge the influence of wind-snow interactions at each site, we analyzed remotely-sensed images. We selected three sets of LANDSAT images for each mountain peak based on years with maximum, minimum, and mean snowfall conditions to capture the entire range of variability. Results demonstrate that snow cover can be a critical modifier of treeline advance, especially on wind-exposed slopes and on mountain peaks with a relatively dry hydroclimatology, where a protective snow layer is only evident during high snow years. Overall, this research suggests that the role of wind

  11. Interaction between genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450-1B1 and environmental pollutants in breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintot, M; Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Gerber, M

    2004-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is implicated in the activation of potentially carcinogenic xenobiotics and oestrogens. The polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene at codon 432 (Val-->Leu) is associated with change in catalytic function. In a case-series study of breast cancer patients, we investigated the interaction between this polymorphism and environmental exposure. The women carrying the Val CYP1B1 allele and who had lived near to a waste incinerator for more than 10 years had a higher risk of breast cancer than those never exposed with the Leu/Leu genotype (odds ratio of interactions (ORi)=3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-8.84). Also, the Val CYP1B1 allele increased the susceptibility to breast cancer for women exposed during their life to agricultural products used in farming (ORi = 2.18, 95% CI 1.10-4.32). These xenobiotics, mainly organochlorine hydrocarbons, are known to bind to the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and to induce the expression of CYP1B1 enzyme. The excess risk for exposed women with a Val CYP1B1 homo/heterozygous genotype could result from a higher exposure to activated metabolites of pesticides or dioxin-like substances. Also, a higher induction of CYP1B1 enzyme by xenobiotics could increase the formation of genotoxic catechol-oestrogens among exposed women carrying the Val CYP1B1 allele. Our results suggested that the Val CYP1B1 allele increases the susceptibility to breast cancer in women exposed to waste incinerator or agricultural pollutants. PMID:15075793

  12. Risk assessment of drug interaction potential and concomitant dosing pattern on targeted toxicities in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Dombrowsky, Erin; Bajaj, Gaurav; Skolnik, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    This investigation evaluated the impact of potential drug interactions on the incidence of reported toxicities seen with common dosing patterns in children with cancer, with the intent of being able to screen and reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the future. Toxicity reported in pediatric cancer patients treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2004 to 2010 were abstracted from a cancer tumor registry and merged with drug order profiles from the medical record system. Analysis datasets were created in SAS and permutation algorithms were used to identify pairwise drug combinations associated with specific toxicity occurrence. Relative risk of toxicity based on dosing pattern was assessed via comparison to control patients. A total of 326 of 1,713 patients (19%) had reportable toxicities. Neutrophil count decreases and alanine aminotransferase increases represented the highest occurring, corresponding to 28.8% and 31.9% prevalence among patients reporting toxicity, respectively. Of coadministered drug pairs, acetaminophen-diphenhydramine occurred most frequently; however, methotrexate-vincristine was the highest occurring pair linked to a single toxicity (hepatotoxicity). Toxicity was highly associated with the diagnoses of leukemia (52.1%) or neuroblastoma (28.5%). Comparison of the dosing interval (≤30 versus >30 min) suggested that risk of toxicity can be associated with the timing of coadministration, with ≤30 min increasing the risk of hepatotoxicity with fentanyl-midazolam and methotrexate-midazolam combinations. Knowledge of drug interactions in children with cancer may help reduce the incidence of ADRs by providing pharmacotherapy options that may reduce the likelihood of toxicity. PMID:23595361

  13. Identification of More Feasible MicroRNA-mRNA Interactions within Multiple Cancers Using Principal Component Analysis Based Unsupervised Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Y-H

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA(miRNA)-mRNA interactions are important for understanding many biological processes, including development, differentiation and disease progression, but their identification is highly context-dependent. When computationally derived from sequence information alone, the identification should be verified by integrated analyses of mRNA and miRNA expression. The drawback of this strategy is the vast number of identified interactions, which prevents an experimental or detailed investigation of each pair. In this paper, we overcome this difficulty by the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE), which reduces the number of identified miRNA-mRNA interactions that properly discriminate between patients and healthy controls without losing biological feasibility. The approach is applied to six cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, colorectal/colon cancer and breast cancer. In PCA-based unsupervised FE, the significance does not depend on the number of samples (as in the standard case) but on the number of features, which approximates the number of miRNAs/mRNAs. To our knowledge, we have newly identified miRNA-mRNA interactions in multiple cancers based on a single common (universal) criterion. Moreover, the number of identified interactions was sufficiently small to be sequentially curated by literature searches. PMID:27171078

  14. An examination of clinical differences between carriers and non-carriers of chromosome 8q24 risk alleles in a New Zealand Caucasian population with prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Karen S.; Han, Dug Yeo; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Goudie, Megan; Masters, Jonathan G.; Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer makes up approximately 15% of all cancers diagnosed in men in developed nations and approximately 4% of cases in developing nations. Although it is clear that prostate cancer has a genetic component and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can contribute to prostate cancer risk, detecting associations is difficult in multi-factorial diseases, as environmental and lifestyle factors also play a role. In this study, specific clinical characteristics, environmental f...

  15. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    , and demonstrated in public settings. We then describe INTERACT, a proposed research project that stages the robotic marionettes in a live performance. The interdisciplinary project brings humanities research to bear on scientific and technological inquiry, and culminates in the development a live......This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  16. CHESS (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System): an interactive computer system for women with breast cancer piloted with an underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, F M; Gustafson, D H; Owens, B H; Hawkins, R P; Pingree, S; Wise, M; Taylor, J O; Apantaku, F M

    1995-07-01

    The Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) is an interactive computer system containing information, social support, and problem-solving tools. It was developed with intensive input from potential users through needs-assessment surveys and field testing. CHESS had previously been used by women in the middle and upper socioeconomic classes with high school and college education. This article reports on the results of a pilot study involving eight African-American women with breast cancer from impoverished neighborhoods in Chicago. CHESS was very well received; was extensively used; and produced feelings of acceptance, motivation, understanding, and relief. PMID:10143478

  17. CHESS: An interactive computer system for women with breast cancer piloted with an under-served population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, F M; Gustafson, D H; Owens, B H; Wise, M; Taylor, J O; Apantaku, F M; Berhe, H; Thorson, B

    1994-01-01

    The Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) is an interactive computer system containing information, social support and problem solving tools. It was developed with intensive input from potential users through needs-assessment surveys and field testing. CHESS had previously been used by women in the middle and upper socio-economic classes with high school and college education. This article reports on the results of a pilot study involving eight African-American women with breast cancer from impoverished neighborhoods in the city of Chicago. CHESS was very well received, extensively used and produced feelings of acceptance, motivation, understanding and relief. PMID:7949998

  18. GIPC1 Interacts with MyoGEF and Promotes MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Invasion*

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Di; Haruta, Akiko; Wei, Qize

    2010-01-01

    GIPC1/synectin, a single PDZ domain-containing protein, binds to numerous proteins and is involved in multiple biological processes, including cell migration. We reported previously that MyoGEF, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, plays a role in regulating breast cancer cell polarization and invasion. Here, we identify GIPC1 as an interacting partner of MyoGEF. Both in vitro and in vivo binding assays show that the GIPC1 PDZ domain binds to the PDZ-binding motif at the C terminus of MyoGEF...

  19. Ethanol Enhances the Interaction of Breast Cancer Cells Over-Expressing ErbB2 With Fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Bower, Kimberly A.; Chen, Gang; Shi, Xianglin; Dong, Zheng; Ke, Zunji; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol is a tumor promoter and may enhance the metastasis of breast cancer. However, the underlying cellular / molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Amplification of ErbB2 or HER2, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, is found in 20 to 30% of patients with breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the effect of ethanol on the migration / invasion of breast cancer cells positively correlated with the expression levels of ErbB2. Adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important initial step for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol on the adhesion of MCF7 breast cancer cells over-expressing ErbB2 (MCF7ErbB2) to human plasma fibronectin. Methods To test the hypothesis that ethanol may enhance the attachment of human breast cancer cells to fibronectin, an important component of the ECM, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the expression of focal adhesions, cell attachment, and ErbB2 signaling in cultured MCF7ErbB2 cells. Results Exposure to ethanol drastically enhanced the adhesion of MCFErbB2 cells to fibronectin and increased the expression of focal adhesions. Ethanol induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 at Tyr1248, FAK at Tyr861, and cSrc at Try216. Ethanol promoted the interaction among ErbB2, FAK, and cSrc, and the formation of a focal complex. AG825, a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, attenuated the ethanol-induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 and its association with FAK. Furthermore, AG825 blocked ethanol-promoted cell / fibronectin adhesion as well as the expression of focal adhesions. Conclusions Our results suggest that ethanol enhances the adhesion of breast cancer cells to fibronectin in an ErbB2-dependent manner, and the FAK pathway plays an important role in ethanol-induced formation of a focal complex. PMID:20201928

  20. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists such as...

  1. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  2. Alterations in Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions during Progression of Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Jinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is a multistep process during which normal cells exhibit molecular changes that culminate into the highly malignant and metastatic phenotype, observed in cancerous tissues. The initiation of cell transformation is generally associated with genetic alterations in normal cells that lead to the loss of intercellular- and/or extracellular-matrix- (ECM- mediated cell adhesion. Transformed cells undergo rapid multiplication and generate more modifications in adhesion and motility-related molecules which allow them to escape from the original site and acquire invasive characteristics. Integrins, which are multifunctional adhesion receptors, and are present, on normal as well as transformed cells, assist the cells undergoing tumor progression in creating the appropriate environment for their survival, growth, and invasion. In this paper, we have briefly discussed the role of ECM proteins and integrins during cancer progression and described some unique conditions where adhesion-related changes could induce genetic mutations in anchorage-independent tumor model systems.

  3. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lee W.; Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M.; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D.; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Jason R.B. Dyck; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T.; Betof, Allison S.; Nelson, Erik R.; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C.; Young, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6–8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 105) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study....

  4. Numerical simulations for tumor and cellular immune system interactions in lung cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, M.; Nawrocki, S.; Zubik-Kowal, B.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate a new mathematical model that describes lung cancer regression in patients treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The model is composed of nonlinear integro-differential equations derived from the so-called kinetic theory for active particles and a new sink function is investigated according to clinical data from carcinoma planoepitheliale. The model equations are solved numerically and the data are utilized in order to find their unknown parameters. The results of the numerical experiments show a good correlation between the predicted and clinical data and illustrate that the mathematical model has potential to describe lung cancer regression.

  5. A Comparison of Case-Control and Case-Only Designs to Investigate Gene-Environment Interactions Using Breast Cancer Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Hassanzadeh; Rahmatollah Moradzadeh; Abdolreza Rajaee fard; Sedigheh Tahmasebi; Parvaneh Golmohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The traditional methods of studying the gene-environment interactions need a control group. However, the selection of an appropriate control group has been associated with problems. Therefore, new methods, such as case-only design, have been created to study such interactions. The objective of this study was to compare the case-only and case-control designs using data from patients with breast cancer. Methods: The interaction of genetic and environmental factor as well as the rati...

  6. Can genes play a role in explaining frequent job changes? An examination of gene-environment interaction from human capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei; Li, Wen-Dong; Wang, Nan; Song, Zhaoli

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how a dopamine genetic marker, DRD4 7 Repeat allele, interacted with early life environmental factors (i.e., family socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty) to influence job change frequency in adulthood using a national representative sample from the United States. The dopamine gene played a moderating role in the relationship between early life environments and later job change behaviors, which was meditated through educational achievement. In particular, higher family socioeconomic status was associated with higher educational achievement, and thereafter higher frequency of voluntary job changes and lower frequency of involuntary job changes; such relationships were stronger (i.e., more positive or negative) for individuals with more DRD4 7R alleles. In contrast, higher neighborhood poverty was associated with lower educational achievement, and thereafter lower frequency of voluntary job change and higher frequency of involuntary job change; such relationships were again stronger (i.e., more positive or negative) for individuals with more DRD4 7R alleles. The results demonstrated that molecular genetics using DNA information, along with early life environmental factors, can bring new insights to enhance our understanding of job change frequency in individuals' early career development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077527

  7. Radiation exposure of ovarian cancer patients: contribution of CT examinations performed on different MDCT (16 and 64 slices) scanners and image quality evaluation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Stefania; Origgi, Daniela; Brambilla, Sarah; De Maria, Federica; Foà, Riccardo; Raimondi, Sara; Colombo, Nicoletta; Bellomi, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare radiation doses given to ovarian cancer patients by different computed tomographies (CTs) and to evaluate association between doses and subjective and objective image quality.CT examinations included were performed either on a 16-slice CT, equipped with automatic z-axis tube current modulation, or on a 64-slice CT, equipped with z-axis, xy-axis modulation, and adaptive statistical iterative algorithm (ASIR). Evaluation of dose included the following dose descriptors: volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP), and effective dose (E). Objective image noise was evaluated in abdominal aorta and liver. Subjective image quality was evaluated by assessment of image noise, spatial resolution and diagnostic acceptability.Mean and median CTDIvol, DLP, and E; correlation between CTDIvol and DLP and patients' weight; comparison of objective noise for the 2 scanners; association between dose descriptors and subjective image quality.The 64-slice CT delivered to patients 24.5% lower dose (P descriptors (CTDIvol, DLP, E) and weight (P descriptors and image noise for the 64-slice CT, and between dose descriptors and spatial resolution for the 16-slice CT.Current dose reduction systems may reduce radiation dose without significantly affecting image quality and diagnostic acceptability of CT exams. PMID:25929914

  8. Using the theory of coevolution to predict protein-protein interactions in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Chan, Man-Him; Tu, Wen-Jian; He, Li-Ran; Lee, Chak-Man; He, Miao

    2013-02-01

    Systems biology has become an effective approach for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer. In this study, sequences of 100 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-related proteins were downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases. The Theory of Coevolution was then used to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of NSCLC. Adopting the reverse thinking approach, we analyzed the NSCLC proteins one at a time. Fifteen key proteins were identified and categorized into a special protein family F(K), which included Cyclin D1 (CCND1), E-cadherin (CDH1), Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), epidermal growth factor (EGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TNF receptor superfamily, member 6(FAS), FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 (FRAP1), O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta subunit 2 (CACNA2D2), tubulin beta class I (TUBB), SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2), and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7A (WNT7A). Seven key nodes of the sub-network were identified, which included PARK2, WNT7A, SMARCA2, FRAP1, CDKN2A, CCND1, and EGFR. The PPI predictions of EGFR-EGF, PARK2-FAS, PTEN-FAS, and CACNA2D2-CDH1 were confirmed experimentally by retrieving the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) and PubMed databases. We proposed that the 7 proteins could serve as potential diagnostic molecular markers for NSCLC. In accordance with the developmental mode of lung cancer established by Sekine et al., we assumed that the occurrence and development of lung cancer were linked not only to gene loss in the 3p region (WNT7A, 3p25) and genetic mutations in the 9p

  9. Using the theory of coevolution to predict protein-protein interactions in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zhang; Man-Him Chan; Wen-Jian Tu; Li-Ran He; Chak-Man Lee; Miao He

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology has become an effective approach for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer.In this study,sequences of 100 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-related proteins were downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases.The Theory of Coevolution was then used to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of NSCLC.Adopting the reverse thinking approach,we analyzed the NSCLC proteins one at a time.Fifteen key proteins were identified and categorized into a special protein family F (K),which included Cyclin D1 (CCND1),E-cadherin (CDH1),Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A),chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12),epidermal growth factor (EGF),epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR),TNF receptor superfamily,member 6 (FAS),FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 (FRAP1),O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT),parkinson protein 2,E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2),phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN),calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta subunit 2 (CACNA2D2),tubulin beta class I (TUBB),SWl/SNF-related,matrix-associated,actin-dependent regulator of chromatin,subfamily a,member 2 (SMARCA2),and wingless-type MMTV integration site family,member 7A (WNT7A).Seven key nodes of the sub-network were identified,which included PARK2,WNT7A,SMARCA2,FRAP1,CDKN2A,CCND1,and EGFR.The PPI predictions of EGFR-EGF,PARK2-FAS,PTEN-FAS,and CACNA2D2-CDH1 were confirmed experimentally by retrieving the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) and PubMed databases.We proposed that the 7 proteins could serve as potential diagnostic molecular markers for NSCLC.In accordance with the developmental mode of lung cancer established by Sekine et al.,we assumed that the occurrence and development of lung cancer were linked not only to gene loss in the 3p region (WNT7A,3p25) and genetic mutations in the 9p region but also to similar events in the

  10. Efficacy and Interaction of Antioxidant Supplements as Adjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasueda, Asuka; Urushima, Hayato; Ito, Toshinori

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a key component in carcinogenesis. Although radiation produces reactive oxygen species, some anticancer agents such as alkylating agents, platinum and antitumor antibiotics exert cytotoxicity by generating free radicals. Nonenzymatic exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols can quench ROS activity. However, whether antioxidants alter antitumor effects during radiotherapy and some types of chemotherapy remains unclear. In the present study, we reviewed antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for cancer patients during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Electronic literature searches were performed to select all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in which antioxidants were administered to cancer patients along with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Articles or abstracts written in English were included. In total, 399 reports received primary screening. Duplicated articles and those meeting the exclusion criteria (not RCT, not human, and no oral administration) were excluded. Finally, 49 reports matching the inclusion criteria were included. It was difficult to determine whether antioxidants affect treatment outcomes or whether antioxidants ameliorate adverse effects induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is desirable to use an evidence-based method to select supplements best suited to cancer patients. Although there are many opinions about risks or benefits of antioxidant supplementation, we could mostly conclude that the harm caused by antioxidant supplementation remains unclear for patients during cancer therapy, except for smokers undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26503419

  11. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W;

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  12. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jamshidi (Maral); R. Fagerholm (Rainer); S. Khan (Sofia); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); J. Li (Jingmei); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); P. Devilee (Peter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Dennis (Joe); Q. Wang (Qing); Q. Guo (Qi); V. Rhenius (Valerie); S. Cornelissen (Sten); A. Rudolph (Anja); J.A. Knight (Julia); C.R. Loehberg (Christian); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); J.L. Hopper (John L.); M.C. Southey (Melissa); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); H. Flyger (Henrik); H. Brenner (Hermann); B. Holleczek (B.); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); L. Van Dyck (Laurien); I. Nevelsteen (Ines); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); G.G. Giles (Graham); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); B.E. Henderson (Brian); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John W. M.); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); J. Simard (Jacques); A.M. Dunning (Alison); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Hall (Per); C. Blomqvist (Carl); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); H. Nevanlinna (Heli)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn breast cancer, constitutive activation of NF-κB has been reported, however, the impact of genetic variation of the pathway on patient prognosis has been little studied. Furthermore, a combination of genetic variants, rather than single polymorphisms, may affect disease prognosis. Here

  13. Nutrient-Gene Interaction in Colon Cancer, from the Membrane to Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; Davidson, Laurie A; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Fuentes, Natividad R; Triff, Karen; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-07-17

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field. Using these bioactives as examples, this review surveys the proposed mechanisms by which they exert their effects, from the nucleus to the cellular membrane. In addition, we discuss emerging technologies involving the culturing of colonic organoids to study the physiological effects of dietary bioactives. Finally, we address future challenges to the field regarding the identification of additional molecular mechanisms and other bioactive dietary molecules that can be utilized in our fight to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. PMID:27431370

  14. Optical tweezers based measurement of PLGA-NP interaction with prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesener, Thea; Mondal, Argha; Menon, Jyothi U.; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2013-02-01

    In order to quantify the binding capacities of polymeric, biodegradable and biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), conjugated with either R11 peptides or Folic Acid, the strength by detach from prostate cancer cells (PCCs) was measured via optical tweezers based measurements. Specific nanoparticle drug delivery eliminates the previously used diffuse, full-body application of potent cancer drugs by localizing drug delivery to malignant cells. Precise monitoring of NP position in the trap near the PCC membrane using a fluorescence imaging based method enabled calibration of the trap stiffness and subsequent force measurements. By defining the force with which the many diverse conjugates and coatings of different types of NPs bind the vast array of cancer cell types, chemotherapeutic drugs can be delivered in a specific manner with the optimal particle and corresponding conjugates. Further, and most significantly, the rupture force measurements will reveal whether or not targeted nanoparticles can overcome the force of blood attempting to pull the particle from designated cells. Our preliminary study revealed that the binding between PLGA-NPs and prostate cancer cells is enhanced by coating with folic acid or R11 peptides. These conjugates increase the force required to detach the particle thus allowing particles to overcome drag force of the blood in prostate capillary systems.

  15. GW627368X inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer by interfering with EP4/EGFR interactive signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, S; Pal, I; Parekh, A; Thakur, B; Bharti, R; Das, S; Mandal, M

    2016-01-01

    PGE2, the major product of cyclooxygenases implicated in carcinogenesis, is significantly upregulated in cervical cancer. PGE2 via prostanoid receptor EP4 stimulates proliferation and motility while inhibiting apoptosis and immune surveillance. It promotes angiogenesis by stimulating the production of pro-angiogenic factors. The present study demonstrates GW627368X, a highly selective competitive EP4 antagonist, which hinders cervical cancer progression by inhibiting EP4/epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) interactive signaling. GW627368X reduced protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation which in turn leads to decreased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. Decreased PKA phosphorylation also directly enhanced Bax activity and in part reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)β phosphorylation. Owing to the interactive signaling between EP4 and EGFR, GW627368X lowered EGFR phosphorylation in turn reducing Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and GSK3β activity significantly. Sublethal dose of GW627368X was found to reduce the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in a time dependent manner along with time-dependent decrease in cytoplasmic as well as whole-cell β-catenin. Decreased CREB and β-catenin transcriptional activity restricts the aberrant transcription of key genes like EP4, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and c-myc, which ultimately control cell survival, proliferation and angiogenesis. Reduced activity of EGFR resulted in enhanced expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase increasing PGE2 degradation thereby blocking a positive feedback loop. In xenograft model, dose-dependent decrease in cancer proliferation was observed characterized by reduction in tumor mass and volume and a marked decrease in Ki67 expression. A diminished CD31 specific staining signified decreased tumor angiogenesis. Reduced expression of pAkt, pMAPK, pEGFR and COX-2 validated in vitro results. GW627368X therefore

  16. Protein-protein interaction network construction for cancer using a new L1/2-penalized Net-SVM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, H; Huang, H H; Jiang, H K; Liang, Y; Xia, L Y

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biomarker genes and characterizing interaction pathways with high-dimensional and low-sample size microarray data is a major challenge in computational biology. In this field, the construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks using disease-related selected genes has garnered much attention. Support vector machines (SVMs) are commonly used to classify patients, and a number of useful tools such as lasso, elastic net, SCAD, or other regularization methods can be combined with SVM models to select genes that are related to a disease. In the current study, we propose a new Net-SVM model that is different from other SVM models as it is combined with L1/2-norm regularization, which has good performance with high-dimensional and low-sample size microarray data for cancer classification, gene selection, and PPI network construction. Both simulation studies and real data experiments demonstrated that our proposed method outperformed other regularization methods such as lasso, SCAD, and elastic net. In conclusion, our model may help to select fewer but more relevant genes, and can be used to construct simple and informative PPI networks that are highly relevant to cancer. PMID:27525863

  17. A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajani; Kim, Jong Joo; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT) to investigate the gene-gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634); FAS (rs2234767); FASL (rs763110); DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714); PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974); ADRA2A (rs1801253); ADRB1 (rs1800544); ADRB3 (rs4994); CYP17 (rs2486758)) involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634), DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288) and ADRB3 (rs4994) polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994) to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility. PMID:26602921

  18. Suppression of CD51 in pancreatic stellate cells inhibits tumor growth by reducing stroma and altering tumor-stromal interaction in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horioka, Kohei; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Sada, Masafumi; Zheng, Biao; Moriyama, Taiki; Fujita, Hayato; Manabe, Tatsuya; Ohtsuka, Takao; Shimamoto, Masaya; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) enhance the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer by interacting with cancer cells and producing extracellular matrix (ECM). To date, several stroma-targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have been attempted, but these therapies are still not in practical use. Integrins expressed in stromal cells are involved in fibrosis of several organs, as well as promoting tumor malignancy. We investigated whether CD51, also known as integrin αV, expressed in PSCs was associated with stromal formation of pancreatic cancer and enhancement of tumor malignancy. We also assessed the effects of suppression of CD51 in PSCs on pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry for CD51 in resected pancreatic cancer tissues showed that high expression of CD51 in the tumor stroma was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.025), positive pathologic margin (P=0.025), and shorter patient survival times (P=0.043). Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of CD51 decreased the proliferation and migration of PSCs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that expression levels of genes related with ECM and tumor-stromal interactions were decreased by CD51 knockdown in PSCs. In a co-implantation model of pancreatic cancer cells and PSCs, tumor growth in vivo was inhibited by CD51 knockdown in PSCs (P<0.05). We also found reduced tumor stroma and decreased proliferation of cancer cells in implanted cancer tissues with CD51-silenced PSCs (P<0.05). Our results showed that CD51 expression in pancreatic cancer stroma is associated with enhanced tumor malignancy and that CD51 may be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26846197

  19. Spectroscopic Studies on the Interaction of Anti Cancer Rosemary With ctDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafavinia; Hoshyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Some herbal anticancer agents have direct interactions with DNA. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the interaction of ctDNA with rosemary flowers. Materials and Methods We used UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. Results The absorption of DNA at 260 nm increased on ad...

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of MPO, COMT, MnSOD, NQO1, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Gelatti, Umberto; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Porru, Stefano

    2004-06-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupational exposure are major risk factors of bladder cancer via exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines, which lead to oxidative stress and DNA damage. Several enzymes, which play key roles in oxidative stress are polymorphic in humans. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) produces a strong oxidant for microbicidal activity, and activates carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the methylation of endo- and xenobiotics and prevents redox cycling. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinoid compounds, which also protects cells from redox cycling. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects cells from free radical injury. To test the hypothesis that the risk of bladder cancer can be influenced by polymorphisms in the genes that modulate oxidative stress, in particular by interacting with environmental carcinogens, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study among men in Brescia, Northern Italy. We recruited and interviewed 201 incident cases and 214 controls from 1997 to 2000. Occupational exposures to PAHs and aromatic amines were coded blindly by occupational physicians. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was applied to model the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk and the effect of modifications of smoking and occupational exposures were evaluated. MPO G-463A homozygous variant was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer with an OR of 0.31 (95% CI = 0.12-0.80). MnSOD Val/Val genotype increased the risk of bladder cancer with OR of 1.91 (95% CI = 1.20-3.04), and there was a combined effect with smoking (OR = 7.20, 95% CI = 3.23-16.1) and PAH (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.35-6.74). We did not observe an effect of COMT Val108Met polymorphism. These findings suggest that individual susceptibility of bladder cancer may be modulated by MPO and MnSOD polymorphisms, and that the combination of genetic

  1. Screening for early lung cancer with low-dose spiral computed tomography: results of annual follow-up examinations in asymptomatic smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was analysis of incidence results in a prospective one-arm feasibility study of lung cancer screening with low-radiation-dose spiral computed tomography in heavy smokers. Eight hundred seventeen smokers (≥40 years, ≥20 pack years of smoking history) underwent baseline low-dose CT. Biopsy was recommended in nodules >10 mm with CT morphology suggesting malignancy. In all other lesions follow-up with low-dose CT was recommended. Annual repeat CT was offered to all study participants. Six hundred sixty-eight (81.8%) of the 817 subjects underwent annual repeat CT with a total of 1735 follow-up years. Follow-up of non-calcified nodules present at baseline CT demonstrated growth in 11 of 792 subjects. Biopsy was performed in 8 of 11 growing nodules 7 of which represented lung cancer. Of 174 new nodules, 3 represented lung cancer. The 10 screen-detected lung cancers were all non-small cell cancer (6 stage IA, 1 stage IB, 1 stage IIIA, 2 stage IV). Five symptom-diagnosed cancers (2 small cell lung cancer: 1 limited disease, 1 extensive disease, 3 central/endobronchial non-small cell lung cancer, 2 stage IIIA, 1 stage IIIB) were diagnosed because of symptoms in the 12-month interval between two annual CT scans. Incidence of lung cancer was lower than prevalence, screen-detected cancers were smaller, and stage I was found in 70% (7 of 10) of screen-detected tumors. Only 27% (4 of 15) of invasive procedures was performed for benign lesions; however, 33% (5 of 15) of all cancers diagnosed in the population were symptom-diagnosed cancers (3 central NSCLC, all stage III, 2 SCLC) demonstrating the limitations of CT screening. (orig.)

  2. C-C4-03: Examination of the Use of First-Line Chemotherapy Regimens for Colorectal and Lung Cancer: Impact of Patient Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzwoller, Debra P; Delate, Thomas; Roblin, Doug; Carroll, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy has been shown to improve both response and survival rates for patients with cancer. As chemotherapy treatments become more costly, these improvements in survival are coming with a substantial price tag. The financial burden of chemotherapy is forcing both patients and health plans to make difficult decisions regarding cancer treatment. Historically, most HMOs have provided comprehensive cancer care with limited, fixed co-payments. However, in recent years, HMOs have ...

  3. Comparison of different methods in delineating GTV of FDG PET-CT positive tissue in esophageal cancer, and validation of the results with pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) delineated with 3 different methods on FDG PET imaging, to find the optimal threshold of GTV delineation for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the accuracy of FDG PET-CT in the detection of lymph node metastasis. Methods: Thirty-three patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer treated with radical surgery were enrolled. All patients underwent a pretreatment evaluation and a FDG PET-CT scan. GTV was delineated with 3 different methods (visual interpretation, SUV 2.5 and 40% SUVmax) on FDG PET imaging. The longitudinal length of tumors was measured and recorded as Lvis, L2.5 and L40%, respectively. The length of surgical specimen measured by pathological examination was recorded as Lpath and compared with the length of PET scan. All PET data were reviewed again postoperatively, and the GTV was delineated using various percentages of SUVmax. The optimal threshold SUV was generated when the length of PET matched the Lpath. The diagnosis of PET-CT for lymph node metastasis was validated with the pathological result. Results: The mean Lpath was 5.52 ± 2.00 cm. There were 21 tumors equal to or more than 5 cm and 12 tumors less than 5 cm. The mean Lvis, L2.5 and L40% were 5.16 ± 1.97 cm, 5.55 ± 1.81 cm and 4.42 ± 1.60 cm. The correlation coefficients were 0.817, 0.877 and 0.863 when compared with Lpath, respectively. The mean L40% was significantly shorter than Lpath (Ppath. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDG PET-CT in the detection of lymph node metastasis were 77.8%, 95.2% and 92.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Different methods used in target volume delineation on PET scan yield different tumor length, and the L2.5 is closely consistent with the Lpath. The optimal threshold is inversely correlated with L/B and tumor length. FDG PET-CT is accurate for evaluating metastasis to individual lymph node groups. (authors)

  4. A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT to investigate the gene–gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634; FAS (rs2234767; FASL (rs763110; DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714; PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974; ADRA2A (rs1801253; ADRB1 (rs1800544; ADRB3 (rs4994; CYP17 (rs2486758 involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634, DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288 and ADRB3 (rs4994 polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994 to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p < 0.0001, CVC = 10/10 or in combination with DCC (rs714 and rs2229080, p < 0.0001, CVC = 9/10. Our CRT results are in agreement with the above findings. Further, in-silico results of studied SNPs advocated their role in splicing, transcriptional and/or protein coding regulation. Overall, our result suggested complex interactions amongst the studied SNPs and ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility.

  5. Examination of polymorphic glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, tobacco smoking and prostate cancer risk among Men of African Descent: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes may influence response to oxidative stress and modify prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility. These enzymes generally detoxify endogenous and exogenous agents, but also participate in the activation and inactivation of oxidative metabolites that may contribute to PCA development. Genetic variations within selected GST genes may influence PCA risk following exposure to carcinogen compounds found in cigarette smoke and decreased the ability to detoxify them. Thus, we evaluated the effects of polymorphic GSTs (M1, T1, and P1) alone and combined with cigarette smoking on PCA susceptibility. In order to evaluate the effects of GST polymorphisms in relation to PCA risk, we used TaqMan allelic discrimination assays along with a multi-faceted statistical strategy involving conventional and advanced statistical methodologies (e.g., Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction and Interaction Graphs). Genetic profiles collected from 873 men of African-descent (208 cases and 665 controls) were utilized to systematically evaluate the single and joint modifying effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions, GSTP1 105 Val and cigarette smoking on PCA risk. We observed a moderately significant association between risk among men possessing at least one variant GSTP1 105 Val allele (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 0.95-2.58; p = 0.049), which was confirmed by MDR permutation testing (p = 0.001). We did not observe any significant single gene effects among GSTM1 (OR = 1.08; 95%CI = 0.65-1.82; p = 0.718) and GSTT1 (OR = 1.15; 95%CI = 0.66-2.02; p = 0.622) on PCA risk among all subjects. Although the GSTM1-GSTP1 pairwise combination was selected as the best two factor LR and MDR models (p = 0.01), assessment of the hierarchical entropy graph suggested that the observed synergistic effect was primarily driven by the GSTP1 Val marker. Notably, the GSTM1-GSTP1 axis did not provide additional information gain when compared to either loci alone based on a

  6. Meaningful main effects or intriguing interactions? Examining the influences of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations on cognitive processing and conceptual change when learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing and conceptual change when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, I manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with individuals' epistemic beliefs to facilitate or constrain learning. In accordance with definitions from Royce's (1983) framework of psychological epistemology, texts were developed to present Newtonian concepts in either a rational or a metaphorical format. Seventy-five undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure their epistemic beliefs and their misconceptions about Newton's laws of motion. Participants then read the first of two instructional texts (in either a rational or metaphorical format), and were asked to think aloud while reading. After reading the text, participants completed a recall task and a post-test of selected items regarding Newtonian concepts. These steps were repeated with a second instructional text (in either a rational or metaphorical format, depending on which format was assigned previously). Participants' think-aloud sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then blindly coded, and their recalls were scored for total number of correctly recalled ideas from the text. Changes in misconceptions were analyzed by examining changes in participants' responses to selected questions about Newtonian concepts from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that when individuals' epistemic beliefs were congruent with the knowledge representations in their assigned texts, they performed better on both online measures of learning (e.g., use of processing strategies) and offline products of learning (e.g., text recall, changes in misconceptions) than when their epistemic beliefs were incongruent with the knowledge representations. These results have implications for how

  7. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions

    OpenAIRE

    KristanJAronson; HeatherLimburg; ChristyWoolcott; LeanneLBedard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control stu...

  8. Gene by Environment Interaction Linking the Chromosome 15q25 Locus With Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer Susceptibility — Are African American Affected Differently?

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, R.J.; R. P. Young

    2016-01-01

    The majority of lung cancer cases result from complex interactions between smoking exposure, genetic susceptibility and a person's immune response to chronic inflammation or lung remodelling. Epidemiological studies confirm that susceptibility to developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially emphysema, is also closely linked to lung cancer susceptibility. Genetic epidemiology studies have consistently reported associations between the chromosome 15q25 locus with lung can...

  9. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46 450 cases and 42 461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Roger L.; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A.; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A.; Häberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Benítez, Javier; Malats, Núria; Easton, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P 10−10). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome. PMID:24242184

  10. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  11. Oxidative Balance and Colon and Rectal Cancer: interaction of lifestyle factors and genes

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L Slattery; Lundgreen, Abbie; Welbourn, Bill; Wolff, Roger K.; Corcoran, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to an individual’s level of oxidative stress. We hypothesize that diet, lifestyle and genetic factors work together to influence colon and rectal cancer through an oxidative balance mechanism. We evaluated nine markers for eosinophil peroxidase (EPX), two for myeloperoxidase (MPO), four for hypoxia-inducible factor-1A (HIFIA), and 16 for inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2A) in conjunction with dietary antioxidants, a...

  12. Effect of magnetic dipolar interactions on nanoparticle heating efficiency: Implications for cancer hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Branquinho, Luis C.; Marcus S. Carrião; Anderson S. Costa; Nicholas Zufelato; Sousa, Marcelo H.; Ronei Miotto; Robert Ivkov; Andris F. Bakuzis

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic systems have many applications, including potential use in cancer therapy deriving from their ability to heat in alternating magnetic fields. In this work we explore the influence of particle chain formation on the normalized heating properties, or specific loss power (SLP) of both low- (spherical) and high- (parallelepiped) anisotropy ferrite-based magnetic fluids. Analysis of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) data shows that high particle concentrations correlate with in...

  13. Lipid Raft-Mediated Regulation of Hyaluronan–CD44 Interactions in Inflammation and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Murai, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays pivotal roles in inflammation and cancer. Hyaluronan oligomers are frequently found in these pathological conditions, in which they exert their effects via association with the transmembrane receptor CD44. Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains that may regulate membrane receptors while serving as platforms for transmembrane signaling at the cell surface. This article focuses on th...

  14. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jiřina Hofmanová; Nicol Straková; Alena Hyršlová Vaculová; Zuzana Tylichová; Barbora Šafaříková; Belma Skender; Alois Kozubík

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the ...

  15. Activated protein C promotes breast cancer cell migration through interactions with EPCR and PAR-1

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Lea M.; Church, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that regulates thrombin (IIa) production through inactivation of blood coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. APC also has non-hemostatic functions related to inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis through various mechanisms. Using two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, we investigated the role of APC in cell chemotaxis and invasion. Treatment of cells with increasing APC concentrations (1–50 μg/ml) increased invasion and chemota...

  16. Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. Rosenfield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules, and secretory acini. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH for human centromeric DNA and FACS analysis of propidium iodine staining excluded the possibility of mouse-human cell fusion. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that human cancer cells of embryonic or somatic origins respond to developmental signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in vivo.

  17. Can the application of computed tomography laser mammography (CTLM) in dense breast (category 3,4 according to ACR) examinations combined with x-ray mammography enhance the detection of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of this study was an attempt to answer the question whether laser mammography in dense breast (classified as category 3,4 according to ACR) examination together with x-ray mammography can enhance the detection of breast cancer. Material/Method: 248 women who had undergone a CTLM examination and mammography in the Department of Radiology of Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in the years 2005-2007 were analyzed retrospectively. In these examinations, x-ray mammography did not reveal lesions (BIRADS 1, category 3 and 4 according to ACR). An interval between CTLM and mammography did not exceed 30 days. The examination result was verified by cytology/histopathology or observation after a minimum of 12 months provided a regular result. CTLM visualizes normal and pathological blood vessels and tissues which are rich in blood, because laser rays used in CTLM (808 nm) are more absorbable by hemoglobin than by the surrounding tissue, making it possible to show a malignant tumor by its accompanying angiogenesis. The result of CTLM mammography was qualified either as the presence (+) or absence (-) of angiogenesis. Results: Among 248 women, angiogenesis was discovered by CTLM in 48 cases, in the CTLM (+) Group 13/48 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, whereas 35/48 were diagnosed with benign lesions. Angiogenesis was not identified in 200 women, in the CTLM (-) group 13/200 were diagnosed finally with cancer, with 187/200 patients having no malignancy. Ultimately, in the group of 248 women (with dense breast, category 3 and 4 according to ACR), in whom x-ray mammography did not reveal malignant processes (BIRADS 1), 26 cancers were detected out of which 13 were revealed with CTLM. Conclusions: Computed Tomography Laser Mammography, when used as an adjunct to x-ray mammography, enhances the detection of breast cancer in women with dense breast tissue

  18. Interactive NCORP Map Details Community Research Sites | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interactive map of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) with detailed information on hundreds of community sites that take part in clinical trials is available on the NCORP website. |

  19. Interaction of tRNA with MEK2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyun Wang; Christina R. Chow; Kazumi Ebine; Jiyoung Lee; Marsha R Rosner; Tao Pan; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the translational function of tRNA has long been established, extra translational functions of tRNA are still being discovered. We previously developed a computational method to systematically predict new tRNA-protein complexes and experimentally validated six candidate proteins, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2), that interact with tRNA in HEK293T cells. However, consequences of the interaction between tRNA and these proteins remain to be elucidated. Her...

  20. Detecting Susceptibility to Breast Cancer with SNP-SNP Interaction Using BPSOHS and Emotional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Wang; Qinke Peng; Yue Fan

    2016-01-01

    Studies for the association between diseases and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have received great attention. However, most of them just use the whole set of useful SNPs and fail to consider the SNP-SNP interactions, while these interactions have already been proven in biology experiments. In this paper, we use a binary particle swarm optimization with hierarchical structure (BPSOHS) algorithm to improve the effective of PSO for the identification of the SNP-SNP interacti...